Science.gov

Sample records for additional storage capacity

  1. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated.

  2. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  3. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  4. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  5. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1989-01-01

    A controlled experiment evaluating the capacity loss experienced by nickel electrodes stored under various conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration was conducted using nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. It was found that capacity loss varied with respect to hydrogen pressure, and storage temperature as well as with respect to electrode manufacturing processes. Impedance characteristics were monitored and found to be indicative of electrode manufacturing processes and capacity loss. Cell testing to evaluate state-of-charge effects on capacity loss were inconclusive as no loss was sustained by the cells tested in this experiment.

  6. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  7. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  8. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  12. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  14. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  15. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  16. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  17. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Beni

    2013-11-15

    Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

  18. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Storage Capacity Explains Fluid Intelligence but Executive Control Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuderski, Adam; Taraday, Maciej; Necka, Edward; Smolen, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether fluid intelligence (Gf) is better predicted by the storage capacity of active memory or by the effectiveness of executive control. In two psychometric studies, we measured storage capacity with three kinds of task which required the maintenance of a visual array, the monitoring of simple relations among perceptually available…

  20. Private Capacity of Quantum Channels is Not Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2009-09-01

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  1. Private capacity of quantum channels is not additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas; Zou, XuBo; Guo, GuangCan

    2009-09-18

    Recently there has been considerable activity on the subject of the additivity of various quantum channel capacities. Here, we construct a family of channels with a sharply bounded classical and, hence, private capacity. On the other hand, their quantum capacity when combined with a zero private (and zero quantum) capacity erasure channel becomes larger than the previous classical capacity. As a consequence, we can conclude for the first time that the classical private capacity is nonadditive. In fact, in our construction even the quantum capacity of the tensor product of two channels can be greater than the sum of their individual classical private capacities. We show that this violation occurs quite generically: every channel can be embedded into our construction, and a violation occurs whenever the given channel has a larger entanglement-assisted quantum capacity than (unassisted) classical capacity.

  2. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil database information has some predictive power for model soil storage capacity, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for

  3. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  4. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel B.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Keys, Patrick W.; Gordon, Line J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an "Earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale independent. In contrast to a traditional look-up table approach, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover types, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depths otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. Our results suggest that several forest types are able to create a large storage to buffer for severe droughts (with a very long return period), in contrast to, for example, savannahs and woody savannahs (medium length return period), as well as grasslands, shrublands, and croplands (very short return period). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for poor resolution soil and rooting depth data that form a limitation for achieving progress in the global land surface modelling community.

  5. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  6. Capacity loss on storage and possible capacity recovery for HST nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells will experience a useable capacity loss during extended open circuit storage periods. Some of the lost capacity can be recovered through cycling. Capacity recovery through cycling can be enhanced by cycling at high depths of discharge (DOD). The most timely procedure for recovering the faded capacity is to charge the cell fully and allow the cell to sit open-circuit at room temperature. This procedure seems to be effective in part because of the enlarged structure of the active materials. The compounds that formed during storage at the low electrode potentials can more easily dissolve and redistribute. All of the original capacity cannot be recovered because the lattice structure of the active material is irreversibly altered during storage. The recommendation is to use positively precharged cells activated with 26 percent KOH if possible. In aerospace applications, the benefits of negative precharge are offset by the possibility of delays and storage periods.

  7. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  8. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  9. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  11. Hydrogen storage capacity of catalytically grown carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, Matthias; Bauer, Erich; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Schliermann, Thomas; Bernhardt, Babette; Bohmhammel, Klaus; Henneberg, Eva; Knoll, Uta; Maneck, Heinz-Eberhard; Braue, Wolfgang

    2005-08-11

    In 1996, R. T. K. Baker, and N. M. Rodriguez claimed to have synthesized a new type of carbon nanofiber material capable of storing large amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and pressures above 100 bar, thus making it a powerful candidate for a very efficient energy storage system in mobile applications. Consequently, many scientists all over the world tried to test and verify these findings, however, with partly inconsistent results. We present here for the first time independent hydrogen storage measurements for several types of nanofibers, both synthesized by our group following precisely the specifications given in the literature as well as original samples supplied by Rodriguez and Baker for this study. The hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature and pressures up to 140 bar were quantified independently by gravimetric and volumetric methods, respectively. No significant hydrogen storage capacity has been detected for all carbon nanofibers investigated.

  12. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  13. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.; Ren, Ruiming; Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2009-04-01

    Solid-state reversible hydrogen storage systems hold great promise for on-board applications. The key criteria for a successful solid-state reversible storage material are high storage capacity, suitable thermodynamic properties, and fast hydriding and dehydriding kinetics. The LiNH2 + LiH system has been utilized as an example system to illustrate these critical issues that are common among other solid-state reversible storage materials. The progress made in thermodynamic destabilization and kinetic enhancements via various approaches have been emphasized. The implications of these advancements in the development of future solid-state reversible hydrogen storage materials are discussed.

  14. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  15. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  16. Canopy storage capacity of xerophytic shrubs in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Ya-feng; Hu, Rui; Pan, Yan-xia; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThe capacity of shrub canopy water storage is a key factor in controlling the rainfall interception. Thus, it affects a variety of hydrological processes in water-limited arid desert ecosystems. Vast areas of revegetated desert ecosystems in Northwestern China are occupied by shrub and dwarf shrub communities. Yet, data are still scarce regarding their rainwater storage capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions for three dominant xerophytic shrub types in the arid Tengger Desert. Eight rainfall intensities varying from 1.15 to 11.53 mm h-1 were used to determine the canopy water storage capacity. The simulated rainfall intensities were selected according to the long-term rainfall records in the study area. The results indicate that canopy storage capacity (expressed in water storage per leaf area, canopy projection area, biomass, and volume of shrub respectively) increased exponentially with increase in rainfall intensity for the selected shrubs. Linear relationships were found between canopy storage capacity and leaf area (LA) or leaf area index (LAI), although there was a striking difference in correlation between storage capacity and LA or LAI of Artemisia ordosica compared to Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparium. This is a result of differences in biometric characteristics, especially canopy morphology between the shrub species. Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that LA and dry biomass are better predictors as compared to canopy projection area and volume of samples for precise estimation of canopy water storage capacity. In terms of unit leaf area, mean storage capacity was 0.39 mm (range of 0.24-0.53 mm), 0.43 mm (range of 0.28-0.60 mm), and 0.61 mm (range of 0.29-0.89 mm) for C. korshinskii, H. scoparium, and A. ordosica, respectively. Correspondingly, divided per unit dry biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.51 g g-1 (range of 0.30-0.70 g g-1), 0.41 g g-1 (range of 0.26-0.57 g g-1), and

  17. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  18. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Hydrate Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-02-16

    First principles electronic structure calculations of the gas phase pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 (D-cage) and tetrakaidecahedron (H2O)24 (T-cage), which are building blocks of structure I (sI) hydrate lattice, suggest that these can accommodate up to a maximum of 5 and 7 guest hydrogen molecules, respectively. For the pure hydrogen hydrate, Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations of periodic (sI) hydrate lattices indicate that the guest molecules are released into the vapor phase via the hexagonal phases of the larger T-cages. An additional mechanism for the migration between neighboring D- and T-cages was found to occur through a shared pentagonal face via the breaking and reforming of a hydrogen bond. This molecular mechanism is also found for the expulsion of a CH4 molecule from the D-cage. The presence of methane in the larger T-cages was found to block this release, therefore suggesting possible scenarios for the stabilization of these mixed guest clathrate hydrates and the potential enhancement of their hydrogen storage capacity.

  19. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary K.; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    Root zone storage capacity (Sr) is an important variable for hydrology and climate studies, as it strongly influences the hydrological functioning of a catchment and, via evaporation, the local climate. Despite its importance, it remains difficult to obtain a well-founded catchment representative estimate. This study tests the hypothesis that vegetation adapts its Sr to create a buffer large enough to sustain the plant during drought conditions of a certain critical strength (with a certain probability of exceedance). Following this method, Sr can be estimated from precipitation and evaporative demand data. The results of this "climate-based method" are compared with traditional estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show that the differences between catchments in climate-derived catchment representative Sr values are larger than for soil-derived Sr values. Using a model experiment, we show that the climate-derived Sr can better reproduce hydrological regime signatures for humid catchments; for more arid catchments, the soil and climate methods perform similarly. This makes the climate-based Sr a valuable addition for increasing hydrological understanding and reducing hydrological model uncertainty.

  20. Specific storage volumes: A useful tool for CO2 storage capacity assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Subsurface geologic strata have the potential to store billions of tons of anthropogenic CO2; therefore, geologic carbon sequestration can be an effective mitigation tool used to slow the rate at which levels of atmospheric CO2 are increasing. Oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds, and saline reservoirs can be used for CO2 storage; however, it is difficult to assess and compare the relative storage capacities of these different settings. Typically, CO2 emissions are reported in units of mass, which are not directly applicable to comparing the CO2 storage capacities of the various storage targets. However, if the emission values are recalculated to volumes per unit mass (specific volume) then the volumes of geologic reservoirs necessary to store CO2 emissions from large point sources can be estimated. The factors necessary to convert the mass of CO2 emissions to geologic storage volume (referred to here as Specific Storage Volume or 'SSV') can be reported in units of cubic meters, cubic feet, and petroleum barrels. The SSVs can be used to estimate the reservoir volume needed to store CO2 produced over the lifetime of an individual point source, and to identify CO2 storage targets of sufficient size to meet the demand from that given point source. These storage volumes also can then be projected onto the land surface to outline a representative "footprint," which marks the areal extent of storage. This footprint can be compared with the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity of the same land area. The overall utility of this application is that the total storage capacity of any given parcel of land (from surface to basement) can be determined, and may assist in making land management decisions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006.

  1. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  2. Charged fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20 storage media. We find that the binding strength of molecular hydrogen on either positively or negatively charged fullerenes can be dramatically enhanced to 0.18-0.32 eV, a desirable range for potential room-temperature, near ambient applications. The enhanced binding is delocalized in nature, surrounding the whole surface of a charged fullerene, and is attributed to the polarization of the hydrogen molecules by the high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to approximately 8.0 wt %. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing encapsulated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

  3. Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Meyer, Philip D. )

    1998-11-01

    This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

  4. The Evolution of Root Zone Storage Capacity after Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijzink, Remko C.; Hutton, Christopher; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Capell, René; Arheimer, Berit; Wagener, Thorsten; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Root zone storage capacity forms a crucial parameter in ecosystem functioning as it is the key parameter that determines the partitioning between runoff and transpiration. There is increasing evidence from several case studies for specific plants that vegetation adapts to the critical situation of droughts. For example, trees will, on the long term, try to improve their internal hydraulic conductivity after droughts, for example by allocating more biomass for roots. In spite of this understanding, the water storage capacity in the root zone is often treated as constant in hydrological models. In this study, it was hypothesized that root zone storage capacities are altered by deforestation and the regrowth of the ecosystem. Three deforested sub catchments as well as not affected, nearby control catchments of the experimental forests of HJ Andrews and Hubbard Brook were selected for this purpose. Root zone storage capacities were on the one hand estimated by a climate-based approach similar to Gao et al. (2014), making use of simple water balance considerations to determine the evaporative demand of the system. In this way, the maximum deficit between evaporative demand and precipitation allows a robust estimation of the root zone storage capacity. On the other hand, three conceptual hydrological models (FLEX, HYPE, HYMOD) were calibrated in a moving window approach for all catchments. The obtained model parameter values representing the root zone storage capacities of the individual catchments for each moving window period were then compared to the estimates derived from climate data for the same periods. Model- and climate-derived estimates of root zone storage capacities both showed a similar evolution. In the deforested catchments, considerable reductions of the root zone storage capacities, compared to the pre-treatment situation and control catchments, were observed. In addition, the years after forest clearing were characterized by a gradual recovery of the

  5. EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-00-706-051286. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  7. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, T.; McMillan, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Winsemius, H.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil information has some predictive power for Sr, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for catchment representative Sr.

  8. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  9. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  10. Impacts of shifting fire regime on ecosystem carbon storage capacity in the interior Alaskan forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Kelly, R.; Hu, F.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is the primary disturbance in the boreal forest, and variations in fire regimes have important ecological, biogeochemical, and socioeconomic implications. Recent widespread burning throughout the biome has been convincingly linked to climatic warming, with expectations of increased burning with future climate change. However, fire-regime dynamics are scale-dependent, and it is unclear whether empirical climate-fire relationships derived from the short observational record are applicable to future projections. Paleo-fire reconstructions offer a valuable extension to historical fire records by providing a context for ongoing change and offering insights to the causes and consequences of fire regime shifts over decades to millennia. The main objectives of this study are to address 1) how fire regime shift impacts ecosystem C dynamics at a millennial time scale; and 2) which factor is more important in regulating the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity at decades to millennium scales among fire, CO2 and temperature. In this study, the REGIME model (Weng et al. JGR, 2012) has been modified to evaluate the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity (the theoretic capacity of an ecosystem to store C) since 3000 years BP for the black spruce forests in interior Alaska under the influence of changing fire regime, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, and climate warming, all of which were derived from paleo-data. In addition, C storage capacity was also modeled through the 21 century using IPCC scenarios for CO2 and temperature, and fire regime scenario derived based on a paleo-fire dataset. Overall, fire frequency has been constant but fire severity has increased significantly since 3000 years BP for the studied area. Our results indicate that this fire regime shifting alone or in combination with temperature and/or CO2 always decrease ecosystem C storage capacity over the past 3000 years. Among the single factors, fire regime shifting results in the greatest

  11. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-08-14

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3.

  12. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  13. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  14. Sparsely Connected, Hebbian Networks with Strikingly Large Storage Capacities.

    PubMed

    BOOS, WILLIAM; VOGEL, DAVID D.

    1997-06-01

    Conspicuous problems confront the use of fully-connected networks (F-nets) in the construction of realistic partial models of biological memory. These problems include the high synaptic densities of F-nets, and the low information storage capacities of F-nets with simple, biologically realistic learning rules. Most auto-associative networks constructed with low connectivities have employed random projections of path length 1. Projective networks (P-nets) are nonrandom, multilayer networks which achieve extremely low connectivities by linking all neurons in the same layer through paths of length 2. In this paper we derive a lower bound on the storage capacities of a class of simple, two-layer P-nets with binary Hebbian synapses. Given a 1% tolerance for spurious neurons, we find that the P-net with 1000 synapses per neuron (2 x 10(6) neurons) will store more than 1.5 x 10(6) training vectors with 20 active neurons per vector (0.25 bits per synapse). Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Sparsely Connected, Hebbian Networks with Strikingly Large Storage Capacities.

    PubMed

    BOOS, WILLIAM; VOGEL, DAVID D.

    1997-06-01

    Conspicuous problems confront the use of fully-connected networks (F-nets) in the construction of realistic partial models of biological memory. These problems include the high synaptic densities of F-nets, and the low information storage capacities of F-nets with simple, biologically realistic learning rules. Most auto-associative networks constructed with low connectivities have employed random projections of path length 1. Projective networks (P-nets) are nonrandom, multilayer networks which achieve extremely low connectivities by linking all neurons in the same layer through paths of length 2. In this paper we derive a lower bound on the storage capacities of a class of simple, two-layer P-nets with binary Hebbian synapses. Given a 1% tolerance for spurious neurons, we find that the P-net with 1000 synapses per neuron (2 x 10(6) neurons) will store more than 1.5 x 10(6) training vectors with 20 active neurons per vector (0.25 bits per synapse). Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662862

  16. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  17. Pediatric surgical capacity and demand: analysis reveals a modest gap in capacity and additional efficiency opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fixler, Tamas; Menaker, Rena J; Blair, Geoffrey K; Wright, James G

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Paediatric Surgical Wait Times Project conducted an analysis of the alignment between capacity (supply) and demand for pediatric surgery at nine participating hospitals in five provinces. Demand for surgery was modelled using wait list data by assigning patients into monthly buckets of demand ("demand windows") based on the date on which a decision was made to proceed with their surgery plus their surgical wait time access target. Demand was then related to available capacity for various key resources (e.g., operating room availability, intensive care unit [ICU] and in-patient beds). The results indicate a small and not insurmountable gap of 8.5-11% in pediatric surgical capacity at these hospitals. A further capacity issue at many hospitals was ICU occupancy. In addition, an examination of several key performance indicators related to the management of peri-operative resources indicated that opportunities exist for deploying existing resources more efficiently, such as increasing on-time starts and reducing cancellation rates for elective surgery.

  18. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least.

  19. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least. PMID:27462486

  20. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts.

  1. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. PMID:26858383

  2. HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Piotr, Berman; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

  3. 15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION OF THE GLASS RINGS SHOWN AT THE TOP OF THE TANK HELPS PREVENT THE URANIUM FROM REACHING CRITICALITY LIMITS. (4/12/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage: Effect of Metallic Mesh Size on Storage Time and Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    Use of metallic meshes in latent heat thermal storage system shortens the charging time (total melting of the phase change material), which is favorable in practical applications. In the present study, effect of metallic mesh size on the thermal characteristics of latent heat thermal storage system is investigated. Charging time is predicted for various mesh sizes, and the influence of the amount of mesh material on the charging capacity is examined. An experiment is carried out to validate the numerical predictions. It is found that predictions of the thermal characteristics of phase change material with presence of metallic meshes agree well with the experimental data. High conductivity of the metal meshes enables to transfer heat from the edges of the thermal system towards the phase change material while forming a conduction tree in the system. Increasing number of meshes in the thermal system reduces the charging time significantly due to increased rate of conduction heat transfer in the thermal storage system; however, increasing number of meshes lowers the latent heat storage capacity of the system.

  5. Phase diagram and storage capacity of sequence processing neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düring, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Sherrington, D.

    1998-10-01

    We solve the dynamics of Hopfield-type neural networks which store sequences of patterns, close to saturation. The asymmetry of the interaction matrix in such models leads to violation of detailed balance, ruling out an equilibrium statistical mechanical analysis. Using generating functional methods we derive exact closed equations for dynamical order parameters, namely the sequence overlap and correlation and response functions, in the thermodynamic limit. We calculate the time translation invariant solutions of these equations, describing stationary limit cycles, which leads to a phase diagram. The effective retarded self-interaction usually appearing in symmetric models is here found to vanish, which causes a significantly enlarged storage capacity of 0305-4470/31/43/005/img6, compared with 0305-4470/31/43/005/img7 for Hopfield networks storing static patterns. Our results are tested against extensive computer simulations and excellent agreement is found.

  6. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  7. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  8. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm).

  9. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zhitao; Yong, Chaw K.; Wu, Guotao; Chen, Ping; Shaw, Wendy J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Jones, Martin O.; Johnson, Simon; Edwards, Peter; David, Bill

    2008-02-21

    A substantial effort worldwide has been given to materials development for onboard hydrogen storage over the past decade.1-6 One interesting family of potential hydrogen storage materials are ammonia borane (AB-NH3BH3) and the related amineboranes. Ammonia borane having a H content of 19.6 mass% encounters relatively high kinetic barrier in dehydrogenation. Recently some work has been reported on approaches to lower the ammonia borane dehydrogenation temperature by introducing nanoscaffold, using Ir-based catalysts or ionic liquids.4-6 Some work has focused on modifying the thermodynamics of ‘stable’ hydrides with additives that stabilize the dehydrogenated products.7 We have been thinking about this from the opposite point of view, i. e., altering the chemical composition of ammonia borane through the addition of amides and hydrides in order to destabilize it.8 The rationale behind this is that the inherent polarity and intermolecular interactions (dihydrogen bonding) of ammonia borane can be altered, and result in different dehydrogenation mechanism. In this paper we report that the interaction between LiH and ammonia borane leads to the replacement of a hydrogen by lithium to yield LiNH2BH3 with substantial resultant changes in dehydrogenation behavior. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

  11. Storage capacity of the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam, Mariana Islands, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the bathymetric data indicate that the reservoir currently has 6,915 acre-feet of storage capacity. The engineering drawings of record show that the total reservoir capacity in 1951 was estimated to be 8,365 acre-feet. Thus, between 1951 and 2014, the total storage capacity decreased by 1,450 acre-feet (a loss of 17 percent of the original total storage capacity). The remaining live-storage capacity, or the volume of storage above the lowest-level reservoir outlet elevation, was calculated to be 5,511 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 372 acre-feet (or 6 percent) of the original 5,883 acre-feet of live-storage capacity. The remaining dead-storage capacity, or volume of storage below the lowest-level outlet, was 1,404 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 1,078 acre-feet (or 43 percent) of the original 2,482 acre-feet of dead-storage capacity.

  12. Carbon sequestration kinetic and storage capacity of ultramafic mining waste.

    PubMed

    Pronost, Julie; Beaudoin, Georges; Tremblay, Joniel; Larachi, Faïçal; Duchesne, Josée; Hébert, Réjean; Constantin, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Mineral carbonation of ultramafic rocks provides an environmentally safe and permanent solution for CO(2) sequestration. In order to assess the carbonation potential of ultramafic waste material produced by industrial processing, we designed a laboratory-scale method, using a modified eudiometer, to measure continuous CO(2) consumption in samples at atmospheric pressure and near ambient temperature. The eudiometer allows monitoring the CO(2) partial pressure during mineral carbonation reactions. The maximum amount of carbonation and the reaction rate of different samples were measured in a range of experimental conditions: humidity from dry to submerged, temperatures of 21 and 33 °C, and the proportion of CO(2) in the air from 4.4 to 33.6 mol %. The most reactive samples contained ca. 8 wt % CO(2) after carbonation. The modal proportion of brucite in the mining residue is the main parameter determining maximum storage capacity of CO(2). The reaction rate depends primarily on the proportion of CO(2) in the gas mixture and secondarily on parameters controlling the diffusion of CO(2) in the sample, such as relative saturation of water in pore space. Nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate for reactions at 21 °C, whereas dypingite was most common at 33 °C.

  13. Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.

  14. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage

  15. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  16. Aromaticity-Controlled Energy Storage Capacity of the Dihydroazulene-Vinylheptafulvene Photochromic System.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anders B; Broman, Søren Lindbaek; Gertsen, Anders S; Elm, Jonas; Jevric, Martyn; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical conversion of molecules into high-energy isomers that, after a stimulus, return to the original isomer presents a closed-cycle of light-harvesting, energy storage, and release. One challenge is to achieve a sufficiently high energy storage capacity. Here, we present efforts to tune the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) couple through loss/gain of aromaticity. Two derivatives were prepared, one with aromatic stabilization of DHA and the second of VHF. The consequences for the switching properties were elucidated. For the first type, sigmatropic rearrangements of DHA occurred upon irradiation. Formation of a VHF complex could be induced by a Lewis acid, but addition of H2 O resulted in immediate regeneration of DHA. For the second type, the VHF was too stable to convert into DHA. Calculations support the results and provide new targets. We predict that by removing one of the two CN groups at C-1 of the aromatic DHA, the heat storage capacity will be further increased, as will the life-time of the VHF. Calculations also reveal that a CN group at the fulvene ring retards the back-reaction, and we show synthetically that it can be introduced regioselectively.

  17. Aromaticity-Controlled Energy Storage Capacity of the Dihydroazulene-Vinylheptafulvene Photochromic System.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anders B; Broman, Søren Lindbaek; Gertsen, Anders S; Elm, Jonas; Jevric, Martyn; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical conversion of molecules into high-energy isomers that, after a stimulus, return to the original isomer presents a closed-cycle of light-harvesting, energy storage, and release. One challenge is to achieve a sufficiently high energy storage capacity. Here, we present efforts to tune the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) couple through loss/gain of aromaticity. Two derivatives were prepared, one with aromatic stabilization of DHA and the second of VHF. The consequences for the switching properties were elucidated. For the first type, sigmatropic rearrangements of DHA occurred upon irradiation. Formation of a VHF complex could be induced by a Lewis acid, but addition of H2 O resulted in immediate regeneration of DHA. For the second type, the VHF was too stable to convert into DHA. Calculations support the results and provide new targets. We predict that by removing one of the two CN groups at C-1 of the aromatic DHA, the heat storage capacity will be further increased, as will the life-time of the VHF. Calculations also reveal that a CN group at the fulvene ring retards the back-reaction, and we show synthetically that it can be introduced regioselectively. PMID:27552740

  18. Probing the Additional Capacity and Reaction Mechanism of the RuO2 Anode in Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunok; Muhammad, Shoaib; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Hansu; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2015-07-20

    The structural changes and electrochemical behavior of RuO2 are investigated by using in situ XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism of this metal oxide anode material. Intermediate phase-assisted transformation of RuO2 to LiRuO2 takes place at the start of discharge. Upon further lithiation, LiRuO2 formed by intercalation decomposes to nanosized Ru metal and Li2 O by a conversion reaction. A reversible capacity in addition to its theoretical capacity is observed on discharging below 0.5 V during which no redox activity involving Ru is observed. TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique are used to probe this additional capacity. The results show that the additional capacity is a result of Li storage in the grain boundary between nanosized Ru metal and Li2 O. Findings of this study provide a better understanding of the quantitative share of capacity by a unique combination of intercalation, conversion, and interfacial Li storage in a RuO2 anode.

  19. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  20. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  1. In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The

  2. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    DOE PAGES

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. Anmore » analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.« less

  3. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. An analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.

  4. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel; van Dijk, Albert; Guerschman, Juan; Keys, Patrick; Gordon, Line; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    We present an "earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale-independent. In contrast to traditional look-up table approaches, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover type, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depth otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. We find that evergreen forests are able to create a large storage to buffer for extreme droughts (with a return period of up to 60 years), in contrast to short vegetation and crops (which seem to adapt to a drought return period of about 2 years). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for soils and rooting depth information, which could be a game-changer in global land surface modelling.

  5. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. PMID:26521697

  6. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges.

  7. How to Factor GCM Uncertainty in Assessing Changes to Reservoir Storage Capacity for Future (Warmer) Climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, F. M.; Sharma, A.; Sivakumar, B.; Mehrotra, R.

    2013-12-01

    Whether or not the existing storage capacity of reservoirs is sufficient to meet future water demands is a question of great interest to water managers and policy makers. Among other factors, uncertainties in GCM projections make accurate estimation of future water availability and reservoir storage requirements extremely complicated. Projections of variables using GCMs (e.g. temperature, precipitation) are highly uncertain due to inaccuracies in the climate model structure, greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and initial conditions (or ensemble runs) used. The present study proposes a new method to quantify the uncertainties (or standard errors) of GCM projections and their influence on the estimation of reservoir storage. The GCM standard errors are estimated through the following four steps: (i) interpolating multiple GCM outputs to a common spatial grid; (ii) converting the interpolated GCM outputs to percentiles; (iii) estimating standard error for model, scenario, initial condition and total uncertainty for each percentile; and (iv) transforming standard error estimates to time series. By assuming an additive error model and conditioning on these standard errors, thousands of rainfall and temperature realizations are obtained for a selected GCM and scenario. The temperature realizations are used to estimate evaporation realizations, which are then used as input (together with rainfall) to rainfall-runoff model for estimating streamflow. Finally, the streamflow realizations are used to quantify reservoir storage requirements with its associated uncertainties using reservoir behavior analysis. The proposed method is tested for the case of the Warragamba dam reservoir system that supplies more than 80% of water to Sydney, Australia. The results suggest that uncertainties in reservoir storage capacity will be significantly large for the future period than that for the historical period. Comparison of the effects of rainfall and evaporation uncertainty suggests

  8. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet. PMID:26775980

  9. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  10. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  11. Decrease in the Antioxidant Capacity in Beverages Containing Tea Extracts during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nekvapil, Tomas; Kopriva, Vladimir; Boudny, Vladimir; Hostovsky, Martin; Dvorak, Petr; Malota, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant capacity of beverages containing black, white, and green tea extracts using the photochemiluminescence method, and to monitor its changes based on the storage temperature and time. Samples were stored at two different temperatures (refrigerated at 4°C and laboratory temperature 22°C), analyzed after opening of the original package, and consequently after 4 and 7 days. Results of the antioxidant capacity are expressed as the standard equivalents, that is, ascorbic acid in mmol/L. The highest mean value of the antioxidant capacity was found after opening of the original package in fruit-juice-enriched samples and totaled 9.793 mmol/L. This group revealed significant dependence (P < 0.05) not only on the storage time, but also temperature. In samples without added fruit juices containing preservatives the value was 0.428 mmol/L. This group showed significant dependence (P < 0.05) on the decrease of antioxidant capacity only when based on the storage time. Samples without fruit juices or preservatives showed significant decrease in the antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) after 4 days of storage based on the storage time. The dependence on temperature was revealed only after 7 days of storage. PMID:22997491

  12. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  13. Multilayer associative neural networks (MANN's): storage capacity versus perfect recall.

    PubMed

    Kang, H

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to to resolve important issues in artificial neural nets-exact recall and capacity in multilayer associative memories. These problems have imposed restrictions on coding strategies. We propose the following triple-layered hybrid neural network: the first synapse is a one-shot associative memory using the modified Kohonen's adaptive learning algorithm with arbitrary input patterns; the second one is Kosko's bidirectional associative memory consisting of orthogonal input/output basis vectors such as Walsh series satisfying the strict continuity condition; and finally, the third one is a simple one-shot associative memory with arbitrary output images. A mathematical framework based on the relationship between energy local minima (capacity of the neural net) and noise-free recall is established. The robust capacity conditions of this multilayer associative neural network that lead to forming the local minima of the energy function at the exact training pairs are derived. The chosen strategy not only maximizes the total number of stored images but also completely relaxes any code-dependent conditions of the learning pairs.

  14. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  15. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce-MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18O2 isotopic exchange and O2-H2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  16. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles <20 μm, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  17. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  18. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-02-10

    Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.

  19. CO2 Storage Capacity of Saline Aquifers in the Swedish Sector of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of a range of options to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate climate change in the future. The Intra-cratonic Baltic Sea Basin contains several saline aquifers which could be suitable for CO2 storage. In this study the CO2 storage capacity of the Cambrian När and Faludden sandstone members is evaluated within the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. A probabilistic approach is adopted to characterise both the most likely storage capacity estimate as well as the associated uncertainty. The storage capacity within structural closures and stratigraphic traps is considered. Depth structure maps generated using a dense grid of vintage 2D marine seismic data are used to assess the storage potential in structural traps for both potential reservoirs. A regional scale stratigraphic trap is also considered for the Faludden reservoir. Key input properties for the CO2 storage capacity calculations such as porosity, CO2 density and storage efficiency factor are characterised based on available well log and core data. CO2 storage capacities for the structural and stratigraphic traps are then calculated using a Monte Carlo type approach where the input parameters are randomly perturbed within a set range. A statistical analysis of the input parameters is used to define the range within which these properties are allowed to vary, both spatially and at a given point. Finally these results are compared to others for the greater Baltic Sea region. This approach allows a most likely CO2 storage capacity estimate as well as low and high estimates to be obtained for the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea in the investigated formations. Based on these results it appears that the largest storage capacity lies within the regional stratigraphic trap of the Faludden reservoir. The structural traps provide significantly smaller volumes when compared to the Faludden stratigraphic trap. The majority of the structural traps are also less certain

  20. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  1. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-09-15

    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network.

  4. Additivity of the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, Peter W.

    2002-09-01

    We show that for the tensor product of an entanglement-breaking quantum channel with an arbitrary quantum channel, both the minimum entropy of an output of the channel and the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland capacity are additive. In addition, for the tensor product of two arbitrary quantum channels, we give a bound involving entanglement of formation for the amount of subadditivity (for minimum entropy output) or superadditivity (for classical capacity) that can occur.

  5. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  6. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the potential saturation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and derived sequestration potentials in steppe soils is missing. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe locations in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of the fine mineral fraction (silt and clay particles <20 µm) of natural grassland soils, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the derived OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 84 to 89% despite massive SOC losses. As a result, the OC sequestration potential of degraded grassland soils was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and thus to a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC amounts. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and can thus not be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  7. NaBH4 in "Graphene Wrapper:" Significantly Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity and Regenerability through Nanoencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lina; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang; Liu, Di-Jia; Zou, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    A new high-capacity reversible hydrogen-storage material synthesized by the encapsulation of NaBH4 nanoparticles in graphene is reported. This approach effectively prevents phase agglomeration or separation during successive H2 discharge/recharge processes and enables rapid H2 uptake and release in NaBH4 under mild conditions. The strategy advanced here paves a new way for application in energy generation and storage.

  8. A method for determination of heat storage capacity of the mold materials using a differential thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovik, E.

    2016-04-01

    The article proposes a method for determining of the heat storage capacity of the mould materials. Modern materials for mouldsare made using a variety of technologies, and the manufacturers of binders and additives ensure thermal properties of certain materials only when using a certain recipe. In practice, for management of the casting solidification process (creation of the volume or directed mode) it is favorable to apply various technological methods, including modification of one of the important properties of the casting mould, which is heat storage capacity. A rather simple technique based on the application of the differential thermal analysis was developed for its experimental definition. The obtained data showed a possibility of industrial application of the method.

  9. Surface Water Storage Capacity of Twenty Tree Species in Davis, California.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator. The measurement system included a rainfall simulator, digital balance, digital camera, and computer. Eight samples were randomly collected from each tree species. Twelve rainfall intensities (3.5-139.5 mm h) were simulated. Leaf-on and leaf-off simulations were conducted for deciduous species. Stem and foliar surface areas were estimated using an image analysis method. Results indicated that surface storage capacities varied threefold among tree species, 0.59 mm for crape myrtle ( L.) and 1.81 mm for blue spruce ( Engelm.). The mean value across all species was 0.86 mm (0.11 mm SD). To illustrate application of the storage values, interception was simulated and compared across species for a 40-yr period with different rainfall intensities and durations. By quantifying the potential for different tree species to intercept rainfall under a variety of meteorological conditions, this study provides new knowledge that is fundamental to validating the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry as a green infrastructure strategy and designing functional plantings. PMID:26828174

  10. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  11. Optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsungying Lee; Nanming Chen

    1993-12-01

    Due to the cyclical human life, utility loads appear to be cyclical too. During daytime when most factories are in operation, the electricity demand is very high. On the contrary, when most people are sleeping from midnight to daybreak, the electric load is very low, usually only half of the peak load amount. To meet this large gap between peak load and light load, utilities must idle many generation plants during light load period while operating all generation plants during peak load period no matter how expensive they are. This low utilization factor of generation plants and uneconomical operation have sparked utilities to invest in energy storage devices such as pumped storage plants, compressed air energy storage plants, battery energy storage systems (BES) and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) etc. Among these, pumped storage is already commercialized and is the most widely used device. However, it suffers the limit of available sites and will be saturated in the future. Other energy storage devices are still under research to reduce the cost. This paper investigates the optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system. Taiwan Power Company System is used as the example system to test this algorithm. Results show that the maximum economic benefit of the battery energy storage in a power system can be achieved by this algorithm.

  12. Influence of storage time on functional capacity of flow cytometrically sex-sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Gil, Maria A; Caballero, Ignacio; Almiñana, Carmen; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A

    2005-07-01

    Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa is an emerging biotechnology, still considered suboptimal owing to the slowness of the process, which requires long sorting periods to obtain an adequate number of spermatozoa to perform a non-surgical insemination. This period involves storage of sorted cells that could impair their functional capacity. Here, we have studied how the storage of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa affects their functional capacity. Sorted spermatozoa were assessed at various times (0, 2, 5h or 10h) during storage after sorting and compared with diluted and unsorted spermatozoa for sperm motility patterns, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity and their ability to penetrate homologous IVM oocytes. Sex-sorted sperm motility and membrane integrity only decreased significantly (p<0.05) by the end of the storage period (10h) compared to unsorted spermatozoa. Sperm velocity, ALH and Dance increased significantly (p<0.05), immediately post-sorting, returning to unsorted sperm values during storage. Acrosome integrity was not seriously affected by the sorting process, but decreased (p<0.05) during storage after sorting. Sorted spermatozoa stored 2h after sorting did not differ from unsorted in penetration rates and numbers of spermatozoa per oocyte, reaching the highest (p<0.05) penetration rates and sperm numbers per oocyte, when co-cultured for 6 or more hours. Non-storage or storage for 5h or 10h negatively (p<0.05) affected sperm penetration ability. In conclusion, although flow cytometrically sex-sorted spermatozoa are able to maintain motility, viability and acrosomal integrity at optimal levels until 10h of storage after sorting, fertilizing ability is maintained only over shorter storage times (<5h). PMID:15935845

  13. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of copper containing mesoporous silicas prepared using different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekkiou, Housseyn; Boukoussa, Bouhadjar; Ghezini, Rachid; Khenchoul, Zineb; Ouali, Affaf; Hamacha, Rachida; Bengueddach, Abdelkader

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis of mesoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, doped with copper using different methods. The results show that the method of synthesis affects the structural and textural properties of these solids. Their application in hydrogen storage shows that the adsorption is enhanced when using a solid containing Cu+2 ions, with an adsorption capacity around 1.8 wt% at 77 K, while the solids containing CuO particles present a medium adsorption capacity. Temperature variation plays a very important role in determining the adsorption capacity and the best results are obtained at 77 K.

  14. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  15. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  16. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  17. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  18. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  19. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions. PMID:26480926

  20. Non-Verbal Information Storage in Humans and Developmental Information Processing Channel Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    This study was designed to ascertain the nature of information storage in humans and to determine the channel capacity of Ss at various stages of development. A 3 x 2 x 2 multivariate complete factorial design was employed: the three levels of the first factor (Age) were 5, 8, and 12 years; the two levels of the second factor were Visual and…

  1. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  2. Enhancement of energy storage capacity of Mg functionalized silicene and silicane under external strain

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Tanveer; Ahuja, Rajeev; Chakraborty, Sudip; De Sarkar, Abir; Johansson, Börje

    2014-09-22

    The electronic structure, stability, and hydrogen storage capacity of strain induced Mg functionalized silicene (SiMg) and silicane (SiHMg) monolayers have been studied by means of van der Waals induced first principles calculations. A drastic increase in the binding energy of Mg adatoms on both the monolayers under the biaxial symmetric strain of 10% ensures the uniform distribution of dopants over the substrates. A significant positive charge on each Mg accumulates a maximum of six H{sub 2} molecules with H{sub 2} storage capacity of 8.10% and 7.95% in case of SiMg and SiHMg, respectively. The average adsorption energy for H{sub 2} molecules has been found ideal for practical H{sub 2} storage materials.

  3. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research.

    PubMed

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E in barley: Effect of genotype and storage.

    PubMed

    Do, Thu Dung T; Cozzolino, Daniel; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2015-11-15

    Antioxidants, including vitamin E, may have a positive effect on human health and prolong storage of food items. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity were measured in 25 barley genotypes before and after 4 months storage at 10 °C using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, respectively. As expected, α-tocotrienol (α-T3) and α-tocopherol (α-T) were the predominant tocol isomers. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity varied significantly among genotypes. Vitamin E ranged from 8.5 to 31.5 μg/g dry weight (DW) while ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) varied from 57.2 to 158.1 mg AEAC/100 g fresh weight (FW). Generally, lower vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity was observed in hulless or coloured genotypes. These results suggest that some genotypes are potential candidates for breeding of barley cultivars with high vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity at harvest, even after storage.

  5. Ultimate capacity of linear time-invariant bosonic channels with additive Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bardhan, Bhaskar; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-optic communications are moving to coherent detection in order to increase their spectral efficiency, i.e., their channel capacity per unit bandwidth. At power levels below the threshold for significant nonlinear effects, the channel model for such operation a linear time-invariant filter followed by additive Gaussian noise is one whose channel capacity is well known from Shannon's noisy channel coding theorem. The fiber channel, however, is really a bosonic channel, meaning that its ultimate classical information capacity must be determined from quantum-mechanical analysis, viz. from the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem. Based on recent results establishing the HSW capacity of a linear (lossy or amplifying) channel with additive Gaussian noise, we provide a general continuous-time result, namely the HSW capacity of a linear time-invariant (LTI) bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise arising from a thermal environment. In particular, we treat quasi-monochromatic communication under an average power constraint through a channel comprised of a stable LTI filter that may be attenuating at all frequencies or amplifying at some frequencies and attenuating at others. Phase-insensitive additive Gaussian noise-associated with the continuous-time Langevin noise operator needed to preserve free-field commutator brackets is included at the filter output. We compare the resulting spectral efficiencies with corresponding results for heterodyne and homodyne detection over the same channel to assess the increased spectral efficiency that might be realized with optimum quantum reception.

  6. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  7. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  8. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  9. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  10. Remote Sensing of Soil Water Storage Capacity Using the Landsat and MODIS Image Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Umstot, T.; Wilson, J. L.; Allen, R.; Trezza, R.

    2014-12-01

    We will present a method for the quantitative assessment of the soil water storage capacity of each pixel in a Landsat or MODIS image using the information available in the historic Landsat and MODIS archives. The soil water storage capacity represents the maximum amount of water that can be stored in the soil and/or bedrock so that it is available for release into the atmosphere through transpiration by vegetation and/or evaporation from the land surface. First, the METRIC algorithm is used to convert 15 images representative for growing seasons in wet, dry and normal years into evaporative fraction maps. The evaporative fraction is an expression of the relative evapotranspiration and is strongly correlated to soil moisture conditions in the root zone: high and low evaporative fractions indicate, respectively, high and low root zone soil water contents. We use an experimental relationship to derive a normalized root zone soil moisture value between 0 (dry) to 1 (saturation) from the evaporative fraction. Then, the wetness score for each pixel is calculated as the sum of its 15 "normalized root zone soil moisture" values; it is a relative measure of the overall wetness of a pixel compared to other pixels with values between 0 and 15. Large and small values for the wetness score indicate, respectively, large and small values for the soil water storage capacity. The challenge is to convert the ranking of the wetness scores for each pixel into a quantitative soil water storage capacity. For this operation we use the hydrological Distributed Parameter Watershed Model (DPWM). After construction of seven physically realistic conversion functions between wetness score rank and soil water storage capacity, we evaluate the seven distributions of the differences between the 15 METRIC observed and DPWM simulated "normalized root zone soil moisture" maps. The conversion function that yields the smallest sum of differences is considered the optimal function and is used for

  11. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  12. Influences of biochar addition on vegetable soil nitrogen balance and pH buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Odindo, AO; Xue, L.; Yang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Leaching is a major path for chemical nitrogen fertilizer loss from in vegetable soil, which would destroy soil pH buffering capacity soil and result in acidification. It has been a common phenomenon in Tai Lake Region, China. However, few study focused on the change soil pH buffering capacity, especially the effect of soil amendment on pH buffering capacity. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to research the effects of biochar addition to a vegetable soil on nitrogen leaching and pH buffering capacity with pakchoi (B.chinensis L.) growth as the experimental crop. The results showed that biochar could significantly increase the pakchoi nitrogen utilization efficiency, decrease 48%-65% nitrogen loss from leaching under the urea continuous applied condition. Biochar also could effectively maintain the content of soil organic matter and base cations. Therefore, it rose up soil pH buffering capacity by 9.4%-36.8% and significantly slowed down acidification rate. It was suggested that 1%-2% addition ratio was recommended from this study when used as similar soil condition.

  13. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  14. Optimized six-dimensional optical storage: a practicable way to large capacity and fast throughputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shangqing

    2015-08-01

    An optimized six-dimensional storage system has been investigated theoretically. The system uses multiple beams to create overlapped micro gratings as each storage cell. The cell capacity depends exponentially on the beam wavelength number. With two-photon absorption writing, coherence tomography reading and superresolving beam focusing, this system has extra-large capacity of >1 Pbyte per DVD sized disk (potential ~60 Pbytes per disk), extra-fast reading speed of >117 Gbits/s with high signal-to-noise ratio of >66 dB, large cell sizes (~0.3μm × 6μm) which greatly reduce data addressing difficulties and a standard drive like structure compatible with the CD and DVD disks.

  15. A new benzimidazole based covalent organic polymer having high energy storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Bidhan C; Khilari, Santimoy; Satyanarayana, Lanka; Pradhan, Debabrata; Bhaumik, Asim

    2016-06-18

    We report the synthesis of a new benzimidazole-based covalent organic polymer (TpDAB) via solvothermal Schiff base condensation between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). TpDAB showed high energy storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 335 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1) scan rate and good cyclic stability with 93% retention of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. PMID:27222226

  16. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  17. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity. PMID:27442620

  18. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2

  19. Bathymetric survey and estimation of storage capacity of lower Sixmile Creek reservoir, Ithaca, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wernly, John F.; Zajd, Jr., Henry J.; Coon, William F.

    2016-10-05

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Ithaca, New York, and the New York State Department of State, conducted a bathymetric survey of the lower Sixmile Creek reservoir in Tompkins County, New York. A former water-supply reservoir for the City of Ithaca, the reservoir is no longer a functional component of Ithaca’s water-supply system, having been replaced by a larger reservoir less than a mile upstream in 1911. Excessive sedimentation has substantially reduced the reservoir’s water-storage capacity and made the discharge gate at the base of the 30-foot dam, which creates the reservoir, inoperable. U.S. Geological Survey personnel collected bathymetric data by using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Across more than half of the approximately 14-acre reservoir, depths were manually measured because of interference from aquatic vegetation with the acoustic Doppler current profiler. City of Ithaca personnel created a bottom-elevation surface from these depth data. A second surface was created from depths that were manually measured by City of Ithaca personnel during 1938. Surface areas and storage capacities were computed at 1-foot increments of elevation for both bathymetric surveys. The results indicate that the current storage capacity of the reservoir at its normal water-surface elevation is about 84 acre-feet and that sediment accumulated between 1938 and 2015 has decreased the reservoir’s capacity by about 68 acre-feet. This sediment load is attributed to annual inputs from the watershed above the reservoir, as well as from an episodic landslide that filled a large part of the reservoir along its northern edge in 1949.

  20. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    use from the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors and varies between months. Due to a lack of data, the 2010 figures for groundwater withdrawal capacity are assumed to be equally distributed over 12 months without accounting for possible variation within a year. For runoff and water demand, monthly data are used. Our study shows that storage capacity helps to cope with intra-annual water variability and thereby decreases the risk of water scarcity. Several cases emerge where water security is critically dependent on transboundary flows such as the Nile in Egypt or the Aral Drainage in Uzbekistan. Furthermore, we calculate environmental flow requirements using the Variable Monthly Flow (VMF) method and analyse the effects of abstraction and dam construction on environmental flows. For each BCU, we examine whether environmental water requirements can be met with given human abstractions. Additionally, water scarcity is examined for the case when water is reserved for the environment and cannot be abstracted for human purposes.

  1. Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

  2. Pomegranate and mint syrup addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional potentials during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Dhaouadi, Karima; Belkhir, Manel; Raboudi, Faten; Mecha, Elsa; Ghommeme, Imen; Bronze, Maria Do Rosario; Ammar, Hajer; Fattouch, Sami

    2016-02-01

    The chemical stability of the green tea (GT) preparation during refrigerated storage was investigated following the addition of mint (MS) or pomegranate (PS) syrups, a common habit in the Mediterranean countries that improves the savor of this popular beverage. The supernatants recovered by centrifuging GT supplemented or not with mint (GTMS) or pomegranate (GTPS) syrup were examined for their polyphenolic profiles using the high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Following storage at 4 °C for 15 days, not-supplemented GT showed a significant decrease (≈92 %) of its phenolic content. However, the decrease was relatively lesser in GTPS (≈36 %) and in GTMS (≈40 %). The observed slight increase of the extractable polyphenolics in PS and MS during the storage might explain in part the relatively limited decrease of GTPS and GTMS total phenolic content. However, chromatographic examination proved that some tea compounds, particularly caffeine, were preserved following PS and MS supplementation. Likewise, syrups'addition to GT significantly (P < 0.5) limited the reduction of its antioxidant capacity as revealed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenz-thialzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays. As expected, the antimicrobial trials showed that Gram (+) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most sensitive strains to tea polyphenols. The syrups supplementation noticeably preserved the tea bacteriostatic and bactericide activities during storage. The obtained analytical results demonstrate that MS or PS addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional properties during refrigerated storage, thus, scientifically supporting this popular practice in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:27162396

  3. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  4. Multimode intelligent data compressor/decompressor (MICE) optimized for speed and storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliavin, Michael A.; D'Adderio, Leo; Aye, Tin M.; Jannson, Joanna L.

    2002-12-01

    Proliferation of high speed, low cost computing systems has caused an explosion of data, leading to the need for higher and higher capacity storage systems and faster data transmission. The field of nuclear physics has felt this need acutely because data can be acquired at >100 Mbps, the data accumulated by a single collider can exceed hundreds of petabytes. Although much effort has gone into improving data storage, all approaches are severely limited by slow processing, high capacity memory requirements, and compression of heterogeneous data. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a preliminary prototype Multimode Intelligent Compression Engine (MICE) that overcomes many of the limitations of lossless data compression techniques for large scale data storage, retrieval, and processing. The MICE approach combines novel software/hardware. The key MICE innovation is a unique fuzzy logic artificial intelligence preprocessor that examines the incoming data in sections, on the fly, and applies optimum compression to each section. No a priori information is required about the data. The unique MICE hardware is based on POC's high speed, highly parallel processing technology. The hardware is compact and economical, and enables the system to compress data in real time.

  5. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  6. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  7. Subsurface storage capacity influences climate-evapotranspiration interactions in three western United States catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, E. S.; Tague, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the winter-wet, summer-dry forests of the western United States, total annual evapotranspiration (ET) varies with precipitation and temperature. Geologically mediated drainage and storage properties, however, may strongly influence these relationships between climate and ET. We use a physically based process model to evaluate how plant accessible water storage capacity (AWC) and rates of drainage influence model estimates of ET-climate relationships for three snow-dominated, mountainous catchments with differing precipitation regimes. Model estimates show that total annual precipitation is a primary control on inter-annual variation in ET across all catchments and that the timing of recharge is a second-order control. Low AWC, however, increases the sensitivity of annual ET to these climate drivers by 3 to 5 times in our two study basins with drier summers. ET-climate relationships in our Colorado basin receiving summer precipitation are more stable across subsurface drainage and storage characteristics. Climate driver-ET relationships are most sensitive to subsurface storage (AWC) and drainage parameters related to lateral redistribution in the relatively dry Sierra site that receives little summer precipitation. Our results demonstrate that uncertainty in geophysically mediated storage and drainage properties can strongly influence model estimates of watershed-scale ET responses to climate variation and climate change. This sensitivity to uncertainty in geophysical properties is particularly true for sites receiving little summer precipitation. A parallel interpretation of this parameter sensitivity is that spatial variation in storage and drainage properties are likely to lead to substantial within-watershed plot-scale differences in forest water use and drought stress.

  8. Storage capacity and learning algorithms for two-layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Köhler, H. M.; Tschepke, F.; Vollmayr, H.; Zippelius, A.

    1992-05-01

    A two-layer feedforward network of McCulloch-Pitts neurons with N inputs and K hidden units is analyzed for N-->∞ and K finite with respect to its ability to implement p=αN random input-output relations. Special emphasis is put on the case where all hidden units are coupled to the output with the same strength (committee machine) and the receptive fields of the hidden units either enclose all input units (fully connected) or are nonoverlapping (tree structure). The storage capacity is determined generalizing Gardner's treatment [J. Phys. A 21, 257 (1988); Europhys. Lett. 4, 481 (1987)] of the single-layer perceptron. For the treelike architecture, a replica-symmetric calculation yields αc~ √K for a large number K of hidden units. This result violates an upper bound derived by Mitchison and Durbin [Biol. Cybern. 60, 345 (1989)]. One-step replica-symmetry breaking gives lower values of αc. In the fully connected committee machine there are in general correlations among different hidden units. As the limit of capacity is approached, the hidden units are anticorrelated: One hidden unit attempts to learn those patterns which have not been learned by the others. These correlations decrease as 1/K, so that for K-->∞ the capacity per synapse is the same as for the tree architecture, whereas for small K we find a considerable enhancement for the storage per synapse. Numerical simulations were performed to explicitly construct solutions for the tree as well as the fully connected architecture. A learning algorithm is suggested. It is based on the least-action algorithm, which is modified to take advantage of the two-layer structure. The numerical simulations yield capacities p that are slightly more than twice the number of degrees of freedom, while the fully connected net can store relatively more patterns than the tree. Various generalizations are discussed. Variable weights from hidden to output give the same results for the storage capacity as does the committee

  9. Study on capacity fading of 18650 type LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liu-Qun; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Lin, Hai-Jun; Miao, Yan-Yue; Chen, Shou-Wei; Liu, Hai-Bin

    2015-05-01

    The capacity fading of LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage was studied. The discharging capacity fading is attributed to the decreasing in the charging capacity at the constant current stage. After 300 cycles, the ratio of the charging capacity of batteries at the constant current stage to the total charging capacity decreases from 87.2 to 71.2%. The bounce-back voltage is closely related to the internal resistance when the battery is discharged to the cut-off voltage of 3.0 V. Batteries were disassembled in the fully discharged state, and then a assembled again in order to deeply understand the causes of the capacity fading of the cathode and anode. The results shows that the SEI film thickness increasing, breaking or repairing process at the anode could be responsible for the high bounce-back voltage, the increase of the internal resistance and the capacity fading during storage.

  10. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides. PMID:22873406

  11. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  12. Design and reversible hydrogen storage capacity determination of unique nanoarrays of titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amrita

    In this project hydrogen storage studies were carried out on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays of different diameters prepared by electrochemical anodization, combined with template-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The growth of the CNTs on the nanotubular TiO2 arrays was accomplished by chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen storage capacity was determined for the nanotubular TiO2 and the combined TiO2-CNT arrays, by charging and discharging hydrogen with a Sievert's apparatus. It was found that the presence of carbon nanotubes on nano-porous titanium oxide can enhance storage of hydrogen as determined by volumetric means. The hydrogen uptake in as-anodized TiO2 nanotubes was found to be 2 wt% at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and 0.94 wt% at room temperature. Desorption results for TiO2 at 393 K and 300 K were 1.5 wt% and 0.7 wt%, respectively. The CNT-TiO2 composites showed a hydrogen uptake capacity of 1.94 wt% at room temperature and 2.5 wt% at 77 K. The desorption results were 1.8 wt% at 393 K and 0.68 wt% at room temperature. It was seen that the hydrogen uptake was higher at lower temperatures and discharge was increased significantly at higher temperatures for both TiO2 and CNT/TiO2 samples. The utilization of this novel hydrogen storage method can be recognized as a break-through in the hydrogen economy as applied to on-board vehicular applications.

  13. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Ren, Ling; He, Yao; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2010-10-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H2. It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  14. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  15. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  16. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-28

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ∼6.30 wt. %.

  17. What Limits Working Memory Capacity? Evidence for Modality-Specific Sources to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of…

  18. Graphene with outstanding anti-irradiation capacity as multialkylated cyclopentanes additive toward space application

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid have attracted intensive interest as possible space lubricants due to a series of unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we used graphene with high mechanical strength and chemical inertness as lubricant additive to explore its potential for space application. The effects of space irradiation on graphene and the tribological properties of graphene as lubricant additive were firstly investigated in detail under simulated space environment composed of high vacuum, high/low temperature and irradiation. Results demonstrate that graphene not only possesses outstanding anti–irradiation capacity but also significantly improves the space performance and tribological properties of MACs, which depends on the excellent physicochemical properties and high load-carrying ability of graphene as well as more effective separation of the sliding surfaces. PMID:26224254

  19. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks. PMID:24840090

  20. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  1. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ~1,100 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and ~420 mAh g-1 at 30 A g-1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage.

  2. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g(-1) at 30 mA g(-1) and ∼420 mAh g(-1) at 30 A g(-1), which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  3. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and ∼420 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  4. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage.

  5. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. PMID:26471533

  6. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased.

  7. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity. PMID:26866666

  8. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity.

  9. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  10. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  11. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  12. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  13. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off. PMID:25812095

  14. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  15. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  16. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  17. A Capacity Design Method of Distributed Battery Storage for Controlling Power Variation with Large-Scale Photovoltaic Sources in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Keiko; Yamazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    A design method for distributed battery storage capacity has been developed for evaluating battery storage advantage on demand-supply imbalance control in distribution systems with which large-scale home photovoltaic powers connected. The proposed method is based on a linear storage capacity minimization model with design basis demand load and photovoltaic output time series subjective to battery management constraints. The design method has been experimentally applied to a sample distribution system with substation storage and terminal area storage. From the numerical results, the developed method successfully clarifies the charge-discharge control and stored power variation, satisfies peak cut requirement, and pinpoints the minimum distributed storage capacity.

  18. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  19. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  20. Influence of transition metal electronegativity on the oxygen storage capacity of perovskite oxides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Taylor, Daniel D; Rodriguez, Efrain E; Zachariah, Michael R

    2016-08-16

    The selection of highly efficient oxygen carriers (OCs) is a key step necessary for the practical development of chemical looping combustion (CLC). In this study, a series of ABO3 perovskites, where A = La, Ba, Sr, Ca and B = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, are synthesized and tested in a fixed bed reactor for reactivity and stability as OCs with CH4 as the fuel. We find that the electronegativity of the transition metal on the B-site (λB), is a convenient descriptor for oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of our perovskite samples. By plotting OSC for total methane oxidation against λB, we observe an inverted volcano plot relationship. These results could provide useful guidelines for perovskite OC design and their other energy related applications. PMID:27478888

  1. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn; Rao, Dewei E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  2. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin. PMID:23127224

  3. Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.

    PubMed

    Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented.

  4. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs. PMID:24738450

  5. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  6. Role of point defects and additives in kinetics of hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, Chris

    2010-03-01

    First-principles computational studies of hydrogen interactions with storage materials can provide direct insight into the processes of H uptake and release, and may help in developing guidelines for designing storage media with improved storage capacity and kinetics. One important conclusion is that the defects involved in kinetics of semiconducting or insulating H-storage materials are charged, and hence their formation energy is Fermi-level dependent and can be affected by the presence of impurities that change the Fermi level [1,2]. This provides an explanation for the role played by transition-metal impurities in the kinetics of NaAlH4 and related materials. Desorption of H and decomposition of NaAlH4 requires not only mass transport of H but also of Al and/or Na. This process is mediated by native defects. We have investigated the structure, stability, and migration enthalpy of native defects based on density functional theory. The results allow us to estimate diffusion activation energies for the defects that may be involved in mass transport. Most of the relevant defects exist in charge states other than neutral, and consideration of these charge states is essential for a proper description of kinetics. We propose specific new mechanisms to explain the observed activation energies and their dependence on the presence of impurities. We have also expanded our studies to materials other than NaAlH4. In the case of LiBH4 and Li4BN3H10 we have found that the calculations have predictive power in terms of identifying which impurities will actually enhance kinetics. Other complex hydrides that we are currently investigating include Li2NH and LiNH2. [4pt] [1] A. Peles and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214101 (2007). [0pt] [2] C. G. Van de Walle, A. Peles, A. Janotti, and G. B. Wilson-Short, Physica B 404, 793 (2009).

  7. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  8. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices.

  9. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices. PMID:26201747

  10. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition.

  11. Stimulation of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kai; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Xin; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, which is likely to feed back to further climate change. However, how the overall terrestrial ecosystem C pools and fluxes respond to N addition remains unclear. By synthesizing data from multiple terrestrial ecosystems, we quantified the response of C pools and fluxes to experimental N addition using a comprehensive meta-analysis method. Our results showed that N addition significantly stimulated soil total C storage by 5.82% ([2.47%, 9.27%], 95% CI, the same below) and increased the C contents of the above- and below-ground parts of plants by 25.65% [11.07%, 42.12%] and 15.93% [6.80%, 25.85%], respectively. Furthermore, N addition significantly increased aboveground net primary production by 52.38% [40.58%, 65.19%] and litterfall by 14.67% [9.24%, 20.38%] at a global scale. However, the C influx from the plant litter to the soil through litter decomposition and the efflux from the soil due to microbial respiration and soil respiration showed insignificant responses to N addition. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that N addition will increase soil C storage and plant C in both above- and below-ground parts, indicating that terrestrial ecosystems might act to strengthen as a C sink under increasing N deposition. PMID:26813078

  12. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  13. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  14. Climatic and Landscape Controls on Storage Capacity of Urban Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs): Implications for Stormwater-Stream Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, R. M.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Palmer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters watershed hydrological processes; impervious surfaces increase runoff generation, while storm sewer networks increase connectivity between runoff sources and streams. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) that enhance stormwater infiltration have been proposed to mitigate these effects by functioning as stormwater sinks. Regenerative stormwater conveyances structures (RSCs) are an example of infiltration-based SCMs that are placed between storm sewer outfalls and perennial stream networks. Given their location, RSCs act as critical nodes that regulate stormwater-stream connectivity. Therefore, the storage capacity of a RSC structure may exert a major control on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of these connections. This project examined both hydrogeological and hydro-climatic factors that could influence storage capacity of RSC structures. We selected three headwater (5-48 ha) urban watersheds near Annapolis, Maryland, USA. Each watershed is drained by first-order perennial streams and has been implemented with a RSC structure. We conducted high-frequency precipitation and stream stage monitoring below the outlet of each RSC structure for a 1-year period. We also instrumented one of the RSC structures with groundwater wells to monitor changes in subsurface storage over time. Using these data, we 1) identified rainfall thresholds for RSC storage capacity exceedance; 2) quantified the frequency and duration of connectivity when the storage capacity of each RSC was exceeded; and 3) evaluated both event-scale and seasonal changes in groundwater levels within the RSC structure. Precipitation characteristics and antecedent precipitation indices influenced the frequency and duration of stormwater-stream connections. We hypothesize both infiltration limitations and storage limitations of the RSCs contributed to the temporal patterns we observed in stormwater-stream connectivity. We also observed reduced storage potential as contributing area and

  15. Loading Capacities for Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks Containing Selected Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    OJI, LAWRENCE

    2004-11-16

    In this study the loading capacities of selected actinides onto some of the most common sorbent materials which are present in caustic nuclear waste storage tanks have been determined. Some of these transition metal oxides and activated carbons easily absorb or precipitate plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, which if care is not taken may lead to unwanted accumulation of some of these fissile materials in nuclear waste tanks during waste processing. Based on a caustic synthetic salt solution simulant bearing plutonium, uranium and neptunium and ''real'' nuclear waste supernate solution, the loading capacities of these actinides onto iron oxide (hematite), activated carbon and anhydrous sodium phosphate have been determined. The loading capacities for plutonium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 3.4 0.22 plus or minus and 5.5 plus or minus 0.38 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for plutonium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 2.01 microgram per gram of sludge solids. The loading capacities for neptunium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 7.9 plus or minus 0.52 and greater than 10 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for neptunium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 4.48 microgram per gram of sludge solids. A typical nuclear waste storage tank solid material did not show any significant affinity for uranium. Sodium phosphate showed significant affinity for both neptunium and uranium, with loading capacities of 6.8 and 184.6 plus or minus 18.5 microgram per gram of sorbent, respectively.

  16. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with enhanced stability and high H2/CO2 storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-11-22

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation.

  17. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  18. Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2013-12-01

    The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54  for 3 min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10  was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50  treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50  significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54  treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50  for 3 min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin.

  19. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998

  20. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Schymanski, Stan; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly at catchment scale. Here, using data from 300 diverse catchments, it was tested that, treating the root zone as a reservoir, the mass curve technique (MCT), an engineering method for reservoir design, can be used to estimate catchment-scale SR from effective rainfall and plant transpiration. Supporting the initial hypothesis, it was found that MCT-derived SR coincided with model-derived estimates. These estimates of parameter SR can be used to constrain hydrological, climate and land surface models. Further, the study provides evidence that ecosystems dynamically design their root systems to bridge droughts with return periods of 10-40 years, controlled by climate and linked to aridity index, inter-storm duration, seasonality and runoff ratio. This adaptation of ecosystems to climate could be explored for prediction in ungauged basins. We found that implementing the MCT-derived SR without recalibration has dramatically increased hydrological model transferability.

  1. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The "range of perturbation" method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  2. Estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multibeam sonar and terrestrial lidar, Randy Poynter Lake, Rockdale County, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rockdale County Department of Water Resources, conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey of Randy Poynter Lake in northern Georgia in 2012. The Randy Poynter Lake watershed drains surface area from Rockdale, Gwinnett, and Walton Counties. The reservoir serves as the water supply for the Conyers-Rockdale Big Haynes Impoundment Authority. The Randy Poynter reservoir was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map and determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations. Topographic and bathymetric data were collected using a marine-based mobile mapping unit to estimate storage capacity. The marine-based mobile mapping unit operates with several components: multibeam echosounder, singlebeam echosounder, light detection and ranging system, navigation and motion-sensing system, and data acquisition computer. All data were processed and combined to develop a triangulated irregular network, a reservoir capacity table, and a bathymetric contour map.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical storage cell containing a redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross, Philip N.

    1999-01-01

    A class of organic redox shuttle additives is described, preferably comprising nitrogen-containing aromatics compounds, which can be used in a high temperature (85.degree. C. or higher) electrochemical storage cell comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a solid polymer electrolyte to provide overcharge protection to the cell. The organic redox additives or shuttles are characterized by a high diffusion coefficient of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.2 /second and a high onset potential of 2.5 volts or higher. Examples of such organic redox shuttle additives include an alkali metal salt of 1,2,4-triazole, an alkali metal salt of imidazole, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene, and a dialkali metal salt of 3-4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione.

  4. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from

  5. H2O storage capacity of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene from 10 to 13 GPa: consequences for dehydration melting above the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, Travis J.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Withers, Anthony C.; Ardia, Paola

    2012-02-01

    The onset of hydrous partial melting in the mantle above the transition zone is dictated by the H2O storage capacity of peridotite, which is defined as the maximum concentration that the solid assemblage can store at P and T without stabilizing a hydrous fluid or melt. H2O storage capacities of minerals in simple systems do not adequately constrain the peridotite water storage capacity because simpler systems do not account for enhanced hydrous melt stability and reduced H2O activity facilitated by the additional components of multiply saturated peridotite. In this study, we determine peridotite-saturated olivine and pyroxene water storage capacities at 10-13 GPa and 1,350-1,450°C by employing layered experiments, in which the bottom 2/3 of the capsule consists of hydrated KLB-1 oxide analog peridotite and the top 1/3 of the capsule is a nearly monomineralic layer of hydrated Mg# 89.6 olivine. This method facilitates the growth of 200-μm olivine crystals, as well as accessory low-Ca pyroxenes up to 50 μm in diameter. The presence of small amounts of hydrous melt ensures that crystalline phases have maximal H2O contents possible, while in equilibrium with the full peridotite assemblage (melt + ol + pyx + gt). At 12 GPa, olivine and pyroxene water storage capacities decrease from 1,000 to 650 ppm, and 1,400 to 1,100 ppm, respectively, as temperature increases from 1,350 to 1,450°C. Combining our results with those from a companion study at 5-8 GPa (Ardia et al., in prep.) at 1,450°C, the olivine water storage capacity increases linearly with increasing pressure and is defined by the relation C_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}}^{{olivine}} ( {{ppm}} ) = 57.6( { ± 16} ) × P( {{GPa}} ) - 169( { ± 18} ). Adjustment of this trend for small increases in temperature along the mantle geotherm, combined with experimental determinations of D_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}}^{{pyx/olivine}} from this study and estimates of D_{{{{H}}2 {{O}}}}^{{{{gt}}/{{olivine}}}} , allows for estimation of peridotite

  6. Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.

    2010-02-03

    The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products

  7. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  8. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  9. The effect of drought on carbon storage capacity in a tropical rainforest in French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilos, M. M.; Burban, B.; Hérault, B.; Goret, J. Y.; Cazal, J.; Bonal, D.

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect-deficit approach (Yi, 2012), the daily maximum carbon storage capacity (CPC) of a given ecosystem for each year defines the perfect annual CPC curve. Deficits are the differences in the daily observational data for a given year against a perfect curve. The area between this curve and instantaneous canopy photosynthetic rates represents the potential productivity. Using an 11-year (2004 - 2014) eddy covariance flux and meteorological data, this perfect-deficit approach was used to examine the relationship between potential productivity and droughts occurring in 2005 and 2010 in a tropical rainforest of French Guiana, South America. Surprisingly, CPC deficits were only reduced by 24% (2005) and 19% (2010) from their respective perfect CPCs, indicating a subtle effect of drought to ecosystem productivity. Highest precipitation occurred in 2010 but precipitation deficits dropped drastically during this year (71% reduction from its perfect value) which reflects a drought condition. However, its deficits showed no correlation annually and seasonally. Soil water content (SWC) appeared to be the single driver for CPC deficits during long dry periods but is weakly correlated (r = 0.30; P <0.01 and r = 0.31; P <0.01, in 2005 and 2010, respectively). These results indicate that soil water is not a major limiting factor for productivity of this ecosystem during drought periods. In contrast, global radiation (Rg) corresponds to the peak of CPC deficits in 2010, but only 19% had been reduced from its ideal value. Yet, highest gross primary production (GPP) of 4106±231 gCm-2yr-1 occurred this year (mean 3753±231 gCm-2yr-1). Therefore, smaller deficits in Rg coupled with sufficient water may have induced higher productivity in 2010. Nevertheless, weaker correlations between potential productivity and climatic drivers may imply that other controlling aspects such as biological constraints may also have an effect to the dynamics of potential productivity during

  10. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  11. 36 CFR 1236.28 - What additional requirements apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restored. All other magnetic computer tape media which might have been affected by the same cause (i.e... apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage media for permanent records? 1236... What additional requirements apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage...

  12. Enhancing soil sorption capacity of an agricultural soil by addition of three different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raquel; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of three unmodified organic residues (composted sewage sludge, RO1; chicken manure, RO2; and a residue from olive oil production called 'orujillo', RO3) and a soil to sorb six pesticides (atrazine, lindane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos and endosulfan sulfate) and thereby explored the potential environmental value of these organic residues for mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. Pesticide determination was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process and that Kf values increased with an increase in organic matter (OM) content of the amended soil. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: chlorpyrifos≥endosulfan sulfate>chlorfenvinphos≥lindane>alachlor≥atrazine. The sorption was greater for the most hydrophobic compounds and lower for the most polar ones, as corroborated by a negative correlation between Kf values and solubility. Sorption increased with an increase in organic matter. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content. The organic amendment showing the maximum sorption capacity was RO3 in all cases, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2. The order of adsorption capacity of the amendments depended on the pesticide and the organic dosage. In the case of the 10% amendment the order was RO3>RO2>RO1>soil, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2>RO3>RO1>soil, and atrazine, where RO2 and RO3 amendments had the same effect on the soil sorption capacity (RO2≥RO3>RO1>soil).

  13. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  14. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  15. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  16. Practical angular-multiplexing holographic data storage system with 2 terabyte capacity and 1 gigabit transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizawa, Taku; Shimada, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Kouji; Tada, Yukinobu

    2016-09-01

    Aiming at the realization of an optical data storage system with a large disc capacity and a high transfer rate suitable for digital data archiving, we have defined the specifications of an angular-multiplexing holographic data storage system with a disc capacity of 2 TB and a transfer rate of 1 Gbps on the basis of a run-length-limited (RLL) high-density recording method using RLL modulation. To realize the specifications, RLL turbo coding, a servo system for the reference beam angle, and a servo system for book tracking were newly invented. Also, to satisfy the specifications, a holographic disc and several key components were developed in cooperation with several specialty companies. Eventually, we confirmed a high-density recording of 2.4 Tbit/in.2 achieved by the RLL high-density recording method, using evaluation equipment complying with the specifications for single book recording.

  17. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  18. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  19. Composition design for Laves phase-related BCC-V solid solution alloys with large hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Yuan, L.; Xu, F.; Sun, L. X.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the alloy composition characteristics with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related BCC solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A6B7 characterizes the local structure of AB2 Laves phases, in A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr(Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB2 Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A6B7-C is constructed by linking A6B7 to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster-line alloys (Ti6Cr7)100-xVx (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V contents. The alloy (Ti6Cr7)95V5 as well as Ti30Cr40V30 with BCC solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.

  20. Composition design for Laves phase-related body-centered cubic V solid solution alloys with large hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Yuan, L.; Xu, F.; Sun, L. X.

    2008-03-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A6B7 characterizes the local structure of AB2 Laves phases, in an A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr (Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB2 Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A6B7-C is constructed by linking A6B7 to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster line alloys (Ti6Cr7)100-xVx (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V content. The alloys (Ti6Cr7)95V5 and Ti30Cr40V30 with bcc solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.

  1. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  2. Modelling rainfall interception by forests: a new method for estimating the canopy storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Fernando; Valente, Fernanda; Nóbrega, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forests is usually an important part of a catchment water balance. Recognizing the importance of interception loss, several models of the process have been developed. A key parameter of these models is the canopy storage capacity (S), commonly estimated by the so-called Leyton method. However, this method is somewhat subjective in the selection of the storms used to derive S, which is particularly critical when throughfall is highly variable in space. To overcome these problems, a new method for estimating S was proposed in 2009 by Pereira et al. (Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149: 680-688), which uses information from a larger number of storms, is less sensitive to throughfall spatial variability and is consistent with the formulation of the two most widely used rainfall interception models, Gash analytical model and Rutter model. However, this method has a drawback: it does not account for stemflow (Sf). To allow a wider use of this methodology, we propose now a revised version which makes the estimation of S independent of the importance of stemflow. For the application of this new version we only need to establish a linear regression of throughfall vs. gross rainfall using data from all storms large enough to saturate the canopy. Two of the parameters used by the Gash and the Rutter models, pd (the drainage partitioning coefficient) and S, are then derived from the regression coefficients: pd is firstly estimated allowing then the derivation of S but, if Sf is not considered, S can be estimated making pd= 0. This new method was tested using data from a eucalyptus plantation, a maritime pine forest and a traditional olive grove, all located in Central Portugal. For both the eucalyptus and the pine forests pd and S estimated by this new approach were comparable to the values derived in previous studies using the standard procedures. In the case of the traditional olive grove, the estimates obtained by this methodology

  3. Energy storage capacity of reversible liquid-phase Diels Alder reaction between maleic anhydride and 2- methyl furan

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.G.; Poling, B.E.

    1983-07-01

    Calorimetry was used to determine the heat of reaction and equilibrium constant at 318 K for the reaction between maleic anhydride (A) and 2-methyl furan (B). The values were-60 kJ/gmol and 614 cm/sup 3//gmol, respectively. The motivation for this work was to find a single phase-reacting system that could be used to store solar energy. Thus, the energy storage capacity was calculated for a mixture of A and B, both initially at 7 kmol/m/sup 3/, in dioxane. The maximum apparent heat capacity of 7.37 J/cm/sup 3/ X K occurred at 334 K. This maximum value is 76% higher than the heat capacity of pure water.

  4. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  5. Maximal breath-holding time and immediate tissue CO2 storage capacity during head-out immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, L P; Lundgren, C E

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three possible mechanisms that could explain the prolonged breath-holds (BH) previously observed in humans during submersion in 35 degrees C (thermoneutral) water, including a reduced metabolism, a decreased CO2 sensitivity, and an increased CO2 storage capacity. During immersed BH (n = 13), maximal BH time was prolonged by 20.3% (P < 0.05), the rate of rise of end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) was slower (P < 0.05) by 31% (compatible with increased CO2 storage capacity), but the breaking-point PETCO2 (CO2 sensitivity) and the rate of decrease of end tidal partial pressure of oxygen (metabolism) were unchanged. During air breathing (n = 5), immersion resulted in a significant decrease in tidal volume (11%), but did not affect O2 uptake, CO2 elimination (VCO2), or respiratory exchange ratio (R). During a 4-min CO2-rebreathing (n = 9), the slope of the hypercapnic ventilatory response curve (CO2 sensitivity index) was unchanged by immersion, but the significantly decreased VCO2, R, and rate of rise in PETCO2 during immersed rebreathing indicated an increase in the acute CO2 storage capacity (SC). The estimated SC (n = 9), based on an assumed cellular respiratory quotient of 0.8, were 0.52 (SEM 0.03) ml.kg-1.mmHg-1 for control and 0.66 (SEM 0.04) ml.kg-1.mmHg-1 for immersion. A proposed mechanism for the increased SC during immersed BH and during immersed rebreathing is that immersion accelerated CO2 redistribution in the body by increasing perfusion to some low-perfused, low-metabolism, and high-capacity tissues, such as resting skeletal muscle. The increased SC during immersion, however, did not correlate with the prolonged BH duration (n = 9, P > 0.05). The mechanism of the latter remains unclear.

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Nitrogen retention capacity of a northern hardwood forest soil under ammonium sulfate additions

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, M. |; Zhang, Y.; Likens, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    To determine the N-retaining capacity of a beech-dominated stand in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, we added (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} at three levels (40, 160 and 520 kg N{center_dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) to replicate plots in monthly increments for two years, and measured NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations in monthly samples from zero-tension lysimeters. The two lower treatment levels failed to increase N loss through the deepest soils horizon when compared to controls. Plots under the highest treatment level retained >95% of the added N; NH{sub 4}{sup +} accounted for 77% of the leaching loss. The treatments caused an accumulation of exchangeable NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the soil, but concentrations of exchangeable NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} remained small, even after samples were incubated at room temperature. Leaching, uptake by plants, and the increase exchangeable NH{sub 4}{sup +} accounted for 3-25% of the added N. Accumulation of available N without nitrification contradicts common expectations concerning N saturation. It was not clear why excess N was not nitrified. 74 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. EXAMINING PLANNED U.S. POWER PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to assess the degree to which the 471 planned fossil fired power plants announced to be built within the next decade in the continental U.S. are amenable to significant carbon dioxide emissions mitigation via carbon dioxide capture and disposal in geologic reservoirs. The combined generating capacity of these 471 planned plants is 320 GW. In particular, we seek to assess the looming ''carbon liability'' (i.e., the nearly 1 billion tons of CO2 these plants are likely to emit annually) that these power plants represent for their owners and for the nation as the U.S. begins to address climate change. Significant emission reductions will likely be brought about through the use of advanced technologies such as carbon capture and disposal. We find that less than half of these plants are located in the immediate vicinity of potentially suitable geologic carbon dioxide disposal reservoirs. The authors discuss the implications of this potential carbon liability that these plants may come to represent.

  9. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    The density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society increases by a factor of four every three years, while the rate at which this data can be migrated to viable long-term storage has been increasing by a factor of only four every nine years. Meanwhile, older data stored on increasingly obsolete media, are at considerable risk. When the systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers (many of whom are out of business), the data will no longer be accessible. In some cases, older media suffer from a physical breakdown of components - tapes simply lose their magnetic properties after a long time in storage. The scale of the crisis is compatible to that facing the Social Security System. Greater financial and intellectual resources to the development and refinement of new storage media and migration technologies in order to preserve as much data as possible.

  10. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. PMID:22868147

  11. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits.

  12. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  17. Routine Storage of Red Blood Cell Units in Additive Solution-3: a comprehensive investigation of the RBC metabolome

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Kelher, Marguerite; West, Bernadette F.; Schwindt, Rani K.; Banerjee, Anirban; Moore, Ernest E; Silliman, Christopher C.; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries, packed red blood cells (RBCs) can be stored up to 42 days before transfusion. However, observational studies have suggested that storage duration might be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. While clinical trials are underway, impaired metabolism has been documented in RBCs stored in several additive solutions. Here we hypothesize that, despite reported beneficial effects, storage in additive solution-3 (AS-3) results in metabolic impairment weeks before the end of the unit shelf-life. Study design and Methods Five leukocyte-filtered AS-3 RBC units were sampled before, during and after leukoreduction at day0, and then assayed on a weekly basis from storage day1 through day42. RBC extracts and supernatants were assayed using a UHPLC-MS metabolomics workflow. Results Blood bank storage significantly affects metabolic profiles of RBC extracts and supernatants by day14. In addition to energy and redox metabolism impairment, intra- and extracellular accumulation of amino acids was observed proportionally to storage duration, suggesting a role for glutamine and serine metabolism in aging RBCs. Conclusion Metabolomics of stored RBCs could drive the introduction of alternative additive solutions to address some of the storage-dependent metabolic lesions herein reported, thereby increasing the quality of transfused RBCs and minimizing potential links to patient morbidity. PMID:25556331

  18. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  19. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  20. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  1. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  2. Effects of Ti-Based Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of a L i B H 4 / C a H 2 Destabilized System

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Hongwei; Ibikunle, Adeola; Goudy, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Tmore » he hydrogen storage properties of a destabilized LiBH 4 / CaH 2 system ball-milled with TiCl 3 , TiF 3 , and TiO 2 additives have been investigated. It is found that the system with TiCl 3 additive has a lower dehydrogenation temperature than the ones with other additives. Further study shows that a higher amount of TiCl 3 is more effective in reducing the desorption temperature of the LiBH 4 / CaH 2 system, since it leads to a lower activation energy of dehydrogenation.he activations energies for mixtures containing 4, 10, and 25 mol% of TiCl 3 are 141, 126, and 110 kJ/mol, respectively. However, the benefits of higher amounts of TiCl 3 are offset by a larger reduction in hydrogen capacity of the mixtures.« less

  3. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  4. Nitrogen balancing and xylose addition enhances growth capacity and protein content in Chlorella minutissima cultures.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B C B; Esquível, M G; Matos, R G; Arraiano, C M; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the metabolic changes in Chlorella minutissima cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions and with the addition of xylose. The cell density, maximum photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll and lipid levels were measured. The expression of two photosynthetic proteins, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the beta subunit (AtpB) of adenosine triphosphate synthase, were measured. Comparison of cells grown in medium with a 50% reduction in the nitrogen concentration versus the traditional medium solution revealed that the cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions exhibited an increased growth rate, higher maximum cell density (12.7×10(6)cellsmL(-1)), optimal PSII efficiency (0.69) and decreased lipid level (25.08%). This study has taken the first steps toward protein detection in Chlorella minutissima, and the results can be used to optimize the culturing of other microalgae. PMID:27359061

  5. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-04-03

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor.

  6. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hailin; Dai, Zhenxue; Jiao, Zunsheng; Stauffer, Philip H.; Surdam, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  7. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  8. Estimating Water Storage Capacity of Existing and Potentially Restorable Wetland Depressions in a Subbasin of the Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Kermes, Kevin E.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Concern over flooding along rivers in the Prairie Pothole Region has stimulated interest in developing spatially distributed hydrologic models to simulate the effects of wetland water storage on peak river flows. Such models require spatial data on the storage volume and interception area of existing and restorable wetlands in the watershed of interest. In most cases, information on these model inputs is lacking because resolution of existing topographic maps is inadequate to estimate volume and areas of existing and restorable wetlands. Consequently, most studies have relied on wetland area to volume or interception area relationships to estimate wetland basin storage characteristics by using available surface area data obtained as a product from remotely sensed data (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory). Though application of areal input data to estimate volume and interception areas is widely used, a drawback is that there is little information available to provide guidance regarding the application, limitations, and biases associated with such approaches. Another limitation of previous modeling efforts is that water stored by wetlands within a watershed is treated as a simple lump storage component that is filled prior to routing overflow to a pour point or gaging station. This approach does not account for dynamic wetland processes that influence water stored in prairie wetlands. Further, most models have not considered the influence of human-induced hydrologic changes, such as land use, that greatly influence quantity of surface water inputs and, ultimately, the rate that a wetland basin fills and spills. The goals of this study were to (1) develop and improve methodologies for estimating and spatially depicting wetland storage volumes and interceptions areas and (2) develop models and approaches for estimating/simulating the water storage capacity of potentially restorable and existing wetlands under various restoration, land use, and

  9. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  10. Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets: facile synthesis, structural modelling, magnetic properties and application for high capacity lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Horvat, Josip; Munroe, Paul; Ahn, Hyojun; Ranjbartoreh, Ali R; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets were synthesised by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Atomistic simulation and calculations on surface attachment energy successfully predicted the polyhedral structure of magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy confirmed the crystal structure of magnetite, which is consistent with the theoretical modelling. The magnetic property measurements show the superspin glass state of the polyhedral nanocrystals, which could originate from the nanometer size of individual single crystals. When applied as an anode material in lithium ion cells, magnetite nanocrystals demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capacity, a satisfactory cyclability, and an excellent high rate capacity.

  11. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  12. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  13. Prolonged storage of epididymal spermatozoa does not affect their capacity to fertilise in vitro-matured domestic cat (Felis catus) oocytes when using ICSI.

    PubMed

    Ringleb, J; Waurich, R; Wibbelt, G; Streich, W J; Jewgenow, K

    2011-01-01

    The impact of different storage conditions of epididymal spermatozoa (including prolonged storage, cryopreservation and freeze-drying) on their fertilisation capacity was tested using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This kind of information is urgently needed when applying assisted reproductive technology to endangered felids in zoos. In particular, the utilisation of epididymal spermatozoa of castrated or deceased felids often requires time-consuming transportation and is therefore susceptible to loss of gamete quality. Sperm cells were stored at 4 °C for up to 72 h followed by cryopreservation or freeze-drying. Thawed motile and immotile spermatozoa were used for ICSI and the embryo cleavage rate was assessed 36 h after injection. A significant impact on the fertilisation rate of oocytes could only be detected when using immotile thawed or rehydrated spermatozoa. Cryopreservation or storage at 4 °C showed no influence. The simulation of transport conditions using domestic cat spermatozoa revealed that in vitro production of felid embryos with gametes from euthanised individuals is possible if testes are stored cool and arrive at the laboratory within 72 h. An essential prerequisite is the application of ICSI to achieve fertilisation even with single motile spermatozoa. Additional cryopreservation of spermatozoa after transportation is possible and will allow the establishment of a sperm bank for felids.

  14. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5 ml) and subcutaneously (2 ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1 × 10(7) colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups po st-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. PMID:26973070

  15. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5 ml) and subcutaneously (2 ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1 × 10(7) colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups po st-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only.

  16. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations.

  17. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations. PMID:26472646

  18. Tunable Gravimetric and Volumetric Hydrogen Storage Capacities in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-09-28

    We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Tunable Gravimetric and Volumetric Hydrogen Storage Capacities in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-09-28

    We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy. PMID:27599537

  20. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes.

  1. Estimating CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers: Revisited concept and application to the Bécancour area (Québec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Tran Ngoc, Tien; Lefebvre, René; Malo, Michel; Doughty, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of effective storage capacity is needed to assess CO2 geological storage projects. Although many efforts have been made to define and estimate storage capacity in deep saline aquifers, it is a complex issue due to the multiphase-multicomponent displacement processes involved. There are difficulties and differing views about the use of existing dynamic/static capacity estimation approaches, especially regarding the application of these approaches to various types of reservoirs. In this research, a revised methodology to assess the amount of CO2 that can be injected into a saline aquifer is presented in terms of reservoir boundaries, capacity definitions and efficiency storage factors. For the dynamic approach, the TOUGH2 numerical simulator was used to calculate the CO2 storage capacity for a bounded reservoir volume, using a definition of "capacity" based on the mass of all forms of CO2 present in the reservoir after injection (mobile, immobile and dissolved). It is necessary to distinguish the efficiency storage factors, and thus the storage capacity, that are estimated on mass or volume basis because the factors based on mass are greater than the ones based on volume. Local and global efficiency storage factors are respectively averaged over domains containing CO2 and the whole reservoir and they change with space and time. For the static approach (i.e. USDOE volumetric and compressibility methods), in order to compute the storage capacity the only difficulty resides in the estimation of the efficiency storage factors, which are related to the areal, vertical, gravity and microscopic displacements in the volumetric static method. These factors were quantitatively estimated from correlations used in petroleum engineering to relate multiphase displacement processes with dimensionless numbers. The methodology proposed herein was applied to the estimation of the CO2 effective storage capacity of the deep saline aquifers of the Potsdam sandstones in the B

  2. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  3. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  4. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  5. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Timothy J.; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Zheng, Jennie O.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol-1, and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  6. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain. PMID:24755597

  7. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  8. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  9. Soil water storage capacity under chronosequence of revegetation in Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Feng; Wen, Zhong-Ming; An, Shao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture deserves attention due to its scientific importance and practical applications. However, the effects of soil moisture on vegetation development and succession are poorly documented. Here we study soil water storage in Yanhe watershed at northern Shaanxi on five different land uses, namely shrubland, farmland, natural grassland, woodland, and artificial grassland, and in soil under restoration for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. The results show that (1) soil water in soil 0-60 cm below ground is the highest in farmland, and lower in shrubland, artificial grassland, natural grassland and woodland; (2) soil water in artificial grassland and woodland decreases rapidly as the soil depth increases; whereas soil water in farmland, natural grassland, shrubland and woodland decreases; (3) soil water storage of farmland is greater than that of shrubland, artificial grassland, natural grassland and woodland; and (4) the vegetation succession in soil undergo restoration for different years on eroded soil results in a decrease in soil water storage.

  10. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    PubMed

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  11. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    PubMed

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl.

  12. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-19

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  13. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-19

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. PMID:27546561

  14. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    PubMed Central

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  15. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation. PMID:25442608

  16. Effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2008-11-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs. Heat-treated vacuum-packed turkey meatballs were stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. 2. The rate of oxidative and hydrolytic changes during refrigerated storage was slower in meatballs containing 1% of rosemary. The samples with rosemary were characterised by significantly lower values of pH and water activity than control samples. The addition of rosemary inhibited the growth of psychrotrophic, coliform and Clostridium sp. bacteria. 3. The sensory quality of meatballs decreased over storage, first in control samples and later also in those containing rosemary. Warmed-over flavour was detected after 12 d of storage in meatballs spiced with rosemary and after 3 d in control samples. A sour flavour was not perceptible in meatballs containing rosemary. The obtained results confirm the beneficial effect of rosemary added to poultry meat products.

  17. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme

    PubMed Central

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ′E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ′E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models. PMID:26541245

  18. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  19. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... was published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019). This direct final rule amended....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019), the NRC published a direct final... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY:...

  20. 36 CFR 1236.28 - What additional requirements apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-free. (c) For additional guidance on the maintenance and storage of CDs and DVDS, agencies may consult the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 500-252, Care and... retention. This test should verify that the magnetic computer tape media are free of permanent errors and...

  1. Influence of sorghum flour addition on flat bread in vitro starch digestibility, antioxidant capacity and consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Adel; Nhepera, Dorothy; Johnson, Stuart

    2012-09-15

    Wheat flour (WF) flat bread was prepared with varying levels of wholegrain "white" sorghum flour (WSF) or "red" sorghum flour (RSF). Farinograph dough rheology indicated reduced water absorption and stability time and increased breakdown with increased sorghum flour addition. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the 40% RSF flat bread >40% WSF flat bread>control (100% WF) flat bread. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) level was lower in the 40% WSF and 40% RSF flat breads than the control (100% WF). Hedonic sensory evaluation indicated that sorghum addition did not reduce the sensory preference for the flat breads. Human clinical studies are now required to determine if the lower levels of RDS and higher antioxidants observed in the sorghum containing flat breads translate into beneficial low glycemic index and reduced oxidative stress in vivo.

  2. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  3. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. PMID:27596416

  4. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  5. Characterization of deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage capacity assessment, Bécancour area, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TRAN NGOC, T.; Konstantinovskaya, E. A.; Lefebvre, R.; Malo, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician St. Lawrence Lowlands basin of southern Québec has been assessed the most prospective for CO2 storage potential according to geological and practical criteria. Such a demonstration requires the assessment of numerous aspects: storing, injectivity, containment and adequate long-term monitoring. To do so, the characterisation stage of potential sites has to be comprehensive. We provide a case study of the CO2 storage capacity assessment in the deep saline aquifers of the Bécancour region (between Montréal and Québec City) through characterizing in term of hydrogeology and rock petrophysics. The analysed data include stratigraphy and lithology, drill stem tests, hydraulic well tests, well logging, fluid sampling and core analyses. The saline aquifers of the Bécancour region are found at depths between 800 and 2400 m in sandstones of the Potsdam Gp., dolomites of the Beekmantown Gp, and limestones of the Trenton Gp. The caprock consists of at least 800 m of siltstone and shale. The reservoir units are compartmentalized at depth into two distinct blocks by the Yamaska regional normal fault trending SW-NE. Hydrostatic pressure measurements from different intervals and locations show different pressure gradients ΔP with the average value of 12.17 kPa/m, varying from 10.78 kPa/m in the northeastern part of the region and to 15.60 kPa/m in its southwestern part. We observed also different in situ artesian rates of brine-producing boreholes: Q=0, 0< Q <10 and Q=13 l/min which is correlated to ΔP magnitudes. This indicates that the site reservoir is partially overpressurized and non-homogeneous at the regional scale. Permeability anisotropy from core analyses (k_h/k_v = O(10^2)) is indicative of dominant horizontal hydraulic connectivity. Average salinity profiles differing from S=109 g/l to 242 g/l in separate reservoir units confirms this lateral connectivity preponderance and a vertical discontinuity between the aquifers. An average

  6. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  7. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  8. White tea as a promising antioxidant medium additive for sperm storage at room temperature: a comparative study with green tea.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Socorro, Sílvia; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2014-01-22

    Storage of sperm under refrigeration reduces its viability, due to oxidative unbalance. Unfermented teas present high levels of catechin derivatives, known to reduce oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of white tea (WTEA) on epididymal spermatozoa survival at room temperature (RT), using green tea (GTEA) for comparative purposes. The chemical profiles of WTEA and GTEA aqueous extracts were evaluated by (1)H NMR. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate was the most abundant catechin, being twice as abundant in WTEA extract. The antioxidant power of storage media was evaluated. Spermatozoa antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation, and viability were assessed. The media antioxidant potential increased the most with WTEA supplementation, which was concomitant with the highest increase in sperm antioxidant potential and lipid peroxidation decrease. WTEA supplementation restored spermatozoa viability to values similar to those obtained at collection time. These findings provide evidence that WTEA extract is an excellent media additive for RT sperm storage, to facilitate transport and avoid the deleterious effects of refrigeration.

  9. White tea as a promising antioxidant medium additive for sperm storage at room temperature: a comparative study with green tea.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Socorro, Sílvia; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2014-01-22

    Storage of sperm under refrigeration reduces its viability, due to oxidative unbalance. Unfermented teas present high levels of catechin derivatives, known to reduce oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of white tea (WTEA) on epididymal spermatozoa survival at room temperature (RT), using green tea (GTEA) for comparative purposes. The chemical profiles of WTEA and GTEA aqueous extracts were evaluated by (1)H NMR. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate was the most abundant catechin, being twice as abundant in WTEA extract. The antioxidant power of storage media was evaluated. Spermatozoa antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation, and viability were assessed. The media antioxidant potential increased the most with WTEA supplementation, which was concomitant with the highest increase in sperm antioxidant potential and lipid peroxidation decrease. WTEA supplementation restored spermatozoa viability to values similar to those obtained at collection time. These findings provide evidence that WTEA extract is an excellent media additive for RT sperm storage, to facilitate transport and avoid the deleterious effects of refrigeration. PMID:24372402

  10. Study on Optimum Capacity of Battery Energy Storage System for Wind Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Kikunaga, Yasuaki; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Generally, the battery is built with wind power generator to level the output power fluctuation of wind power generator, since output power fluctuation of wind power generator is large. However, if large battery is installed in power system, the capital cost for wind power system will increase. Hence, the smallest size of battery should be determined to save the capital cost. This paper evaluates the effect of the output power leveling by introducing battery, and optimal size of battery is determined. A generated power output of a wind generator is easily calculated by real wind speed data only. However, battery charge/discharge actions are changed by control parameters for battery, it is difficult to decided the optimum battery system capacity. In this paper, output power fluctuation of wind power generator with battery system is calculated and estimated, so that the power output deviation is less than specific value, then minimum capital cost is decided by optimum battery capacity. The proposed technique determines the optimum size and control parameters for installed battery.

  11. Test results for a high capacity cryocooler with internal thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertele, Ted; Glaister, Dave; Gully, Wilfred; Hendershott, Paul; Levenduski, Robert; Marquardt, Eric; Wilson, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Redstone Aerospace are developing a space cryocooler for cooling complex optical systems whose loads are intermittent. An example of such a system would be an Earth observation satellite that images for only a fraction of its orbit. If a cooler can store refrigeration during the lull and provide it when the system is active, the cooler can be considerably smaller than one sized to provide the full load continuously. Our cooler provides two stages of refrigeration, a stage of intermittent cooling at 35 K for a focal plane assembly and a stage of continuous cooling at 85 K for the surrounding thermal shields. The cooler provides the intermittent cooling by collecting liquid neon in a unique internal thermal storage tank and forwarding it to the focal plane when the heat loads are high. Our paper presents extensive performance data for neon at 35 K. It carries 2 W at 35 K for 30 minutes plus the 8.5 W of continuous cooling at 85 K for less than 300 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in an hour. For contrast, the same hardware was filled with nitrogen and tested at 82 K. It carries 5 W for 25 minutes plus 15 W of continuous cooling at 130 K for less than 220 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in a little over an hour. The system has many features for space system compatibility. Because the storage is located within an active control loop, the cooler can maintain the 35 K interface temperature to better than ± 0.1 K. Because it circulates liquid it can be located remotely, which solves many compatibility issues. And with careful liquid management, it can work in any orientation and in 0-g. In this paper our flight like equipment will be described, and its continuing evolution to flight will be discussed.

  12. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-15

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  13. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  14. CSER 79-028, Addendum 2: Security bar addition to pedestal storage racks in Room 3 in 2736-Z Building

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1994-11-18

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is installing security bars on plutonium storage racks in Room 3 in 2736-Z Building to meet International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) material control requirements. Figures show the existing arrangement and design of the security bars. The security bars are to be fabricated of aluminum or carbon steel. The detailed fabrication sketches are reproduced in Appendix C. The security bars are to be installed close to the chains of plutonium so a determination of their effect on criticality safety needs to be made. The addition of security bars to the storage array of 2.5 kg plutonium buttons in Room 3 can effect reactivity by reflecting neutrons back into the plutonium in the storage cans, by absorbing neutrons, and by moderating neutrons between stored plutonium buttons. The small amount of metal added by the storage bars in comparison to the amount of concrete in the walls and aluminum in the shelf monitors already in place would not significantly increase the k{sub eff} of the storage array. Several computer calculations in previous analyses show that the security bars will have a negligible affect on reactivity.

  15. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  16. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  17. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  18. Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

  19. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  20. 41 CFR 302-7.9 - What are some reasons that would justify the additional storage beyond the initial 90-day limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that would justify the additional storage beyond the initial 90-day limit? 302-7.9 Section 302-7.9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND...

  1. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Abdessameud, S.; Mezbahul-Islam, M.; Medraj, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  2. Enrichment of a mixed bacterial culture with a high polyhydroxyalkanoate storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katja; Jiang, Yang; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2009-04-13

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial storage polymers that attract interest as bioplastics. PHAs can be produced with open mixed cultures if a suitable enrichment step based on the ecological role of PHA is used. An acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor operated with 1 day biomass residence time and with feast-famine cycles of 12 h was used to enrich a mixed culture of PHA producers. In subsequent fed-batch experiments under growth limiting conditions, the enriched mixed culture produced PHA up to a cellular content of 89 wt % within 7.6 h (average rate of 1.2 g/g/h). The PHA produced from acetate was the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate. The culture was dominated by a Gammaproteobacterium that showed little similarity on 16S rRNA level with known bacteria (<90% sequence similarity). The mixed culture process for PHA production does not require aseptic conditions. Waste streams rather than pure substrates could be used as raw materials. PMID:19193058

  3. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  4. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    PubMed

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    PubMed

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  6. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction. PMID:26298568

  7. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  8. Cold storage to overcome dormancy affects the carbohydrate status and photosynthetic capacity of Rhododendron simsii.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, A; De Keyser, E; Lootens, P; Pauwels, E; Roldán-Ruiz, I; De Riek, J; Gobin, B; Van Labeke, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Global warming leads to increasing irregular and unexpected warm spells during autumn, and therefore natural chilling requirements to break dormancy are at risk. Controlled cold treatment can provide an answer to this problem. Nevertheless, artificial cold treatment will have consequences for carbon reserves and photosynthesis. In this paper, the effect of dark cold storage at 7 °C to break flower bud dormancy in the evergreen Rhododendron simsii was quantified. Carbohydrate and starch content in leaves and flower buds of an early ('Nordlicht'), semi-early ('M. Marie') and late ('Mw. G. Kint') flowering cultivar showed that carbon loss due to respiration was lowest in 'M. Marie', while 'Mw. G. Kint' was completely depleted of starch reserves at the end of cold treatment. Gene isolation resulted in a candidate gene for sucrose synthase (SUS) RsSus, which appears to be homologous to AtSus3 and had a clear increase in expression in leaves during cold treatment. Photosynthesis measurements on 'Nordlicht' and the late-flowering cultivar 'Thesla' showed that during cold treatment, dark respiration decreased 58% and 63%, respectively. Immediately after cold treatment, dark respiration increased and stabilised after 3 days. The light compensation point followed the same trend as dark respiration. Quantum efficiency showed no significant changes during the first days after cold treatment, but was significantly higher than in plants with dormant flower buds at the start of cold treatment. In conclusion, photosynthesis stabilised 3 days after cold treatment and was improved compared to the level before cold treatment.

  9. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  10. H2O storage capacity of olivine at 5-8 GPa and consequences for dehydration partial melting of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardia, P.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Tenner, T. J.

    2012-09-01

    The H2O storage capacities of peridotitic minerals place crucial constraints on the onset of hydrous partial melting in the mantle. The storage capacities of minerals in equilibrium with a peridotite mineral assemblage (“peridotite-saturated” minerals) are lower than when the minerals coexist only with fluid because hydrous partial melt is stabilized at a lower activity of H2O. Here, we determine peridotite-saturated olivine H2O storage capacities from 5 to 8 GPa and 1400-1500 °C in layered experiments designed to grow large (∼100-150 μm) olivine crystals in equilibrium with the full hydrous peridotite assemblage (melt+ol+opx+gar+cpx). The peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C rises from 57±26 ppm (by wt.) at 5 GPa to 254±60 ppm at 8 GPa. Combining these with results of a parallel study at 10-13 GPa (Tenner et al., 2011, CMP) yields a linear relation applicable from 5 to 13 GPa for peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C, CH2Oolivine(ppm)=57.6(±16)×P(GPa)-169(±18). Storage capacity diminishes with increasing temperature, but is unaffected by variable total H2O concentration between 0.47 and 1.0 wt%. Both of these are as predicted for the condition in which the water activity in the melt is governed principally by the cryoscopic requirement of melt stability for a given temperature below the dry solidus. Measured olivine storage capacities are in agreement or slightly greater than those predicted by a model that combines data from experimental freezing point depression and olivine/melt partition coefficients of H2O (Hirschmann et al., 2009). Considering the temperature along the mantle geotherm, as well as available constraints on garnet/olivine and pyroxene/olivine partitioning of H2O (DH2Ogar/ol,DH2Opx/ol), we estimate the peridotite H2O storage capacity in the low velocity zone. The CH2O required to initiate melting between 150 and 250 km depth is between 270 and 855 ppm. We conclude that hydrous

  11. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  12. Polymer alloys with balanced heat storage capacity and engineering attributes and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soroushian, Parviz

    2002-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer of relatively low melt temperature is blended with at least one of thermosets, elastomers, and thermoplastics of relatively high melt temperature in order to produce a polymer blend which absorbs relatively high quantities of latent heat without melting or major loss of physical and mechanical characteristics as temperature is raised above the melting temperature of the low-melt-temperature thermoplastic. The polymer blend can be modified by the addition of at least one of fillers, fibers, fire retardants, compatibilisers, colorants, and processing aids. The polymer blend may be used in applications where advantage can be taken of the absorption of excess heat by a component which remains solid and retains major fractions of its physical and mechanical characteristics while absorbing relatively high quantities of latent heat.

  13. Effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2008-11-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of ground rosemary on the quality and shelf-life of turkey meatballs. Heat-treated vacuum-packed turkey meatballs were stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. 2. The rate of oxidative and hydrolytic changes during refrigerated storage was slower in meatballs containing 1% of rosemary. The samples with rosemary were characterised by significantly lower values of pH and water activity than control samples. The addition of rosemary inhibited the growth of psychrotrophic, coliform and Clostridium sp. bacteria. 3. The sensory quality of meatballs decreased over storage, first in control samples and later also in those containing rosemary. Warmed-over flavour was detected after 12 d of storage in meatballs spiced with rosemary and after 3 d in control samples. A sour flavour was not perceptible in meatballs containing rosemary. The obtained results confirm the beneficial effect of rosemary added to poultry meat products. PMID:19093248

  14. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, Ramsey; Dahl, Shanna; Deiss, Allory; Duguid, Andrew; Ganshin, Yuri; Jiao, Zunsheng; Quillinan, Scott

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  15. Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Heinonen, Marina; Puolanne, Eero

    2011-05-25

    The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.

  16. The Importance of Processing Automaticity and Temporary Storage Capacity to the Differences in Comprehension between Skilled and Less-Skilled College-Age Deaf Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Leonard P.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, 16 skilled adult readers who are deaf and 14 less skilled readers completed a battery of experimental tasks that generated multiple indicators of storage capacity and automaticity. Results indicate less skilled readers must invest significantly more conscious mental effort than skilled readers to complete basic operations of…

  17. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  18. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  19. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-01-01

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g−1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance. PMID:25961670

  20. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-05-11

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g(-1) after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance.

  1. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-05-01

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g-1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance.

  2. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  3. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt. PMID:24168168

  4. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Cerritelli, Gian F.; Miliozzi, Adio; Kenny, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt.

  5. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Cerritelli, Gian F; Miliozzi, Adio; Kenny, José M

    2013-10-29

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt.

  6. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective. PMID:26593574

  7. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective.

  8. Unusually Huge Charge Storage Capacity of Mn3O4-Graphene Nanocomposite Achieved by Incorporation of Inorganic Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Jin, Xiaoyan; Lee, Seul; Oh, Seung Mi; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-06-01

    Remarkable improvement in electrode performance of Mn3O4-graphene nanocomposites for lithium ion batteries can be obtained by incorporation of a small amount of exfoliated layered MnO2 or RuO2 nanosheets. The metal oxide nanosheet-incorporated Mn3O4-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites are synthesized via growth of Mn3O4 nanocrystals in the mesoporous networks of rGO and MnO2/RuO2 2D nanosheets. Incorporation of metal oxide nanosheets is highly effective in optimizing porous composite structure and charge transport properties, resulting in a remarkable increase of discharge capacity of Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposite with significant improvement of cyclability and rate performance. The observed enormous discharge capacity of synthesized Mn3O4-rGO-MnO2 nanocomposite (∼1600 mA·h·g(-1) for the 100th cycle) is the highest value among reported data for Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposite. Despite much lower electrical conductivity of MnO2 than RuO2, the MnO2-incorporated nanocomposite at optimal composition (2.5 wt %) shows even larger discharge capacities with comparable rate characteristics compared with the RuO2-incorporated homologue. This finding underscores that the electrode performance of the resulting nanosheet-incorporated nanocomposite is strongly dependent on its pore and composite structures rather than on the intrinsic electrical conductivity of the additive nanosheet. The present study clearly demonstrates that, regardless of electrical conductivity, incorporation of metal oxide 2D nanosheet is an effective way to efficiently optimize the electrode functionality of graphene-based nanocomposites. PMID:27120268

  9. Value of thermal storage in solar IPH systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, S.M.; Karpuk, M.E.

    1980-12-01

    The value of thermal storage for three solar industrial process heat systems has been determined for storage capacities of 3 to 4000 hours. The dominant source of storage value is backup fuel savings with additional value derived from increased capital equipment utilization and elimination. A computer simulation was used to model the operation of the solar IPH system and predict the amount of fuel saved by heat delivered from storage. Sensitivity of storage value to process temperature, collector cost, load profile, insolation, and storage efficiency have been calculated. Storage values ranged from near zero to as high as $42/kWh of storage capacity.

  10. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  11. Structure and water storage capacity of a small karst aquifer based on stream discharge in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tonggang; Chen, Hongsong; Wang, Kelin

    2016-03-01

    Karst spring/stream discharge reflects the global configuration of the aquifer. However, quantitative description of the aquifer structure such as effective porosity (neff) and water storage capacity by the discharge analysis is difficult because of the complex conduit/fracture system. This study attempted to quantify the characteristics of karst aquifer based on discharge recession and time series analysis methods. Three recession models, including modified Maillet, Mangin and Boussinesq models, were evaluated to choose the most suitable one for analyzing the aquifer structure, and auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions were applied to study the aquifer response in both year and rainfall event time scales. The results showed that the modified Maillet model was more suitable in the study catchment with Mangin model overestimating and Boussinesq model underestimating the discharge. The neff was 3.73% for the total aquifer, and it was 0.07%, 0.33% and 3.33% for the conduit, fracture and matrix, respectively. Based on a case study of a rainfall event with precipitation of 68 mm, the water volumes drained by the three media were 25.43%, 33.40% and 41.17%, respectively. This indicates that, although conduit network is not very developed with lower neff, it is still an important water transmissive element (draining more than a quarter of water after the rainfall event). The memory time of the aquifer was 4 days for the year scale and 8 h for the rainfall event (68 mm) scale. This demonstrates that the aquifer has a well developed drainage system with a quick response to the rainfall. The above results provide further insights for hydrological processes modeling and water resources management for the small catchment in karst regions.

  12. Aluminum-doped ceria-zirconia solid solutions with enhanced thermal stability and high oxygen storage capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A facile solvothermal method to synthesize aluminum-doped ceria-zirconia (Ce0.5Zr0.5-xAlxO2-x/2, x = 0.1 to 0.4) solid solutions was carried out using Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6, Zr(NO3)3·2H2O Al(NO3)3·9H2O, and NH4OH as the starting materials at 200°C for 24 h. The obtained solid solutions from the solvothermal reaction were calcined at 1,000°C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The synthesized Ce0.5Zr0.3Al0.2O1.9 particle was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600°C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce0.5Zr0.3Al0.2O1.9 solid solutions calcined at 1,000°C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 18 m2 g−1 exhibited a considerably high OSC of 427 μmol-O g−1 and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO2 and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2. The incorporation of aluminum ion in the lattice of ceria-based catalyst greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. PMID:23025588

  13. A simple, post-additional antioxidant capacity assay using adenosine triphosphate-stabilized 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation in a G-quadruplex DNAzyme catalyzed ABTS-H2O2 system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shu-Min; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Kong, De-Ming; Shen, Han-Xi

    2012-05-15

    The scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation (ABTS(+)) by antioxidants has been widely used in antioxidant capacity assay. Because of ABTS(+) disproportionation, however, this radical cannot be prepared on a large scale and stored long-term, making it unsuitable for high-throughput detection and screening of antioxidants. We developed a modified "post-additional" antioxidant capacity assay. This method possessed two remarkable features: First, instead of natural peroxidases, an artificial enzyme, G-quadruplex DNAzyme, was used for the preparation of ABTS(+), thus greatly reducing the cost of the assay, and eliminating the strict demand for the storage of enzymes. Second, an ABTS(+) stabilizer, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), was used. In the presence of ATP, the disproportionation of ABTS(+) was effectively inhibited, and the lifetime of this radical cation was prolonged about 6-fold (12 days versus 2 days), making the large-scale preparation of ABTS(+) possible. Utilizing this method, the antioxidant capacities of individual antioxidants and real samples can be quantified and compared easily. In addition, this method can be developed as a high-throughput screening method for antioxidants. The screening results could even be judged by the naked eye, eliminating the need for expensive instruments.

  14. Effects of whey or maltodextrin addition during production on physical quality of white cheese powder during storage.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Zafer; Koca, Nurcan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for cheese as a food ingredient, especially as a flavoring agent. One of the most important cheese flavoring agents is cheese powder. To obtain an intense cheese flavor, ripened cheese is used as a raw material in cheese powder but this increases production costs. Moreover, use of natural cheese decreases the physical quality of powder because of its high fat content. In this study, we evaluated opportunities to use whey or maltodextrin for improving the physical quality of powders in production of white cheese powder. We produced cheese powders with 3 different formulations-control (CON), whey-added (WACP), and maltodextrin-added (MACP)-and determined the effects of formulation on cheese powder quality. Physical quality parameters such as color, densities, reconstitution properties, free fat content, particle morphology, and sensory characteristics were investigated. The different cheese powders were stored for 12 mo at 20°C and we evaluated the effect of storage on powder quality. Addition of maltodextrin to cheese powder formulations significantly improved their physical quality. The densities and reconstitution properties of cheese powder were increased and free fat content was decreased by use of maltodextrin. The MACP particles were spherical with a uniform distribution and larger particle sizes, whereas CON and WACP particles were wrinkled, irregular shaped with deep surface dents, and variable in size. Although caking was observed in scanning electron micrographs after 12 mo of storage, it was not detected by sensory panelists. The color of cheese powders changed very slowly during storage but browning was detected. The results of this study show that it is possible to use maltodextrin or whey in production of white cheese powder to reduce production costs and improve the physical quality of powders.

  15. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Sucrose Stearate Addition on the Quality Improvement of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang During Storage at 25℃

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of sucrose stearate at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%, w/v) on the physico-chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang were investigated during storage at 25℃ for 12 mon. Over the storage duration, the addition of sucrose stearate had no significant effects on the proximate composition of Samgyetang, including meat, broth, and porridge, or the hardness and spreadability of the porridge, although it resulted in significantly higher CIE L* values for the porridge. The CIE L* values of Samgyetang porridge with added sucrose stearate increased until 9 mon, while the control decreased until 6 mon, and the values for both changed insignificantly thereafter. The breast meat of Samgyetang treated with sucrose stearate showed higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid after 3 mon and lower percentages of monounsaturated fatty acid after 6 mon compared to the control (p<0.05), while no significant differences were observed with the different sucrose stearate concentrations (p>0.05). The overall sensory acceptability scores were higher at sucrose stearate concentrations of 0.2% or 0.3% after 6 mon and at 0.1% after 9 mon compared to those of the control. PMID:26761503

  17. Effects of Sucrose Stearate Addition on the Quality Improvement of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang During Storage at 25℃.

    PubMed

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Jin Ho; Lee, Keun Taik

    2014-01-01

    The effects of sucrose stearate at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%, w/v) on the physico-chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang were investigated during storage at 25℃ for 12 mon. Over the storage duration, the addition of sucrose stearate had no significant effects on the proximate composition of Samgyetang, including meat, broth, and porridge, or the hardness and spreadability of the porridge, although it resulted in significantly higher CIE L* values for the porridge. The CIE L* values of Samgyetang porridge with added sucrose stearate increased until 9 mon, while the control decreased until 6 mon, and the values for both changed insignificantly thereafter. The breast meat of Samgyetang treated with sucrose stearate showed higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid after 3 mon and lower percentages of monounsaturated fatty acid after 6 mon compared to the control (p<0.05), while no significant differences were observed with the different sucrose stearate concentrations (p>0.05). The overall sensory acceptability scores were higher at sucrose stearate concentrations of 0.2% or 0.3% after 6 mon and at 0.1% after 9 mon compared to those of the control.

  18. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  19. Dependence of Photosynthetic Capacity, Photosynthetic Pigment Allocation, and Carbon Storage on Nitrogen Levels in Foliage of Aspen Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Papagno, Andrea J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of foliar nitrogen (N) in the seasonal dynamics and vertical canopy distribution of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon (C) storage was investigated in boreal broadleaved species. The study was conducted at two different aged stands (60 y and 15 y) in 1994 and 1996 in Saskatchewan, Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Foliage in upper and lower strata was examined for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and its associated hazelnut shrub (Corylus americana Walt.). We determined that C accumulation, expressed as dry mass per unit leaf area (mg C cm (exp -2)), was linearly dependent on N content (approximately 0.3- 3.5 mg N cm (exp -2))(r (exp 2) = 0.93, n=383, P less than 0.001) when eleven foliage groups were defined according to species, site, and developmental stage. C assembly was greatest in the upper aspen strata of both sites (seasonal average, 40.1 plus or minus 0.6 mg C cm (exp -2)), intermediate in the lower aspen strata (32.7 plus or minus 0.6), and considerably lower, and similar, in the hazelnut shrub layers (23.7 plus or minus 0.6) and in expanding aspen leaves (23.8 plus or minus 0.5); the lowest C assembly per unit N occurred in the two youngest, emerging leaf groups (17.1 plus or minus 0.6). Other relationships among physiological and biochemical variables were typically non-linear and were confounded by inclusion of the three groups of young (i.e., emerging or expanding) leaves, unless these were separately identified. Net C uptake, measured as photosynthetic capacity (A (sub max), micromole CO2 m (exp -2) s (exp -1)), was greater in aspen throughout the season, and optimal in mid-summer at a C:N ratio of approximately 18 (approximately 2.3 %N). When young leaves were excluded and logarithms of both variables were used, A (sub max) was approximately linearly dependent on N (mg N cm (exp-2) (r (exp 2) = 0.85, n= 193, P less than 0.001), attributed to incorporation of N into photosynthetic

  20. High areal capacity hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion battery with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency for large-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Yifei; Yao, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs) featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Li-intercalation cathode are safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. Here we report for the first time the excellent stability of a high areal capacity MLIB cell and dendrite-free deposition behavior of Mg under high current density (2 mA cm(-2)). The hybrid cell showed no capacity loss for 100 cycles with Coulombic efficiency as high as 99.9%, whereas the control cell with a Li-metal anode only retained 30% of its original capacity with Coulombic efficiency well below 90%. The use of TiS2 as a cathode enabled the highest specific capacity and one of the best rate performances among reported MLIBs. Postmortem analysis of the cycled cells revealed dendrite-free Mg deposition on a Mg anode surface, while mossy Li dendrites were observed covering the Li surface and penetrated into separators in the Li cell. The energy density of a MLIB could be further improved by developing electrolytes with higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window, leading to new opportunities for its application in large-scale energy storage.

  1. c-Fos: an AP-1 transcription factor with an additional cytoplasmic, non-genomic lipid synthesis activation capacity.

    PubMed

    Caputto, Beatriz L; Cardozo Gizzi, Andrés M; Gil, Germán A

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms that co-ordinately activate lipid synthesis when high rates of membrane biogenesis are needed to support cell growth are largely unknown. c-Fos, a well known AP-1 transcription factor, has emerged as a unique protein with the capacity to associate to specific enzymes of the pathway of synthesis of phospholipids at the endoplasmic reticulum and activate their synthesis to accompany genomic decisions of growth. Herein, we discuss this cytoplasmic, non-genomic effect of c-Fos in the context of other mechanisms that have been proposed to regulate lipid synthesis.

  2. Storage capacity and vibration frequencies of guest molecules in CH4 and CO2 hydrates by first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Su, Yan; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Jijun; Liu, Changling

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principle calculations at B97-D/6-311++G(2d,2p) level, we systematically explore the gas capacity of five standard water cavities (5(12), 4(3)5(6)6(3), 5(12)6(2), 5(12)6(4), and 5(12)6(8)) in clathrate hydrate and study the inclusion complexes to infer general trends in vibrational frequencies of guest molecules as a function of cage size and number of guest molecules. In addition, the Raman spectra of hydrates from CO2/CH4 gases are simulated. From our calculations, the maximum cage occupancy of the five considered cages (5(12), 4(3)5(6)6(3), 5(12)6(2), 5(12)6(4), and 5(12)6(8)) is one, one, two, three, and seven for both CH4 and CO2 guest molecules, respectively. Meanwhile, the optimum cage occupancy are one, one, one, two, and four for CO2 molecules and one, one, two, three, and five for CH4 molecules, respectively. Both the C-H stretching frequency of CH4 and the C-O stretching frequency of CO2 gradually decrease as size of the water cages increases. Meanwhile, the C-H stretching frequency gradually increases as the amount of CH4 molecules in the water cavity (e.g., 5(12)6(8)) increases.

  3. High-areal-capacity lithium storage of the Kirkendall effect-driven hollow hierarchical NiS(x) nanoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Woo; Seo, Seung-Deok; Park, Hoon Kee; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun

    2015-02-14

    Three-dimensional (3-D) architectures can provide significant advantages as lithium ion microbattery electrodes by lengthening the vertical dimension. In addition, the nanoscale hierarchy and hollow properties are important factors for enhancing the performance. Here, we prepared a 3-D nickel sulfide nanoarchitecture via a facile low-temperature solution route. A Kirkendall effect-driven sulfidation of a 3-D nickel electrode was used to produce a hollow 3-D structure. Moreover, a nanoscale hierarchy can be formed with the use of highly concentrated sulfur species. The morphology, structure, and chemical composition of the 3-D nickel sulfide electrode are characterized in detail, and the formation mechanism is discussed based on a time-resolved study. The 3-D nickel sulfide electrodes show an outstanding areal capacity (1.5 mA h cm(-2) at a current rate of 0.5 mA cm(-2)), making this electrode a potential electrode for 3-D lithium ion microbatteries with a large energy density. Moreover, this strategy is expected to provide a general fabrication method for transition metal sulfide nanoarchitectures. PMID:25585208

  4. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  5. Decrease in Available Soil Water Storage Capacity Reduces Vitality of Young Understorey European Beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.)—A Case Study from the Black Forest, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tamalika; Saha, Somidh; Reif, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Growth and survival of young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is largely dependent on water availability. We quantified the influence of water stress (measured as Available Soil Water Storage Capacity or ASWSC) on vitality of young beech plants at a dry site. The study site was located in a semi-natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) stand adjacent to beech stands on a rocky gneiss outcrop in southwestern Germany. Plant vitality was measured as crown dieback and estimated by the percentage of dead above ground biomass. The magnitude of crown dieback was recorded in different vertical parts of the crown. Biomass was calculated from the harvested plants following allometric regression equations specifically developed for our study site. Stem discs from harvested plants were used for growth analysis. We found that soil depth up to bedrock and skeleton content significantly influenced ASWSC at the study site. A significant negative correlation between ASWSC and crown dieback was found. Highest rates of crown dieback were noticed in the middle and lower crown. The threshold of crown dieback as a function of drought stress for young beech plants was calculated for the first time in this study. This threshold of crown dieback was found to be 40% of above ground biomass. Beyond 40% crown dieback, plants eventually experienced complete mortality. In addition, we found that the extremely dry year of 2003 significantly hampered growth (basal area increment) of plants in dry plots (ASWSC < 61 mm) in the study area. Recovery in the plants’ radial growth after that drought year was significantly higher in less dry plots (ASWSC > 61 mm) than in dry plots. We concluded that a decrease in ASWSC impeded the vitality of young beech causing partial up to complete crown dieback in the study site. PMID:27137398

  6. Estimation of Geologic Storage Capacity of Carbon Dioxide in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea Using Integrated Three-Dimensional Geologic Formation Modeling and Thermo-Hydrological Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic

  7. Determination of the energy storage capacity of the Diels-Alder reaction between methylfuran and maleic anhydride as applied to storing solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The heat storage capacity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 2-methylfuran and maleic anhydride is calculated using reaction parameters obtained from solution calorimetry. An equilibrium constant of .614 1/mol and a heat of reaction of 14.33 kcal/mole were obtained from experiments at 45/sup 0/C. A reaction ..delta..C/sub p/ of -21.8 cal/mole was calculated from heat capacity information at 25/sup 0/C. From these parameters, a solution initially seven molar in methylfuran and maleic anhydride was found to have a maximum apparent volumetric heat capacity of about 1.85 times that of water. This maximum occurs at about 335/sup 0/K. Typical active solar energy schemes operate between 300 and 400/sup 0/K. When cycled between these temperatures, this system has an overall apparent heat capacity about 1.5 times that of water. The apparent heat capacity increases as the temperature range is narrowed.

  8. 76 FR 17037 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI... regulations to add the HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks... 13, 2011. SAR Submitted by: Holtec International, Inc. SAR Title: Safety Analysis Report on the...

  9. Self-Activated Photostimulated Luminescence Properties and Stable Storage Capacity of Un-Doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 Material for Potential Applications in Optical Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zehua; Duan, Mingxiao; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Un-doped Sr3Al2OCl2 material is synthesized by conventional solid state method in reducing atmosphere. It shows intense photostimulated luminescence and the emission band of spectrum covers in 420-800 nm under infrared laser (980 nm) stimulation. Both the emission centers and traps are related to oxygen-deficient defects. Moreover, thermoluminescence indicates that there are at least five types of traps levels in this material. The weak long lasting phosphorescence (30 s) implies the lack of the shallow traps. The deep traps are rich and their storage capacity can be influenced by the releasing progress of the shallow traps. When the shallow traps are completely emptied after 6 h, the stable storage capacity of deep traps is still as large as 51.5%. Also, this material show good photostimulated luminescence under irradiation by infrared laser. Therefore, the un-doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 material synthesized in reducing atmosphere can be considered as a potential photostimulated material for optical storage. Accordingly, the influence mechanism of traps on photostimulated luminescence is proposed.

  10. Self-Activated Photostimulated Luminescence Properties and Stable Storage Capacity of Un-Doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 Material for Potential Applications in Optical Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zehua; Duan, Mingxiao; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Un-doped Sr3Al2OCl2 material is synthesized by conventional solid state method in reducing atmosphere. It shows intense photostimulated luminescence and the emission band of spectrum covers in 420-800 nm under infrared laser (980 nm) stimulation. Both the emission centers and traps are related to oxygen-deficient defects. Moreover, thermoluminescence indicates that there are at least five types of traps levels in this material. The weak long lasting phosphorescence (30 s) implies the lack of the shallow traps. The deep traps are rich and their storage capacity can be influenced by the releasing progress of the shallow traps. When the shallow traps are completely emptied after 6 h, the stable storage capacity of deep traps is still as large as 51.5%. Also, this material show good photostimulated luminescence under irradiation by infrared laser. Therefore, the un-doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 material synthesized in reducing atmosphere can be considered as a potential photostimulated material for optical storage. Accordingly, the influence mechanism of traps on photostimulated luminescence is proposed. PMID:26716302

  11. An open, parallel I/O computer as the platform for high-performance, high-capacity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abineri, Adrian; Chen, Y. P.

    1992-01-01

    APTEC Computer Systems is a Portland, Oregon based manufacturer of I/O computers. APTEC's work in the context of high density storage media is on programs requiring real-time data capture with low latency processing and storage requirements. An example of APTEC's work in this area is the Loral/Space Telescope-Data Archival and Distribution System. This is an existing Loral AeroSys designed system, which utilizes an APTEC I/O computer. The key attributes of a system architecture that is suitable for this environment are as follows: (1) data acquisition alternatives; (2) a wide range of supported mass storage devices; (3) data processing options; (4) data availability through standard network connections; and (5) an overall system architecture (hardware and software designed for high bandwidth and low latency). APTEC's approach is outlined in this document.

  12. Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel.

  13. Binder-free network-enabled MoS2-PPY-rGO ternary electrode for high capacity and excellent stability of lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, D.; Wang, D. H.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    A unique MoS2-based composite composed of MoS2 nanosheets wrapped by a conductive polypyrrole (PPY) layer and closely incorporated within reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets is prepared by all-solution method. As a free-binder electrode for lithium-ion batteries, the ternary electrode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1428 mAh g-1, maintains 1070 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, and also exhibits superior rate capacity of 600 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 A g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the advantageous combination of the 3D hierarchically rGO skeleton and in-situ formed conductive PPY coating. This design route represents a new direction for high-performance lithium ion batteries and related energy storage application with advanced nanostructured materials.

  14. 36 CFR 1236.28 - What additional requirements apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... storage media containing permanent and unscheduled records within the following temperature and relative humidity ranges: (1) Temperature—62° to 68 °F. (2) Relative humidity—35% to 45%. (b) Electronic...

  15. 36 CFR 1236.28 - What additional requirements apply to the selection and maintenance of electronic records storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storage media containing permanent and unscheduled records within the following temperature and relative humidity ranges: (1) Temperature—62° to 68 °F. (2) Relative humidity—35% to 45%. (b) Electronic...

  16. Ontogeny of Oxygen Storage Capacity and Diving Ability in the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis): Costs and Benefits of Large Lungs.

    PubMed

    Thometz, Nicole M; Murray, Michael J; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-01-01

    Small body size, large lungs, and dense pelage contribute to the unique challenges faced by diving sea otters (Enhydra lutris) when compared to other marine mammals. Here we determine the consequences of large lungs on the development of diving ability in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) by examining the ontogeny of blood, muscle, and lung oxygen stores and calculating aerobic dive limits (cADL) for immature and mature age classes. Total oxygen storage capacity matures rapidly in sea otters, reaching adult levels by 2 mo postpartum. But this result is driven by exceptional lung capacity at birth, followed by a decrease in mass-specific lung volume with age. Blood and muscle oxygen stores remain well below adult values before weaning, with large pups exhibiting 74% and 54% of adult values, respectively. Slow muscle development limits the capacity of immature sea otters to dive against high positive buoyancy due to comparatively large lungs. Immature sea otters diving with total lung capacity (TLC) experience up to twice the mass-specific positive buoyancy as adults diving with TLC but can reduce these forces to comparable adult levels by using a smaller diving lung volume (DLV). The cADL of a juvenile with DLV is 3.62 min, while the cADL of an adult with TLC is 4.82 min. We find that the magnitude of positive buoyancy experienced by sea otters changes markedly with age and strongly influences the ontogeny of diving ability in this species.

  17. Structure and thermal properties of salicylate-based-protic ionic liquids as new heat storage media. COSMO-RS structure characterization and modeling of heat capacities.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Johan; Feder-Kubis, Joanna; Zorębski, Michał; Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Chorążewski, Mirosław; Hensel-Bielówka, Stella; Zorębski, Edward; Paluch, Marian; Dzida, Marzena

    2014-02-28

    During this research, we present a study on the thermal properties, such as the melting, cold crystallization, and glass transition temperatures as well as heat capacities from 293.15 K to 323.15 K of nine in-house synthesized protic ionic liquids based on the 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate ([H-Im-C1OC(n)][Sal]) with n = 3-11. The 3D structures, surface charge distributions and COSMO volumes of all investigated ions are obtained by combining DFT calculations and the COSMO-RS methodology. The heat capacity data sets as a function of temperature of the 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate are then predicted using the methodology originally proposed in the case of ionic liquids by Ge et al. 3-(Alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate based ionic liquids present specific heat capacities higher in many cases than other ionic liquids that make them suitable as heat storage media and in heat transfer processes. It was found experimentally that the heat capacity increases linearly with increasing alkyl chain length of the alkoxymethyl group of 3-(alkoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate as was expected and predicted using the Ge et al. method with an overall relative absolute deviation close to 3.2% for temperatures up to 323.15 K.

  18. Ontogeny of Oxygen Storage Capacity and Diving Ability in the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis): Costs and Benefits of Large Lungs.

    PubMed

    Thometz, Nicole M; Murray, Michael J; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-01-01

    Small body size, large lungs, and dense pelage contribute to the unique challenges faced by diving sea otters (Enhydra lutris) when compared to other marine mammals. Here we determine the consequences of large lungs on the development of diving ability in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) by examining the ontogeny of blood, muscle, and lung oxygen stores and calculating aerobic dive limits (cADL) for immature and mature age classes. Total oxygen storage capacity matures rapidly in sea otters, reaching adult levels by 2 mo postpartum. But this result is driven by exceptional lung capacity at birth, followed by a decrease in mass-specific lung volume with age. Blood and muscle oxygen stores remain well below adult values before weaning, with large pups exhibiting 74% and 54% of adult values, respectively. Slow muscle development limits the capacity of immature sea otters to dive against high positive buoyancy due to comparatively large lungs. Immature sea otters diving with total lung capacity (TLC) experience up to twice the mass-specific positive buoyancy as adults diving with TLC but can reduce these forces to comparable adult levels by using a smaller diving lung volume (DLV). The cADL of a juvenile with DLV is 3.62 min, while the cADL of an adult with TLC is 4.82 min. We find that the magnitude of positive buoyancy experienced by sea otters changes markedly with age and strongly influences the ontogeny of diving ability in this species. PMID:25860829

  19. Geological Characterization, Capacity Estimates and Long-Term Fate of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers in the Two Elk Energy Park Pilot Test site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, R.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    isolated from each other by low permeability shale, anyhydrite and dolomite layers. The benefits and drawbacks of storage in this type of setting for injectivity and long term storage security are examined using the TOUGH2-ECO2N simulation model. Additionally, CO2 capacity was calculated, using NETL equations and range for storage efficiency, and compared to estimates based on the TOUGH2-ECO2N simulation model.

  20. Synergistic Utilization of Microwave Satellite Data and GRACE-Total Water Storage Anomaly for Improving Available Water Capacity Prediction in Lower Mekong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River is the longest river in Southeast Asia and the world's eighth largest in discharge with draining an area of 795,000 km² from the eastern watershed of the Tibetan Plateau to the Mekong Delta including three provinces of China, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam. This makes the life of people highly vulnerable to availability of the water resources as soil moisture is one of the major fundamental variables in global hydrological cycles. The day-to-day variability in soil moisture on field to global scales is an important quantity for early warning systems for events like flooding and drought. In addition to the extreme situations the accurate soil moisture retrieval are important for agricultural irrigation scheduling and water resource management. The present study proposes a method to determine the effective soil hydraulic parameters directly from information available for the soil moisture state from the recently launched SMAP (L-band) microwave remote sensing observations. Since the optimized parameters are based on the near surface soil moisture information, further constraints are applied during the numerical simulation through the assimilation of GRACE Total Water Storage (TWS) within the physically based land surface model. This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity as the soil hydraulic parameters are optimized through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on FAO. The optimization process is divided into two steps: the state variable are optimized and the optimal parameter values are then transferred for retrieving soil moisture and streamflow. A homogeneous soil system is considered as the soil moisture from sensors such as AMSR-E/SMAP can only be retrieved for the top few centimeters of soil. To evaluate the performance of the system in helping

  1. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  2. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... part 72, entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181... Reactor (BWR) fuel with high initial enrichment (up to 4.8 weight percent uranium-235 planer average... Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) basket allowing transportation of 5 weight percent uranium-235 fuel...

  3. Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Boesenberg, Ulrike; Marcus, Matthew A; Shukla, Alpesh K; Yi, Tanghong; McDermott, Eamon; Teh, Pei Fen; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Moewes, Alexander; Cabana, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. The presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale.

  4. Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Boesenberg, Ulrike; Marcus, Matthew A.; Shukla, Alpesh K.; Yi, Tanghong; McDermott, Eamon; Teh, Pei Fen; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Moewes, Alexander; Cabana, Jordi

    2014-11-20

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. Lastly, the presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale.

  5. Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boesenberg, Ulrike; Marcus, Matthew A.; Shukla, Alpesh K.; Yi, Tanghong; McDermott, Eamon; Teh, Pei Fen; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Moewes, Alexander; Cabana, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. The presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale. PMID:25410966

  6. Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Boesenberg, Ulrike; Marcus, Matthew A; Shukla, Alpesh K; Yi, Tanghong; McDermott, Eamon; Teh, Pei Fen; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Moewes, Alexander; Cabana, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, is likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. The presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale. PMID:25410966

  7. Calcium as a superior coating metal in functionalization of carbon fullerenes for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Hicke, Christian; Wang, Enge; Geohegan, David B; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    We explore theoretically the feasibility of functionalizing carbon nanostructures for hydrogen storage, focusing on the coating of C60 fullerenes with light alkaline-earth metals. Our first-principles density functional theory studies show that both Ca and Sr can bind strongly to the C60 surface, and highly prefer monolayer coating, thereby explaining existing experimental observations. The strong binding is attributed to an intriguing charge transfer mechanism involving the empty d levels of the metal elements. The charge redistribution, in turn, gives rise to electric fields surrounding the coated fullerenes, which can now function as ideal attractors upon molecular hydrogen adsorption with binding strengths strong enough for potential room temperature applications but weak enough to avoid H2 dissociation. With a hydrogen uptake of >8.4wt% on Ca32C60, Ca is superior to all the recently suggested metal coating elements.

  8. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  9. Water-Stable Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework Material with High-Surface Area and Gas-Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Gutov, OV; Bury, W; Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Krungleviciute, V; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Mondloch, JE; Sarjeant, AA; Al-Juaid, SS; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK

    2014-08-14

    We designed, synthesized, and characterized a new Zr-based metal-organic framework material, NU-1100, with a pore volume of 1.53 ccg(-1) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 4020 m(2)g(-1); to our knowledge, currently the highest published for Zr-based MOFs. CH4/CO2/H-2 adsorption isotherms were obtained over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions. The total hydrogen adsorption at 65 bar and 77 K is 0.092 gg(-1), which corresponds to 43 gL(-1). The volumetric and gravimetric methane-storage capacities at 65 bar and 298 K are approximately 180 v(STP)/v and 0.27 gg(-1), respectively.

  10. May through July 2015 storm event effects on suspended-sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, computed the suspended-sediment inflows to, and trapping efficiency of, John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. This fact sheet summarizes the quantification of suspended-sediment loads to and from the reservoir during May through July 2015 storm events and describes reservoir sediment trapping efficiency and effects on water-storage capacity.

  11. Asymmetric pathways in the electrochemical conversion reaction of NiO as battery electrode with high storage capacity

    DOE PAGES

    Boesenberg, Ulrike; Marcus, Matthew A.; Shukla, Alpesh K.; Yi, Tanghong; McDermott, Eamon; Teh, Pei Fen; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Moewes, Alexander; Cabana, Jordi

    2014-11-20

    Electrochemical conversion reactions of transition metal compounds create opportunities for large energy storage capabilities exceeding modern Li-ion batteries. However, for practical electrodes to be envisaged, a detailed understanding of their mechanisms is needed, especially vis-à-vis the voltage hysteresis observed between reduction and oxidation. Here, we present such insight at scales from local atomic arrangements to whole electrodes. NiO was chosen as a simple model system. The most important finding is that the voltage hysteresis has its origin in the differing chemical pathways during reduction and oxidation. This asymmetry is enabled by the presence of small metallic clusters and, thus, ismore » likely to apply to other transition metal oxide systems. Lastly, the presence of nanoparticles also influences the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte and its degradation products and can create differences in transport properties within an electrode, resulting in localized reactions around converted domains that lead to compositional inhomogeneities at the microscale.« less

  12. Effects of reduction in porosity and permeability with depth on storage capacity and injectivity in deep saline aquifers: A case study from the Mount Simon Sandstone aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.; Barnes, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is recognized as a deep saline reservoir that has significant potential for geological sequestration in the Midwestern region of the United States. Porosity and permeability values collected from core analyses in rocks from this formation and its lateral equivalents in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio indicate a predictable relationship with depth owing to a reduction in the pore structure due to the effects of compaction and/or cementation, primarily as quartz overgrowths. The regional trend of decreasing porosity with depth is described by the equation: ??(d)=16.36??e-0.00039*d, where ?? is the porosity and d is the depth in m. The decrease of porosity with depth generally holds true on a basinwide scale. Bearing in mind local variations in lithologic and petrophysical character within the Mount Simon Sandstone, the source data that were used to predict porosity were utilized to estimate the pore volume available within the reservoir that could potentially serve as storage space for injected CO2. The potential storage capacity estimated for the Mount Simon Sandstone in the study area, using efficiency factors of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, is 23,680, 118,418, 236,832, and 355,242 million metric tons of CO2, respectively. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Integrated 3D porous C-MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene electrode for high capacity and prolonged stability lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, D.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Wang, D. H.; Zhou, D.; Shi, F.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Scrupulous design and fabrication of advanced anode materials are of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report a facile strategy for construction of free-standing and free-binder 3D porous carbon coated MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene (C-MoS2/N-G) integrated electrode via a hydrothermal-induced self-assembly process. The preformed carbon coated MoS2 is strongly anchored on the porous nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel architecture. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the C-MoS2/N-G electrode delivers a high first discharge capacity of 1600 mAh g-1 and maintains 900 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Impressively, superior high-rate capability is achieved for the C-MoS2/N-G with a reversible capacity of 500 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 4000 mA g-1. Furthermore, the lithium storage mechanism of the obtained integrated electrode is investigated by ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy in detail.

  14. The CO2 Storage Capacity of the Intercalated Diaminoalkane Graphene Oxides: A Combination of Experimental and Simulation Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Wei; Zhao, Lianming; Guo, Feifei; Wu, Xiaozhong; Xu, Wenbin; Yan, Zifeng

    2015-12-01

    To study the effect of interlayer spacing of pillared graphene oxides (GOs) on CO2 uptake, we have obtained CO2 isotherms with respect to the interlayer distance of pillared graphene oxide by both experimental and simulation methods. Interlayer distances of GO were modulated by intercalation of three kinds of diaminoalkanes with a different number of carbon atoms (NH2(CH2) n NH2, n = 4, 8, and 12) as pillars. The intercalated GOs (IGOs) and their reduced products (RIGOs) are characterized using a variety of approaches such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption. Gas adsorption performance shows that the CO2 uptake of IGOs and RIGOs decrease with the increase of the interlayer distance at low pressure, while at high pressure, the adsorption capacity of IGO-12 has a larger growth than those of both IGO-4 and IGO-8 and surpasses them at 30 bar. The contribution of the electrostatics to CO2 adsorption is larger than that of van der Waals force at low pressures, whereas for the high pressures, the adsorption is dominated by van der Waals force.

  15. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature.

  16. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature. PMID:27128697

  17. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U(VI) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U(VI) ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U(VI) ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U(VI) ions from water at pH value of 4 with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and a remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g at pH value of 4. To the best of knowledge, and in contrast to the well-known photo-switched behaviour towards CO2, dye (propidium iodide), as well as fluorescence observed in MOFs, this is the first study that shows a photo-switched behaviour towards radioactive U(VI) ions in aqueous solution.

  18. Theoretical prediction of maximum capacity of C₈₀ and Si₈₀ fullerenes for noble gas storage.

    PubMed

    Mahdavifar, Zabiollah

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we try to demonstrate that how many helium, neon and argon atoms can be trapped into fullerene cages until the pressure becomes large enough to break the C80 and Si80 frameworks. The maximum number of helium, neon and argon atoms which can be encapsulated into C80 fullerene, is found with 46, 24 and 10 atoms respectively. Having investigated the mechanism of C80 opening, we found that if the number of helium and argon atoms reaches to 50 and 12 respectively, the C-C bonds of C80 are broken and the gas molecules escaped from the fullerene cage. The final optimization geometries of latter complexes are similar to the shopping cart. Therefore, this appearance is named as molecular cart. Moreover, the maximum capacity of Si80 fullerene for encapsulated noble gas atoms is found 95, 56 and 22 for helium, neon and argon atoms correspondingly. It is worth highlighting that the new phenomenon of trapping argon atoms into Si80 cage is observed, when a Si atom randomly added to the center of Ar19@Si80 structures. In this case, the Si-Si bonds of Si80 are broken and two argon atoms will escape from the cage. After that, the framework rebuilds its structure like the initial one. This phenomenon is introduced as molecular cesarean section. The estimated internal pressure of Ng atoms trapped into the fullerene cages is also investigated. Results show that the maximum calculated internal pressure is related to He46@C80 and He95@Si80 structures with 212.3 and 144.1GPa respectively.

  19. Theoretical prediction of maximum capacity of C₈₀ and Si₈₀ fullerenes for noble gas storage.

    PubMed

    Mahdavifar, Zabiollah

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we try to demonstrate that how many helium, neon and argon atoms can be trapped into fullerene cages until the pressure becomes large enough to break the C80 and Si80 frameworks. The maximum number of helium, neon and argon atoms which can be encapsulated into C80 fullerene, is found with 46, 24 and 10 atoms respectively. Having investigated the mechanism of C80 opening, we found that if the number of helium and argon atoms reaches to 50 and 12 respectively, the C-C bonds of C80 are broken and the gas molecules escaped from the fullerene cage. The final optimization geometries of latter complexes are similar to the shopping cart. Therefore, this appearance is named as molecular cart. Moreover, the maximum capacity of Si80 fullerene for encapsulated noble gas atoms is found 95, 56 and 22 for helium, neon and argon atoms correspondingly. It is worth highlighting that the new phenomenon of trapping argon atoms into Si80 cage is observed, when a Si atom randomly added to the center of Ar19@Si80 structures. In this case, the Si-Si bonds of Si80 are broken and two argon atoms will escape from the cage. After that, the framework rebuilds its structure like the initial one. This phenomenon is introduced as molecular cesarean section. The estimated internal pressure of Ng atoms trapped into the fullerene cages is also investigated. Results show that the maximum calculated internal pressure is related to He46@C80 and He95@Si80 structures with 212.3 and 144.1GPa respectively. PMID:25259413

  20. Facile and cost effective synthesis of mesoporous spinel NiCo2O4 as an anode for high lithium storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S.; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S.; Park, Choong-Nyeon; Kim, Jaekook; Park, Chan-Jin

    2014-08-01

    To fulfill the high power and high energy density demands for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) new anode materials need to be explored to replace conventional graphite. Herein, we report the urea assisted facile co-precipitation synthesis of spinel NiCo2O4 and its application as an anode material for LIBs. The synthesized NiCo2O4 exhibited an urchin-like microstructure and polycrystalline and mesoporous nature. In addition, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 electrode exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 1095 mA h g-1 and maintained a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g-1 for 400 cycles at 0.5 C-rate. The reversible capacity of NiCo2O4 could still be maintained at 718 mA h g-1, even at 10 C. The mesoporous NiCo2O4 exhibits great potential as an anode material for LIBs with the advantages of unique performance and facile preparation.To fulfill the high power and high energy density demands for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) new anode materials need to be explored to replace conventional graphite. Herein, we report the urea assisted facile co-precipitation synthesis of spinel NiCo2O4 and its application as an anode material for LIBs. The synthesized NiCo2O4 exhibited an urchin-like microstructure and polycrystalline and mesoporous nature. In addition, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 electrode exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 1095 mA h g-1 and maintained a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g-1 for 400 cycles at 0.5 C-rate. The reversible capacity of NiCo2O4 could still be maintained at 718 mA h g-1, even at 10 C. The mesoporous NiCo2O4 exhibits great potential as an anode material for LIBs with the advantages of unique performance and facile preparation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional experimental results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02183e

  1. Effect of talc addition on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina cultivar after production and during storage.

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Monteleone, Julieta I; Martellini, Giovanni; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of talc on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina olives after production and during storage. A significant effect of talc, added in the malaxer, on both yield and oil quality was observed. The addition of 1% talc lead to a 15% decrease of the residual oil in the olive-pomace, while higher amounts of talc did not determine further significant variations. The use of talc caused also a significant decrease of the peroxide value and tocopherols and a significant increase of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, antioxidant activity and K270, while no influence was detected on free fatty acids and K232. Finally, during storage the differences among the oils were maintained as immediately after their production, with the exception of chlorophylls. PMID:25296576

  2. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  3. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease revealed in an animal model with reduced monoamine storage capacity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Caudle, W. Michael; Shepherd, Kennie R.; Noorian, AliReza; Jackson, Chad R.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Weinshenker, David; Greene, James G.; Miller, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, culminating in severe motor symptoms, including: resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. In addition to motor deficits, there are a variety of non-motor symptoms associated with PD. These symptoms generally precede the onset of motor symptoms, sometimes by years, and include anosmia, problems with gastrointestinal motility, sleep disturbances, sympathetic denervation, anxiety, and depression. Previously, we have shown that mice with a 95% genetic reduction in vesicular monoamine transporter expression (VMAT2-deficient, VMAT2 LO) display progressive loss of striatal dopamine, L-DOPA responsive motor deficits, α-synuclein accumulation, and nigral dopaminergic cell loss. We hypothesized that since these animals exhibit deficits in other monoamine systems (norepinephrine, serotonin), which are known to regulate some of these behaviors that the VMAT2-deficient mice may display some of the non-motor symptoms associated with PD. Here we report that the VMAT2-deficient mice demonstrate progressive deficits in olfactory discrimination, delayed gastric emptying, altered sleep latency, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent depressive behavior. These results suggest that the VMAT2-deficient mice may be a useful model of the non-motor symptoms of PD. Furthermore, monoamine dysfunction may contribute to many of the non-motor symptoms of PD and interventions aimed at restoring monoamine function may be beneficial in treating the disease. PMID:19553450

  4. Water storage capacity of the natural river valley - how sedge communities influence it. Case study of Upper Biebrza Basin (Poland) based on ALS and TLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach, Marcin; Chormański, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The exact determination of water storage capacity in river valley is an important issue for hydrologists, ecologist and flood modellers. In case of natural river valley, the dense and complexity vegetation of the natural ecosystems can influence the proper identification of the water storage. Methods considered to be sufficient in other cases (urbanized, agricultural) may not produce correct results. Sedge communities in natural river valleys form characteristic tussocks, built from the species roots, other organic material and silt or mud. They are formed due to partial flooding during the inundation, so the plants can survive in hard, anaerobic conditions. They can growth even up to 0.5 meters, which is not so visible due to very dense vegetation in the valleys. These tussocks form a microtopography or a river valley. Currently, the most commonly used technology to register the terrain topography is an Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), but in the case of the tussocks and the dense vegetation it generates high errors on elevation in the areas of the sedges (Carex appropinquata). This study concerns the Upper Biebrza Valley which is located in the northeastern Poland. For purpose of our work we used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology to determine microtopography of selected fields. Before measurements, the green part of the sedge was cut in selected measurements fields. It make possible to register only tussocks shape. Next, step was collection of the airborne ALS data of the valley with density of 8 points/sq m. The experimental field was divided on two sub-fields: one was cut and scanned using TLS before ALS collection, while the second after. Data collected as ALS and the TLS were then compared. The accuracy of the ALS data depends on the land cover of an area, while TLS accuracy is around 2 millimeters (when georeferenced it depends on the accuracy of reference points - in our case it was made using GPS RTK which gave us accuracy of few centimeters). The

  5. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  6. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  7. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  8. High capacity multicomponent hydrogen storage materials: Investigation of the effect of stoichiometry and decomposition conditions on the cycling behaviour of LiBH 4-MgH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gavin S.; Grant, David M.; Price, Tobias C.; Yu, Xuebin; Legrand, Vincent

    LiBH 4-MgH 2 is an attractive reversible hydrogen storage system, it combines two high capacity hydrides (18.3 and 7.6 wt.%, respectively) and the concerted dehydrogenation reaction has a smaller enthalpy change than either species on its own. The latter effect leads to a destabilisation of the hydrided products and results in a lowering of the dehydrogenation temperature. In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been undertaken to characterise the mechanism of decomposition of the LiBD 4-MgD 2 system, with an emphasis on investigating the synergistic effects of the components during cycling under various conditions. This study compares the effect of stoichiometry of the multicomponent system on the cycling mechanism. Results show that LiBD 4-MgD 2 in a 2:1 molar ratio can be reversibly dehydrogenated under low pressures of hydrogen or under vacuum, contrary to earlier reports in the literature, although the reaction was only partially reversed for the 2:1 mixture decomposed under vacuum. This work shows that the reaction pathway was affected by dehydrogenation conditions, but the stoichiometry of the multicomponent system played a minor role.

  9. Effects of sterile storage, cation saturation and substrate additions on the degradability and extractability of nonylphenol and phenanthrene in soil.

    PubMed

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Marschner, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term abiotic processes during aging of organic pollutants in soil on their microbial degradability and formation of non-extractable residues. The specific aims of our study were to investigate how the fate of p353-nonylphenol (NP) and phenanthrene (Phe) in soils might be affected by: (i) saturation of soil by cations with different valency (Na(+), Ca(2+) or Al(3+)), (ii) addition of organic substrate (wood flour) during incubation period and (iii) different soil moisture levels. This study showed positive effect of long-term aging of sterilized samples on respiration of re-inoculated samples. However, the lack of aging effects on the mineralization of NP and Phe indicates that slow sorption processes by diffusion into less bioaccessible domains were not relevant in studied soils. Similarly, the lower respiration and xenobiotic mineralization rates in the Na(+) and Al(3+) treated soils indicate that this is due to toxic effects on microbial activity and not due to xenobiotic accessibility. Instead, the formation of non-extractable residues was strongly promoted by biological activity, most likely through formation of more reactive metabolites. The addition of wood flour greatly stimulated microbial respiration and enhanced NP mineralization while inhibiting that of Phe. Along with negligible effect of water addition after 4 weeks of incubation on kinetics of soil respiration, the soil moisture effect on xenobiotics mineralization indicates that most probably the bioavailability of NP and Phe increased due to bridging role of water films in soil.

  10. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  11. Data storage technology comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1990-01-01

    The role of data storage and data storage technology is an integral, though conceptually often underestimated, portion of data processing technology. Data storage is important in the mass storage mode in which generated data is buffered for later use. But data storage technology is also important in the data flow mode when data are manipulated and hence required to flow between databases, datasets and processors. This latter mode is commonly associated with memory hierarchies which support computation. VLSI devices can reasonably be defined as electronic circuit devices such as channel and control electronics as well as highly integrated, solid-state devices that are fabricated using thin film deposition technology. VLSI devices in both capacities play an important role in data storage technology. In addition to random access memories (RAM), read-only memories (ROM), and other silicon-based variations such as PROM's, EPROM's, and EEPROM's, integrated devices find their way into a variety of memory technologies which offer significant performance advantages. These memory technologies include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, magneto-optic disk, and vertical Bloch line memory. In this paper, some comparison between selected technologies will be made to demonstrate why more than one memory technology exists today, based for example on access time and storage density at the active bit and system levels.

  12. An Analysis of Potential Additional Measures of Fiscal Capacity of South Dakota School Districts. Papers in Education Finance, No. 13. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Phillip E.; Adams, E. Kathleen

    To help South Dakota develop new measures of school district fiscal capacity (besides assessed value per pupil) to use in its state school aid formula, researchers used multiple regression analysis to examine the effects on district expenditure per pupil of each district's average family income and of the composition of the property tax base. Also…

  13. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  14. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Increase in the Facility Capacity and Petroleum Inventory at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Bryan Mound Storage Facility, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-11-24

    The DOE proposes that the authorized capacity of the BM facility and, upon Administration authorization, the petroleum inventory be increased by 3.5 million m{sup 3} (22 MMB). The proposed action may be subdivided into two distinct actions, the action to increase the facility capacity and the action to increase the facility's petroleum inventory, which is conditioned upon future authorization by the Administration. A portion of the proposed increase in facility capacity would be obtained via modification of the existing internal cavern infrastructure. Specifically, of the proposed increase in cavern capacity, up to 1.4 million m{sup 3} (8.8 MMB) would result from adjustment of the suspended casing of 10 caverns, thereby increasing the working cavern volumes without changing the cavern dimensions. The balance of the proposed increase to facility capacity, 2.1 million m{sup 3} (13.2 MMB), would result from administrative activities including the return of cavern 112 to service at its full capacity [approximately 1.9 million m{sup 3} (12 MMB)] and volume upgrades of at least 0.19 million m{sup 3} (1.2 MMB) based on new information obtained during sonar investigation of caverns.

  16. Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daikon radish microgreens constitute a good source of bioactive compounds. However, the quality deteriorates rapidly during postharvest storage. In this study, we investigated the effects of light exposure and modified atmosphere packaging conditions on changes in sensorial quality and retention of ...

  17. The effects of low-dose electron-beam irradiation and storage time and temperature on xanthophyllis, antioxidant capacity, and phenolics in the potato cultivar Atlantic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of storage and low-dose electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation on health-promoting compounds were evaluated in the potato cultivar Atlantic. Tubers were either not exposed or subjected to 200 Gy and were either sampled immediately or stored at either 4 degrees C or ambient temperature for 10...

  18. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  20. Effects of dietary addition of heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei on growth performance, immune status and anti-oxidative capacity in early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin-Feng; Wu, Wei-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Wei; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Fang, Re-Jun

    2016-08-01

    The contradiction between high susceptibility of early weaned piglets to enteric pathogens and rigid restriction of antibiotic use in the diet is still prominent in the livestock production industry. To address this issue, the study was designed to replace dietary antibiotics partly or completely by an immunostimulant, namely heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei). Piglets (n = 192) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: (1) basal diet (Group A), (2) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (80 mg/kg diet, Group B), (3) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (same as in Group B, but 40 mg/kg diet) + heat-killed M. phlei (1.5 g/kg diet) (Group C) and (4) basal diet + heat-killed M. phlei (3 g/kg diet) (Group D). All piglets received the respective diets from days 21 to 51 of age and were weaned at the age of 28 d. Compared with the Control (Group A), in all other groups the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, small intestinal villus height:crypt depth ratio and protein levels of occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunal mucosa were increased. A decreased incidence of diarrhoea in conjunction with an increased sIgA concentration in the intestinal mucosa and serum IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrations was found in groups supplemented with heat-killed M. phlei (Groups C and D), but not in Group B. Groups C and D also showed decreased IL-2 concentrations in the intestinal mucosa with lower TLR4 and phosphor-IκB protein levels. The antioxidant capacity was reinforced in Groups C and D, as evidenced by the reduction in malondialdehyde and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. These data indicate that heat-killed M. phlei is a promising alternative to antibiotic use for early weaned piglets via induction of protective immune responses. PMID:27216553

  1. The effect of fluoroethylene carbonate additive content on the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase and capacity fade of Li-ion full-cell employing nano Si-graphene composite anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, Arnaud; Eom, KwangSup; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-07-01

    When fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) is added to the ethylene carbonate (EC)-diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte, the capacity and cyclability of full-cells employing Si-graphene anode and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide cathode (NCA) cathode are improved due to formation of a thin (30-50 nm) SEI layer with low ionic resistance (∼2 ohm cm2) on the surface of Si-graphene anode. These properties are confirmed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a cross-sectional image analysis using Focused Ion Beam (FIB)-SEM. Approximately 5 wt.% FEC in EC:DEC (1:1 wt.%) shows the highest capacity and most stability. This high capacity and low capacity fade is attributed to a more stable SEI layer containing less CH2OCO2Li, Li2CO3 and LiF compounds, which consume cyclable Li. Additionally, a greater amount of polycarbonate (PC), which is known to form a more robust passivation layer, thus reducing further reduction of electrolyte, is confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Improved sodium-storage performance of stannous sulfide@reduced graphene oxide composite as high capacity anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Lu, Haiyan; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-10-01

    Stannous sulfide@reduced graphene oxide (SnS@RGO) composite is successfully synthesized via a facile precipitation route. The structural and morphological characterizations reveal SnS@RGO composites are composed of SnS nanoparticles of the size 5-10 nm, which are uniformly anchored on the surface of RGO. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate the reversible capacity of the SnS@RGO composite - that includes contributions from the conversion reaction of SnS to Sn and NaxS and the alloying reaction of Sn to NaxSn. The SnS@RGO electrode exhibits a reversible capacity of 457 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1, superior cycling stability (94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1) and adequate rate performance. Compared to the neat SnS nanoparticles, the enhanced electrochemical performance of the SnS@RGO composite is primarily due to the incorporation of RGO as a highly conductive, flexible component as well as possessing a large available surface area, which provides desirable properties such as improved electronic contact between active materials, aggregation suppression of intermediate products, and alleviation of the volume change during sodiation and desodiation. Encouraging experimental results suggest that the SnS@RGO composite is a promising material to achieve a high-capacity and stable anode for NIBs.

  3. Physicochemical Changes and Glycation Reaction in Intermediate-Moisture Protein-Sugar Foods with and without Addition of Resveratrol during Storage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhanwu; Gu, Mantun; Hao, Wangjun; Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Weimin; Zheng, Lili; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-22

    An intermediate-moisture food (IMF) model consisting of whey protein isolate and glucose and an IMF model fortified with resveratrol were used to study the effect of resveratrol on physicochemical changes and glycation of protein-sugar-rich foods during storage. The water activity (aw) of the storage was controlled at 0.75 or 0.56. The browning rate or hardness of fortified IMFs was significantly lower than that of IMFs after 45-day storage. The rate of Maillard reaction in the samples stored at aw 0.56 was higher than that of samples stored at aw 0.75. The fortified IMFs had lower levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products), CML (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine), and insoluble protein during storage. The inhibition capability of resveratrol against glycation was also confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to monitor glycated proteins and protein aggregation in the samples. The results of this study suggested that resveratrol could be used as an inhibitor to reduce the formation of undesirable AGEs and other Maillard reaction products in foods during storage. PMID:27218138

  4. Effects of May through July 2015 storm events on suspended sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Guy M.

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, computed the suspended-sediment inflows and retention in John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. Computations relied upon previously published turbidity-suspended sediment relations at water-quality monitoring sites located upstream and downstream from the reservoir. During the 3-month period, approximately 872,000 tons of sediment entered the reservoir, and 57,000 tons were released through the reservoir outlet. The average monthly trapping efficiency during this period was 93 percent, and monthly averages ranged from 83 to 97 percent. During the study period, an estimated 980 acre-feet of storage was lost, over 2.4 times the design annual sedimentation rate of the reservoir. Storm inflows during the 3-month analysis period reduced reservoir storage in the conservation pool approximately 1.6 percent. This indicates that large inflows, coupled with minimal releases, can have substantial effects on reservoir storage and lifespan.

  5. Hermetically Coated and Well-Separated Co3 O4 Nanophase within Porous Graphitic Carbon Nanosheets: Synthesis, Confinement Effect, and Improved Lithium-Storage Capacity and Durability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfei; Ren, Wangyu; Zhou, Yunyun; Li, Pei; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen

    2016-07-01

    Considerable lithium-driven volume changes and loss of crystallinity on cycling have impeded the sustainable use of transition metal oxides (MOs) as attractive anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries that have almost six times the capacity of carbon per unit volume. Herein, Co3 O4 was used as a model MO in a facile process involving two pyrolysis steps for in situ encapsulation of nanosized MO in porous two-dimensional graphitic carbon nanosheets (2D-GCNs) with high surface areas and abundant active sites to overcome the above-mentioned problems. The proposed method is inexpensive, industrially scalable, and easy to operate with a high yield. TEM revealed that the encaged Co3 O4 is well separated and uniformly dispersed with surrounding onionlike graphitic layers. By taking advantage of the high electronic conductivity and confinement effect of the surrounding 2D-GCNs, a hierarchical GCNs-coated Co3 O4 (Co3 O4 @GCNs) anode with 43.5 wt % entrapped active nanoparticles delivered a remarkable initial specific capacity of 1816 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) . After 50 cycles, the retained capacity is as high as 987 mAh g(-1) . When the current density was increased to 1000 mA g(-1) , the anode showed a capacity retention of 416 mAh g(-1) . Enhanced reversible rate capability and prolonged cycling stability were found for Co3 O4 @GCN compared to pure GCNs and Co3 O4 . The Co3 O4 @GCNs hybrid holds promise as an efficient candidate material for anodes due to its low cost, environmentally friendly nature, high capacity, and stability. PMID:27245378

  6. Hermetically Coated and Well-Separated Co3 O4 Nanophase within Porous Graphitic Carbon Nanosheets: Synthesis, Confinement Effect, and Improved Lithium-Storage Capacity and Durability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfei; Ren, Wangyu; Zhou, Yunyun; Li, Pei; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen

    2016-07-01

    Considerable lithium-driven volume changes and loss of crystallinity on cycling have impeded the sustainable use of transition metal oxides (MOs) as attractive anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries that have almost six times the capacity of carbon per unit volume. Herein, Co3 O4 was used as a model MO in a facile process involving two pyrolysis steps for in situ encapsulation of nanosized MO in porous two-dimensional graphitic carbon nanosheets (2D-GCNs) with high surface areas and abundant active sites to overcome the above-mentioned problems. The proposed method is inexpensive, industrially scalable, and easy to operate with a high yield. TEM revealed that the encaged Co3 O4 is well separated and uniformly dispersed with surrounding onionlike graphitic layers. By taking advantage of the high electronic conductivity and confinement effect of the surrounding 2D-GCNs, a hierarchical GCNs-coated Co3 O4 (Co3 O4 @GCNs) anode with 43.5 wt % entrapped active nanoparticles delivered a remarkable initial specific capacity of 1816 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) . After 50 cycles, the retained capacity is as high as 987 mAh g(-1) . When the current density was increased to 1000 mA g(-1) , the anode showed a capacity retention of 416 mAh g(-1) . Enhanced reversible rate capability and prolonged cycling stability were found for Co3 O4 @GCN compared to pure GCNs and Co3 O4 . The Co3 O4 @GCNs hybrid holds promise as an efficient candidate material for anodes due to its low cost, environmentally friendly nature, high capacity, and stability.

  7. ``H2 sponge'': pressure as a means for reversible high-capacity hydrogen storage in nanoporous Ca-intercalated covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Sun, Jia Tao; Meng, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the practical demand for reversible hydrogen storage at ambient temperatures.We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the

  8. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  9. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

  11. Oligosaccharide-based Surfactant/Citric Acid Buffer System Stabilizes Lactate Dehydrogenase during Freeze-drying and Storage without the Addition of Natural Sugar.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Kawai, Ryuichiro; Koga, Maito; Asakura, Kouichi; Takahashi, Isao; Osanai, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the maintenance effects of oligosaccharide-based surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a model protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), during freeze-drying and room temperature storage using the citric acid buffer system. Oligosaccharide-based surfactants, which exhibit a high glass transition temperature (Tg), promoted the eminent retention of enzymatic activity during these protocols, whereas monosaccharide-based surfactants with a low Tg displayed poor performance at high concentration, albeit much better than that of Tween 80 at middle concentration. The increase in the alkyl chain length did not exert positive effects as observed for the maintenance effect during freeze-thawing, but an amphiphilic nature and a glass forming ability were crucial for the effective stabilization at a low excipient concentration during freeze-drying. Even a low oligosaccharide-based surfactant content (0.1 mg mL(-1)) could maintain LDH activity during freeze-drying, but a high surfactant content (1.0 mg mL(-1)) was required to prevent buffer precipitation and retain high LDH activity on storage. Regarding storage, glass formation restricted molecular mobility in the lyophilized matrix, and LDH activity was effectively retained. The present results describe a strategy based on the glass-forming ability of surfactant-type excipients that affords a natural sugar-free formulation or an alternative use for polysorbate-type surfactants.

  12. A Field Study on Simulation of CO 2 Injection and ECBM Production and Prediction of CO 2 Storage Capacity in Unmineable Coal Seam

    DOE PAGES

    He, Qin; Mohaghegh, Shahab D.; Gholami, Vida

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 sequestration into a coal seam project was studied and a numerical model was developed in this paper to simulate the primary and secondary coal bed methane production (CBM/ECBM) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) injection. The key geological and reservoir parameters, which are germane to driving enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) and CO 2 sequestration processes, including cleat permeability, cleat porosity, CH 4 adsorption time, CO 2 adsorption time, CH 4 Langmuir isotherm, CO 2 Langmuir isotherm, and Palmer and Mansoori parameters, have been analyzed within a reasonable range. The model simulation results showed good matches formore » both CBM/ECBM production and CO 2 injection compared with the field data. The history-matched model was used to estimate the total CO 2 sequestration capacity in the field. The model forecast showed that the total CO 2 injection capacity in the coal seam could be 22,817 tons, which is in agreement with the initial estimations based on the Langmuir isotherm experiment. Total CO 2 injected in the first three years was 2,600 tons, which according to the model has increased methane recovery (due to ECBM) by 6,700 scf/d.« less

  13. Solar heat storage in phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1984-02-28

    The objective of this project was to develop a chemical heat storage system that had a phase change with release of latent heat at about 105/sup 0/F. The primary reason this kind on system was sought was that heat storage capacity of commonly used storage systems do not match the heat collection capacity of open air collectors. In addition to the phase change three other factors were considered: the cost of the material, the amount of heat the system would hold per unit volume, and the rate at which the system released sensible and latent heat. One hundred nineteen tests were made on 32 systems. Only data on six of the more promising are presented. In the six systems, borax was used as the major component with other materials used as nucleating agents toraise the temperature of phase change.

  14. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water uptake and retention by trees affects their ability to cope with drought, as well as influences ground water recharge and stream flow. Historically, water has not often been limiting in Eastern U.S. forests. As a result, very little work has been done to understand the basics of timing of water use by vegetation in these systems. As droughts are projected to increase in length and severity in future decades, this focus is increasingly important, particularly for informing hydrologic models. We used deuterium tracer and sap flux techniques to study tree water transport on a forested ridge top with shallow soil in central Pennsylvania. Three trees of each of the species, Acer saccharum, Carya tomentosa, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubrum were accessed by tree climbing and scaffolding towers. We hypothesized that contrasting vessel size of the tree species would affect the efficiency of water transport (tracer velocity) and contrasting tree size would affect tracer storage as estimated by tracer residence times. Trees were injected with deuterated water in July 2012. Leaves were sampled 15 times over 35 days, initially daily for the first week, then at regular intervals afterwards. The tracer arrived in the canopy of the study trees between 1 and 7 days after injection, traveling at a velocity of 2 to 19 m d-1. The tracer residence time was between 7 and 33 days. Although there was variation in tracer velocity and residence time in individual trees, there were no significant differences among wood types or species (P>0.05). The general patterns in timing of water use were similar to other studies on angiosperm trees in tropical and arid ecosystems. There was no evidence of longer residence times in the larger trees. Sap flux-based estimates of sap velocity were much lower than tracer estimates, which was consistent with other studies. Levels of sap flux and midday water potential measurements suggested that the trees were water-stressed. We observed relatively

  16. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Haar, W.; Kleinschmager, H.; Weddigen, G.

    1980-01-15

    An electrochemical storage cell or battery is described with at least one anode filled with a molten alkali metal as the anolyte and at least one cathode chamber filled with a sulfur-containing catholyte substance with the anode chamber and the cathode chamber separated from each other by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte. To the catholyte substance is added an additive which converts the sulfur chains into an electrically charged state for obtaining electromigration of the sulfur phase. This induces mobilization of the sulfur phase in the cathode chamber and prevents major accumulation of liquid sulfur as an insulator. As a result the cell can be repeatedly recharged with large currents to a greater capacity. Additives are a dienophilic compound or a reaction product of a dienophilic compound and sulfur.

  17. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  18. High Capacity High Speed Optical Data Storage System Based on Diffraction-Free Nanobeam. Final Report, 09-02-98 to 03-17-99

    SciTech Connect

    Tin Aye

    1999-06-16

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) investigated the development of an optical data storage system built around a current well-engineered high-speed optical disk system with an innovative diffraction-free micro-optical element to produce a beam {approximately}250 nm wide with {approximately}4-5 mm depth of focus, allowing the system to address data at {approximately}100 Mbits/second and to store it 100 to 1,000 times more densely ({approximately}10 Gbit/in.{sup 2}) than in present systems. In Phase 1 of this project POC completed a thorough feasibility study by system design and analysis, successfully demonstrated fabrication of the key components, and conducted a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. Specifically, production of a subwavelength ({approximately}380 nm) large depth of focus ({approximately}4-5 mm) addressing beam was demonstrated by fabricating a special microdiffractive optical element and recording this beam on a standard optical recording disk coated with a photopolymer material.

  19. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  20. Anisotropic storage medium development in a full-scale, sodium alanate-based, hydrogen storage system

    DOE PAGES

    Jorgensen, Scott W.; Johnson, Terry A.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Bilheux, Hassina Z.

    2016-06-11

    Deuterium desorption in an automotive-scale hydrogen storage tube was studied in-situ using neutron diffraction. Gradients in the concentration of the various alanate phases were observed along the length of the tube but no significant radial anisotropy was present. In addition, neutron radiography and computed tomography showed large scale cracks and density fluctuations, confirming the presence of these structures in an undisturbed storage system. These results demonstrate that large scale storage structures are not uniform even after many absorption/desorption cycles and that movement of gaseous hydrogen cannot be properly modeled by a simple porous bed model. In addition, the evidence indicatesmore » that there is slow transformation of species at one end of the tube indicating loss of catalyst functionality. These observations explain the unusually fast movement of hydrogen in a full scale system and shows that loss of capacity is not occurring uniformly in this type of hydrogen-storage system.« less

  1. Ectopic lipid storage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not mediated by impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Irwin, Andrew; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Daousi, Christina; Adams, Valerie L; Bimson, William E; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Richardson, Paul; Umpleby, A Margot; Wilding, John P; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by lipid deposition within the liver [intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL)], is associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MS). It has been suggested that impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition, and the associated MS, by altering post-prandial energy storage. To test this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study of 17 patients with NAFLD [mean±S.D.; age, 45±11 years; body mass index (BMI), 31.6±3.4 kg/m2] and 18 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age, 44±11 years; BMI, 30.5±5.2 kg/m2). We determined body composition by MRI, IHCL and intramyocellular (soleus and tibialis anterior) lipids (IMCLs) by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by dynamic phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of quadriceps muscle. Although matched for BMI and total adiposity, after statistical adjustment for gender, patients with NAFLD (defined by IHCL ≥ 5.5%) had higher IHCLs (25±16% compared with 2±2%; P<0.0005) and a higher prevalence of the MS (76% compared with 28%) compared with healthy controls. Despite this, the visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio, IMCLs and muscle mitochondrial function were similar between the NAFLD and control groups, with no significant difference in the rate constants of post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (1.55±0.4 compared with 1.51±0.4 min-1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired muscle mitochondrial function does not seem to underlie ectopic lipid deposition, or the accompanying features of the MS, in patients with NAFLD. PMID:24738611

  2. Improved hydrogen storage kinetics of the Li-Mg-N-H system by addition of Mg(BH4)2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongge; Shi, Songbo; Liu, Yongfeng; Li, Bo; Yang, Yanjing; Gao, Mingxia

    2013-03-21

    A Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system was prepared by ball milling the corresponding chemicals. The hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-xMg(BH(4))(2) (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples and the role played by Mg(BH(4))(2) were systematically investigated. The results show that the onset and peak temperatures for hydrogen desorption from the Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH sample shifted to lower temperatures. In particular, the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-0.1Mg(BH(4))(2) sample could reversibly absorb ~4.5 wt% of hydrogen in the temperature range of 120-150 °C, which is superior to the pristine sample. During ball milling, a metathesis reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and LiH readily occurred to form LiBH(4) and MgH(2) and subsequently, the newly formed MgH(2) reacted with Mg(NH(2))(2) to generate MgNH. Upon heating, the presence of LiBH(4) not only decreased the recrystallization temperature of Mg(NH(2))(2) but also reacted with LiNH(2) to form the Li(4)(BH(4))(NH(2))(3) intermediate, which weakens the N-H bonding and enhances the ion conductivity. Meanwhile, MgNH may act as the nucleation center for the dehydrogenation product of Li(2)MgN(2)H(2) due to the structural similarity. Thus, the in situ formed LiBH(4) and MgNH provide a synergetic effect to improve the hydrogen storage performances of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system. PMID:23178338

  3. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints. PMID:23903398

  4. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.

  5. Multiple access mass storage network

    SciTech Connect

    Wentz, D.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Multi-Access Storage Subnetwork (MASS) is the latest addition to the Octopus computer network at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The subnetwork provides shared mass storage for the Laboratory's multiple-host computer configuration. A Control Data Corp. 38500 Mass Storage facility is interfaces by MASS to the large, scientific worker computers to provide an on-line capacity of 1 trillion bits of user-accessible data. The MASS architecture offers a very high performance approach to the management of large data storage, as well as a high degree of reliability needed for operation in the Laboratory's timesharing environment. MASS combines state-of-the-art digital hardware with an innovative system philosophy. The key LLL design features of the subnetwork that contribute to the high performance include the following: a data transmission scheme that provides a 40-Mbit/s channel over distances of up to 1000 ft, a large metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory buffer controlled by a 24-port memory multiplexer with an aggregate data rate of 280 Mbit/s, and a set of high-speed microprocessor-based controllers driving the commercial mass storage units. Reliability of the system is provided by a completely redundant network, including two control minicomputer systems. Also enhancing reliability is error detection and correction in the MOS memory. A hardware-generated checksum is carried with each file throughout the entire network to ensure integrity of user files. 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JA; Veenstra, M; Long, JR

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have received significant attention as a new class of adsorbents for natural gas storage; however, inconsistencies in reporting high-pressure adsorption data and a lack of comparative studies have made it challenging to evaluate both new and existing materials. Here, we briefly discuss high-pressure adsorption measurements and review efforts to develop metal-organic frameworks with high methane storage capacities. To illustrate the most important properties for evaluating adsorbents for natural gas storage and for designing a next generation of improved materials, six metal-organic frameworks and an activated carbon, with a range of surface areas, pore structures, and surface chemistries representative of the most promising adsorbents for methane storage, are evaluated in detail. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms are used to compare gravimetric and volumetric capacities, isosteric heats of adsorption, and usable storage capacities. Additionally, the relative importance of increasing volumetric capacity, rather than gravimetric capacity, for extending the driving range of natural gas vehicles is highlighted. Other important systems-level factors, such as thermal management, mechanical properties, and the effects of impurities, are also considered, and potential materials synthesis contributions to improving performance in a complete adsorbed natural gas system are discussed.

  7. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  8. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore » the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  9. Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 composite with BaTiO3 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiasheng; Han, Shumin; Wang, Zhibin; Ke, Dandan; Liu, Jingjing; Ma, Mingzhen

    2016-04-28

    The 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 composite was prepared by ball-milling LiBH4, MgH2 and BaTiO3, and the effect of BaTiO3 on the hydrogen storage properties of the composite was investigated. TG-DSC results show that the onset dehydrogenation temperature of the composite is 299 °C, which is 124 °C lower than that of 2LiBH4-MgH2, and the dehydrogenation amount of the composite increases from 6.86 wt% to 7.48 wt% at 500 °C. Kinetic tests show that the dehydrogenation amount of 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 reaches 1.5 wt% within 400 seconds, almost 10 times that of 2LiBH4-MgH2. BaTiO3 reacts with LiBH4 during the dehydrogenation of the composite and generates BaB6 and TiO2. BaB6 is beneficial to lower the stability of LiBH4, while TiO2 has a catalytic effect in improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics of the reaction between Mg and LiBH4.

  10. Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

  11. Time-resolved XAFS spectroscopic studies of B-H and N-H oxidative addition to transition metal catalysts relevant to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  12. Investigation of the characteristics of the nickle oxide electrode under the conditions of operation of high-capacity storage batteries of the TNZhK type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshcheva, E.N.; Glazatova, T.N.; Aguf, I.A.

    1982-07-01

    There have been virtually no investigations of the behavior of laminated NOE at elevated temperatures. It was therefore desirable to study the joint influence of electrolyte temperature and addition of cobalt on the behavior of NOE at high discharge rates and in the course of charging; this was the purpose of the present work. Laminated NOE 36 x 14 x 3.5 mm in size were taken for the investigation. The content of active material in each electrode was 3 g. Cobalt was introduced into the prepared material in the form of sulfate solution in the ratio of 3% Co/Ni. The tests were conducted in a gastight cell made of transparent plastic and connected to a buret for collecting the gas. The electrolyte consisted of NaOH solution (d = 1.20 g/cm/sup 3/) + 5 g/liter LiOH. The auxiliary electrodes were made of Ni foil. The anode and cathode currents were chosen in accordance with the conditions of operation of TNZhK batteries. The potentials were measured against a mercury oxide reference electrode in the same solution. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series the electrodes were charged in the temperature range 25 to 70/sup 0/, with simultaneous collection of gas. The discharge temperature was 25/sup 0/. In the second series the electrodes were charged at 25/sup 0/ and discharged at temperatures in the range 25 to 70/sup 0/.

  13. Storage Media for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Rodes

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer storage devices designed to provide additional memory for microcomputers--chips, floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks--and describes how secondary storage is used (file transfer, formatting, ingredients of incompatibility); disk/controller/software triplet; magnetic tape backup; storage volatility; disk emulator; and…

  14. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  15. Field data logger with EPROM storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, A. W.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    1983-09-01

    A data logger using electrically programmable read-only memory for data storage is described. The storage capacity is sufficient to record measurements from eight instruments at 30-min intervals for almost ten days. This approach provides a moderately priced alternative to data loggers using magnetic tape or floppy disks when only modest data-storage capacity is needed.

  16. Storage of specimens at 4 degrees C or addition of sodium fluoride (1%) prevents formation of ethanol in urine inoculated with Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Hylén, L; Svensson, E; Helander, A

    1999-09-01

    The microbial synthesis of ethanol was investigated in urine specimens containing 0.5% or 1.0% (w/v) glucose and inoculated with the yeast Candida albicans (100 cfu/mL). Aliquots (10 mL) of urine were dispensed into plastic tubes containing enough sodium fluoride to give final concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2% (w/v), and C. albicans was added. The tubes were tightly stoppered and allowed to stand either at room temperature (22 degrees C) or in a refrigerator (4 degrees C) for up to 34 days before concentrations of ethanol were determined by headspace gas chromatography. Urine samples stored at 22 degrees C without sodium fluoride produced 0.25 g/L ethanol after two days, and the concentration increased to 2.10 g/L and 4.50 g/L after eight days for specimens containing 0.5% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) glucose, respectively. The ratio of the serotonin metabolites 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine remained within the reference range (< 15 pmol/nmol) despite high concentrations of ethanol being produced. Urine samples kept at 4 degrees C did not produce any ethanol (< 0.01 g/L) even without sodium fluoride present as a preservative. The production of ethanol by C. albicans was stopped completely by adding 1% or 2% (w/v) sodium fluoride but not by concentrations of 0.75% (w/v) or less. The microbial synthesis of ethanol in urine samples initially stored at room temperature without sodium fluoride was slowed down considerably by moving them into a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, the production of ethanol in urine by C. albicans can be prevented by storage of samples in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C or by adding sodium fluoride > or = 1% (w/v). Measuring the ratio of 5HTOL/5HIAA can help to distinguish postsampling production of ethanol from metabolism and excretion processes.

  17. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-18

    reserve, as the added storage could provide about 75% of the regulation up requirement for all of California, which would likely greatly reduce regulation prices and potential revenue. The addition of storage in California decreases renewable curtailment, particularly in the 40% RPS case. Following previous analysis, storage has a mixed impact on emissions, generally reducing emissions, but also creating additional incentives for increased emissions from out-of-state coal generations. Overall, storage shows significant system cost savings, but analysis also points to additional challenges associated with full valuation of energy storage, including capturing the operational benefits calculated here, but also recovering additional benefits associated avoided generation, transmission, and distribution capacity, and avoided losses.

  18. Electrochemical storage cell containing a substituted anisole or di-anisole redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection and suitable for use in liquid organic and solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, John B.; Tian, Minmin

    2000-01-01

    A electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode, a solid polymer electrolyte, and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging selected from the group consisting of: (a) a substituted anisole having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR1## where R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of H, OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and O.sup.- Li.sup.+ ; and (b) a di-anisole compound having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR2## where R is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 and -CH.sub.3, m is either 1 or 0, n is either 1 or 0, and X is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 (methoxy) or its lithium salt --O.sup.- Li.sup.+. The lithium salt of the di-anisole is the preferred form of the redox shuttle additive because the shuttle anion will then initially have a single negative charge, it loses two electrons when it is oxidized at the cathode, and then moves toward the anode as a single positively charged species where it is then reduced to a single negatively charged species by gaining back two electrons.

  19. Argon Dewar Required Relief Flow Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-09-28

    This report calculates the required fire relief valve flow capacity, the required vaporizer failure relief valve flow capacity, and the required loss of vacuum relief valve flow capacity of the liquid argon storage tank in use at the D-Zero site.

  20. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  1. High-Storage-Capacity Accelerometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Theodore L.; Rowe, Neil D.; Delombard, Richard; Koudelka, John M.; Foster, William M., II; Thomas, John E.; Priebe, Donald H.; Heese, John A.; Finley, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation system measures and records accelerations at frequencies from 0 to 100 Hz and magnitudes from 10 to the negative 5th power to 0.5 g. Developed to aid research on small accelerations in spacecraft in orbit. Also used on Earth: with modified acceleration sensors to monitor acceleration environments of sensitive products transported by airplanes, railroad trains, trucks, or ships.

  2. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  3. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  4. Bathymetry and capacity of Chambers Lake, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyves, Matthew C.

    2015-10-26

    This report describes the methods used to create a bathymetric map of Chambers Lake for the computation of reservoir storage capacity as of September 2014. The product is a bathymetric map and a table showing the storage capacity of the reservoir at 2-foot increments from minimum usable elevation up to full capacity at the crest of the auxiliary spillway.

  5. Bathymetry and capacity of Chambers Lake, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyves, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to create a bathymetric map of Chambers Lake for the computation of reservoir storage capacity as of September 2014. The product is a bathymetric map and a table showing the storage capacity of the reservoir at 2-foot increments from minimum usable elevation up to full capacity at the crest of the auxiliary spillway.

  6. MOF-derived, N-doped, hierarchically porous carbon sponges as immobilizers to confine selenium as cathodes for Li-Se batteries with superior storage capacity and perfect cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoqiang; Yin, Longwei

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon sponges (NCS) composed of hierarchical microporous carbon layers are derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via carbonization at high temperatures under Ar and NH3 flow. Se is impregnated into 0.4-0.55 nm micropores by melting-diffusion and infiltration methods. The confinement of Se within small-sized micropores of NCS efficiently prevents Se loss, and mesopores between carbon layers absorb a sufficient amount of electrolyte, as well as serve as cushion spaces for large volume changes during delithiation-lithiation processes. Nitrogen doping improves the electrical conductivity of carbon matrix and facilitates rapid charge transfer, making the carbon sponge a highway for charges involved in redox reactions. When serving as cathode materials for Li-Se batteries, the NCS/Se-50 composite with 50 wt% Se exhibits excellent cycling stability, superior rate capability and high coulombic efficiency. The cathode can exhibit 443.2 mA h g-1 at the 200th cycle with a coulombic efficiency of up to 99.9% at 0.5C (C = 675 mA h g-1), which leads to 0.031% capacity loss per cycle from 5th to 200th cycles. Even at a high rate of 5C, it can still retain 286.6 mA h g-1. The unique, large surface rod-like MOF-derived, N-doped carbon sponges with hierarchical porosity could be potential candidates in the related energy-storage systems.Nitrogen-doped carbon sponges (NCS) composed of hierarchical microporous carbon layers are derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via carbonization at high temperatures under Ar and NH3 flow. Se is impregnated into 0.4-0.55 nm micropores by melting-diffusion and infiltration methods. The confinement of Se within small-sized micropores of NCS efficiently prevents Se loss, and mesopores between carbon layers absorb a sufficient amount of electrolyte, as well as serve as cushion spaces for large volume changes during delithiation-lithiation processes. Nitrogen doping improves the electrical conductivity of carbon matrix and

  7. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  8. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  9. The role of chemical additives to the phase change process of CaCl2.6H2O to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; U, S. Rahayu A.; Kurniati, Nia; Pallitine, Ivyalentine D.; Kurnia, D.

    2016-08-01

    CaCl2.6H2O is one of salt hydrate based phase change material (PCM) which is suitable for room air-temperature stabilizer because it has the melting temperature just above the human comfort zone temperature (Tm ∼⃒ 29 oC) and a relatively large heat entalphy (AH ∼⃒ 190 kJ/kg). This paper reports the role of the type of chemical additives to PCM CaCl2.6H2O to the phase change process throughout the solidification process or heat release in order to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system. In this research we used several kinds of chemical additive, namely SrCl2.6H2O (1.0 wt%), BaCO3 (0.5 wt%), and K2CO3 (0.5 wt%). In terms of its latent time for phase change process the order the effectiveness of those chemical additives are reduced from SrCl2.6H2O, BaCO3and K2CO3. We found that this is also related to their role in suppression supercooling and phase separation effects which occurs during crystallization process of CaCl2.6H2O.

  10. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. 175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ELEVATOR ADDITION OF 1905. WALL IS EXTERIOR OF ORIGINAL WAGON WORKS OF 1883. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.

    2016-09-01

    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  14. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  15. Enhanced oxygen storage capacity of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} compared to CeO{sub 2}: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minhua; Jiang, Dongyu; Jiang, Haoxi

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. ► Compared with the pure CeO{sub 2}, the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area but more oxygen vacancies. ► DFT calculations shows that the surface oxygen of the CeO{sub 2} gets activated after doping Mn. -- Abstract: Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy displays the hollow and spherical structures of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the formation of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} solid solution. N{sub 2} adsorption reveals that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area with the CeO{sub 2}. It is shown that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) than the CeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of the improved OSC of the Mn doped CeO{sub 2}, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been performed. It is found that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} presents more oxygen vacancies, indicating the easier of oxygen mobility from bulk to surface. DFT calculations reveal that structural and electronic modifications are caused by the incorporation of Mn in the CeO{sub 2}, resulting in activated oxygen species. The oxygen vacancy formation energy is lowered by the Mn doping. These changes are responsible for the enhanced OSC of the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y}.

  16. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  17. 41 CFR 109-28.000-51 - Storage guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage guidelines. 109...-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION § 109-28.000-51 Storage guidelines. (a) Indoor storage areas should be arranged... capacities. (b) Storage yards for items not requiring covered protection shall be protected by locked...

  18. 41 CFR 109-28.000-51 - Storage guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage guidelines. 109...-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION § 109-28.000-51 Storage guidelines. (a) Indoor storage areas should be arranged... capacities. (b) Storage yards for items not requiring covered protection shall be protected by locked...

  19. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  20. Optical storage media data integrity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1994-01-01

    Optical disk-based information systems are being used in private industry and many Federal Government agencies for on-line and long-term storage of large quantities of data. The storage devices that are part of these systems are designed with powerful, but not unlimited, media error correction capacities. The integrity of data stored on optical disks does not only depend on the life expectancy specifications for the medium. Different factors, including handling and storage conditions, may result in an increase of medium errors in size and frequency. Monitoring the potential data degradation is crucial, especially for long term applications. Efforts are being made by the Association for Information and Image Management Technical Committee C21, Storage Devices and Applications, to specify methods for monitoring and reporting to the user medium errors detected by the storage device while writing, reading or verifying the data stored in that medium. The Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has a leadership role in the development of these standard techniques. In addition, CSL is researching other data integrity issues, including the investigation of error-resilient compression algorithms. NIST has conducted care and handling experiments on optical disk media with the objective of identifying possible causes of degradation. NIST work in data integrity and related standards activities is described.

  1. Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, T F; Worsley, M; Satcher, J H

    2008-08-11

    This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen storage. Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of porous materials that possess a number of desirable structural features for the storage of hydrogen, including high surface areas (over 3000 m{sup 2}/g), continuous and tunable porosities, and variable densities. In addition, the flexibility associated with CA synthesis allows for the incorporation of modifiers or catalysts into the carbon matrix in order to alter hydrogen sorption enthalpies in these materials. Since the properties of the doped CAs can be systematically modified (i.e. amount/type of dopant, surface area, porosity), novel materials can be fabricated that exhibit enhanced hydrogen storage properties. We are using this approach to design new H{sub 2} sorbent materials that can storage appreciable amounts of hydrogen at room temperature through a process known as hydrogen spillover. The spillover process involves the dissociative chemisorption of molecular hydrogen on a supported metal catalyst surface (e.g. platinum or nickel), followed by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen onto the surface of the support material. Due to the enhanced interaction between atomic hydrogen and the carbon support, hydrogen can be stored in the support material at more reasonable operating temperatures. While the spillover process has been shown to increase the reversible hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature in metal-loaded carbon nanostructures, a number of issues still exist with this approach, including slow kinetics of H{sub 2} uptake and capacities ({approx} 1.2 wt% on carbon) below the DOE targets. The ability to tailor different structural aspects of the spillover system (i.e. the size/shape of the catalyst particle, the catalyst-support interface and the support morphology) should provide valuable mechanistic information regarding the critical aspects of the

  2. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  3. Delay for the capacity-simplicity dilemma in associative memory attractor networks.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shaofen; Chen, Yuming; Ma, Jianfu; Wu, Jianhong

    2012-05-01

    We consider the issue of how a simple network with delayed feedback can exhibit complex but desired dynamical behaviors for memory storage and retrieval. We discuss the simplicity-capacity dilemma arising from the requirement of both large capacity and easy implementation in additive networks. We then propose a novel approach based on signal processing delay and show that the interaction of delay, feedback and refractoriness in a simple inhibitory network of three neurons can generate mathematically trackable coexisting periodic patterns. Therefore, a simple and small network with delayed feedback can process a large amount of information, and time lag in our biological or artificial neural nets is useful for information processing. How the connection topology of a large network enhances the network's capacity for memory storage and retrieval remains to be an interesting task.

  4. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  5. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  6. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Garth; Long, Darrell; Honeyman, Peter; Grider, Gary; Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Roth, Philip; Felix, Evan; Ward, Lee

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  7. Influence of preserved brewing yeast strains on fermentation behavior and flocculation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Chul; Wackerbauer, Karl; Beckmann, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Preservation methods on the physiological and brewing technical characters in bottom and top brewing yeast strains were investigated. The preserved yeasts were reactivated after 24 months storage and grown up to stationary phase. The samples of filter paper storage indicated a higher cell growth and viability during propagation than those of nitrogen and lyophilization storage independent on propagation temperature. In addition, the filter paper storage demonstrated a faster absorption of free amino nitrogen and a highest level of higher aliphatic alcohols production during propagation than other preservation methods, which can be attributed to intensive cell growth during propagation. Moreover, the filter paper storage showed a faster accumulation for glycogen and trehalose during propagation, whereas, in particular, lyophilization storage noted a longer adaptation time regarding synthesis of glycogen and trehalose with delayed cell growth. In beer analysis, the filter paper storage formed an increased higher aliphatic alcohols than control. In conclusion, the preservation of filter paper affected positively on yeast growth, viability and beer quality independent on propagation temperature. In addition, in this study, it was obtained that the HICF and Helm-test can be involved as rapid methods for determination of flocculation capacity. PMID:20368948

  8. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is

  9. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  10. Groundwater Storage vs. Surface Water Storage - Why Sustainability Requires a Different Management Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, S.; Davids, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Storing water in times of excess for use in times of shortage is an essential water-management tool, especially in climates typified by precipitation in one season and demand in another. The three primary water storage mechanisms in the Western US, and much of the world in fact, are: seasonal snow pack, surface water reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers. In California, nearly every major river has one or more large dam and reservoir and current focus has shifted toward off-stream storage. In addition to California's surface reservoirs, groundwater aquifers provide huge volumes of water storage that are heavily utilized during times of drought. With California's new Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) substantial attention is presently focused on developing strategies for using groundwater storage more effectively in conjunction with surface-storage reservoirs. However, compared to surface water storage, we need to think differently and develop new frameworks if we want to manage groundwater storage sustainably. Despite its immense capacity, groundwater storage is harder to manage because there are physical constraints to how fast water can be put into and withdrawn from aquifers, its boundaries are not as well defined as those of a surface reservoir, and it is part of a dynamic, porous media flow system where the Theis concepts of capture govern. Therefore, groundwater does not behave as a level pool like surface water reservoirs, which has several implications for effective management: 1) extraction/injection locations can have substantial impacts on the system, 2) interactions with the surface water systems can be nonlinear and complex and 3) hydraulic effects can continue long after pumping/injection has stopped. These nonlinear spatial and temporal responses, coupled with long time scales, makes management of groundwater storage much different than surface water storage. Furthermore, failure to fully understand these issues can lead to mismanagement

  11. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  12. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  13. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  14. Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-11-01

    There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channel using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.

  15. Tailoring Thermodynamics and Kinetics for Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides towards Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Yaxiong; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state hydrogen storage using various materials is expected to provide the ultimate solution for safe and efficient on-board storage. Complex hydrides have attracted increasing attention over the past two decades due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. In this account, we review studies from our lab on tailoring the thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage in complex hydrides, including metal alanates, borohydrides and amides. By changing the material composition and structure, developing feasible preparation methods, doping high-performance catalysts, optimizing multifunctional additives, creating nanostructures and understanding the interaction mechanisms with hydrogen, the operating temperatures for hydrogen storage in metal amides, alanates and borohydrides are remarkably reduced. This temperature reduction is associated with enhanced reaction kinetics and improved reversibility. The examples discussed in this review are expected to provide new inspiration for the development of complex hydrides with high hydrogen capacity and appropriate thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage.

  16. Flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of phase-change emulsion in a coiled double-tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, H.; Morita, S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper dealt with the flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, freezing point 278.9 K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. A coiled double-tube heat exchanger was used for the cold heat storage experiment. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient, and the finishing time of cold heat storage in the coiled tube were measured as experimental parameters. It was understood that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid had an important role in the present cold heat storage. The useful nondimensional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient, and the cold heat storage time were derived in terms of modified Dean number and heat capacity ratio. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  18. Proposal for massively parallel data storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1992-01-01

    An architecture for integrating large numbers of data storage units (drives) to form a distributed mass storage system is proposed. The network of interconnected units consists of nodes and links. At each node there resides a controller board, a data storage unit and, possibly, a local/remote user-terminal. The links (twisted-pair wires, coax cables, or fiber-optic channels) provide the communications backbone of the network. There is no central controller for the system as a whole; all decisions regarding allocation of resources, routing of messages and data-blocks, creation and distribution of redundant data-blocks throughout the system (for protection against possible failures), frequency of backup operations, etc., are made locally at individual nodes. The system can handle as many user-terminals as there are nodes in the network. Various users compete for resources by sending their requests to the local controller-board and receiving allocations of time and storage space. In principle, each user can have access to the entire system, and all drives can be running in parallel to service the requests for one or more users. The system is expandable up to a maximum number of nodes, determined by the number of routing-buffers built into the controller boards. Additional drives, controller-boards, user-terminals, and links can be simply plugged into an existing system in order to expand its capacity.

  19. Queuing Models of Tertiary Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore

    1996-01-01

    Large scale scientific projects generate and use large amounts of data. For example, the NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project is expected to archive one petabyte per year of raw satellite data. This data is made automatically available for processing into higher level data products and for dissemination to the scientific community. Such large volumes of data can only be stored in robotic storage libraries (RSL's) for near-line access. A characteristic of RSL's is the use of a robot arm that transfers media between a storage rack and the read/write drives, thus multiplying the capacity of the system. The performance of the RSL's can be a critical limiting factor for the performance of the archive system. However, the many interacting components of an RSL make a performance analysis difficult. In addition, different RSL components can have widely varying performance characteristics. This paper describes our work to develop performance models of an RSL in isolation. Next we show how the RSL model can be incorporated into a queuing network model. We use the models to make some example performance studies of archive systems. The models described in this paper, developed for the NASA EODIS project, are implemented in C with a well defined interface. The source code, accompanying documentation, and also sample JAVA applets are available at: http://www.cis.ufl.edu/ted/

  20. Comparison of Publically Available Methodologies for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Strazisar, B. R.; Guthrie, G. D.; Bromhal, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-level estimates of CO2 storage potential at the national, regional, and basin scale are required to assess the potential for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies to reduce CO2 emissions for application to saline formations. Both private and public entities worldwide rely on CO2 storage potential estimates for broad energy-related government policy and business decisions. High-level estimates of CO2 geologic storage potential, however, have a high degree of uncertainty because the assessments rely on simplifying assumptions due to the deficiency or absence of data from the subsurface associated with areas of potential storage in saline formations and the natural heterogeneity of geologic formations in general, resulting in undefined rock properties. As site characterization progresses to individual CO2 storage sites, additional site-specific data will likely be collected and analyzed that will allow for the refinement of high-level CO2 storage resource estimates and development of CO2 storage capacities. Until such detailed characterization can be documented, dependable high-level CO2 storage estimates are essential to ensure successful widespread deployment of CCUS technologies. Initiatives for assessing CO2 geologic storage potential have been conducted since 1993. Although dependable high-level CO2 storage estimates are essential to ensure successful deployment of CCUS technologies, it is difficult to assess the uncertainty of these estimates without knowing how the current methodologies targeted at high-level CO2 storage resource estimates for saline formations compare to one another. In this study, we compare high-level CO2 methodologies for development of geologic storage estimates for CO2 in saline formations to assess the uncertainty associated with various methodologies. The methodologies applied are listed as follows: (1) U.S. DOE Methodology: Development of Geologic Storage Potential for Carbon Dioxide at the National and

  1. Addition of CpG ODN and Poly (I:C) to a standard maturation cocktail generates monocyte-derived dendritic cells and induces a potent Th1 polarization with migratory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei; Xu, Wei; Su, Hong; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Baolong

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as immunoadjuvant cells in cancer vaccines and have made great progress. However, an optimal DCs subset is vital for this treatment effect, the current ′gold standard′ cytokine cocktail DCs have a shortcoming in their cytokines secretion, especially IL-12p70, mainly because of the existence of PGE2. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate DCs-based immunotherapeutic protocol. In this study, we compared a novel ′improved′ maturation cytokine cocktail with the current ′gold standard′ maturation cytokine cocktail used for generating standard DCs. The ′improved′ maturation cytokine cocktail DCs showed a higher levels surface markers expression (CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR), the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and chemokine CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL21, whereas CCR5 expression was reduced. Most importantly, in contrast to ′gold standard′ DCs, which secrete little IL-12p70 and as a result induce mainly Th2 immunity, ′improved′ cytokine cocktail DCs secreted higher levels IL-12p70 and also secreted similar concentration IL-10. To removal of PGE2 from the ′improved′ DCs did increase the IL-12p70 production. In conclusion, we here present the ′improved′ DCs, as an optimal maturation cocktail protocol, can induce high migratory potential, generate immunostimulatory DCs, produce higher levels IL-12p70 with superior capacity to induce Th1 immunity, when compared with the ′gold standard′ DCs. PMID:26039883

  2. CPA ups storage at Lavera site

    SciTech Connect

    Back, R.

    1992-12-02

    Compagnie Parisienne des Asphaltes (CPA; Paris) and its subsidiary Pacsud -owned 65% by CPA and 35% by Shell Chimie (Paris) - have inaugurated their new chemicals storage site at Lavera, France, in the Europort South complex near Marseilles. The facilities, with 60,000-m.t./year capacity, also include a barreling plant that will have output of up to 250 bbl/hour when it comes onstream next spring. Total investment for these facilities amount to F122 million ($22.5 million), including F22 million for the barreling unit. CPA, France's number two storage specialist, after LB Chimie (Paris), is jointly owned by investment company Union Normandie (60%), Elf Aquitaine (Paris; 20%), and Total (Paris; 20%). Adding to its existing French storage sites at Dunkirk and Rouen, CPA says it decided to build on the Pacsud venture because it considered it attractive to invest in the petroleum and petrochemical complex of Fos-Berre-Lavera, particularly since the present trend in the oil and chemical industries is to subcontract all ancillary functions, especially logistics. CPA general manager Rafic Charles Rathle says that customer requirements and the role of the service provider are changing. With that in mid, CPA, in addition to providing storage terminals, converts its depots into distribution and packing centers. At Lavera the company has taken over storage, blending, and barreling operations for Pacsud and its direct customers. For example, Pacsud has a long-term contract with Shell Chimie for the latter's additive production at a 10,000-m.t./year rate. Another long-term contract is being negotiated, but the identity of the customer was not revealed.

  3. Inventory extension at the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Olinger, C.T.; Argo, P.E.

    1996-09-01

    The planned renovation of the Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be a significant addition to the plutonium storage capacity of the nuclear weapons complex. However, the utility of the facility may be impaired by an overly conservative approach to performing inventories of material in storage. This report examines options for taking advantage of provisions in Department of Energy orders to extend the time between inventories. These extensions are based on a combination of modern surveillance technology, facility design features, and revised operational procedures. The report also addresses the possibility that NMSF could be the site of some form of international inspection as part of the US arms control and nonproliferation policy.

  4. Fermilab's multi-petabyte scalable mass storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, Gene; Alcorn, Bonnie; Baisley, Wayne; Bakken, Jon; Berg, David; Berman, Eileen; Huang, Chih-Hao; Jones, Terry; Kennedy, Robert D.; Kulyavtsev, Alexander; Moibenko, Alexander; Perelmutov, Timur; Petravick, Don; Podstavkov, Vladimir; Szmuksta, George; Zalokar, Michael; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Fermilab provides a multi-Petabyte scale mass storage system for High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments and other scientific endeavors. We describe the scalability aspects of the hardware and software architecture that were designed into the Mass Storage System to permit us to scale to multiple petabytes of storage capacity, manage tens of terabytes per day in data transfers, support hundreds of users, and maintain data integrity. We discuss in detail how we scale the system over time to meet the ever-increasing needs of the scientific community, and relate our experiences with many of the technical and economic issues related to scaling the system. Since the 2003 MSST conference, the experiments at Fermilab have generated more than 1.9 PB of additional data. We present results on how this system has scaled and performed for the Fermilab CDF and D0 Run II experiments as well as other HEP experiments and scientific endeavors.

  5. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  6. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Denholm; Tracey Holloway

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO{sub 2} and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions 'accounting' might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  8. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  9. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  10. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  11. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  12. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  13. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  14. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  15. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... pressure, reservoir and buffer boundaries, and certificated capacity remain unchanged—and provided... storage reservoir's total inventory, reservoir pressure, reservoir or buffer boundaries, or...

  16. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  17. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  18. Transphase cool storage test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-12-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial cool storage systems. Transphase, Inc. provided a prototype of a new storage tank design equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system and filled with a eutectic designed to freeze at 41{degree}F. The Transphase cool storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank with relatively constant brine temperatures over most of the charging cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was governed mainly by the brine flow rate and the tank`s remaining charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. This prototype unit experienced several operational problems, not unexpected for the first full-size execution of a new design. Such prototype testing was one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.