Science.gov

Sample records for additional structural information

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  5. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  6. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  7. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  9. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  12. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  13. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  14. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  15. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  16. 18 CFR 5.21 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 5.21 Section 5.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND...

  18. 27 CFR 41.197 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., § 41.197 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 41.197 Section 41.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  19. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION...

  20. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  1. Structuring the Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1984-01-01

    Describes an information gap procedure to teach a new structure which requires students to look for and exchange information in order to complete a task in an English as a second language class. Illustrates the method with a set of materials and suggests ways for teachers to produce similar materials. (SED)

  2. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Service (BSS) in Appendix 30 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR) and associated feeder-link plans in Appendix 30A of the ITU RR, if the system has technical characteristics differing from those specified in... provide the Commission with the information required by Appendix 4 of the ITU RR for advance...

  3. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  4. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  5. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... Administrations. (c) In the Direct Broadcast Satellite service, applicants and licensees shall also provide the Commission with all information it requires in order to modify the Appendix 30 Broadcasting-Satellite...

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-08-30

    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  7. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  8. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  9. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  10. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  11. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  12. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  13. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  14. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  15. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  16. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic...

  17. How to retrieve additional information from the multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions (MDs) P(N) measured in multiparticle production processes are most frequently described by the negative binomial distribution (NBD). However, with increasing collision energy some systematic discrepancies have become more and more apparent. They are usually attributed to the possible multi-source structure of the production process and described using a multi-NBD form of the MD. We investigate the possibility of keeping a single NBD but with its parameters depending on the multiplicity N. This is done by modifying the widely known clan model of particle production leading to the NBD form of P(N). This is then confronted with the approach based on the so-called cascade-stochastic formalism which is based on different types of recurrence relations defining P(N). We demonstrate that a combination of both approaches allows the retrieval of additional valuable information from the MDs, namely the oscillatory behavior of the counting statistics apparently visible in the high energy data.

  18. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  19. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  20. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  1. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  2. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  3. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  4. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  5. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  6. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  7. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  8. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  9. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  10. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39 Section 2570.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  11. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  12. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  13. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  14. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  15. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  16. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  17. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  18. Biobased extreme pressure additives: Structure-property considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure additives are widely used in lubricant formulations for engine oils, hydraulic fluids, gear oils, metalworking fluids, and many others. Extreme pressure additives contain selected elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and halogens in their structures. These elements, under extreme tr...

  19. Informational laws of genome structures

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined. PMID:27354155

  20. Informational laws of genome structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  1. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., such environmental information from the MDB (e.g., environmental chapters from project feasibility studies or environmental data sheets) which contains this environmental analysis. The MDB Office...

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Cellular Structures: Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Harrysson, Ola; Cormier, Denis; West, Harvey; Gong, Haijun; Stucker, Brent

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid development of additive manufacturing (AM), high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures no longer poses an insurmountable challenge. On the other hand, much of the current research and development with AM technologies still focuses on material and process development. With the design for additive manufacturing in mind, this article explores the design issue for lightweight cellular structures that could be efficiently realized via AM processes. A unit-cell-based modeling approach that combines experimentation and limited-scale simulation was demonstrated, and it was suggested that this approach could potentially lead to computationally efficient design optimizations with the lightweight structures in future applications.

  3. Comparative electronic structures of nitrogenase FeMoco and FeVco† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures and tables, computational data and information. See DOI: 10.1039/c7dt00128b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Julian A.; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Kowalska, Joanna K.; Lima, Frederico A.; Schlesier, Julia; Sippel, Daniel; Weyhermüller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the active site cofactors of the molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases (FeMoco and FeVco) was performed using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Synthetic heterometallic iron–sulfur cluster models and density functional theory calculations complement the study of the MoFe and VFe holoproteins using both non-resonant and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. Spectroscopic data show the presence of direct iron–heterometal bonds, which are found to be weaker in FeVco. Furthermore, the interstitial carbide is found to perturb the electronic structures of the cofactors through highly covalent Fe–C bonding. The implications of these conclusions are discussed in light of the differential reactivity of the molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases towards various substrates. Possible functional roles for both the heterometal and the interstitial carbide are detailed. PMID:28154874

  4. 76 FR 34639 - Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Additional Information Collection: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion... approved information collection of the Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advisory Committee and Research and Promotion Background Information....

  5. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fall within an exemption to the Act's openness requirement and the Commission also has determined that... availability of NRC records under the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 may be obtained...

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose... Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional indentifying information... on June 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Assistant Director, Sanctions...

  8. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  9. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  10. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hotline (800-426-4791). (b) Ending in the report due by July 1, 2001, a system which detects arsenic at... system that detects arsenic above 0.005 mg/L and up to and including 0.010 mg/L: (1) Must include in its report a short informational statement about arsenic, using language such as: While your drinking...

  11. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consultation with the Primacy Agency. (c) A system which detects nitrate at levels above 5 mg/l, but below the MCL: (1) Must include a short informational statement about the impacts of nitrate on children using language such as: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of...

  14. In situ formation of the first proteinogenically functionalized [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– structure reveals unprecedented chemical and geometrical features of the Anderson-type cluster† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental details and additional figures are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc07004c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Bijelic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of polyoxometalates (POMs) in a protein environment is an almost unexplored but highly relevant research field as important biological and pharmacological attributes of certain POMs are based on their interactions with proteins. We report on the A-type Anderson–Evans polyoxotungstate, [TeW6O24]6– (TEW), mediated crystallization of Coreopsis grandiflora aurone synthase (cgAUS1) using ∼0.24 mM protein and 1.0 mM TEW. The 1.78 Å crystal structure reveals the covalent binding of TEW to the protein under the formation of an unprecedented polyoxotungstate cluster, [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– (GluTEW). The polyoxotungstate–protein complex exhibits the first covalent bond between a protein and the A-type Anderson–Evans cluster, an archetype where up to now no hybrid structures exist. The polyoxotungstate is modified at two of its six addenda tungsten atoms, which covalently bind to the carboxylic oxygen atoms of glutamic acid (Glu157), leading to W–O distances of ∼2.35 Å. This ligand substitution reaction is accompanied by a reduction of the coordination number of two μ3 polyoxotungstate oxygen atoms. This is so far unique since all known hybridizations of the Anderson–Evans POM with organic units have been obtained via the functionalization of the B-type Anderson–Evans structure through its bridging oxygen atoms. The structure reported here proves the reactivity of this POM archetype's addenda atoms as it has been administered into the protein solution as a pre-assembled cluster. Moreover, the novel cluster [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– displays the great versatility of the Anderson–Evans POM class. PMID:27722437

  15. Quantum Information with Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad

    Quantum information science promises dramatic progress in a variety of fields such as cryptography, computation, and metrology. Although the proof-of-principle attempts for implementing quantum protocols have often relied on only a few qubits, the utilization of more sophisticated quantum systems is required for practical applications. In this thesis, we investigate the emerging role of high-dimensional optical states as a resource for encoding quantum information. We begin the first chapter with a review of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a prime candidate for realizing multilevel quantum states and follow with a brief introduction to the quantum measurement theory. The second and the third chapters are dedicated to the application of OAM modes in quantum cryptography. In the second chapter, we discuss the challenges of projective measurement of OAM at the single-photon level, a crucial task required for quantum information processing. We then present our development of an efficient and accurate mode-sorting device that is capable of projectively measuring the orbital angular momentum of single photons. In the third chapter, we discuss the role of OAM modes in increasing the information capacity of quantum cryptography. We start this chapter by establishing the merits of encoding information on the quantum index of OAM modes in a free-space link. We then generalizing the BB-84 QKD protocol to the Hilbert space spanned by a finite number of OAM modes and outline our experimental realization. The last two chapters are dedicated to the tomography of structured light fields. We start the fourth chapter by applying the recently found method of direct measurement to the characterization of OAM superpositions. We find the quantum state in the Hilbert space spanned by 27 OAM modes by performing a weak measurement of orbital angular momentum (OAM) followed by a strong measurement of azimuthal angle. We then introduce the concept of compressive direct measurement (CDM

  16. Structural, optical and charge generation properties of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite copper antimony sulfide thin films prepared from metal xanthates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemical structures of the used metal xanthates, additional XRD, SEM-EDX and UV-vis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05777a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Andrew J.; Brown, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report on a solution based approach for the preparation of thin films of copper antimony sulfide, an emerging absorber material for third generation solar cells. In this work, copper and antimony xanthates are used as precursor materials for the formation of two different copper antimony sulfide phases: chalcostibite (CuSbS2) and tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13). Both phases were thoroughly investigated regarding their structural and optical properties. Moreover, thin films of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite were prepared on mesoporous TiO2 layers and photoinduced charge transfer in these metal sulfide/TiO2 heterojunctions was studied via transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoinduced charge transfer was detected in both the chalcostibite as well as the tetrahedrite sample, which is an essential property in view of applying these materials as light-harvesting agents in semiconductor sensitized solar cells. PMID:27019713

  17. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  18. Additional information for impact response of the restart safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1991-10-14

    WSRC-RP-91-677 studied the structural response of the safety rods under the conditions of brake failure and accidental release. It was concluded that the maximum impact loading to the safety rod is 6020 pounds based on conservative considerations that energy dissipation attributable to fluid resistance and reactor superstructure flexibility. The staffers of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board reviewed the results and inquired about the extent of conservatism. By request of the RESTART team, I reassessed the impact force due to these conservative assumptions. This memorandum reports these assessments.

  19. Hunting for hydrogen: random structure searching and prediction of NMR parameters of hydrous wadsleyite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further information on the structures generated by AIRSS, alternative structural models, supercell calculations, total enthalpies of all computed structures and further information on 1H/2H NMR parameters. Example input and all raw output files from AIRSS and CASTEP NMR calculations are also included. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp01529h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Robert F.; McKay, David; Pickard, Chris J.; Berry, Andrew J.; Griffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural chemistry of materials containing low levels of nonstoichiometric hydrogen is difficult to determine, and producing structural models is challenging where hydrogen has no fixed crystallographic site. Here we demonstrate a computational approach employing ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to generate a series of candidate structures for hydrous wadsleyite (β-Mg2SiO4 with 1.6 wt% H2O), a high-pressure mineral proposed as a repository for water in the Earth's transition zone. Aligning with previous experimental work, we solely consider models with Mg3 (over Mg1, Mg2 or Si) vacancies. We adapt the AIRSS method by starting with anhydrous wadsleyite, removing a single Mg2+ and randomly placing two H+ in a unit cell model, generating 819 candidate structures. 103 geometries were then subjected to more accurate optimisation under periodic DFT. Using this approach, we find the most favourable hydration mechanism involves protonation of two O1 sites around the Mg3 vacancy. The formation of silanol groups on O3 or O4 sites (with loss of stable O1–H hydroxyls) coincides with an increase in total enthalpy. Importantly, the approach we employ allows observables such as NMR parameters to be computed for each structure. We consider hydrous wadsleyite (∼1.6 wt%) to be dominated by protonated O1 sites, with O3/O4–H silanol groups present as defects, a model that maps well onto experimental studies at higher levels of hydration (J. M. Griffin et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 1523). The AIRSS approach adopted herein provides the crucial link between atomic-scale structure and experimental studies. PMID:27020937

  20. 113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable sections, there were hinged slots that could be opened in the stage floor (see sheet 4 of 9, note 4; sheet 5 of 9, note 2; and sheet 7 of 9, note 1). A remaining cast iron bracket is visible in the left foreground of the photograph. The actual structure for a hinged section is visible in the background, to the right of center. The hydraulic ram (type D) visible below the floor level is the south ram in the middle row; the view is facing north. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  2. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  5. Structural characterization of EasH (Aspergillus japonicus) – an oxidase involved in cycloclavine biosynthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc08438a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Dorota; Caputi, Lorenzo; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Aj_EasH is a non-heme iron- and α-keto-glutarate-dependent oxidase that is responsible for an unusual cyclopropyl ring formation in the biosynthesis of the fungal ergot alkaloid cycloclavine. The three dimensional structure of Aj_EasH (2.2 Å resolution) reported here provides insight into the mechanism of this unusual and complex reaction. PMID:27885368

  6. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  7. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gayarre, Javier; Sanchez, David; Sanchez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Terron, Maria C.; Llorca, Oscar; Perez-Sala, Dolores . E-mail: dperezsala@cib.csic.es

    2006-11-03

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-PGJ{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{sub 2}) and PGA{sub 1} in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA{sub 1} and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ{sub 2} at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles.

  8. Faxing Structures to the Moon: Freeform Additive Construction System (FACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Wilcox, Brian; McQuin, Christopher; Townsend, Julie; Rieber, Richard; Barmatz, Martin; Leichty, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the highly articulated All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robotic mobility system as a precision positioning tool, a variety of print head technologies can be used to 3D print large-scale in-situ structures on planetary surfaces such as the moon or Mars. In effect, in the same way CAD models can be printed in a 3D printer, large-scale structures such as walls, vaults, domes, berms, paving, trench walls, and other insitu derived elements can be FAXed to the planetary surface and built in advance of the arrival of crews, supplementing equipment and materials brought from earth. This paper discusses the ATHLETE system as a mobility / positioning platform, and presents several options for large-scale additive print head technologies, including tunable microwave "sinterator" approaches and in-situ concrete deposition. The paper also discusses potential applications, such as sintered-in-place habitat shells, radiation shielding, road paving, modular bricks, and prefabricated construction components.

  9. Addition of electrophilic lipids to actin alters filament structure.

    PubMed

    Gayarre, Javier; Sánchez, David; Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Terrón, María C; Llorca, Oscar; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2006-11-03

    Pathophysiological processes associated with oxidative stress lead to the generation of reactive lipid species. Among them, lipids bearing unsaturated aldehyde or ketone moieties can form covalent adducts with cysteine residues and modulate protein function. Through proteomic techniques we have identified actin as a target for the addition of biotinylated analogs of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and PGA(1) in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. This modification could take place in vitro and mapped to the protein C-terminal end. Other electrophilic lipids, like the isoprostane 8-iso-PGA(1) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, also bound to actin. The C-terminal region of actin is important for monomer-monomer interactions and polymerization. Electron microscopy showed that actin treated with 15d-PGJ(2) or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed filaments which were less abundant and displayed shorter length and altered structure. Streptavidin-gold staining allowed mapping of biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2) at sites of filament disruption. These results shed light on the structural implications of actin modification by lipid electrophiles.

  10. A Grammar Library for Information Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sanghoun

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation makes substantial contributions to both the theoretical and computational treatment of information structure, with an eye toward creating natural language processing applications such as multilingual machine translation systems. The aim of the present dissertation is to create a grammar library of information structure for the…

  11. Information Structure, Grammar and Strategy in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines two information-structural phenomena, Givenness and Focus, from the perspective of both syntax and pragmatics. Evidence from English, German and other languages suggests a "split" analysis of information structure--the notions of Focus and Givenness, often thought to be closely related, exist independently at…

  12. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  13. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prospective traffic base; (3) System-wide plans to maintain equipment and rights-of-way at current or improved... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating....

  14. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... material, or recommend such modification to the responsible Assistant Director of the Bureau of Competition... investigation. A request for additional information or documentary material may be modified only in...

  15. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any... interference caused by radio stations authorized by other Administrations is guaranteed unless ITU...

  16. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  17. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  18. 33 CFR 148.107 - What additional information may be required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What additional information may be required? (a) The Commandant (CG-5), in coordination with MARAD, may... analysis, explanation, or other information he or she deems necessary. (b) The Commandant (CG-5) may... (CG-5) may set a deadline for receiving the information. (1) If the applicant states that the...

  19. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  20. Information Access in Complex, Poorly Structured Information Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    distributed and made available through News creates a serious information overload. The conceptual framework behind this research effort explores (a...is willing to generate it, whose structure is it?). The innovative system building effort (instantiating the conceptual framework as well as

  1. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  2. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  3. Development of the Structural Materials Information Center

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and other structural material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Two complementary data base formats have been developed. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains complete sets of data and information for selected portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon, and structural steel materials. Baseline data, reference properties and environmental information are presented in the handbook as tables, notes and graphs. The handbook, which will be published in four volumes, serves as the information source for the electronic data base. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible by an IBM-compatible personal computer and provides an efficient means for searching the various data base files to locate materials with similar properties. Properties will be reported in the International System of Units (SI) and in customary units whenever possible. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE Additional Information Needed about Mental Health Provider Staffing Needs Report to the...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Health Care: Additional Information Needed about Mental ...Z39-18 Page i GAO-15-184 DOD Mental Health Staffing Letter 1 Background 4 DOD and the Military Services Have Increased the

  5. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  6. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  7. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... OMB under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB Control Number. In addition, notwithstanding any... collection of information that does not display a valid Control Number. See 5 CFR 1320.5(a) and 1320.6. The DOL obtains OMB approval for this information collection under Control Number 1218-0237....

  8. Gamma radiation effects on siloxane-based additive manufactured structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, Andrew M.; Cady, Carl M.; Geller, Drew; Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse; Zocco, Adam T.; Stull, Jamie; Labouriau, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane-basedadditive manufactured structures prepared by the direct ink write (DIW) technology were exposed to ionizing irradiation in order to gauge radiolysis effects on structure-property relationships. These well-defined 3-D structures were subjected to moderate doses of gamma irradiation in an inert atmosphere and characterized by a suite of experimental methods. Changes in thermal, chemical, microstructure, and mechanical properties were evaluated by DSC, TGA, FT-IR, mass spectroscopy, EPR, solvent swelling, SEM, and uniaxial compressive load techniques. Our results demonstrated that 3-D structures made from aromatic-free siloxane resins exhibited hardening after being exposed to gamma radiation. This effect was accompanied by gas evolution, decreasing in crystallization levels, decreasing in solvent swelling and damage to the microstructure. Furthermore, long-lived radiation-induced radicals were not detected by EPR methods. Our results are consistent with cross-link formation being the dominant degradation mechanism over chain scission reactions. On the other hand, 3-D structures made from high phenyl content siloxane resins showed little radiation damage as evidenced by low off gassing.

  9. The impact of charge transfer and structural disorder on the thermoelectric properties of cobalt intercalated TiS2 † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Powder X-ray diffraction data, thermal analysis data and additional magnetic and transport property data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tc04217h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Guélou, Gabin; Vaqueiro, Paz; Prado-Gonjal, Jesús; Barbier, Tristan; Hébert, Sylvie; Guilmeau, Emmanuel; Kockelmann, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    A family of phases, CoxTiS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) has been prepared and characterised by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical and thermal transport property measurements, thermal analysis and SQUID magnetometry. With increasing cobalt content, the structure evolves from a disordered arrangement of cobalt ions in octahedral sites located in the van der Waals' gap (x ≤ 0.2), through three different ordered vacancy phases, to a second disordered phase at x ≥ 0.67. Powder neutron diffraction reveals that both octahedral and tetrahedral inter-layer sites are occupied in Co0.67TiS2. Charge transfer from the cobalt guest to the TiS2 host affords a systematic tuning of the electrical and thermal transport properties. At low levels of cobalt intercalation (x < 0.1), the charge transfer increases the electrical conductivity sufficiently to offset the concomitant reduction in |S|. This, together with a reduction in the overall thermal conductivity leads to thermoelectric figures of merit that are 25% higher than that of TiS2, ZT reaching 0.30 at 573 K for CoxTiS2 with 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.08. Whilst the electrical conductivity is further increased at higher cobalt contents, the reduction in |S| is more marked due to the higher charge carrier concentration. Furthermore both the charge carrier and lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity are increased in the electrically conductive ordered-vacancy phases, with the result that the thermoelectric performance is significantly degraded. These results illustrate the competition between the effects of charge transfer from guest to host and the disorder generated when cobalt cations are incorporated in the inter-layer space. PMID:27774151

  10. Teachers' Personal Agency: Making Sense of Slope through Additive Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Janet G.; Gerson, Hope

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a three-year professional development program in mathematics, practicing elementary teachers persistently engaged in collaborative inquiry and reflection to build connected meanings for slope. One teacher invented a compelling representation for slope as a process of repeated addition, using Cuisenaire rods, based on teachers'…

  11. Information Structure: Linguistic, Cognitive, and Processing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Kaiser, Elsi; Kahn, Jason M.; Kim, Lucy Kyoungsook

    2013-01-01

    Language form varies as a result of the information being communicated. Some of the ways in which it varies include word order, referential form, morphological marking, and prosody. The relevant categories of information include the way a word or its referent have been used in context, for example whether a particular referent has been previously mentioned or not, and whether it plays a topical role in the current utterance or discourse. We first provide a broad review of linguistic phenomena that are sensitive to information structure. We then discuss several theoretical approaches to explaining information structure: information status as a part of the grammar; information status as a representation of the speaker’s and listener’s knowledge of common ground and/or the knowledge state of other discourse participants; and the optimal systems approach. These disparate approaches reflect the fact that there is little consensus in the field about precisely which information status categories are relevant, or how they should be represented. We consider possibilities for future work to bring these lines of work together in explicit psycholinguistic models of how people encode information status and use it for language production and comprehension. PMID:26150905

  12. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  13. Management Information Systems and Organizational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Bruce B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the context within which office automation takes place by using the models of the Science of Creative Intelligence and Transcendental Meditation. Organizational structures are compared to the phenomenon of the "collective consciousness" and the development of automated information systems from manual methods of organizational…

  14. Michigan Occupational Information System (MOIS) Structured Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This guide leads users through a structured search of the Michigan Occupational Information System (MOIS). It is intended to help the user prepare a profile of interests and preferences that will be used in career exploration. The booklet asks the user to make choices in seven categories and to enter the responses on the MOIS Search Worksheet. The…

  15. The Cognitive Dimensions of Information Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, T. R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a set of terms (viscosity, hidden dependencies, imposes guess-ahead, abstraction level, and secondary notation) intended as a set of discussion tools for nonspecialists to converse about the structural features of a range of information artifacts. Explains the terms using spreadsheets as an example. (SR)

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Structures at the Micrometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Luca; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2017-01-04

    Currently, the focus of additive manufacturing (AM) is shifting from simple prototyping to actual production. One driving factor of this process is the ability of AM to build geometries that are not accessible by subtractive fabrication techniques. While these techniques often call for a geometry that is easiest to manufacture, AM enables the geometry required for best performance to be built by freeing the design process from restrictions imposed by traditional machining. At the micrometer scale, the design limitations of standard fabrication techniques are even more severe. Microscale AM thus holds great potential, as confirmed by the rapid success of commercial micro-stereolithography tools as an enabling technology for a broad range of scientific applications. For metals, however, there is still no established AM solution at small scales. To tackle the limited resolution of standard metal AM methods (a few tens of micrometers at best), various new techniques aimed at the micrometer scale and below are presently under development. Here, we review these recent efforts. Specifically, we feature the techniques of direct ink writing, electrohydrodynamic printing, laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition, laser-induced forward transfer, local electroplating methods, laser-induced photoreduction and focused electron or ion beam induced deposition. Although these methods have proven to facilitate the AM of metals with feature sizes in the range of 0.1-10 µm, they are still in a prototype stage and their potential is not fully explored yet. For instance, comprehensive studies of material availability and material properties are often lacking, yet compulsory for actual applications. We address these items while critically discussing and comparing the potential of current microscale metal AM techniques.

  17. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  18. Informational Complexity and Functional Activity of RNA Structures

    PubMed Central

    Carothers, James M.; Oestreich, Stephanie C.; Davis, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about the distribution of functional DNA, RNA, and protein molecules in sequence space. The question of how the number and complexity of distinct solutions to a particular biochemical problem varies with activity is an important aspect of this general problem. Here we present a comparison of the structures and activities of eleven distinct GTP-binding RNAs (aptamers). By experimentally measuring the amount of information required to specify each optimal binding structure, we show that defining a structure capable of 10-fold tighter binding requires approximately 10 additional bits of information. This increase in information content is equivalent to specifying the identity of five additional nucleotide positions and corresponds to an ∼1000-fold decrease in abundance in a sample of random sequences. We observe a similar relationship between structural complexity and activity in a comparison of two catalytic RNAs (ribozyme ligases), raising the possibility of a general relationship between the complexity of RNA structures and their functional activity. Describing how information varies with activity in other heteropolymers, both biological and synthetic, may lead to an objective means of comparing their functional properties. This approach could be useful in predicting the functional utility of novel heteropolymers. PMID:15099096

  19. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé Ribalta, Albert; Granell, Clara; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  20. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  1. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  2. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  3. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  4. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contents of application; additional technical information. 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application;...

  6. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  7. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  8. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  9. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  10. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  11. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  12. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  13. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  14. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  15. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  16. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  17. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... reserve existing transmission capacity needed for native load growth and network transmission...

  18. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... applicable emission limit and the continuous opacity or that the emission monitoring system meets...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1118) Reports and additional information. 229.1118 Section 229.1118 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT...

  1. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  2. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  3. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  4. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  5. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  6. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  7. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling...

  8. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  9. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  10. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  11. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15...

  12. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM...

  13. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  14. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  15. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  16. Information and hierarchical structure in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, R. N.

    1999-09-01

    I investigate the information content present in the time series of stock prices of a portfolio of stocks traded in a financial market. By investigating the correlation coefficient between pairs of stocks I provide a working definition of a generalized distance between the stocks of the portfolio. This generalized distance is used to obtain an ultrametric distance matrix between the stocks. The ultrametric structure of the portfolio investigated has associated a taxonomy which is meaningful from an economic point of view.

  17. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  18. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Lamel, Lori

    2003-12-01

    One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d'Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l'Ingénieur (LIMSI), broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  19. Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.

    PubMed

    Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2007-11-01

    Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits.

  20. Shot detection combining Bayesian and structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung H.; Kweon, In-So

    2000-12-01

    There are a number of shots in a video, each of which has boundary types, such as cut, fade, dissolve and wipe. Many previous approaches can find the cut boundary without difficulty. However, most of them often produce false alarms for the videos with large motions of camera and objects. We propose a shot boundary detection method combining Bayesian and structural information. In the Bayesian approach, a probability distribution function models each transition type, e.g., normal, abrupt, gradual transition, and also models shot length. But inseparability between those distributions causes unwanted results and degrades the precision. In this paper, we demonstrate that the shape of the filtered frame difference, called the structural information, provides an important cue to distinguish fade and dissolve effects form cut effects and gradual changes caused by motion of camera and objects. The proposed method has been tested for a few golf video segments and shown good performances in detecting fade and dissolve effects as well as cut.

  1. Domain theoretic structures in quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Johnny

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, we continue the study of domain theoretic structures in quantum information theory initiated by Keye Martin and Bob Coecke in 2002. The first part of the thesis is focused on exploring the domain theoretic properties of qubit channels. We discover that the Scott continuous qubit channels are exactly those that are unital or constant. We then prove that the unital qubit channels form a continuous dcpo, and identify various measurements on them. We show that Holevo capacity is a measurement on unital qubit channels, and discover the natural measurement in this setting. We find that qubit channels also form a continuous dcpo, but capacity fails to be a measurement. In the second part we focus on the study of exact dcpos, a domain theoretic structure, closely related to continuous dcpos, possessed by quantum states. Exact dcpos admit a topology, called the exact topology, and we show that the exact topology has an order theoretic characterization similar to the characterization of the Scott topology on continuous dcpos. We then explore the connection between exact and continuous dcpos; first, by identifying an important set of points, called the split points, that distinguishes between exact and continuous structures; second, by exploring a continuous completion of exact dcpos, and showing that we can recover the exact topology from the Scott topology of the completion.

  2. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  3. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  4. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  5. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  6. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  7. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments. PMID:25904882

  8. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts.

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  9. Trends in information theory-based chemical structure codification.

    PubMed

    Barigye, Stephen J; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Bonchev, Danail

    2014-08-01

    This report offers a chronological review of the most relevant applications of information theory in the codification of chemical structure information, through the so-called information indices. Basically, these are derived from the analysis of the statistical patterns of molecular structure representations, which include primitive global chemical formulae, chemical graphs, or matrix representations. Finally, new approaches that attempt to go "back to the roots" of information theory, in order to integrate other information-theoretic measures in chemical structure coding are discussed.

  10. Information Structures in Nash and Leader-Follower Strategies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    The role of information structures in some Nash and Leader - Follower games is examined. By preserving the information structure of the full order...classes of Leader - Follower games. Decision-dependent information structure is employed in both Nash games and optimal coordination problems and two...the solutions of both the stochastic optimal coordination problem with decision-dependent information structure and the stochastic Leader - Follower team

  11. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  12. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    PREPOSITIONED STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s...STOCKS Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful Why GAO Did This Study DOD prepositions stocks

  13. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  14. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  15. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Technology,'' whose property and interests in property are blocked. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Information Technology,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic...

  16. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D Wade; van Bueren, Alicia Lammerts

    2014-10-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to the recent emergence of several new CBM families that display diverse binding profiles and novel functions, elucidating the function of these protein modules has become a much more challenging task. This review summarizes several approaches that have been reported for using primary structure to inform CBM specificity and streamlining their biophysical characterization. In addition we discuss general trends in binding site architecture and several newly identified functions for CBMs. Streams of investigation that will facilitate the development and refinement of sequence-based prediction tools are suggested.

  17. Temporal and Statistical Information in Causal Structure Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Teresa; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's and adults' abilities to use statistical and temporal information to distinguish between common cause and causal chain structures. In Experiment 1, participants were provided with conditional probability information and/or temporal information and asked to infer the causal structure of a 3-variable mechanical…

  18. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  19. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  20. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities of employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Andrews, Heather L.; Herman, Matthew J.; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Weis, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of a stand-alone practical dielectric laser accelerator (DLA) requires innovation in two major critical components: high-current ultra-low-emittance cathodes and efficient laser accelerator structures. LANL develops two technologies that in our opinion are applicable to the novel DLA architectures: diamond field emitter array (DFEA) cathodes and additive manufacturing of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. This paper discusses the results of testing of DFEA cathodes in the field-emission regime and the possibilities for their operation in the photoemission regime, and compares their emission characteristics to the specific needs of DLAs. We also describe recent advances in additive manufacturing of dielectric woodpile structures using a Nanoscribe direct laser-writing device capable of maskless lithography and additive manufacturing, and the development of novel infrared dielectric materials compatible with additive manufacturing.

  1. The Use of Additive Manufacturing for Fabrication of Multi-Function Small Satellite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Horais, Brian J; Love, Lonnie J; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2013-01-01

    The use of small satellites in constellations is limited only by the growing functionality of smallsats themselves. Additive manufacturing provides exciting new design opportunities for development of multifunction CubeSat structures that integrate such functions as propulsion and thermal control into the satellite structures themselves. Manufacturing of these complex multifunction structures is now possible in lightweight, high strength, materials such as titanium by using existing electron beam melting additive manufacturing processes. However, the use of today's additive manufacturing capabilities is often cost-prohibitive for small companies due to the large capital investments required. To alleviate this impediment the U.S. Department of Energy has established a Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at their Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee that provides industry access to a broad range of energy-efficient additive manufacturing equipment for collaborative use by both small and large organizations. This paper presents a notional CubeSat multifunction design that integrates the propulsion system into a three-unit (3U) CubeSat structure. The full-scale structure has been designed and fabricated at the ORNL MDF. The use of additive manufacturing for spacecraft fabrication is opening up many new possibilities in design and fabrication capabilities for what had previously been impossible structures to fabricate.

  2. 75 FR 78950 - Availability of Additional Information for the Proposed Rulemaking for Colorado's Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e-mail comment... information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read...

  3. 75 FR 68809 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Importation Bond Structure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Information Collection Activities: Importation Bond Structure AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Importation Bond Structure. This is a proposed extension and revision of an information collection that was...: Importation Bond Structure. OMB Number: 1651-0050. Form Numbers: 301 and 5297. Abstract: Bonds are used...

  4. Additional information is not ignored: New evidence for information integration and inhibition in take-the-best decisions.

    PubMed

    Dummel, Sebastian; Rummel, Jan; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ignoring information when making a decision is at the heart of the take-the-best (TTB) strategy, according to which decision makers only consider information about the most valid cue (TTB-relevant) and ignore less valid cues (TTB-irrelevant). Results of four experiments, however, show that participants do not ignore information when cues are easily available (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 3) or when task instructions emphasize decision accuracy (Experiment 2). In all four experiments we found that the consistency between the TTB-relevant cue and a supposedly TTB-irrelevant cue systematically affected decision times and confidence ratings of even those participants whose choices were consistently driven by only the TTB-relevant cue. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we also found that these participants were more likely to ignore information when cues had to be acquired sequentially, suggesting that whether or not participants ignore information depends on information availability. Experiment 2 further showed that different task instructions (emphasizing decision accuracy vs. speed) affect whether or not participants ignore information. Finally, Experiment 3 addressed the question of how participants process information that, according to TTB, is considered irrelevant for their choices. We find first evidence that participants who consistently make choices in line with TTB inhibit information about a TTB-irrelevant cue when this information conflicts with their decisions. Findings are considered and discussed in relation to current models of decision making.

  5. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive... application for registration submitted by the manufacturer of a designated fuel additive shall include the..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided,...

  6. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. The information in IRIS is intended for those without extensive training in toxicology, but with some knowledge of sciences. IRIS chemical files contain descriptive and quantitative information in oral reference doses and inhalation reference concentrations and hazard identification, oral slope factors, and oral and inhalation unit risks for carcinogenic effects.

  7. Controlling crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals only by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong; Pan, Liqing; Xu, Mei; Xiao, John Q

    2010-12-01

    Unlike previous studies that emphasize the important role of thermodynamics or surface energy on the structure stabilization of ZnS nanocrystals, we successfully controlled the crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals simply by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate under exactly the same other conditions. We observed the structure of as prepared ZnS nanocrystals was evolved from wurtzite into zinc blende with increasing the addition rate of sulfur precursor. The method may extend to engineer other nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties by controlling crystalline structure. On the other hand, it also makes a new approach to understand the crucial factors that determine the growth mechanism and the crystal structure of nanomaterials in theory.

  8. Evaluating the impact of investments in information technology on structural inertia in health organizations.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Lee W

    2010-01-01

    Structural inertia is the overall capacity of an organization to adapt within a market environment. This paper reviews the impact of healthcare investments in information management/information technology (IM/IT) on the strategic management concept of structural inertia. Research indicates that healthcare executives should consider the relative state of structural inertia for their firms and match them with potential IM/IT solutions. Additionally, organizations should favorably consider IM/IT solutions that are comparatively less complex.

  9. Infill Optimization for Additive Manufacturing -- Approaching Bone-like Porous Structures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Aage, Niels; Westermann, Ruediger; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-23

    Porous structures such as trabecular bone are widely seen in nature. These structures are lightweight and exhibit strong mechanical properties. In this paper, we present a method to generate bone-like porous structures as lightweight infill for additive manufacturing. Our method builds upon and extends voxel-wise topology optimization. In particular, for the purpose of generating sparse yet stable structures distributed in the interior of a given shape, we propose upper bounds on the localized material volume in the proximity of each voxel in the design domain. We then aggregate the local per-voxel constraints by their p-norm into an equivalent global constraint, in order to facilitate an efficient optimization process. Implemented on a high-resolution topology optimization framework, our results demonstrate mechanically optimized, detailed porous structures which mimic those found in nature. We further show variants of the optimized structures subject to different design specifications, and we analyze the optimality and robustness of the obtained structures.

  10. America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Project 1: Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    titanium and nickel-base alloys after AM fabrication. 4.1 Additive Manufacturing Methods and Applications Three-dimensional printing ( 3D ...AM is defining the process of 3D printing , while additive manufacturing considers the broad application of 3D printing , and necessary manufacturing... printing could generate an economic impact of $230 billion to $550 billion per year by 2025.[4] According to the 2014 Wohlers Report, the 3D printing

  11. Reconstructing Information in Large-Scale Structure via Logarithmic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapudi, Istvan

    We propose to develop a new method to extract information from large-scale structure data combining two-point statistics and non-linear transformations; before, this information was available only with substantially more complex higher-order statistical methods. Initially, most of the cosmological information in large-scale structure lies in two-point statistics. With non- linear evolution, some of that useful information leaks into higher-order statistics. The PI and group has shown in a series of theoretical investigations how that leakage occurs, and explained the Fisher information plateau at smaller scales. This plateau means that even as more modes are added to the measurement of the power spectrum, the total cumulative information (loosely speaking the inverse errorbar) is not increasing. Recently we have shown in Neyrinck et al. (2009, 2010) that a logarithmic (and a related Gaussianization or Box-Cox) transformation on the non-linear Dark Matter or galaxy field reconstructs a surprisingly large fraction of this missing Fisher information of the initial conditions. This was predicted by the earlier wave mechanical formulation of gravitational dynamics by Szapudi & Kaiser (2003). The present proposal is focused on working out the theoretical underpinning of the method to a point that it can be used in practice to analyze data. In particular, one needs to deal with the usual real-life issues of galaxy surveys, such as complex geometry, discrete sam- pling (Poisson or sub-Poisson noise), bias (linear, or non-linear, deterministic, or stochastic), redshift distortions, pro jection effects for 2D samples, and the effects of photometric redshift errors. We will develop methods for weak lensing and Sunyaev-Zeldovich power spectra as well, the latter specifically targetting Planck. In addition, we plan to investigate the question of residual higher- order information after the non-linear mapping, and possible applications for cosmology. Our aim will be to work out

  12. Structured pedigree information for distributed fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arambel, Pablo O.

    2008-04-01

    One of the most critical challenges in distributed data fusion is the avoidance of information double counting (also called "data incest" or "rumor propagation"). This occurs when a node in a network incorporates information into an estimate - e.g. the position of an object - and the estimate is injected into the network. Other nodes fuse this estimate with their own estimates, and continue to propagate estimates through the network. When the first node receives a fused estimate from the network, it does not know if it already contains its own contributions or not. Since the correlation between its own estimate and the estimate received from the network is not known, the node can not fuse the estimates in an optimal way. If it assumes that both estimates are independent from each other, it unknowingly double counts the information that has already being used to obtain the two estimates. This leads to overoptimistic error covariance matrices. If the double-counting is not kept under control, it may lead to serious performance degradation. Double counting can be avoided by propagating uniquely tagged raw measurements; however, that forces each node to process all the measurements and precludes the propagation of derived information. Another approach is to fuse the information using the Covariance Intersection (CI) equations, which maintain consistent estimates irrespective of the cross-correlation among estimates. However, CI does not exploit pedigree information of any kind. In this paper we present an approach that propagates multiple covariance matrices, one for each uncorrelated source in the network. This is a way to compress the pedigree information and avoids the need to propagate raw measurements. The approach uses a generalized version of the Split CI to fuse different estimates with appropriate weights to guarantee the consistency of the estimates.

  13. Structural and electronic characterisation of π-extended tetrathiafulvalene derivatives as active components in field-effect transistors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data, XRD single crystal data, computational details and device fabrication. CCDC 1460868 and 1460869. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ce01200k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Antonio; Oxtoby, Neil; Galindo, Sergi; Pfattner, Raphael; Veciana, Jaume; Bromley, Stefan T.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of two tetrathiafulvalene derivatives bearing aromatic benzene rings are reported. Thin film transistors of these materials show p-type characteristics with comparable mobility values. It is found that the rigidification of the molecule is beneficial for reducing the reorganisation energy but also has an unfavorable impact on the electronic structure dimensionality. PMID:27774040

  14. H2O2-dependent substrate oxidation by an engineered diiron site in a bacterial hemerythrin† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Information on materials, instrumentation, experimental details and additional data on preparation of proteins, crystal structure analysis, resonance Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, reaction of reduced I119H with O2, consumption of H2O2, and oxidation reactions of guaiacol and 1,4-cyclohexadiene. The atomic coordinates and structure factors (PDB code 3WHN) have been deposited into the Protein Data Bank, http://www.rcsb.org/. See DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48108e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yasunori; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Takano, Yu; Hirota, Shun; Kurtz, Donald M.; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2014-01-01

    The O2-binding carboxylate-bridged diiron site in DcrH-Hr was engineered in an effort to perform the H2O2-dependent oxidation of external substrates. A His residue was introduced near the diiron site in place of a conserved residue, Ile119. The I119H variant promotes the oxidation of guaiacol and 1,4-cyclohexadiene upon addition of H2O2. PMID:24400317

  15. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  16. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... describe the agency's: (1) Records policies and schedules; (2) Filing systems and organization; (3) Storage... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  17. Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.

  18. Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, P.B.

    1991-12-31

    Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.

  19. Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbiel, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  1. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  2. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  3. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  4. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  5. Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-06-16

    This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

  6. Community structure detection based on the neighbor node degree information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-Ying; Li, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Community structure detection is of great significance for better understanding the network topology property. By taking into account the neighbor degree information of the topological network as the link weight, we present an improved Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for detecting community structure. The results for empirical networks show that the largest improved ratio of the Normalized Mutual Information value could reach 63.21%. Meanwhile, for synthetic networks, the highest Normalized Mutual Information value could closely reach 1, which suggests that the improved method with the optimal λ can detect the community structure more accurately. This work is helpful for understanding the interplay between the link weight and the community structure detection.

  7. Axiomatic Evaluation Method and Content Structure for Information Appliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yinni

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted to determine how best to present information in order to enhance usability, but not what information is needed to be presented for effective decision making. Hence, this dissertation addresses the factor structure of the nature of information needed for presentation and proposes a more effective method than…

  8. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    PubMed

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives.

  9. Role of strongly interacting additives in tuning the structure and properties of polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Vikram Kumar

    Block copolymer (BCP) nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid materials in which the BCP guides the spatial location and the periodic assembly of the additives. High loadings of well-dispersed nanofillers are generally important for many applications including mechanical reinforcing of polymers. In particular the composites shown in this work might find use as etch masks in nanolithography, or for enabling various phase selective reactions for new materials development. This work explores the use of hydrogen bonding interactions between various additives (such as homopolymers and non-polymeric additives) and small, disordered BCPs to cause the formation of well-ordered morphologies with small domains. A detailed study of the organization of homopolymer chains and the evolution of structure during the process of ordering is performed. The results demonstrate that by tuning the selective interaction of the additive with the incorporating phase of the BCP, composites with significantly high loadings of additives can be formed while maintaining order in the BCP morphology. The possibility of high and selective loading of additives in one of the phases of the ordered BCP composite opens new avenues due to high degree of functionalization and the proximity of the additives within the incorporating phase. This aspect is utilized in one case for the formation of a network structure between adjoining additive cores to derive mesoporous inorganic materials with their structures templated by the BCP. The concept of additive-driven assembly is extended to formulate BCPadditive blends with an ability to undergo photo-induced ordering. Underlying this strategy is the ability to transition a weakly interacting additive to its strongly interacting form. This strategy provides an on-demand, non-intrusive route for formation of well-ordered nanostructures in arbitrarily defined regions of an otherwise disordered material. The second area explored in this dissertation deals

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  11. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on...

  12. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities for employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna; Andrews, Heather Lynn; Herman, Matthew Joseph; Hubbard, Kevin Mark; Weis, Eric

    2016-09-20

    These are slides for a presentation at Stanford University. The outline is as follows: Motivation: customers for compact accelerators, LANL's technologies for laser acceleration, DFEA cathodes, and additive manufacturing of micron-size structures. Among the stated conclusions are the following: preliminary study identified DFEA cathodes as promising sources for DLAs--high beam current and small emittance; additive manufacturing with Nanoscribe Professional GT can produce structures with the right scale features for a DLA operating at micron wavelengths (fabrication tolerances need to be studied, DLAs require new materials). Future plans include DLA experiment with a beam produced by the DFEA cathode with field emission, demonstration of photoemission from DFEAs, and new structures to print and test.

  13. 36 CFR 1290.2 - Scope of additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.2 Scope of... Act; and (6) Reclassification to a higher level, transfer, destruction, or other information...

  14. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  15. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  16. 15 CFR 50.5 - Fee structure for age search and citizenship information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fee structure for age search and... THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee Searches of one census for one person and one transcript $65.00 Each additional copy of census transcript...

  17. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  18. Extracting Structural information from Galaxy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of data from sky images is large and growing. About 1 million galaxies can be discerned in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is being built and will scan the entire sky repeatedly, providing images of millions of galaxies and petabytes of data every night. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a proposed orbiting satellite that will repeatedly map the entire sky from orbit, providing images of perhaps billions of galaxies. Unfortunately, given an image of a spiral galaxy, there does not exist an automated vision algorithm that can even tell us which direction the spiral arms wind, much less count them or provide any other quantitative information about them. To wit, the largest galaxy classification project is the Galaxy Zoo, in which thousands of human volunteers classify images by eye over the web. Although valuable, such human classifications will provide only limited objective quantitative measurements, and will soon be overwhelmed with more data than humans can handle. However, such information would prove an invaluable source for astronomers and cosmologists to test current theories of galaxy formation and cosmic evolution (which can now be simulated with high accuracy on large computers, producing copious predictions that cannot be tested due to a lack of objective, quantitative observational data). In this talk, I will report on preliminary results from dynamical grammars and other machine learning and vision techniques to "parse" images of galaxies, starting us on the road towards producing quantitative data that will be useful for astronomers to test theories.

  19. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  20. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  1. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  2. Addition of three-dimensional isoparametric elements to NASA structural analysis program (NASTRAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, E. I.; Johnson, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Implementation is made of the three-dimensional family of linear, quadratic and cubic isoparametric solid elements into the NASA Structural Analysis program, NASTRAN. This work included program development, installation, testing, and documentation. The addition of these elements to NASTRAN provides a significant increase in modeling capability particularly for structures requiring specification of temperatures, material properties, displacements, and stresses which vary throughout each individual element. Complete program documentation is presented in the form of new sections and updates for direct insertion to the three NASTRAN manuals. The results of demonstration test problems are summarized. Excellent results are obtained with the isoparametric elements for static, normal mode, and buckling analyses.

  3. Additional antitumor ecteinascidins from a Caribbean tunicate: crystal structures and activities in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, R; Rinehart, K L; Guan, Y; Wang, A H

    1992-01-01

    Ecteinascidins (Ets), isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata, protect mice in vivo against P388 lymphoma, B16 melanoma, M5076 ovarian sarcoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, and the LX-1 human lung and MX-1 human mammary carcinoma xenografts. Crystal structures of two tris(tetrahydroisoquinoline) Ets were investigated with single crystals of the 21-O-methyl-N12-formyl derivative of Et 729 and the natural N12-oxide of Et 743. Representatives of an additional class of Ets, Et 722 and Et 736, isolated from the same organism, were assigned tetrahydro-beta-carboline-substituted bis(tetrahydroisoquinoline) structures by NMR and fast atom bombardment MS spectra. PMID:1454834

  4. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.

  5. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information? 803.12 Section 803.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... health emergency, this can be brought to FDA's attention by contacting the FDA Office of Emergency Operations (HFA-615), Office of Crisis Management, Office of the Commissioner, at 301-443-1240, followed...

  6. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lavatory a sign or placard that reads: “Federal law provides for a penalty of up to $2,000 for tampering..., no person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with passenger information signs that meet... signs must be constructed so that the crewmembers can turn them on and off. (b) Except as provided...

  7. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and... information about that employee's drug or alcohol tests to an identified person, you must provide the... for this part and DOT agency drug and alcohol program functions. (2) All written, printed,...

  8. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  9. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... HUBZone SBC? (a) At the discretion of the D/HUB, SBA has the right to require that a HUBZone SBC submit... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  11. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  12. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  13. Structural Color for Additive Manufacturing: 3D-Printed Photonic Crystals from Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Bret M; French, Tracy A; Pearson, Ryan M; McCarthy, Blaine G; Miyake, Garret M

    2017-03-28

    The incorporation of structural color into 3D printed parts is reported, presenting an alternative to the need for pigments or dyes for colored parts produced through additive manufacturing. Thermoplastic build materials composed of dendritic block copolymers were designed, synthesized, and used to additively manufacture plastic parts exhibiting structural color. The reflection properties of the photonic crystals arise from the periodic nanostructure formed through block copolymer self-assembly during polymer processing. The wavelength of reflected light could be tuned across the visible spectrum by synthetically controlling the block copolymer molecular weight and manufacture parts that reflected violet, green, or orange light with the capacity to serve as selective optical filters and light guides.

  14. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  15. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  16. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  17. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  18. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... the circumstances associated with the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fire...

  19. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  20. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  1. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  2. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... will be accepted in lieu thereof; (2) In the case of an additive for engine oil, only the name..., that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided... any 1975 or subsequent model year vehicle or engine, or that the manufacturer has obtained a...

  3. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  4. Specific effects of Ca2+ ions and molecular structure of β-lactoglobulin interfacial layers that drive macroscopic foam stability† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00636a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Zachau, Felix; Nagel, Eva; Engelhardt, Kathrin; Stoyanov, Stefan; Gochev, Georgi; Khristov, Khr.; Mileva, Elena; Exerowa, Dotchi; Miller, Reinhard; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) adsorption layers at air–water interfaces were studied in situ with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), tensiometry, surface dilatational rheology and ellipsometry as a function of bulk Ca2+ concentration. The relation between the interfacial molecular structure of adsorbed BLG and the interactions with the supporting electrolyte is additionally addressed on higher length scales along the foam hierarchy – from the ubiquitous air–water interface through thin foam films to macroscopic foam. For concentrations <1 mM, a strong decrease in SFG intensity from O–H stretching bands and a slight increase in layer thickness and surface pressure are observed. A further increase in Ca2+ concentrations above 1 mM causes an apparent change in the polarity of aromatic C–H stretching vibrations from interfacial BLG which we associate to a charge reversal at the interface. Foam film measurements show formation of common black films at Ca2+ concentrations above 1 mM due to considerable decrease of the stabilizing electrostatic disjoining pressure. These observations also correlate with a minimum in macroscopic foam stability. For concentrations >30 mM Ca2+, micrographs of foam films show clear signatures of aggregates which tend to increase the stability of foam films. Here, the interfacial layers have a higher surface dilatational elasticity. In fact, macroscopic foams formed from BLG dilutions with high Ca2+ concentrations where aggregates and interfacial layers with higher elasticity are found, showed the highest stability with much smaller bubble sizes. PMID:27337699

  5. Structured additive distributional regression for analysing landings per unit effort in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Mamouridis, Valeria; Klein, Nadja; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso Suarez, Carmen; Maynou, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index). Based on structured additive distributional regression, we evaluate (i) the gain in replacing purely linear predictors by additive predictors including nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, (ii) the inclusion of vessel-specific effects based on either fixed or random effects, (iii) different types of distributions for the response, and (iv) the potential gain in not only modelling the location but also the scale/shape parameter of these distributions. Our findings support that flexible model variants are indeed able to improve the fit considerably and that additional insights can be gained. Tools to select within several model specifications and assumptions are discussed in detail as well.

  6. Large Structures of Drag-Reducing Pipe Flow by Surfactant Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishita, Yuki; Naka, Yoshitsugu; Minamoto, Yuki; Shimura, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Mamoru

    2016-11-01

    Characteristics of drag-reducing turbulent pipe flows with surfactant additives have been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Measurements have been performed for a case with surfactant solution of 150 ppm at different Reynolds numbers: Red = 31254 , 58268 , t 85556 , around the maximum drag-reduction. Two distinct peaks are observed in streamwise velocity fluctuations around y / R = 0 . 07 , 0 . 25 and weak peaks are observed in radial velocity fluctuations at the same locations, where the Reynolds shear stress is negative. The deviations toward uz' > 0 , ur' > 0 are observed at y / R = 0 . 215 , and these components are proved to contribute to the negative Reynolds stress. Drag reducing turbulent structures are investigated by means of snapshot POD analysis. The most energetic POD modes show flat periodic structures along the wall, and such structures indicate the relation with these fluctuation peaks and negative Reynolds shear stress.

  7. Why relevant chemical information cannot be exchanged without disclosing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2005-09-01

    Both society and industry are interested in increasing the safety of pharmaceuticals. Potentially dangerous compounds could be filtered out at early stages of R&D by computer prediction of biological activity and ADMET characteristics. Accuracy of such predictions strongly depends on the quality & quantity of information contained in a training set. Suggestion that some relevant chemical information can be added to such training sets without disclosing chemical structures was generated at the recent ACS Symposium. We presented arguments that such safety exchange of relevant chemical information is impossible. Any relevant information about chemical structures can be used for search of either a particular compound itself or its close analogues. Risk of identifying such structures is enough to prevent pharma industry from relevant chemical information exchange.

  8. Information and telecommunication system for monitoring of hydraulic engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlycheva, Nadezhda K.; Akhmetgaleeva, Railia R.; Muslimov, Eduard R.; Murav'eva, Elena V.; Peplov, Artem A.; Sibgatulina, Dina S.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present the information and telecommunications system that allows to carry out real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of hydraulic engineering structures in order to reduce the risk of emergencies caused by environmental damage.

  9. Structured Information Management Using New Techniques for Processing Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Forbes; Smart, Godfrey

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of a software system, SIMPR (Structured Information Management: Processing and Retrieval), that will process documents by indexing them and classifying their subjects. Topics discussed include information storage and retrieval, file inversion techniques, modelling the user, natural language searching, automatic indexing,…

  10. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  11. 24 CFR 903.9 - May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May HUD request additional information in the Annual Plan of a troubled PHA? 903.9 Section 903.9 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC...

  12. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  13. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  14. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  15. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  16. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  17. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-08-23

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided.

  18. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection for the... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... the PHA. The results of the site visits will be used to identify PHAs to participate in a...

  19. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-04

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  20. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H.; Zaporozhets, Olga A.; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Thienoguanosine (thG) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of thG reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (−)PBS, the (−)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (−)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  1. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  2. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  3. Interactive effects between N addition and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; From, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    In management of boreal forests, nitrogen (N) enrichment from atmospheric deposition or from forest fertilization can appear in combination with land-use related disturbances, i.e. tree harvesting by clear-felling. Long-term interactive effects between N enrichment and disturbance on boreal forest ecosystem structure and function are, however, poorly known. We investigated effects of N enrichment by forest fertilization done > 25 years ago on forest understory species composition in old-growth (undisturbed) forests, and in forests clear-felled 10 years ago (disturbed). In clear-felled forests we also investigated effects of the previous N addition on growth of tree saplings. The results show that the N enrichment effect on the understory species composition was strongly dependent on the disturbance caused by clear-felling. In undisturbed forests, there were small or no effects on understory species composition from N addition. In contrast, effects were large in forests first exposed to N addition and subsequently disturbed by clear-felling. Effects of N addition differed among functional groups of plants. Abundance of graminoids increased (+232%) and abundance of dwarf shrubs decreased (-44%) following disturbance in N fertilized forests. For vascular plants, the two perturbations had contrasting effects on α-(within forests) and β-diversity (among forests): in disturbed forests, N addition reduced, or had no effect on α-diversity, while β-diversity increased. For bryophytes, negative effects of disturbance on α-diversity were smaller in N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized, while neither N addition nor disturbance had any effects on β-diversity. Moreover, sapling growth in forests clear-felled 10 years ago was significantly higher in previously N fertilized forests than in forests not fertilized. Our study show that effects of N addition on plant communities may appear small, short-lived, or even absent until exposed to a disturbance. This

  4. Effect of boron addition on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2015-05-07

    The effect of B addition on CoPt nanoparticles was investigated. The CoPt-B nanoparticles were synthesized by means of the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that the as-synthesized particles have a spherical morphology with average size about 2–3 nm. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique showed the effect of B concentration on phase transformation. The addition of B at up to 60% promoted the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase when the nanoparticles were subjected to annealing at 600 °C. If the B content is higher than 60%, the phase transition is suppressed. The evidence of B addition on the structure of CoPt nanoparticles was further supported by the magnetic measurements. The results show that the coercivity of the annealed CoPt-B nanoparticles was enhanced by the B additions from 20% to 60%, with the maximum coercivity of 12 000 Oe for the CoPt-40%B sample.

  5. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  6. Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-11-01

    Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors.

  7. Deterministic fractals: extracting additional information from small-angle scattering data.

    PubMed

    Cherny, A Yu; Anitas, E M; Osipov, V A; Kuklin, A I

    2011-09-01

    The small-angle scattering curves of deterministic mass fractals are studied and analyzed in momentum space. In the fractal region, the curve I(q)q(D) is found to be log-periodic with good accuracy, and the period is equal to the scaling factor of the fractal. Here, D and I(q) are the fractal dimension and the scattering intensity, respectively. The number of periods of this curve coincides with the number of fractal iterations. We show that the log-periodicity of I(q)q(D) in the momentum space is related to the log-periodicity of the quantity g(r)r(3-D) in the real space, where g(r) is the pair distribution function. The minima and maxima positions of the scattering intensity are estimated explicitly by relating them to the pair distance distribution in real space. It is shown that the minima and maxima are damped with increasing polydispersity of the fractal sets; however, they remain quite pronounced even at sufficiently large values of polydispersity. A generalized self-similar Vicsek fractal with controllable fractal dimension is introduced, and its scattering properties are studied to illustrate the above findings. In contrast with the usual methods, the present analysis allows us to obtain not only the fractal dimension and the edges of the fractal region, but also the fractal iteration number, the scaling factor, and the number of structural units from which the fractal is composed.

  8. Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Christe, Andreas; Naether, Silvio; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance. Impact injuries can be identified on the external injuries of the skin, the injured subcutaneous and fat tissue, as well as the fractured bones. Another sign of impact is a bone bruise. The bone bruise, or occult bone lesion, means a bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow, which is presumed to be the result of micro-fractures of the medullar trabeculae. The aim of this study was to prove that bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow of the deceased can be detected using the postmortem noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. This is demonstrated in five accident cases, four involving pedestrians and one a cyclist, where bone bruises were detected in different bones as a sign of impact occurring in the same location as the external and soft tissue impact injuries.

  9. Soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling responses to agroecosystem management and carbon substrate addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthrong, S. T.; Buckley, D. H.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Fertilizer application in conventional agriculture leads to N saturation and decoupled soil C and N cycling, whereas organic practices, e.g. complex rotations and legume incorporation, often results in increased SOM and tightly coupled cycles of C and N. These legacy effects of management on soils likely affect microbial community composition and microbial process rates. This project tested if agricultural management practices led to distinct microbial communities and if those communities differed in ability to utilize labile plant carbon substrates and to produce more plant available N. We addressed several specific questions in this project. 1) Do organic and conventional management legacies on similar soils produce distinct soil bacterial and fungal community structures and abundances? 2) How do these microbial community structures change in response to carbon substrate addition? 3) How do the responses of the microbial communities influence N cycling? To address these questions we conducted a laboratory incubation of organically and conventionally managed soils. We added C-13 labelled glucose either in one large dose or several smaller pulses. We extracted genomic DNA from soils before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting. We measured C in soil pools and respiration and N in soil extracts and leachates. Management led to different compositions of bacteria and fungi driven by distinct components in organic soils. Biomass did not differ across treatments indicating that differences in cycling were due to composition rather than abundance. C substrate addition led to convergence in bacterial communities; however management still strongly influenced the difference in communities. Fungal communities were very distinct between managements and plots with substrate addition not altering this pattern. Organic soils respired 3 times more of the glucose in the first week than conventional soils (1.1% vs 0.4%). Organic soils produced twice as much

  10. Structural and ferromagnetic properties of an orthorhombic phase of MnBi stabilized with Rh additions

    SciTech Connect

    Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; March, Stephen; Saunders, Scott; Sun, Kewei; Lamichhane, Tej Nath; Kramer, Matthew J.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-07-28

    The article addresses the possibility of alloy elements in MnBi which may modify the thermodynamic stability of the NiAs-type structure without significantly degrading the magnetic properties. The addition of small amounts of Rh and Mn provides an improvement in the thermal stability with some degradation of the magnetic properties. The small amounts of Rh and Mn additions in MnBi stabilize an orthorhombic phase whose structural and magnetic properties are closely related to the ones of the previously reported high-temperature phase of MnBi (HT MnBi). The properties of the HT MnBi, which is stable between 613 and 719 K, have not been studied in detail because of its transformation to the stable low-temperature MnBi (LT MnBi), making measurements near and below its Curie temperature difficult. The Rh-stabilized MnBi with chemical formula Mn1.0625–xRhxBi [x=0.02(1)] adopts a new superstructure of the NiAs/Ni2In structure family. It is ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 416 K. The critical exponents of the ferromagnetic transition are not of the mean-field type but are closer to those associated with the Ising model in three dimensions. The magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial; the anisotropy energy is rather large, and it does not increase when raising the temperature, contrary to what happens in LT MnBi. The saturation magnetization is approximately 3μB/f.u. at low temperatures. Thus, while this exact composition may not be application ready, it does show that alloying is a viable route to modifying the stability of this class of rare-earth-free magnet alloys.

  11. Structural and ferromagnetic properties of an orthorhombic phase of MnBi stabilized with Rh additions

    DOE PAGES

    Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; March, Stephen; ...

    2015-07-28

    The article addresses the possibility of alloy elements in MnBi which may modify the thermodynamic stability of the NiAs-type structure without significantly degrading the magnetic properties. The addition of small amounts of Rh and Mn provides an improvement in the thermal stability with some degradation of the magnetic properties. The small amounts of Rh and Mn additions in MnBi stabilize an orthorhombic phase whose structural and magnetic properties are closely related to the ones of the previously reported high-temperature phase of MnBi (HT MnBi). The properties of the HT MnBi, which is stable between 613 and 719 K, have notmore » been studied in detail because of its transformation to the stable low-temperature MnBi (LT MnBi), making measurements near and below its Curie temperature difficult. The Rh-stabilized MnBi with chemical formula Mn1.0625–xRhxBi [x=0.02(1)] adopts a new superstructure of the NiAs/Ni2In structure family. It is ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 416 K. The critical exponents of the ferromagnetic transition are not of the mean-field type but are closer to those associated with the Ising model in three dimensions. The magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial; the anisotropy energy is rather large, and it does not increase when raising the temperature, contrary to what happens in LT MnBi. The saturation magnetization is approximately 3μB/f.u. at low temperatures. Thus, while this exact composition may not be application ready, it does show that alloying is a viable route to modifying the stability of this class of rare-earth-free magnet alloys.« less

  12. Effect of Polyaniline additions on structural and gas sensing behaviour of metal oxides thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hj. Jumali, Mohammad H.; Izzuddin, Izura; Ramli, Norhashimah; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2009-07-01

    The structural and gas sensing behaviour of metal oxides namely TiO2 and ZnO thin films were investigated. In this paper, commercial Polyaniline (PANi) powder were added into two different metal oxides sol gel solutions with PANi : metal oxides weight ratios of 1wt.%, 2wt.% and 3wt.%. The thin films were fabricated using spin coating technique. Structural investigation using XRD presented that all films exhibited amorphous structure. Typical films surface morphology consists of agglomerated round shaped particles with the particles size varies between 57nm to 200nm. Addition of PANi formed network chains between the particles. Ethanol vapor detection test conducted at room temperature showed that both TiO2 and ZnO based films were capable to sense the vapor. The optimum ratio in sensing ethanol vapour for both PANi-TiO2 and PANi-ZnO films was 3:1. However, other issues such as reliability, selectability and repeatability remain as the major problems.

  13. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  14. Correlating structural order with structural rearrangement in dusty plasma liquids: can structural rearrangement be predicted by static structural information?

    PubMed

    Su, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; I, Lin

    2012-11-09

    Whether the static microstructural order information is strongly correlated with the subsequent structural rearrangement (SR) and their predicting power for SR are investigated experimentally in the quenched dusty plasma liquid with microheterogeneities. The poor local structural order is found to be a good alarm to identify the soft spot and predict the short term SR. For the site with good structural order, the persistent time for sustaining the structural memory until SR has a large mean value but a broad distribution. The deviation of the local structural order from that averaged over nearest neighbors serves as a good second alarm to further sort out the short time SR sites. It has the similar sorting power to that using the temporal fluctuation of the local structural order over a small time interval.

  15. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  16. 15 CFR 50.5 - Fee structure for age search and citizenship information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL SERVICES AND STUDIES BY THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee Searches of one census for one person and one transcript $65.00 Each additional copy of census transcript...

  17. 15 CFR 50.5 - Fee structure for age search and citizenship information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL SERVICES AND STUDIES BY THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee Searches of one census for one person and one transcript $65.00 Each additional copy of census transcript...

  18. 15 CFR 50.5 - Fee structure for age search and citizenship information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL SERVICES AND STUDIES BY THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee Searches of one census for one person and one transcript $65.00 Each additional copy of census transcript...

  19. Supra-additive contribution of shape and surface information to individual face discrimination as revealed by fast periodic visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena; Rossion, Bruno

    2014-12-24

    Face perception depends on two main sources of information--shape and surface cues. Behavioral studies suggest that both of them contribute roughly equally to discrimination of individual faces, with only a small advantage provided by their combination. However, it is difficult to quantify the respective contribution of each source of information to the visual representation of individual faces with explicit behavioral measures. To address this issue, facial morphs were created that varied in shape only, surface only, or both. Electrocephalogram (EEG) were recorded from 10 participants during visual stimulation at a fast periodic rate, in which the same face was presented four times consecutively and the fifth face (the oddball) varied along one of the morphed dimensions. Individual face discrimination was indexed by the periodic EEG response at the oddball rate (e.g., 5.88 Hz/5 = 1.18 Hz). While shape information was discriminated mainly at right occipitotemporal electrode sites, surface information was coded more bilaterally and provided a larger response overall. Most importantly, shape and surface changes alone were associated with much weaker responses than when both sources of information were combined in the stimulus, revealing a supra-additive effect. These observations suggest that the two kinds of information combine nonlinearly to provide a full individual face representation, face identity being more than the sum of the contribution of shape and surface cues.

  20. FIB-SEM: an additional technique for investigating internal structure of pollen walls.

    PubMed

    House, Alisoun; Balkwill, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Pollen grain morphology has been widely used in the classification of the Acanthaceae, where external pollen wall features have proved useful in determining relationships between taxa. Although detailed information has been accumulated using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, internal pollen wall features lack investigation and the techniques are cumbersome. A new technique involving precise cross sectioning or slicing of pollen grains at a selected position for examining wall ultrastructure, using a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), has been explored and promising results have been obtained. The FIB-SEM offers a good technique for reliable, high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) viewing of the internal structure of the pollen grain wall.

  1. Mining chemical structural information from the drug literature.

    PubMed

    Banville, Debra L

    2006-01-01

    It is easier to find too many documents on a life science topic than to find the right information inside these documents. With the application of text data mining to biological documents, it is no surprise that researchers are starting to look at applications that mine out chemical information. The mining of chemical entities--names and structures--brings with it some unique challenges, which commercial and academic efforts are beginning to address. Ultimately, life science text data mining applications need to focus on the marriage of biological and chemical information.

  2. Properties of Inconel 625 Mesh Structures Grown by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    List III, Frederick Alyious; Dehoff, Ryan R; Lowe, Larry E; Sames, William J

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between electron beam parameters (beam current, beam speed, and beam focus) and physical properties (mass, diameter, elastic modulus, and yield strength) have been investigated for Inconel 625 mesh cubes fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology based on electron beam melting. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the mesh cubes have been systematically varied by approximately a factor of ten by changing the electron beam parameters. Simple models have been used to understand better these relationships. Structural anisotropies of the mesh associated with the layered build architecture have been observed and may contribute, along with microstructural anisotropies, to the anisotropic mechanical properties of the mesh. Knowledge of this kind is likely applicable to other metal and alloy systems and is essential to rapidly realize the full potential of this burgeoning technology.

  3. Tailoring of Boehmite-Derived Aluminosilicate Aerogel Structure and Properties: Influence of Ti Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Guo, Haiquan; Sheets, Erik J.; Miller, Derek R.; Newlin, Katy N.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminosilicate aerogels offer potential for extremely low thermal conductivities at temperatures greater than 900 C, beyond where silica aerogels reach their upper temperature limits. Aerogels have been synthesized at various Al:Si ratios, including mullite compositions, using Boehmite (AlOOH) as the Al source, and tetraethoxy orthosilicate as the Si precursor. The Boehmite-derived aerogels are found to form by a self-assembly process of AlOOH crystallites, with Si-O groups on the surface of an alumina skeleton. Morphology, surface area and pore size varies with the crystallite size of the starting Boehmite powder, as well as with synthesis parameters. Ternary systems, including Al-Si-Ti aerogels incorporating a soluble Ti precursor, are possible with careful control of pH. The addition of Ti influences sol viscosity, gelation time pore structure and pore size distribution, as well as phase formation on heat treatment.

  4. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  5. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures.

    PubMed

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  6. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  7. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, P<.001), and males compared to females (t324=–2.21, P=.02). Conclusions The website did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is

  8. Predicting the occurrence of wildfires with binary structured additive regression models.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Pena, Laura; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Marey-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Wildfires are one of the main environmental problems facing societies today, and in the case of Galicia (north-west Spain), they are the main cause of forest destruction. This paper used binary structured additive regression (STAR) for modelling the occurrence of wildfires in Galicia. Binary STAR models are a recent contribution to the classical logistic regression and binary generalized additive models. Their main advantage lies in their flexibility for modelling non-linear effects, while simultaneously incorporating spatial and temporal variables directly, thereby making it possible to reveal possible relationships among the variables considered. The results showed that the occurrence of wildfires depends on many covariates which display variable behaviour across space and time, and which largely determine the likelihood of ignition of a fire. The joint possibility of working on spatial scales with a resolution of 1 × 1 km cells and mapping predictions in a colour range makes STAR models a useful tool for plotting and predicting wildfire occurrence. Lastly, it will facilitate the development of fire behaviour models, which can be invaluable when it comes to drawing up fire-prevention and firefighting plans.

  9. Revisiting automated G-protein coupled receptor modeling: the benefit of additional template structures for a neurokinin-1 receptor model.

    PubMed

    Kneissl, Benny; Leonhardt, Bettina; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Tautermann, Christofer S

    2009-05-28

    The feasibility of automated procedures for the modeling of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is investigated on the example of the human neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor. We use a combined method of homology modeling and molecular docking and analyze the information content of the resulting docking complexes regarding the binding mode for further refinements. Moreover, we explore the impact of different template structures, the bovine rhodopsin structure, the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor, and in particular a combination of both templates to include backbone flexibility in the target conformational space. Our results for NK1 modeling demonstrate that model selection from a set of decoys can in general not solely rely on docking experiments but still requires additional mutagenesis data. However, an enrichment factor of 2.6 in a nearly fully automated approach indicates that reasonable models can be created automatically if both available templates are used for model construction. Thus, the recently resolved GPCR structures open new ways to improve the model building fundamentally.

  10. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  11. Study of the structure of steel 12Kh12M1BFP modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. A.; Bakulina, A. S.; Efremov, I. V.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Yagodkin, Yu. D.; Glezer, A. M.; Rashkovskii, A. Yu.; Vainshtein, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy are used to study the structure of compacted specimens of steel 12Kh12M1BFP, modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. The effect of additions on the microhardness of compacted specimens is established.

  12. Thesaurus of terms for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.

    1973-01-01

    A Thesaurus of approximately 700 subject terms used to describe the six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure is presented. The initial criteria for the selection of terms are their significance and frequency of use in the literature describing the mechanics of structural failure. The purpose of the Thesaurus is to provide the Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute a list of key works and identifiers that afford effective retrieval of information regarding failure modes and mechanisms for aerospace structures. The Thesaurus includes both a conventional listing of subject terms and a Key Words In Context (KWIC) listing.

  13. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J.; Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  14. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J. . Space Inst.); Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. )

    1989-01-01

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  15. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  16. Shared Information Structure: Evidence from Cross-Linguistic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Zuzanna; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    This study asked whether bilinguals construct a language-independent level of information structure for the sentences that they produce. It reports an experiment in which a Polish-English bilingual and a confederate of the experimenter took turns to describe pictures to each other and to find those pictures in an array. The confederate produced a…

  17. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of…

  18. Impact of Information Technology Governance Structures on Strategic Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Fitzroy R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the relationship between Information Technology (IT) strategic alignment and IT governance structure within the organization. This dissertation replicates Asante (2010) among a different population where the prior results continue to hold, the non-experimental approach explored two research questions but include two…

  19. From Informal Strategies to Structured Procedures: Mind the Gap!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anghileri, Julia; Beishuizen, Meindert; Van Putten, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Explores written calculation methods for division used by pupils in England (n=276) and the Netherlands (n=259). Analyses informal strategies and identifies progression towards more structured procedures that result from different teaching approaches. Comparison of methods used shows greater success in the Dutch approach which is based on…

  20. Prenuclear Accentuation in English: Phonetics, Phonology, Information Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jason Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A primary function of prosody in many languages is to convey information structure--the "packaging" of a sentence's content into categories such as "focus", "given" and "topic". In English and other West Germanic languages it is widely assumed that focus is signaled prosodically by the location of a…

  1. Three-dimensional microwave imaging with incorporated prior structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, Amir H.; Meaney, Paul M.; Epstein, Neil R.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-03-01

    Microwave imaging for biomedical applications, especially for early detection of breast cancer and effective treatment monitoring, has attracted increasing interest in last several decades. This fact is due to the high contrast between the dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues at microwave frequencies. The available range of dielectric properties for different soft tissue can provide important functional information about tissue health. Nonetheless, one of the limiting weaknesses of microwave imaging is that unlike conventional modalities, such as X-ray CT or MRI, it inherently cannot provide high-resolution images. The conventional modalities can produce highly resolved anatomical information but often cannot provide the functional information required for diagnoses. Previously, we have developed a regularization strategy that can incorporate prior anatomical information from MR or other sources and use it in a way to refine the resolution of the microwave images, while also retaining the functional nature of the reconstructed property values. In the present work, we extend the use of prior structural information in microwave imaging from 2D to 3D. This extra dimension adds a significant layer of complexity to the entire image reconstruction procedure. In this paper, several challenges with respect to the 3D microwave imaging will be discussed and the results of a series of 3D simulation and phantom experiments with prior structural information will be studied.

  2. Information diversity in structure and dynamics of simulated neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo; Aćimović, Jugoslava; Nykter, Matti; Kesseli, Juha; Ruohonen, Keijo; Yli-Harja, Olli; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal networks exhibit a wide diversity of structures, which contributes to the diversity of the dynamics therein. The presented work applies an information theoretic framework to simultaneously analyze structure and dynamics in neuronal networks. Information diversity within the structure and dynamics of a neuronal network is studied using the normalized compression distance. To describe the structure, a scheme for generating distance-dependent networks with identical in-degree distribution but variable strength of dependence on distance is presented. The resulting network structure classes possess differing path length and clustering coefficient distributions. In parallel, comparable realistic neuronal networks are generated with NETMORPH simulator and similar analysis is done on them. To describe the dynamics, network spike trains are simulated using different network structures and their bursting behaviors are analyzed. For the simulation of the network activity the Izhikevich model of spiking neurons is used together with the Tsodyks model of dynamical synapses. We show that the structure of the simulated neuronal networks affects the spontaneous bursting activity when measured with bursting frequency and a set of intraburst measures: the more locally connected networks produce more and longer bursts than the more random networks. The information diversity of the structure of a network is greatest in the most locally connected networks, smallest in random networks, and somewhere in between in the networks between order and disorder. As for the dynamics, the most locally connected networks and some of the in-between networks produce the most complex intraburst spike trains. The same result also holds for sparser of the two considered network densities in the case of full spike trains.

  3. [Rad-Esito: new informational additions in the integration of content of hospital discharge cards for acute patients].

    PubMed

    Rini, F; Piscioneri, C; Consolante, C; Fara, G M

    2009-01-01

    Since the January 2008 the tracking of additional information about hospital discharge card's content has been activated in Latium. The new data, noticed by RAD-Esito card, regard the hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, femoral neck fracture and coronary artery bypass surgery. This study's objective has been to evaluate the quality of the data collected with the new card, at the end of the 1st semester of experimentation, concerning two institutes of care of Latium, the Casilino Polyclinic (ASL Rome B) and the Anzio-Nettuno hospital (Assembled Hospitals, ASL Rome H). Furthermore, any significant correlation's existence between a few variables for acute myocardial infarction and femoral fracture with the mortality rate and the average hospitalization period has been statistically verified. This study's preliminary results show how the integration of the hospital informative flow with the new clinical variables will be able to allow the promotion of the quality in the coding of the diagnosis and procedures, according to the current international innovations. This additional information will also be able to support the regional appropriateness and outcome of the treatments evaluation programs.

  4. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.; McCarthy, S.; Brechin, F.; Casidy, C.; Dirix, E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  5. Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use additional sensory information to reduce postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B P; Alouche, S R; Araujo, I M G; Freitas, S M S F

    2012-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate whether stroke survivals are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce their postural sway during the upright stance. Eight individuals, naturally right-handed pre-stroke, and eight healthy age-matched adults stood as quiet as possible on a force plate during 35s. Participants performed two trials for each visual condition (eyes open and closed) and somatosensory condition (with and without the right or left index fingertip touching an instrumented rigid and fixed bar). When participants touched the bar, they were asked to apply less than 1N of vertical force. The postural sway was assessed by the center of pressure (COP) displacement area, mean amplitude and velocity. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the force vertically applied on the bar during the trials with touch were assessed. The averaged values of COP area, amplitude and velocity were greater for stroke individuals compared to healthy adults during all visual and somatosensory conditions. For both groups, the values of all variables increased when participants stood with eyes closed and reduced when they touched the bar regardless of the side of the touch. Overall, the results suggested that, as healthy individuals, persons with post-stroke hemiparesis are able to use the additional somatosensory information provided by the light touch to reduce the postural sway.

  6. Application of prestressed structural elements in the erection of heavy viscoelastic arched structures with the use of an additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhirov, A. V.; Parshin, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The process of erection an object under the action of gravity forces in the absence of additional loads is studied together with the technology of application of prestressed structure elements. The mathematically two-dimensional engineering problem of mechanics of gradual building of a heavy semicircular vault from a prestressed viscoelastic homogeneously aging material is solved analytically. The vault fixation on a rigid horizontal base by sliding fixation, which ensures continuous smooth contact between the vault foot and the base, is considered. The performed computations permit demonstrating high efficiency of preliminary stress creation in the material elements added to the vault in the process of its building in order to control its technological stress state. It is shown that this measure permits significantly decreasing the final values of the separating contact stresses on the foot of the built vault and obtaining the final state of the whole structure which is safer with respect to the level of tensile stresses than that obtain by using unstressed elements.

  7. Development of Maintenance Techniques of Railway Structures Applying Sensor and Information Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Seiji; Nihei, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Minegishi, Kuniyuki; Nakayama, Takashi; Sato, Norio

    Maintenance of railway structures is important. However, the expense and time for inspection of the structures are large. In addition, judgments of performance of the structures depend on experience and knowledge of inspector. Therefore we have applied sensor and information technologies in order to support inspection and to improve inspection and diagnosis technologies. In this paper, we have shown mechanisms of damage outbreak and performance of sensors for five kinds of structures. Furthermore we have suggested joint-translation-angle detection device, damage detection sensor, FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensor, electric conductible paint and piezoelectric element as self-sensing sensors. In addition, as non-contact transmission system, we have adopted Zig-Bee radio, RF-ID tag and specified low-power radio. By the completion of those systems, inspection systems of structures which have depended on experience and knowledge of inspector will be extensively improved and precision and certainty for inspection and diagnosis technologies are will be ensured.

  8. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Ang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian

    2015-08-26

    Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene (PS) spheres and the proportion of ink particles.

  9. Changes in bacterial diversity and community structure following pesticides addition to soil estimated by cultivation technique.

    PubMed

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of increasing concentrations of fenitrothion (2, 10 and 200 mg a.i./kg soil), diuron (1.5, 7.5 and 150 mg a.i./kg soil) and thiram (3.5, 17.5 and 350 mg a.i./kg soil) on soil respiration, bacterial counts and changes in culturable fraction of soil bacteria. To ascertain these changes, the community structure, bacterial biodiversity and process of colony formation, based on the r/K strategy concept, EP- and CD-indices and the FOR model, respectively, were determined. The results showed that the measured parameters were generally unaffected by the lowest dosages of pesticides, corresponding to the recommended field rates. The highest dosages of fenitrothion and thiram suppressed the peak SIR by 15-70% and 20-80%, respectively, while diuron increased respiration rate by 17-25% during the 28-day experiment. Also, the total numbers of bacteria increased in pesticide-treated soils. However, the reverse effect on day 1 and, in addition, in case of the highest dosages of insecticide on days 14 and 28, was observed. Analysis of the community structure revealed that in all soil treatments bacterial communities were generally dominated by K-strategists. Moreover, differences in the distribution of individual bacteria classes and the gradual domination of bacteria populations belonging to r-strategists during the experiment, as compared to control, was observed. However, on day 1, at the highest pesticide dosages, fast growing bacteria constituted only 1-10% of the total colonies number during 48 h of plate incubation, whereas in remaining samples they reached from 20 to 40% of total cfu. This effect, in case of fenitrothion, lasted till the end of the experiment. At the highest dosages of fenitrothion, diuron and at all dosages of thiram the decrease of biodiversity, as indicated by EP- and CD-indices on day 1, was found. At the next sampling time, no significant retarding or stimulating effect

  10. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James M; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-06-19

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone and (13)Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2-1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9-1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments.

  11. Critical review of the safety assessment of nano-structured silica additives in food.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Hans Christian; Suter, Mark; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2016-06-10

    The development of nano-materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano-sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano-particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano-materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano-structured synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. A no observed adverse effect level of 2500 mg SAS particles/kg body weight per day was derived from the only available long-term administration study in rodents. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano-sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano-particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano-particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

  12. On the complexity and the information content of cosmic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazza, F.

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of cosmic structure is commonly considered one of the most complex phenomena in nature. However, this complexity has never been defined nor measured in a quantitative and objective way. In this work, we propose a method to measure the information content of cosmic structure and to quantify the complexity that emerges from it, based on Information Theory. The emergence of complex evolutionary patterns is studied with a statistical symbolic analysis of the datastream produced by state-of-the-art cosmological simulations of forming galaxy clusters. This powerful approach allows us to measure how many bits of information is necessary to predict the evolution of energy fields in a statistical way, and it offers a simple way to quantify when, where and how the cosmic gas behaves in complex ways. The most complex behaviours are found in the peripheral regions of galaxy clusters, where supersonic flows drive shocks and large energy fluctuations over a few tens of million years. Describing the evolution of magnetic energy requires at least twice as large amount of bits as required for the other energy fields. When radiative cooling and feedback from galaxy formation are considered, the cosmic gas is overall found to double its degree of complexity. In the future, Cosmic Information Theory can significantly increase our understanding of the emergence of cosmic structure as it represents an innovative framework to design and analyse complex simulations of the Universe in a simple, yet powerful way.

  13. A hierarchical structure approach to MultiSensor Information Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J. . Space Inst.); Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. )

    1989-01-01

    A major problem with image-based MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the pixel, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Pixel-level fusion has problems with coregistration of the images or data. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented images or data relies an a presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each image or data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing to be useful, as we have seen in automatic target recognition tasks. Image-based MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Scene Structure (HSS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The MSS is intermediate between a pixel-based representation and a scene interpretation representation, and represents the perceptual organization of an image. Fused HSSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based,region interpretation.

  14. A hierarchical structure approach to MultiSensor Information Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J.; Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    A major problem with image-based MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the pixel, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Pixel-level fusion has problems with coregistration of the images or data. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented images or data relies an a presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each image or data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing to be useful, as we have seen in automatic target recognition tasks. Image-based MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Scene Structure (HSS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The MSS is intermediate between a pixel-based representation and a scene interpretation representation, and represents the perceptual organization of an image. Fused HSSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based,region interpretation.

  15. Do temporal changes in vegetation structure additional to time since fire predict changes in bird occurrence?

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Candy, Steven G; MacGregor, Christopher I; Banks, Sam C; Westgate, Martin; Ikin, Karen; Pierson, Jennifer; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Fire is a major ecological process in ecosystems globally. Its impacts on fauna can be both direct (e.g., mortality) and indirect (e.g., altered habitat), resulting in population recovery being driven by several possible mechanisms. Separating direct from indirect impacts of fire on faunal population recovery can be valuable in guiding management of biodiversity in fire-prone environments. However, resolving the influence of direct and indirect processes remains a key challenge because many processes affecting fauna can change concomitantly with time since fire. We explore the mechanisms influencing bird response to fire by posing the question, can temporal changes in vegetation structure predict changes in bird occurrence on sites, and can these be separated from other temporal changes using the surrogate of time since fire? We conducted a 12-yr study of bird and vegetation responses to fire at 124 sites across six vegetation classes in Booderee National Park, Australia. Approximately half of these sites, established in 2002, were burned by a large (>3000 ha) wildfire in 2003. To disentangle collinear effects of temporal changes in vegetation and direct demographic effects on population recovery that are subsumed by time since fire, we incorporated both longitudinal and cross-sectional vegetation effects in addition to time since fire within logistic structural equation models. We identified temporal changes in vegetation structure and richness of plant and bird species that characterized burned and unburned sites in all vegetation classes. For nine bird species, a significant component of the year trend was driven by temporal trends in one of three vegetation variables (number of understory or midstory plant species, or midstory cover). By contrast, we could not separate temporal effects between time since fire and vegetation attributes for bird species richness, reporting rate, and the occurrence of 11 other bird species. Our findings help identify species for

  16. Additional Constraints on the Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G. M.; Canales, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the uppermost ~km of Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex at 30°N on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, using pre-existing multichannel seismic data. The Synthetic On- Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method that we employ downward continues both the shots and receivers to a depth just above the seafloor. This allows us to pick refracted arrivals recorded on the streamer at very-near offset, providing constraints from rays that are received within the 300-2000 m range that was unavailable to earlier studies where standard shot gathers had been analyzed. Thus, we can better model the upper few hundred meters of the section which, in turn, adds confidence for determining the deeper (400-1500 m) structure. New work on a ridge-parallel line has been added to last year's work on a cross-axis line over the Central Dome of the massif. Tomographic results are similar for these crossing lines: a thin (100-150 m) low velocity (< 3 km/s) layer caps the dome; high horizontal gradients (>1.25 s-1) occur in local (1-2 km wide) regions within these 6-8 km long subsections of the MCS lines analyzed to date; and very high vertical velocity gradients, greater than 3.75 s-1, occur within the km just below the exposed detachment in these areas. We obtain general agreement with Canales et al., 2008, results over the Central Dome but our models suggest a finer scale lateral heterogeneity. We have begun analysis of additional and extended MCS lines over the domal core of the massif and our priority for this presentation is to assess the detailed structure of the Southern Ridge. In at least some areas the thin, low velocity layer contrasts sufficiently with underlying material that a clear refracted arrival is visible in supergathers. We will determine whether the low velocity layer persists over the whole dome or if it is restricted to the Central Dome. An important question is whether its thickness on the Southern Ridge, if it exists there, differs from that

  17. Stiffness tuning of FeGa structures manufactured by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the use of Galfenol (FeGa) composite beams as solid-state, adaptive vibration absorbers that have an electrically-tunable sti ness. The study encompasses the manufacture of these structures by ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) and the formulation of a continuous model for the beams' bending vibrations. The beams' 1st and 3rd resonant frequencies are calculated as a function of base acceleration, Galfenol volume fraction, and DC magnetic eld. The e ects of an axial force, viscoelastic material damping, beam nonuniformity, and Galfenol's nonlinear behavior are incorporated. Autoresonant feedback control is used as a numerical technique to maintain the resonant state under changes in the inputs. The model is validated by comparing (1) calculated and analytical frequency responses and (2) calculated and measured resonant frequencies and modes shapes of a Galfenol/Al 6061 composite beam that was manufactured using UAM. The modeling results show that by varying the DC magnetic eld, the resonant frequency can be tuned between 3 % and 51 % for Galfenol/Al 6061 composites containing from 10 % to 100 % Galfenol by volume, respectively. The magnitude of this change will increase for composites that have a softer matrix. The axial force was found to have only a small e ect on the maximum resonant frequency tunability, but, for high Galfenol volume fractions, was also found to broaden the region over which tuning can occur.

  18. Boosted structured additive regression for Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation modeling.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Michael; Scharl, Theresa; Luchner, Markus; Striedner, Gerald; Leisch, Friedrich

    2017-02-01

    The quality of biopharmaceuticals and patients' safety are of highest priority and there are tremendous efforts to replace empirical production process designs by knowledge-based approaches. Main challenge in this context is that real-time access to process variables related to product quality and quantity is severely limited. To date comprehensive on- and offline monitoring platforms are used to generate process data sets that allow for development of mechanistic and/or data driven models for real-time prediction of these important quantities. Ultimate goal is to implement model based feed-back control loops that facilitate online control of product quality. In this contribution, we explore structured additive regression (STAR) models in combination with boosting as a variable selection tool for modeling the cell dry mass, product concentration, and optical density on the basis of online available process variables and two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic data. STAR models are powerful extensions of linear models allowing for inclusion of smooth effects or interactions between predictors. Boosting constructs the final model in a stepwise manner and provides a variable importance measure via predictor selection frequencies. Our results show that the cell dry mass can be modeled with a relative error of about ±3%, the optical density with ±6%, the soluble protein with ±16%, and the insoluble product with an accuracy of ±12%. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 321-334. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Beyond the Twilight Zone: automated prediction of structural properties of proteins by recursive neural networks and remote homology information.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Catherine; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2009-10-01

    The prediction of 1D structural properties of proteins is an important step toward the prediction of protein structure and function, not only in the ab initio case but also when homology information to known structures is available. Despite this the vast majority of 1D predictors do not incorporate homology information into the prediction process. We develop a novel structural alignment method, SAMD, which we use to build alignments of putative remote homologues that we compress into templates of structural frequency profiles. We use these templates as additional input to ensembles of recursive neural networks, which we specialise for the prediction of query sequences that show only remote homology to any Protein Data Bank structure. We predict four 1D structural properties - secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, backbone structural motifs, and contact density. Secondary structure prediction accuracy, tested by five-fold cross-validation on a large set of proteins allowing less than 25% sequence identity between training and test set and query sequences and templates, exceeds 82%, outperforming its ab initio counterpart, other state-of-the-art secondary structure predictors (Jpred 3 and PSIPRED) and two other systems based on PSI-BLAST and COMPASS templates. We show that structural information from homologues improves prediction accuracy well beyond the Twilight Zone of sequence similarity, even below 5% sequence identity, for all four structural properties. Significant improvement over the extraction of structural information directly from PDB templates suggests that the combination of sequence and template information is more informative than templates alone.

  20. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  1. Utilizing the Structure and Content Information for XML Document Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tien; Kutty, Sangeetha; Nayak, Richi

    This paper reports on the experiments and results of a clustering approach used in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge. The clustering approach utilizes both the structure and content information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. A latent semantic kernel (LSK) is used to measure the semantic similarity between XML documents based on their content features. The construction of a latent semantic kernel involves the computing of singular vector decomposition (SVD). On a large feature space matrix, the computation of SVD is very expensive in terms of time and memory requirements. Thus in this clustering approach, the dimension of the document space of a term-document matrix is reduced before performing SVD. The document space reduction is based on the common structural information of the Wikipedia XML document collection. The proposed clustering approach has shown to be effective on the Wikipedia collection in the INEX 2008 document mining challenge.

  2. Eco-evolutionary dynamics, coding structure and the information threshold

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amount of information that can be maintained in an evolutionary system of replicators is limited by genome length, the number of errors during replication (mutation rate) and various external factors that influence the selection pressure. To date, this phenomenon, known as the information threshold, has been studied (both genotypically and phenotypically) in a constant environment and with respect to maintenance (as opposed to accumulation) of information. Here we take a broader perspective on this problem by studying the accumulation of information in an ecosystem, given an evolvable coding structure. Moreover, our setup allows for individual based as well as ecosystem based solutions. That is, all functions can be performed by individual replicators, or complementing functions can be performed by different replicators. In this setup, where both the ecosystem and the individual genomes can evolve their structure, we study how populations cope with high mutation rates and accordingly how the information threshold might be alleviated. Results We observe that the first response to increased mutation rates is a change in coding structure. At moderate mutation rates evolution leads to longer genomes with a higher diversity than at high mutation rates. Thus, counter-intuitively, at higher mutation rates diversity is reduced and the efficacy of the evolutionary process is decreased. Therefore, moderate mutation rates allow for more degrees of freedom in exploring genotype space during the evolutionary trajectory, facilitating the emergence of solutions. When an individual based solution cannot be attained due to high mutation rates, spatial structuring of the ecosystem can accommodate the evolution of ecosystem based solutions. Conclusions We conclude that the evolutionary freedom (eg. the number of genotypes that can be reached by evolution) is increasingly restricted by higher mutation rates. In the case of such severe mutation rates that an individual

  3. Encoding techniques for complex information structures in connectionist systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1990-01-01

    Two general information encoding techniques called relative position encoding and pattern similarity association are presented. They are claimed to be a convenient basis for the connectionist implementation of complex, short term information processing of the sort needed in common sense reasoning, semantic/pragmatic interpretation of natural language utterances, and other types of high level cognitive processing. The relationships of the techniques to other connectionist information-structuring methods, and also to methods used in computers, are discussed in detail. The rich inter-relationships of these other connectionist and computer methods are also clarified. The particular, simple forms are discussed that the relative position encoding and pattern similarity association techniques take in the author's own connectionist system, called Conposit, in order to clarify some issues and to provide evidence that the techniques are indeed useful in practice.

  4. Hidden structures of information transport underlying spiral wave dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; James, Ryan G.

    2017-01-01

    A spiral wave is a macroscopic dynamics of excitable media that plays an important role in several distinct systems, including the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, seizures in the brain, and lethal arrhythmia in the heart. Because the spiral wave dynamics can exhibit a wide spectrum of behaviors, its precise quantification can be challenging. Here we present a hybrid geometric and information-theoretic approach to quantifying the spiral wave dynamics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by applying it to numerical simulations of a two-dimensional excitable medium with different numbers and spatial patterns of spiral waves. We show that, by defining the information flow over the excitable medium, hidden coherent structures emerge that effectively quantify the information transport underlying the spiral wave dynamics. Most importantly, we find that some coherent structures become more clearly defined over a longer observation period. These findings provide validity with our approach to quantitatively characterize the spiral wave dynamics by focusing on information transport. Our approach is computationally efficient and is applicable to many excitable media of interest in distinct physical, chemical, and biological systems. Our approach could ultimately contribute to an improved therapy of clinical conditions such as seizures and cardiac arrhythmia by identifying potential targets of interventional therapies.

  5. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest Tm and Δm H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films.

  6. Register of experts for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    This register is comprised of a list of approximately 300 experts from approximately 90 organizations who have published results of theoretical and/or experimental research related to six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure: (1) life prediction for structural materials, (2) fracture toughness testing, (3) fracture mechanics analysis; (4) hydrogen embrittlement; (5) protective coatings; and (6) composite materials. The criteria for the selection of names for the register are recent contributions to the literature, participation in or support of relevant research programs, and referral by peers. Each author included is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal field of expertise. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures. The register includes two indexes; an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with whom they are affiliated.

  7. Enhancing community detection by using local structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jian-Ming; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo

    2016-03-01

    Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods.

  8. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  9. Deriving Structural Information from Experimentally Measured Data on Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Allison, Jane R; Daura, Xavier; Dolenc, Jožica; Hansen, Niels; Mark, Alan E; Oostenbrink, Chris; Rusu, Victor H; Smith, Lorna J

    2016-12-23

    During the past half century, the number and accuracy of experimental techniques that can deliver values of observables for biomolecular systems have been steadily increasing. The conversion of a measured value Q(exp) of an observable quantity Q into structural information is, however, a task beset with theoretical and practical problems: 1) insufficient or inaccurate values of Q(exp) , 2) inaccuracies in the function Q(r→) used to relate the quantity Q to structure r→ , 3) how to account for the averaging inherent in the measurement of Q(exp) , 4) how to handle the possible multiple-valuedness of the inverse r→(Q) of the function Q(r→) , to mention a few. These apply to a variety of observable quantities Q and measurement techniques such as X-ray and neutron diffraction, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, free-electron laser imaging, cryo-electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Förster resonance energy transfer, atomic force microscopy and ion-mobility mass spectrometry. The process of deriving structural information from measured data is reviewed with an eye to non-experts and newcomers in the field using examples from the literature of the effect of the various choices and approximations involved in the process. A list of choices to be avoided is provided.

  10. Impact of zeolite-based nanomodified additive on the structure and strength of the cement stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, A. D.; Filippova, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Portland cement is the main binder in the building materials industry; its properties strongly influence properties of mortars and concretes. Some regions experience difficulties with delivery and storage of Portland cement, raising the need to develop an effective additive from the available raw materials. Such materials for the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are zeolite-containing rocks. Studies have shown that introducing of dibutylphthalate to the composition of modified additive during mechanochemical activation leads to achievement of up to 11% of total amount particles with the size of 3-30 nm. After introducing 0.5% of the obtained additives, the compressive strength of cement-sand slurry samples increases up to 28%. Positive effect of additives introduction is also observed at high flow rate of water (W / C = 0.7). Gaining strength reaches 23%, allowing the efficient use of additive for movable mixtures with enhanced strength properties. In general, the proposed supplement allows reducing the water flow in the solution without decreasing its mobility, and increasing strength properties, which makes it possible to obtain a whole class of solutions of modified cement binder. The market value of the developed additives is 18 rubles per 1 kg, making sound competition in the market of modifying additives.

  11. An Informationally Structured Room for Robotic Assistance †

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Tokuo; Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Chae, Hyunuk; Pyo, Yoonseok; Kusaka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Tsutomu; Morooka, Ken'ichi; Kurazume, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The application of assistive technologies for elderly people is one of the most promising and interesting scenarios for intelligent technologies in the present and near future. Moreover, the improvement of the quality of life for the elderly is one of the first priorities in modern countries and societies. In this work, we present an informationally structured room that is aimed at supporting the daily life activities of elderly people. This room integrates different sensor modalities in a natural and non-invasive way inside the environment. The information gathered by the sensors is processed and sent to a centralized management system, which makes it available to a service robot assisting the people. One important restriction of our intelligent room is reducing as much as possible any interference with daily activities. Finally, this paper presents several experiments and situations using our intelligent environment in cooperation with our service robot. PMID:25912347

  12. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  14. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  16. Assessment of additive/nonadditive effects in structure-activity relationships: implications for iterative drug design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogendra; Gillet, Valerie J; Howe, Trevor; Pastor, Joaquin; Oyarzabal, Julen; Willett, Peter

    2008-12-11

    Free-Wilson (FW) analysis is common practice in medicinal chemistry and is based on the assumption that the contributions to activity made by substituents at different substitution positions are additive. We analyze eight near complete combinatorial libraries assayed on several different biological response(s) (GPCR, ion channel, kinase and P450 targets) and show that only half-exhibit clear additive behavior, which leads us to question the concept of additivity that is widely taken for granted in drug discovery. Next, we report a series of retrospective experiments in which subsets are extracted from the libraries for FW analysis to determine the minimum attributes (size, distribution of substituents, and activity range) necessary to reach the same conclusion about additive/nonadditive effects. These attributes can provide guidelines on when it is appropriate to apply FW analysis as well as for library design, and they also have important implications for further steps in iterative drug design.

  17. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition.

  18. Register of experts for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.

    1973-01-01

    A list of approximately 150 experts from approximately 60 organizations who have published results of theoretical and/or experimental research related to six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure is presented. Each author included is listed by organizational affiliation, address and principal field of expertise. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the register are recent contributions to the literature, participation in or support of relevant research programs, and referral by peers. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures. The Register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with whom they are affiliated.

  19. Structural diversity of halocarbonyl molybdenum and tungsten PNP pincer complexes through ligand modifications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complete crystallographic data and technical details in CIF format for 5a, 5b·1.5CH2Cl2, 6a·CDCl3, 7a, 8a and 10. Atomic coordinates for all DFT optimized structures. CCDC 1478552–1478557. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6dt02251k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Sara R. M. M.; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of a series of halocarbonyl Mo(ii) and W(ii) complexes of the types [M(PNP)(CO)3X]X and [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] (M = Mo, W; X = I, Br), featuring PNP pincer ligands based on a 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold. The complexes were prepared and fully characterized. The syntheses of these complexes were accomplished by treatment of [M(PNP)(CO)3] with stoichiometric amounts of I2 and Br2, respectively. The modification of the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold by introducing NMe and NPh instead of NH spacers with concomitant modification of the phosphine moieties changed the steric and electronic properties of the PNP ligand significantly. While in the case of NH linkers exclusively cationic seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)3X]+ were obtained with NMe and NPh spacers neutral seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] were afforded. In the case of the latter, when the reaction is performed in the presence of CO also [M(PNP)(CO)3X]+ complexes are formed which slowly lose CO to give [M(PNP)(CO)2X2]. The halocarbonyl tungsten chemistry parallels that of molybdenum. The only exception is molybdenum in conjunction with the PNPMe-iPr ligand, where the coordinatively unsaturated complex [Mo(PNPMe-iPr)(CO)X2] is formed. DFT mechanistic studies reveal that the seven-coordinate complexes should be the thermodynamic as well as the kinetic products. Since [Mo(PNPMe-iPr)(CO)X2] is the observed product it suggests that the reaction follows an alternative path. Structures of representative complexes were determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. PMID:27513832

  20. B2 structure of high-entropy alloys with addition of Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhao, M.; Li, J. C.; Jiang, Q.

    2008-12-01

    A series of AlCrCoNiFe based alloys with equal percentage of principal components (high-entropy alloys or HE alloys) is fabricated. The related crystalline structures of the alloys are measured and calculated. Results show that the formed bcc phase is a compound based B2 structure where there is partial ionic bonding between Al and other transition metals. Thus, the bcc structure of the alloys should be a B2 instead of an A2 due to the large difference in electronegativities among the components consisting of the HE alloys.

  1. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de

    2010-07-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation for current data, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m{sub ν} presently derived from LSS combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data does not in fact arise from the possible small-scale power suppression due to neutrino free-streaming, if we limit the model framework to minimal ΛCDM+m{sub ν}. However, in more complicated models, such as those extended with extra light degrees of freedom and a dark energy equation of state parameter w differing from -1, shape information becomes crucial for the resolution of parameter degeneracies. This conclusion will remain true even when data from the Planck spacecraft are combined with SDSS DR7 data. In the course of our analysis, we update both the BAO likelihood function by including an exact numerical calculation of the time of decoupling, as well as the HPS likelihood, by introducing a new dewiggling procedure that generalises the previous approach to models with an arbitrary sound horizon at decoupling. These changes allow a consistent application of the BAO and HPS data sets to a much wider class of models, including the ones considered in this work. All the cases considered here are compatible with the conservative 95%-bounds Σm{sub ν} < 1.16eV, N{sub eff} = 4.8±2.0.

  2. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p = 0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: −0.002–0.008, p = 0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  3. The Generalization of Mutual Information as the Information between a Set of Variables: The Information Correlation Function Hierarchy and the Information Structure of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this paper is a hierarchy of information-like functions, here named the information correlation functions, where each function of the hierarchy may be thought of as the information between the variables it depends upon. The information correlation functions are particularly suited to the description of the emergence of complex behaviors due to many- body or many-agent processes. They are particularly well suited to the quantification of the decomposition of the information carried among a set of variables or agents, and its subsets. In more graphical language, they provide the information theoretic basis for understanding the synergistic and non-synergistic components of a system, and as such should serve as a forceful toolkit for the analysis of the complexity structure of complex many agent systems. The information correlation functions are the natural generalization to an arbitrary number of sets of variables of the sequence starting with the entropy function (one set of variables) and the mutual information function (two sets). We start by describing the traditional measures of information (entropy) and mutual information.

  4. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  5. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  6. Thermodynamic and Structural Properties of Methanol-Water Solutions Using Non-Additive Interaction Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yang; Warren, G. Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    We study bulk structural and thermodynamic properties of methanol-water solutions via molecular dynamics simulations using novel interaction potentials based on the charge equilibration (fluctuating charge) formalism to explicitly account for molecular polarization at the atomic level. The study uses the TIP4P-FQ potential for water-water interactions, and the CHARMM-based (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) fluctuating charge potential for methanol-methanol and methanol-water interactions. In terms of bulk solution properties, we discuss liquid densities, enthalpies of mixing, dielectric constants, self-diffusion constants, as well as structural properties related to local hydrogen bonding structure as manifested in radial distribution functions and cluster analysis. We further explore the electronic response of water and methanol in the differing local environments established by the interaction of each species predominantly with molecules of the other species. The current force field for the alcohol-water interaction performs reasonably well for most properties, with the greatest deviation from experiment observed for the excess mixing enthalpies, which are predicted to be too favorable. This is qualitatively consistent with the overestimation of the methanol-water gas-phase interaction energy for the lowest-energy conformer (methanol as proton donor). Hydration free energies for methanol in TIP4P-FQ water are predicted to be −5.6±0.2 kcal/mole, in respectable agreement with the experimental value of −5.1 kcal/mole. With respect to solution micro-structure, the present cluster analysis suggests that the micro-scale environment for concentrations where select thermodynamic quantities reach extremal values is described by a bi-percolating network structure. PMID:18074339

  7. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  8. Structure-property effects of tantalum additions to nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckel, R. W.; Pletka, B. J.; Koss, D. A.; Jackson, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The characterization of the effect of Ta on the structure of Ni base superalloys, the determination of the effects of Ta (structure) variations on the mechanical, thermal, and oxidation behavior, and the identification of alloying elements which have potential as substitutes for Ta are investigated. Mar M247 type alloys are emphasized; nominal and analyzed compositions of ten alloys under study are given. X-ray and composition analysis are being used to determine the partitioning of alloying elements between gamma, gamma primes, and MC (cubic) as a function of Ta content. The diffusional interactions of the Mar M247-type alloys with as cast beta + gamma alloys are studied to determine the effects of Ta on alloy/coating degradation.

  9. Contribution of rheological characteristics of pavement structure with addition of brick waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senisna, Zoubida; Bentebba, Med Tahar

    2017-02-01

    The construction and demolition waste at the end of the cycle are often a threat for the environment due to their congestion and biodegradability. The presented research work aims to develop these wastes such as the waste of pavements structure brick. It refers to the behavior of modified asphalt mixture (bituminous grave) by adding the waste of the grinding yellow brick, which is used in the construction of buildings. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and compare the physical and mechanical performance roadway structure (modified bituminous Gravel (GB 0/20)) by replacing natural sand partly mix (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% or completely by brick waste sand) and determine the optimal composition. Mechanical and rheological performance give the best results. The results show that the use of brick waste sand leads to a reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of GB 0/20.

  10. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  11. Chief Joseph Dam, Columbia River, Washington, Additional Units and Structural Modification Foundation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    that include granodiorite , granodiorite gneiss, dark schistose granodiorite , hornblende granodiorite , and lamprophyre. These various rock types...exhibit different characteristics of soundness as described in the paragraphs below: a. Granodiorite is the predominant rock type. It is hard, medium to...4 f22 b. Granodiorite gneiss is a hard, medium to coarse grained, light gray to gray colored rock which exhibits a banded structure with mineral

  12. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  13. [Effects of nitrogen and water addition on soil bacterial diversity and community structure in temperate grasslands in northern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Li, Xiao-bing; Wang, Ru-zhen; Cai, Jiang-ping; Xu, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Yu-ge; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we measured the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community structure to nitrogen (N) and water addition in the typical temperate grassland in northern China. Results showed that N addition significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) under regular precipitation treatment. Similar declined trends of MBC and MBN caused by N addition were also found under increased precipitation condition. Nevertheless, water addition alleviated the inhibition by N addition. N addition exerted no significant effects. on bacterial α-diversity indices, including richness, Shannon diversity and evenness index under regular precipitation condition. Precipitation increment tended to increase bacterial α-diversity, and the diversity indices of each N gradient under regular precipitation were much lower than that of the corresponding N addition rate under increased precipitation. Correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, nitrate (NO3(-)-N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) were significantly negatively correlated with bacterial evenness index, and MBC and MBN had a significant positive correlation with bacterial richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination illustrated that the bacterial communities were significantly separated by N addition rates, under both water ambient and water addition treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil MBC, MBN, pH and NH4+-N were the key environmental factors for shaping bacterial communities.

  14. Molecular dynamics of protein kinase-inhibitor complexes: a valid structural information.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. They have been identified as being implicated in many diseases. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic data exist for many PKs and, in many cases, these structures are co-complexed with inhibitors. Although this valuable information confirms the precise structure of PKs and their complexes, it ignores the dynamic movements of the structures which are relevant to explain the affinities and selectivity of the ligands, to characterize the thermodynamics of the solvated complexes, and to derive predictive models. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been increasingly used in recent years in structure-based drug design. MD is a very useful computational method and a great counterpart for experimentalists, which helps them to derive important additional molecular information. That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on scales where motion of individual atoms can be tracked. MD can be used to sample dynamic molecular processes, and can be complemented with more advanced computational methods (e.g., free energy calculations, structure-activity relationship analysis). This review focuses on the most commonly applications to study PK-inhibitor complexes using MD simulations. Our aim is that researchers working in the design of PK inhibitors be aware of the benefits of this powerful tool in the design of potent and selective PK inhibitors.

  15. Effects of task autonomy on performance: an extended model considering motivational, informational, and structural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Langfred, Claus W; Moye, Neta A

    2004-12-01

    A model explaining the relationship between task autonomy and performance is proposed that incorporates 3 different causal mechanisms. The performance benefits of task autonomy may be realized by increased motivation (motivational mechanisms), by capitalization of information asymmetries (informational mechanisms), or by better alignment with task and organizational structures (structural mechanisms). Further, it is proposed that these performance benefits are moderated by a variety of variables ranging from individual traits to organizational design. This model may provide a means for accounting for the sometimes inconsistent findings in the empirical literature exploring the relationship between autonomy and performance. The model also offers guidance in the search for additional boundary conditions as well as prescriptive guidelines for the allocation of autonomy in practice.

  16. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  17. Influence of additives on the structure of surfactant-free microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J; Touraud, D; Prévost, S; Diat, O; Zemb, T; Kunz, W

    2015-12-28

    We study the addition of electrolytes to surfactant-free microemulsions in the domain where polydisperse pre-Ouzo aggregates are present. As in previous studies, the microemulsion is the ternary system water/ethanol/1-octanol, where ethanol acts as co-solvent. Addition of electrolytes modifies the static X-ray and neutron scattering, and dynamic light scattering patterns, as well as the position of the miscibility gap, where spontaneous emulsification occurs upon dilution with water. All observations can be rationalized considering that electrolytes are either "salting out" the ethanol, which is the main component of the interface stabilizing the aggregates, or producing charge separation via the antagonistic ion effect discovered by Onuki et al. Amphiphilic electrolytes, such as sodium dodecylsulfate or sodium dietheylhexylphosphate, induce a gradual transition towards monodisperse ionic micelles with their characteristic broad scattering "peak". In these micelles the ethanol plays then the role of a cosurfactant. Dynamic light scattering can only be understood by combination of fluctuations of aggregate concentration due to the vicinity of a critical point and in-out fluctuations of ethanol.

  18. Effect of reduction of strategic Columbium addition in 718 Alloy on the structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, K. R.; Wallace, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Inconel 718, with reduced Cb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Cb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0% to 5.8% were made for the Cb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Cb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Cb and 1.29% Ti were also studied. Tensile properties at rooom and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and an analysis of extracted phases were carried out for each of the alloys. Additions of solid solution elements to a reduced Cb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition. The solution and age alloys with substitutions of 1.27% i at 3.89% Cb had tensile properties similar top hose of the original alloy and stress-rupture properties superior to the original alloy. The improved stress-rupture properties were the result of significant precipitation of Ni3Ti-gamma prime in the alloy, which is more stable than gamma' at the elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, the new alloy benefits from gamma' strengthening. With more precise control and proper processing, the reduced Cb direct-age alloy could substitute for Alloy 718 in high strength applications.

  19. Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information processing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. Recent work shows that the cytoskeleton also orients much of the cell's metabolic and signal transduction machinery and that mechanical distortion of cells and the cytoskeleton through cell surface integrin receptors can profoundly affect cell behavior. In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. Part II of this article covers how combined use of tensegrity and solid-state mechanochemistry by cells may mediate mechanotransduction and facilitate integration of chemical and physical signals that are responsible for control of cell behavior. In addition, it examines how cell structural networks affect gene and protein signaling networks to produce characteristic phenotypes and cell fate transitions during tissue development.

  20. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  1. Numerical simulation of the fatigue behavior of additive manufactured titanium porous lattice structures.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of cell geometry and relative density on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of Titanium scaffolds produced by selective laser melting and electron beam melting techniques were numerically investigated by finite element analysis. The regular titanium lattice samples with three different unit cell geometries, namely, diamond, rhombic dodecahedron and truncated cuboctahedron, and the relative density range of 0.1-0.3 were analyzed under uniaxial cyclic compressive loading. A failure event based algorithm was employed to simulate fatigue failure in the cellular material. Stress-life approach was used to model fatigue failure of both bulk (struts) and cellular material. The predicted fatigue life and the damage pattern of all three structures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental fatigue investigations published in the literature. The results also showed that the relationship between fatigue strength and cycles to failure obeyed the power law. The coefficient of power function was shown to depend on relative density, geometry and fatigue properties of the bulk material while the exponent was only dependent on the fatigue behavior of the bulk material. The results also indicated the failure surface at an angle of 45° to the loading direction.

  2. ProFold: Protein Fold Classification with Additional Structural Features and a Novel Ensemble Classifier

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein fold classification plays an important role in both protein functional analysis and drug design. The number of proteins in PDB is very large, but only a very small part is categorized and stored in the SCOPe database. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method for protein fold classification. In recent years, a variety of classification methods have been used in many protein fold classification studies. In this study, we propose a novel classification method called proFold. We import protein tertiary structure in the period of feature extraction and employ a novel ensemble strategy in the period of classifier training. Compared with existing similar ensemble classifiers using the same widely used dataset (DD-dataset), proFold achieves 76.2% overall accuracy. Another two commonly used datasets, EDD-dataset and TG-dataset, are also tested, of which the accuracies are 93.2% and 94.3%, higher than the existing methods. ProFold is available to the public as a web-server. PMID:27660761

  3. Structural and electrochemical properties of succinonitrile-based gel polymer electrolytes: role of ionic liquid addition.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S A

    2013-06-20

    Experimental studies on the novel compositions of gel polymer electrolytes, comprised of plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) dispersed with pyrrolidinium and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) entrapped in a host polymer poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), are reported. The gel electrolytes are in the form of free-standing films with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The introduction of even a small content (~1 wt %) of ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf) in the PVdF-HFP/SN system (1:4 w/w) enhances the electrical conductivity by 4 orders of magnitude, that is, from ~10(-7) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The structural changes due to the entrapment of SN or SN/ILs mixtures and ion-SN-polymer interactions are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimmetry (DSC). Various physicochemical properties and fast ion conduction in the gel polymer membranes show their promising characteristics as electrolytes in different ionic devices including supercapacitors.

  4. Effect of nitrogen addition on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of In-Sn-Zn oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Suko, Ayaka; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-02-01

    Indium-tin-zinc oxide (ITZO) films were deposited at various nitrogen flow ratios using magnetron sputtering. At a nitrogen flow ratio of 40%, the structure of ITZO film changed from amorphous, with a short-range-ordered In2O3 phase, to a c-axis oriented InN polycrystalline phase, where InN starts to nucleate from an amorphous In2O3 matrix. Whereas, nitrogen addition had no obvious effect on the structure of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) films even at a nitrogen flow ratio of 100%. Nitrogen addition also suppressed the formation of oxygen-related vacancies in ITZO films when the nitrogen flow ratio was less than 20%, and higher nitrogen addition led to an increase in carrier density. Moreover, a red-shift in the optical band edge was observed as the nitrogen flow ratio increased, which could be attributed to the generation of InN crystallites. We anticipate that the present findings demonstrating nitrogen-addition induced structural changes can help to understand the environment-dependent instability in amorphous IGZO or ITZO based thin-film transistors (TFTs).

  5. Syntax Encodes Information Structure: Evidence from On-Line Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Meredith; Savova, Virginia; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Although sentences are thought to be generally easier to process when given information precedes new information, closer examination reveals that these preferences only manifest within some syntactic structures. Here, we examine the consequences of the relative ordering of given and new information ("information structure") for the on-line…

  6. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  7. The Effect of Boron Addition on the Atomic Structure and Microwave Magnetic Properties of FeGaB Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Yang, A; Chen, Y; Kirkland, J; Lou, J; Sun, N; Vittoria, C; Harris, V

    2009-01-01

    Varying amounts of boron were added to the host FeGa alloy to investigate its impact upon local atomic structure and magnetic and microwave properties. The impact of B upon the local atomic structure in FeGaB films was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The EXAFS fitting results revealed a contraction of lattice parameters with the introduction of B. The Debye-Waller factor determined from EXAFS fitting increases as a function of boron addition and abruptly changes during the structural evolution from crystalline to amorphous that occurs near 9% B. Upon the onset of this transition the static and microwave magnetic properties became exceptionally soft, with values of coercivity and ferromagnetic linewidth reducing to less than 1 Oe and 25 Oe, respectively.

  8. The effect of boron addition on the atomic structure and microwave magnetic properties of FeGaB thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinsheng; Yang, Aria; Chen, Yajie; Kirkland, J. P.; Lou, Jing; Sun, Nian X.; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vincent G.

    2009-04-01

    Varying amounts of boron were added to the host FeGa alloy to investigate its impact upon local atomic structure and magnetic and microwave properties. The impact of B upon the local atomic structure in FeGaB films was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The EXAFS fitting results revealed a contraction of lattice parameters with the introduction of B. The Debye-Waller factor determined from EXAFS fitting increases as a function of boron addition and abruptly changes during the structural evolution from crystalline to amorphous that occurs near 9% B. Upon the onset of this transition the static and microwave magnetic properties became exceptionally soft, with values of coercivity and ferromagnetic linewidth reducing to less than 1 Oe and 25 Oe, respectively.

  9. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  14. Toward Accessing Spatial Structure from Building Information Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; Bhatt, M.

    2011-08-01

    Data about building designs and layouts is becoming increasingly more readily available. In the near future, service personal (such as maintenance staff or emergency rescue workers) arriving at a building site will have immediate real-time access to enormous amounts of data relating to structural properties, utilities, materials, temperature, and so on. The critical problem for users is the taxing and error prone task of interpreting such a large body of facts in order to extract salient information. This is necessary for comprehending a situation and deciding on a plan of action, and is a particularly serious issue in time-critical and safety-critical activities such as firefighting. Current unifying building models such as the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), while being comprehensive, do not directly provide data structures that focus on spatial reasoning and spatial modalities that are required for high-level analytical tasks. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide computational tools for higher level querying and reasoning that shift the cognitive burden of dealing with enormous amounts of data away from the user. The user can then spend more energy and time in planning and decision making in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. We present an overview of our framework that provides users with an enhanced model of "built-up space". In order to test our approach using realistic design data (in terms of both scale and the nature of the building models) we describe how our system interfaces with IFC, and we conduct timing experiments to determine the practicality of our approach. We discuss general computational approaches for deriving higher-level spatial modalities by focusing on the example of route graphs. Finally, we present a firefighting scenario with alternative route graphs to motivate the application of our framework.

  15. Black box modeling of PIDs implemented in PLCs without structural information: a support vector regression approach.

    PubMed

    Salat, Robert; Awtoniuk, Michal

    In this report, the parameters identification of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm implemented in a programmable logic controller (PLC) using support vector regression (SVR) is presented. This report focuses on a black box model of the PID with additional functions and modifications provided by the manufacturers and without information on the exact structure. The process of feature selection and its impact on the training and testing abilities are emphasized. The method was tested on a real PLC (Siemens and General Electric) with the implemented PID. The results show that the SVR maps the function of the PID algorithms and the modifications introduced by the manufacturer of the PLC with high accuracy. With this approach, the simulation results can be directly used to tune the PID algorithms in the PLC. The method is sufficiently universal in that it can be applied to any PI or PID algorithm implemented in the PLC with additional functions and modifications that were previously considered to be trade secrets. This method can also be an alternative for engineers who need to tune the PID and do not have any such information on the structure and cannot use the default settings for the known structures.

  16. The Informational Text Structure Survey (ITS[superscript 2]): An Exploration of Primary Grade Teachers' Sensitivity to Text Structure in Young Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Kumar, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There has been no research reported about if or how well primary grade teachers can identify information text structures in children's authentic informational texts. The ability to do so accurately and reliably is a prerequisite for teachers to be able to teach students how to recognize and use text structures to assist them in comprehending…

  17. Revealing biological information using data structuring and automated learning.

    PubMed

    Mohorianu, Irina; Moulton, Vincent

    2010-11-01

    The intermediary steps between a biological hypothesis, concretized in the input data, and meaningful results, validated using biological experiments, commonly employ bioinformatics tools. Starting with storage of the data and ending with a statistical analysis of the significance of the results, every step in a bioinformatics analysis has been intensively studied and the resulting methods and models patented. This review summarizes the bioinformatics patents that have been developed mainly for the study of genes, and points out the universal applicability of bioinformatics methods to other related studies such as RNA interference. More specifically, we overview the steps undertaken in the majority of bioinformatics analyses, highlighting, for each, various approaches that have been developed to reveal details from different perspectives. First we consider data warehousing, the first task that has to be performed efficiently, optimizing the structure of the database, in order to facilitate both the subsequent steps and the retrieval of information. Next, we review data mining, which occupies the central part of most bioinformatics analyses, presenting patents concerning differential expression, unsupervised and supervised learning. Last, we discuss how networks of interactions of genes or other players in the cell may be created, which help draw biological conclusions and have been described in several patents.

  18. Effect of Nano-Particle Addition on Grain Structure Evolution of Friction Stir-Processed Al 6061 During Postweld Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junfeng; Lee, Bing Yang; Du, Zhenglin; Bi, Guijun; Tan, Ming Jen; Wei, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nano-composites is challenging because uniform dispersion of nano-sized reinforcements in metallic substrate is difficult to achieve using powder metallurgy or liquid processing methods. In the present study, Al-based nano-composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles have been successfully fabricated using friction stir processing. The effects of nano-Al2O3 particle addition on grain structure evolution of friction stir-processed Al matrix during post-weld annealing were investigated. It was revealed that the pinning effect of Al2O3 particles retarded grain growth and completely prevented abnormal grain growth during postweld annealing at 470°C. However, abnormal grain growth can still occur when the composite material was annealed at 530°C. The mechanism involved in the grain structure evolution and the effect of nano-sized particle addition on the mechanical properties were discussed therein.

  19. Fact Sheets and Additional information Regarding the 2012 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for particulate matter, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2012 PM NAAQS revision.

  20. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soyoung; Park, Keunwan; Ahn, Hee-Sung; Kim, Dongsup

    2010-07-15

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R{sup 2}: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  1. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  2. Information Science: On the Structure of its Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Werner; Rittel, Horst W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Today information science is confronted with three major handicaps: (a) to overcome its preoccupation with scientific and technical information; (b) to strip the eggshells" remaining from its ancestor disciplines; and (c) to find its systems approach." (Author)

  3. Predictability of gene ontology slim-terms from primary structure information in Embryophyta plant proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are the key elements on the path from genetic information to the development of life. The roles played by the different proteins are difficult to uncover experimentally as this process involves complex procedures such as genetic modifications, injection of fluorescent proteins, gene knock-out methods and others. The knowledge learned from each protein is usually annotated in databases through different methods such as the proposed by The Gene Ontology (GO) consortium. Different methods have been proposed in order to predict GO terms from primary structure information, but very few are available for large-scale functional annotation of plants, and reported success rates are much less than the reported by other non-plant predictors. This paper explores the predictability of GO annotations on proteins belonging to the Embryophyta group from a set of features extracted solely from their primary amino acid sequence. Results High predictability of several GO terms was found for Molecular Function and Cellular Component. As expected, a lower degree of predictability was found on Biological Process ontology annotations, although a few biological processes were easily predicted. Proteins related to transport and transcription were particularly well predicted from primary structure information. The most discriminant features for prediction were those related to electric charges of the amino-acid sequence and hydropathicity derived features. Conclusions An analysis of GO-slim terms predictability in plants was carried out, in order to determine single categories or groups of functions that are most related with primary structure information. For each highly predictable GO term, the responsible features of such successfulness were identified and discussed. In addition to most published studies, focused on few categories or single ontologies, results in this paper comprise a complete landscape of GO predictability from primary structure encompassing 75 GO

  4. Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-effect on structure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youxin; Shanjani, Yaser; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Grynpas, Marc; Wang, Rizhi; Pilliar, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (≈1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ≈1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming β-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ≈ 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites.

  5. Index structures for selective dissemination of information under the Boolean model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.W.; Garcia-Molina, H.

    1994-06-01

    The number, size, and user population of bibliographic and full-text document databases are rapidly growing. With a high document arrival rate, it becomes essential for users of such databases to have access to the very latest documents; yet the high document arrival rate also makes it difficult for users to keep themselves updated. It is desirable to allow users to submit profiles, i.e., queries that are constantly evaluated, so that they will be automatically informed of new additions that may be of interest. Such service is traditionally called Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). The high document arrival rate, the huge number of users, and the timeliness requirement of the service pose a challenge in achieving efficient SDI. In this article, we propose several index structures for indexing profiles and algorithms that efficiently match documents against large number of profiles. We also present analysis and simulation results to compare their performance under different scenarios. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  7. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  8. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must state briefly why the information is needed. (c) The Commandant (CG-5) must receive the request... decision on whether or not to approve the license application. (d) The Commandant (CG-5) will consider... the application process. (e) The Commandant (CG-5) may discuss the recommendation with...

  9. Aerosol based direct-write micro-additive fabrication method for sub-mm 3D metal-dielectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Taibur; Renaud, Luke; Heo, Deuk; Renn, Michael; Panat, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale is highly important in order to realize low-loss passives and GHz wavelength antennas with applications in wearable and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The inherent 2D nature of lithographic processes severely limits the available manufacturing routes to fabricate 3D structures. Further, the lithographic processes are subtractive and require the use of environmentally harmful chemicals. In this letter, we demonstrate an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale. A UV curable dielectric is dispensed from an Aerosol Jet system at 10-100 µm length scale and instantaneously cured to build complex 3D shapes at a length scale  <1 mm. A metal nanoparticle ink is then dispensed over the 3D dielectric using a combination of jetting action and tilted dispense head, also using the Aerosol Jet technique and at a length scale 10-100 µm, followed by the nanoparticle sintering. Simulation studies are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using such structures as mm-wave antennas. The manufacturing method described in this letter opens up the possibility of fabricating an entirely new class of custom-shaped 3D structures at a sub-mm length scale with potential applications in 3D antennas and passives.

  10. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  11. [Structural and molecular origin of information recording/reading].

    PubMed

    Kuzurman, P A; Arkhipova, G V

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of experimental data on the thermoinduced state of water dispersions of natural and synthetic phospholipids in the presence of nootropic agents, a new phenomenological molecular mechanism of information recording/reading was proposed. The mechanism is based on the polymorphism of membrane lipids. A new approach, to the problem of memory was suggested, which considers memory as an information data bank and separates this concept from the concept of the mechanisms of information recording/reading.

  12. 75 FR 50772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Importation Bond Structure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Structure AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ] ACTION: 60-Day... concerning the: Importation Bond Structure. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork...: Title: Importation Bond Structure. OMB Number: 1651-0050. Form Numbers: 301 and 5297. Abstract:...

  13. 78 FR 75576 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Importation Bond Structure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Structure AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... Importation Bond Structure. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of... Structure. OMB Number: 1651-0050. Form Number: CBP Forms 301 and 5297. Abstract: Bonds are used to...

  14. Phase behavior and hydrated solid structure in lysophospholipid/long-chain alcohol/water system and effect of cholesterol addition.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshikazu; Naito, Noboru; Yoshimura, Akio; Aramaki, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Phase behavior in lysophospholipid/long-chain alcohol/water system at 80°C was investigated using hexanol and oleyl alcohol as the long-chain alcohol. Similarly to hydrophilic surfactant, a micellar phase in a lysophospholipid/water system transitioned to a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase by the addition of long-chain alcohol. In the oleyl alcohol system the lamellar liquid-crystalline phase was observed in wider region compared to the hexanol system. The effect of cholesterol addition on the phase behavior was also studied. The region of liquid-crystalline phase and (reverse micellar + liquid-crystalline + water) phase shifted towards higher lysophospholipid concentrations. The structure of hydrated solid as well as the transition between lamellar liquid-crystalline phase and hydrated solid was analyzed by X-ray scattering measurement and differential scanning calorimetry measurement. It was revealed that the hydrated solid was α-type crystals with lamellar structure. The hydrated solid (gel)-liquid crystal transition temperature gradually decreased with increasing oleyl alcohol concentration and the decrement was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol.

  15. An additional S-shaped structure for sensitivity improvement of coaxial probe for permittivity determination of low loss materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xingmin; Jin, Wei; Yang, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    Permittivity measurement of materials is important in microwave chemistry, microwave material processing and microwave heating. The open-ended coaxial line method is one of the most popular and effective means for permittivity measurement. However, the conventional coaxial probe has difficulty in distinguishing small permittivity variations for low loss media. In this paper an additional S-shaped structure is proposed for sensitivity improvement of a coaxial probe for permittivity determination of low loss materials at 2.45 GHz. The small permittivity variation can be distinguished due to field enhancement generated by the additional S-shaped structure. We studied the variation of reflection coefficient amplitude for three kinds of samples with different moisture content, within the probe at different insertion depths. We find that the conventional coaxial probe cannot distinguish small permittivity variations until the moisture content of materials reaches 3%. Meanwhile, the probe with the S-shaped structure can detect such small permittivity variations when the moisture content of samples changes by only 1%. The experimental results demonstrate that the new probe proposed in this paper is reliable and feasible.

  16. Targeting and Structuring Information Resource Use: A Path toward Informed Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    A core skill for all physicians to master is that of information manager. Despite a rapidly expanding set of electronic and print-based information resources, clinicians continue to answer their clinical queries predominantly through informal or formal consultation. Even as new tools are brought to market, the majority of them present information…

  17. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-02-14

    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  18. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  19. Hierarchical organization and molecular diffusion in gold nanorod/silica supercrystal nanocomposites† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00712k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Modin, Evgeny; Hill, Eric H.; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization of gold nanorods was previously obtained on a substrate, allowing precise control over the morphology of the assemblies and macroscale spatial arrangement. Herein, a thorough description of these gold nanorod assemblies and their orientation within supercrystals is presented together with a sol–gel technique to protect the supercrystals with mesoporous silica films. The internal organization of the nanorods in the supercrystals was characterized by combining focused ion beam ablation and scanning electron microscopy. A mesoporous silica layer is grown both over the supercrystals and between the individual lamellae of gold nanorods inside the structure. This not only prevented the detachment of the supercrystal from the substrate in water, but also allowed small molecule analytes to infiltrate the structure. These nanocomposite substrates show superior Raman enhancement in comparison with gold supercrystals without silica owing to improved accessibility of the plasmonic hot spots to analytes. The patterned supercrystal arrays with enhanced optical and mechanical properties obtained in this work show potential for the practical implementation of nanostructured devices in spatially resolved ultradetection of biomarkers and other analytes. PMID:26961684

  20. Research Summary of an Additive Manufacturing Technology for the Fabrication of 3D Composites with Tailored Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Larry R.; Riddick, Jaret C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel additive manufacturing technology is used to create micro-composites, which can be tailored for specific end-use applications. The Field-Aided Laminar Composite (FALCom) process uses specifically focused electric fields to align nano- to micro-sized particles into chain-like structures, which are referred to as pseudo-fibers. These pseudo-fibers are then immediately frozen into place by incident ultraviolet radiation on the photopolymer matrix. The pseudo-fibers are arranged by design, and they are used to create three-dimensional composite structures. Multiple filler materials have been evaluated for use in the FALCom system; however, this report describes aluminum micro-particles that are aligned and oriented in an acrylic photopolymer matrix. A description of the technology and a review of experimental processing are shown, and conclusions, as well as, future work are discussed.

  1. Nitrogen addition and harvest frequency rather than initial plant species composition determine vertical structure and light interception in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ute; Isselstein, Johannes

    2015-07-21

    In biodiversity experiments based on seeded experimental communities, species richness and species composition exert a strong influence on canopy structure and can lead to an improved use of aboveground resources. In this study, we want to explore whether these findings are applicable to agriculturally managed permanent grassland. Vertical layered profiles of biomass, leaf area (LA) and light intensity were measured in a removal-type biodiversity experiment (GrassMan) to compare the canopy structure in grassland vegetation of different plant species composition (called sward types). Additionally, the altered sward types were subjected to four different management regimes by a combination of the factors fertilization (unfertilized, NPK fertilized) and cutting frequency (one late cut or three cuts). In spite of large compositional differences (ratio grasses : non-leguminous forbs : leguminous forbs ranging from 93 : 7 : 0 to 39 : 52 : 9), the vegetation of the same management regime hardly differed in its canopy structure, whereas the different management regimes led to distinct vertical profiles in the vegetation. However, the allocation of biomass in response to cutting and fertilization differed among the sward types. Vegetation dominated by grasses was denser and had more LA when fertilized compared with vegetation rich in dicots which merely grew taller. In functionally more diverse vegetation, light interception was not increased compared with vegetation consisting of more than 90 % of grasses in terms of biomass. Management had a much stronger influence on structure and light interception than plant species composition in this grassland experiment.

  2. Maintaining structural integrity of 4.5 V lithium cobalt oxide cathode with fumaronitrile as a novel electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianshu; Zheng, Xiongwen; Liao, Youhao; Huang, Qiming; Xing, Lidan; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2017-01-01

    The specific capacity of lithium-ion battery with lithium cobalt oxide as cathode depends on the upper limitation voltage for charge/discharge cycling, but this oxide tends to be destructed structurally when it is cycled in carbonate-based electrolyte under high voltage. We report a novel electrolyte additive, fumaronitrile (FN, CNsbnd CHdbnd CHsbnd CN), which can maintain the structural integrity of lithium cobalt oxide. Electrochemical measurements indicate that lithium cobalt oxide exhibits poor cyclic stability when it is cycled under 4.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) and the charged cathode suffers serious self-discharge in a base electrolyte, 1.0 mol L-1 LiPF6 in EC/EMC/DEC (3:5:2, by weight). These issues can be overcome effectively by adding 0.5% FN into the base electrolyte. Physical and chemical characterizations demonstrate that the poor cyclic stability and self-discharge of lithium cobalt oxide result from its structural destruction caused by HF formed from electrolyte decomposition, and FN yields a protective cathode interphase film which maintains the structural integrity of lithium cobalt oxide.

  3. A database paradigm for the management of DICOM-RT structure sets using a geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Weber; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Wang, Jason; Low, Daniel A.; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-01

    We devise a paradigm for representing the DICOM-RT structure sets in a database management system, in such way that secondary calculations of geometric information can be performed quickly from the existing contour definitions. The implementation of this paradigm is achieved using the PostgreSQL database system and the PostGIS extension, a geographic information system commonly used for encoding geographical map data. The proposed paradigm eliminates the overhead of retrieving large data records from the database, as well as the need to implement various numerical and data parsing routines, when additional information related to the geometry of the anatomy is desired.

  4. Providing additional information about the benefits of statins in a leaflet for patients with coronary heart disease: a qualitative study of the impact on attitudes and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; MacDonald, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of providing additional information about the potential benefits of simvastatin in a patient leaflet on attitudes and beliefs. Design Interview-based study using a generic qualitative approach and framework analysis. Participants 21 participants receiving a prescription for simvastatin were recruited from a general practitioner practice (from a total of 120). 8 participants were women; the age range was 55–92. Intervention Participants were provided with leaflets showing one of 3 types of additional benefit information: (1) textual statement, (2) number needed to treat (NNT) or (3) natural frequency. Semistructured interviews explored patient's attitudes and beliefs. Results A descriptive narrative of preferences for format suggested patients prefer textual as opposed to numerical benefit information. Significant barriers to the acceptance of numerical benefit information included difficulty in understanding the numbers. Patients overestimated the benefits of statins and expressed surprise at the numerical information. Conclusions Textual information was preferred but numerical information, in particular in the form of a natural frequency, may help patients make judgements about their medicines. NNTs were found to be very difficult to understand. This raises the prospect that some patients might reject medicines because of disappointment with the perceived low benefits of their medicines. The self-reported impact on behaviour appeared minimal with reports of intentions to ‘do what the doctor tells me’. Further research is needed to explore the impact of such statements on people who are yet to be prescribed a statin. PMID:27913558

  5. A Cautionary Note on the Use of Information Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Modeling with Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2004-01-01

    Information fit indexes such as Akaike Information Criterion, Consistent Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and the expected cross validation index can be valuable in assessing the relative fit of structural equation models that differ regarding restrictiveness. In cases in which models without mean restrictions (i.e.,…

  6. Information theory provides a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of protein structure predictions

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Rosemarie; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    Protein structure prediction has a number of important ad hoc similarity measures for evaluating predictions, but would benefit from a measure that is able to provide a common framework for a broad range of comparisons. Here we show that a mutual information-like measure can provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating protein structure prediction of all types. We discuss the concept of information, its application to secondary structure, and the obstacle to applying it to 3D structure. Based on insights from the secondary structure case, we present an approach to work around the 3D difficulties, and develop a method to measure the mutual information provided by a 3D structure prediction. We integrate the evaluation of all types of protein structure prediction into a single frame work, and compare the amount of information provided by various prediction methods, including secondary structure prediction. Within this broadened framework, the idea that structure is better preserved than sequence during evolution is evaluated quantitatively for the globin family. A nearly perfect sequence match in the globin family corresponds to about 300 bits of information, whereas a nearly perfect structural match for the same two proteins corresponds to about 2500 bits of information, where bits of information describes the probability of obtaining a match of similar closeness by chance. Mutual information provides both a theoretical basis for evaluating structure similarity and an explanatory surround for existing similarity measures. PMID:18704942

  7. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  8. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  9. Separate information required for nuclear and subnuclear localization: additional complexity in localizing an enzyme shared by mitochondria and nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, A M; Joyce, P B; Hopper, A K; Martin, N C

    1992-01-01

    The TRM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a tRNA modification enzyme, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine-specific tRNA methyltransferase (m2(2)Gtase), shared by mitochondria and nuclei. Immunofluorescent staining at the nuclear periphery demonstrates that m2(2)Gtase localizes at or near the nuclear membrane. In determining sequences necessary for targeting the enzyme to nuclei and mitochondria, we found that information required to deliver the enzyme to the nucleus is not sufficient for its correct subnuclear localization. We also determined that mislocalizing the enzyme from the nucleus to the cytoplasm does not destroy its biological function. This change in location was caused by altering a sequence similar to other known nuclear targeting signals (KKSKKKRC), suggesting that shared enzymes are likely to use the same import pathway as proteins that localize only to the nucleus. As with other well-characterized mitochondrial proteins, the mitochondrial import of the shared methyltransferase depends on amino-terminal amino acids, and removal of the first 48 amino acids prevents its import into mitochondria. While this truncated protein is still imported into nuclei, the immunofluorescent staining is uniform throughout rather than at the nuclear periphery, a staining pattern identical to that described for a fusion protein consisting of the first 213 amino acids of m2(2)Gtase in frame with beta-galactosidase. As both of these proteins together contain the entire m2(2)Gtase coding region, the information necessary for association with the nuclear periphery must be more complex than the short linear sequence necessary for nuclear localization. Images PMID:1448094

  10. Register of specialized sources for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Denny, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Specialized information sources that generate information relative to six problem areas in aerospace mechanics of structural failure are identified. Selection for inclusion was based upon information obtained from the individual knowledge and professional contacts of Martin Marietta Aerospace staff members and the information uncovered by the staff of technical reviewers. Activities listed perform basic or applied research related to the mechanics of structural failure and publish the results of such research. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, original sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures.

  11. Effects of Fe2O3 Additive on the Structure and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT-PFW-PMN Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Ximei; Yang, Zupei

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary piezoelectric ceramics 0.90Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-0.03Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3-0.07Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZT-PFW-PMN) + 0.2 wt.% CeO2 + x wt.% Fe2O3 ( x = 0.0 to 0.20) were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The effects of Fe2O3 addition on the structure and electrical properties of the system were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the phase structure of all samples was tetragonal phase and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were significantly promoted with increasing Fe2O3 addition. The coercive field E C and internal bias field E i were found to increase with increasing Fe2O3 content. As a result, addition of 0.05 wt.% Fe2O3 for this system resulted in excellent electrical properties, with the following parameter values: Q m = 1839, K p = 0.61, d 33 = 382 pC/N, ɛ r = 1823, tan δ = 0.0054, P r = 19.26 μC/cm2, E C = 13.28 kV/cm, and E i = 0.76 kV/cm. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-modified PZT-PFW-PMN ceramics exhibited favorable properties and could be good candidates for use in high-power piezoelectric transformer applications.

  12. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre.

    PubMed

    Møller, Sandie M; Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Straadt, Ida K; Thybo, Anette K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2011-04-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T₂ relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60 °C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9 min), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T₂ relaxation measurements and WBC determined by centrifugation revealed that T₂ relaxation times were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in WBC for both non-pressure and pressure-treated sausages. However, only 49% of the variation was explained for pressure-treated sausages with carrot fibre, indicating that combining addition of fibre and high pressure treatment causes non-coherent changes in T₂ NMR relaxation times.

  13. An approach to knowledge structuring for advanced phases of the Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goranson, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) must employ on enlightened approach to its object structure, but basic issues in conceptual structuring remain to be resolved. Sirius outlines the necessary agenda and reports on progress toward solutions.

  14. Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Buckley, Daniel H; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2013-07-01

    We investigated how conversion from conventional agriculture to organic management affected the structure and biogeochemical function of soil microbial communities. We hypothesized the following. (1) Changing agricultural management practices will alter soil microbial community structure driven by increasing microbial diversity in organic management. (2) Organically managed soil microbial communities will mineralize more N and will also mineralize more N in response to substrate addition than conventionally managed soil communities. (3) Microbial communities under organic management will be more efficient and respire less added C. Soils from organically and conventionally managed agroecosystems were incubated with and without glucose ((13)C) additions at constant soil moisture. We extracted soil genomic DNA before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting of soil bacteria and fungi. We measured soil C and N pools before and after incubation, and we tracked total C respired and N mineralized at several points during the incubation. Twenty years of organic management altered soil bacterial and fungal community structure compared to continuous conventional management with the bacterial differences caused primarily by a large increase in diversity. Organically managed soils mineralized twice as much NO3 (-) as conventionally managed ones (44 vs. 23 μg N/g soil, respectively) and increased mineralization when labile C was added. There was no difference in respiration, but organically managed soils had larger pools of C suggesting greater efficiency in terms of respiration per unit soil C. These results indicate that the organic management induced a change in community composition resulting in a more diverse community with enhanced activity towards labile substrates and greater capacity to mineralize N.

  15. Formal and Informal Structures for Collaboration on a Campus-Wide Information Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Jordana M. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Information literacy initiatives provide a vehicle for academic librarians to become agents of positive change. A campus-wide Information Literacy Initiative can improve teaching and learning, and further the mission of the institution. The Instruction Librarian may travel across literal and figurative boundaries. Librarians charged with designing…

  16. Effect of an iodine-containing additive on the composition, structure, and morphology of chemically deposited lead selenide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Z. I.; Bakanov, V. M.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. F.; Voronin, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of an ammonium iodide additive on the elemental and phase compositions, structural parameters, and surface morphology of lead selenide films synthesized by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. It has been established that the obtained PbSe films have a multiphase structure. The iodine content of the films is directly proportional to the NH4I concentration in the reaction mixture and increases linearly with an increase in this concentration to 0.25 mol/L. No individual iodine-containing phases have been detected in the film structure. However, the introduction of iodine leads to an increase in the PbSe phase lattice parameter from ˜6.11 to ˜6.16 Å and to a decrease in the crystal grain size to ˜ 20 nm. It has been found that there is a correlation between the grain size, lattice parameter, and ammonium iodide concentration in the reaction mixture, which can be explained by changes in the film growth mechanism at the initial growth steps.

  17. Techniques for Assessing and Representing Information in Cognitive Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James

    1980-01-01

    Describes cognitive mapping techniques compatible with the information processing view of human thinking. Student knowledge was assessed by clinical interview and performance on paper-and-pencil tasks. Concept maps and semantic networks were then constructed. Uses that these assessment tasks and representations might have in science education are…

  18. Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topogical Insulator Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-28

    formation, manipulation, entanglement and detection of Majorana fermions in diamond-topological insulator- superconductor heterojunctions. Furthermore...between Superconductors and Topological Insulators Recent advances have revealed a new type of information processing, topological quantum...vortex lines6 and lattices7 in TI – superconductor heterostructures. Some of our most impactful work in this area has come through collaborations with

  19. The Structural Correlates of Statistical Information Processing during Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Isabelle; Hasson, Uri; Tremblay, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The processing of continuous and complex auditory signals such as speech relies on the ability to use statistical cues (e.g. transitional probabilities). In this study, participants heard short auditory sequences composed either of Italian syllables or bird songs and completed a regularity-rating task. Behaviorally, participants were better at differentiating between levels of regularity in the syllable sequences than in the bird song sequences. Inter-individual differences in sensitivity to regularity for speech stimuli were correlated with variations in surface-based cortical thickness (CT). These correlations were found in several cortical areas including regions previously associated with statistical structure processing (e.g. bilateral superior temporal sulcus, left precentral sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus), as well other regions (e.g. left insula, bilateral superior frontal gyrus/sulcus and supramarginal gyrus). In all regions, this correlation was positive suggesting that thicker cortex is related to higher sensitivity to variations in the statistical structure of auditory sequences. Overall, these results suggest that inter-individual differences in CT within a distributed network of cortical regions involved in statistical structure processing, attention and memory is predictive of the ability to detect structural structure in auditory speech sequences. PMID:26919234

  20. Feature Selection Using Information Gain for Improved Structural-Based Alert Correlation.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Taqwa Ahmed; Siraj, Maheyzah Md; Zainal, Anazida; Elshoush, Huwaida Tagelsir; Elhaj, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    Grouping and clustering alerts for intrusion detection based on the similarity of features is referred to as structurally base alert correlation and can discover a list of attack steps. Previous researchers selected different features and data sources manually based on their knowledge and experience, which lead to the less accurate identification of attack steps and inconsistent performance of clustering accuracy. Furthermore, the existing alert correlation systems deal with a huge amount of data that contains null values, incomplete information, and irrelevant features causing the analysis of the alerts to be tedious, time-consuming and error-prone. Therefore, this paper focuses on selecting accurate and significant features of alerts that are appropriate to represent the attack steps, thus, enhancing the structural-based alert correlation model. A two-tier feature selection method is proposed to obtain the significant features. The first tier aims at ranking the subset of features based on high information gain entropy in decreasing order. The‏ second tier extends additional features with a better discriminative ability than the initially ranked features. Performance analysis results show the significance of the selected features in terms of the clustering accuracy using 2000 DARPA intrusion detection scenario-specific dataset.

  1. Feature Selection Using Information Gain for Improved Structural-Based Alert Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Siraj, Maheyzah Md; Zainal, Anazida; Elshoush, Huwaida Tagelsir; Elhaj, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    Grouping and clustering alerts for intrusion detection based on the similarity of features is referred to as structurally base alert correlation and can discover a list of attack steps. Previous researchers selected different features and data sources manually based on their knowledge and experience, which lead to the less accurate identification of attack steps and inconsistent performance of clustering accuracy. Furthermore, the existing alert correlation systems deal with a huge amount of data that contains null values, incomplete information, and irrelevant features causing the analysis of the alerts to be tedious, time-consuming and error-prone. Therefore, this paper focuses on selecting accurate and significant features of alerts that are appropriate to represent the attack steps, thus, enhancing the structural-based alert correlation model. A two-tier feature selection method is proposed to obtain the significant features. The first tier aims at ranking the subset of features based on high information gain entropy in decreasing order. The‏ second tier extends additional features with a better discriminative ability than the initially ranked features. Performance analysis results show the significance of the selected features in terms of the clustering accuracy using 2000 DARPA intrusion detection scenario-specific dataset. PMID:27893821

  2. Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.; Shaffer, R. A.; Smith, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography of approximately 1500 reference citations related to six problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures is presented. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the ten year period 1962-1972 and is largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the six problem areas: (1) life prediction of structural materials; (2) fracture toughness data; (3) fracture mechanics analysis; (4) hydrogen embrittlement; (5) protective coatings; and (6) composite materials. An author index is included.

  3. Flow of structural information between four DNA conformational levels.

    PubMed

    Levin-Zaidman, S; Reich, Z; Wachtel, E J; Minsky, A

    1996-03-05

    Closed-circular supercoiled DNA molecules have been shown to form a cholesteric assembly within bacteria as well as in vitro under physiological DNA and salt concentrations. Circular dichroism and X-ray scattering studies indicate that the macroscopic structural properties of the chiral mesophase are directly and uniquely dictated by the supercoiling parameters of the constituent molecules. Specifically, we find that the pitch of the DNA cholesteric phase derived from supercoiled DNA is determined by the superhelical density, which, in turn, is modulated by secondary conformational changes. A direct interrelationship among four DNA structural levels, namely, DNA sequence, secondary structural transitions, the tertiary superhelical conformation, and the quaternary, supramolecular organization is accordingly pointed out. Since secondary conformational changes are both sequence and environment dependent, alterations of cellular conditions may effectively modulate the properties of the packed DNA organization, through their effects on secondary structural transitions and hence on the superhelical parameters. On the basis of these results we suggest that liquid crystallinity represents an effectively regulated packaging mode of plectonemic, nucleosome-free DNA molecules in living systems.

  4. Classification of Chemicals Based On Structured Toxicity Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty years and millions of dollars worth of pesticide registration toxicity studies, historically stored as hardcopy and scanned documents, have been digitized into highly standardized and structured toxicity data within the Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB). Toxicity-bas...

  5. Canonical information flow decomposition among neural structure subsets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Baccalá, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Partial directed coherence (PDC) and directed coherence (DC) which describe complementary aspects of the directed information flow between pairs of univariate components that belong to a vector of simultaneously observed time series have recently been generalized as bPDC/bDC, respectively, to portray the relationship between subsets of component vectors (Takahashi, 2009; Faes and Nollo, 2013). This generalization is specially important for neuroscience applications as one often wishes to address the link between the set of time series from an observed ROI (region of interest) with respect to series from some other physiologically relevant ROI. bPDC/bDC are limited, however, in that several time series within a given subset may be irrelevant or may even interact opposingly with respect to one another leading to interpretation difficulties. To address this, we propose an alternative measure, termed cPDC/cDC, employing canonical decomposition to reveal the main frequency domain modes of interaction between the vector subsets. We also show bPDC/bDC and cPDC/cDC are related and possess mutual information rate interpretations. Numerical examples and a real data set illustrate the concepts. The present contribution provides what is seemingly the first canonical decomposition of information flow in the frequency domain.

  6. Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topological Insulator Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-13

    manipulation, entanglement and detection ofMajorana fermions in diamond-topological insulator-superconductor heterojunctions. Furthennore, we propose to...particles which obey non-Abelian statistics. The simplest of these particles, Majorana fermions , are believed to exist as excitations in exotic...materials under extreme conditions. Additionally, Majorana fermions have been proposed to exist in a new class of materials commonly referred to as

  7. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  8. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  9. Structure and properties of PVDF membrane with PES-C addition via thermally induced phase separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lishun; Sun, Junfen

    2014-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and PVDF membrane with phenolphthalein polyethersulfone (PES-C) addition were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method by using diphenyl carbonate (DPC) and dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as mixed diluents. The effects of coagulation temperature and pre-evaporation time on structure and properties of membranes were studied. The changes of sewage flux in MBR and the attenuation coefficient of sewage flux were investigated. The resistance distributions of PVDF and PVDF/PES-C membranes were compared by resistance analysis. Membrane composition and structure were characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and AFM. The foulant on membranes was analyzed by FTIR. The contact angle of PVDF/PES-C membrane was lower than that of PVDF membrane. A thinner skin layer and a porous cellular support layer formed in PVDF/PES-C membrane and resulted in a higher porosity and pure water flux. The pure water flux and porosity of PVDF/PES-C membrane increased with rising coagulation temperature and decreased with extending pre-evaporation time. The flux attenuation coefficient, the cake layer resistance and internal fouling resistance of PVDF/PES-C membrane in MBR were smaller than those of PVDF membrane in MBR. The FTIR spectrum of foulant on membrane indicated that the foulant on PVDF/PES-C membrane was mostly composed of protein and polysaccharide, while the foulant on pure PVDF membrane included biopolymer clusters besides protein and polysaccharide.

  10. The Effect of Emphasizing Mathematical Structure in the Acquisition of Whole Number Computation Skills (Addition and Subtraction) By Seven- and Eight-Year Olds: A Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward; Collura, Carolyn

    This investigation sought to determine the effect of emphasizing mathematical structure in the acquisition of computational skills by seven- and eight-year-olds. The meaningful development-of-structure approach emphasized closure, commutativity, associativity, and the identity element of addition; the inverse relationship between addition and…

  11. An additional aromatic interaction improves the thermostability and thermophilicity of a mesophilic family 11 xylanase: structural basis and molecular study.

    PubMed Central

    Georis, J.; de Lemos Esteves, F.; Lamotte-Brasseur, J.; Bougnet, V.; Devreese, B.; Giannotta, F.; Granier, B.; Frère, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca TfxA family 11 xylanases were built and compared with the three-dimensional (3D) structures of homologous enzymes. Some of the structural features identified as potential contributors to the higher thermostability of TfxA were introduced in Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to improve its thermostability and thermophilicity. A new Y11-Y16 aromatic interaction, similar to that present in TfxA and created in Xyl1 by the T11Y mutation, improved both the thermophilicity and thermostability. Indeed, the optimum activity temperature (70 vs. 60 degrees C) and the apparent Tm were increased by about 9 degrees C, and the mutant was sixfold more stable at 57 degrees C. The combined mutations A82R/F168H/N169D/delta170 potentially creating a R82-D169 salt bridge homologous to that present in TfxA improved the thermostability but not the thermophilicity. Mutations R82/D170 and S33P seemed to be slightly destabilizing and devoid of influence on the optimal activity temperature of Xyl1. Structural analysis revealed that residues Y11 and Y16 were located on beta-strands B1 and B2, respectively. This interaction should increase the stability of the N-terminal part of Xyl1. Moreover, Y11 and Y16 seem to form an aromatic continuum with five other residues forming putative subsites involved in the binding of xylan (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2). Y11 and Y16 might represent two additional binding subsites (-3, -4) and the T11Y mutation could thus improve substrate binding to the enzyme at higher temperature and thus the thermophilicity of Xyl1. PMID:10752608

  12. Response of Functional Structure of Soil Microbial Community to Multi-level Nitrogen Additions on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The use of fossil fuels and fertilizers has increased the amount of biologically reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere over the past century. Tibet is the one of the most threatened regions by nitrogen deposition, thus understanding how its microbial communities function maybe of high importance to predicting microbial responses to nitrogen deposition. Here we describe a short-time nitrogen addition conducted in an alpine steppe ecosystem to investigate the response of functional structure of soil microbial community to multi-level nitrogen addition. Using a GeoChip 4.0, we showed that functional diversities and richness of functional genes were unchanged at low level of nitrogen fertilizer inputs (<20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), but significantly decreased at higher nitrogen fertilizer inputs (>=40 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Detrended correspondence analysis indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different across the nitrogen gradients. Most C degradation genes whose abundances significantly increased under elevated N fertilizer were those involved in the degradation of relatively labile C (starch, hemicellulose, cellulose), whereas the abundance of certain genes involved in the degradation of recalcitrant C (i.e. lignin) was largely decreased (such as manganese peroxidase, mnp). The results suggest that the elevated N fertilization rates might significantly accelerate the labile C degradation, but might not spur recalcitrant C degradation. The combined effect of gdh and ureC genes involved in N cycling appeared to shift the balance between ammonia and organic N toward organic N ammonification and hence increased the N mineralization potential. Moreover, Urease directly involved in urea mineralization significantly increased. Lastly, Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil (TOC+NH4++NO3-+NO2-+pH) and plant (Aboveground plant productivity + Shannon Diversity) variables could explain 38.9% of the variation of soil microbial community

  13. Structure and pragmatics in informal argument: circularity and question-begging.

    PubMed

    Brem, Sarah K.

    2003-04-01

    Most everyday arguments are informal, as contrasted with the formal arguments of logic and mathematics. Whereas formal argument is well understood, the nature of informal argument is more elusive. A recent study by Rips (2002) provides further evidence regarding the roles of structure and pragmatics in informal argument.

  14. Information Security: A Scientometric Study of the Profile, Structure, and Dynamics of an Emerging Scholarly Specialty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olijnyk, Nicholas Victor

    2014-01-01

    The central aim of the current research is to explore and describe the profile, dynamics, and structure of the information security specialty. This study's objectives are guided by four research questions: 1. What are the salient features of information security as a specialty? 2. How has the information security specialty emerged and evolved from…

  15. Application of Hierarchical Data Structures to Geographical Information Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-13

    empirical results to indicate the utility of the software and justify the design decisions. Tasks reported on include: Attribute attachment, DMA SLF...indicate the utility of the software and to justify the indicated design decisions. Included with this report is a survey of appropriate data structures for...to be more efficient to utilize extra space to increase the page size rather than to increase the size of the buffer pool. These results seem to imply

  16. Informing phenomenological structural bone remodelling with a mechanistic poroelastic model.

    PubMed

    Villette, Claire C; Phillips, Andrew T M

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that fluid motion in the extracellular space may be involved in the cellular mechanosensitivity at play in the bone tissue adaptation process. Previously, the authors developed a mesoscale predictive structural model of the femur using truss elements to represent trabecular bone, relying on a phenomenological strain-based bone adaptation algorithm. In order to introduce a response to bending and shear, the authors considered the use of beam elements, requiring a new formulation of the bone adaptation drivers. The primary goal of the study presented here was to isolate phenomenological drivers based on the results of a mechanistic approach to be used with a beam element representation of trabecular bone in mesoscale structural modelling. A single-beam model and a microscale poroelastic model of a single trabecula were developed. A mechanistic iterative adaptation algorithm was implemented based on fluid motion velocity through the bone matrix pores to predict the remodelled geometries of the poroelastic trabecula under 42 different loading scenarios. Regression analyses were used to correlate the changes in poroelastic trabecula thickness and orientation to the initial strain outputs of the beam model. Linear (R(2) > 0.998) and third-order polynomial (R(2) > 0.98) relationships were found between change in cross section and axial strain at the central axis, and between beam reorientation and ratio of bending strain to axial strain, respectively. Implementing these relationships into the phenomenological predictive algorithm for the mesoscale structural femur has the potential to produce a model combining biofidelic structure and mechanical behaviour with computational efficiency.

  17. Pathways of information transmission among wild songbirds follow experimentally imposed changes in social foraging structure

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ben C.

    2016-01-01

    Animals regularly use information from others to shape their decisions. Yet, determining how changes in social structure affect information flow and social learning strategies has remained challenging. We manipulated the social structure of a large community of wild songbirds by controlling which individuals could feed together at automated feeding stations (selective feeders). We then provided novel ephemeral food patches freely accessible to all birds and recorded the spread of this new information. We demonstrate that the discovery of new food patches followed the experimentally imposed social structure and that birds disproportionately learnt from those whom they could forage with at the selective feeders. The selective feeders reduced the number of conspecific information sources available and birds subsequently increased their use of information provided by heterospecifics. Our study demonstrates that changes to social systems carry over into pathways of information transfer and that individuals learn from tutors that provide relevant information in other contexts. PMID:27247439

  18. Pathways of information transmission among wild songbirds follow experimentally imposed changes in social foraging structure.

    PubMed

    Firth, Josh A; Sheldon, Ben C; Farine, Damien R

    2016-06-01

    Animals regularly use information from others to shape their decisions. Yet, determining how changes in social structure affect information flow and social learning strategies has remained challenging. We manipulated the social structure of a large community of wild songbirds by controlling which individuals could feed together at automated feeding stations (selective feeders). We then provided novel ephemeral food patches freely accessible to all birds and recorded the spread of this new information. We demonstrate that the discovery of new food patches followed the experimentally imposed social structure and that birds disproportionately learnt from those whom they could forage with at the selective feeders. The selective feeders reduced the number of conspecific information sources available and birds subsequently increased their use of information provided by heterospecifics. Our study demonstrates that changes to social systems carry over into pathways of information transfer and that individuals learn from tutors that provide relevant information in other contexts.

  19. Obtaining structural information of small proteins using solid-state nanopores and high-bandwidth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiecki, David; Lanci, Christopher; Saven, Jeffery; Drndic, Marija

    2015-03-01

    The use of biological nanopores sensors to characterize proteins has proved a fruitful field of study. Solid-state nanopores hold several advantages over their biological counterparts, including the ability to tune pore diameter and their robustness to external conditions. Despite these advantages, the use of solid-state nanopores for protein analysis has proved difficult due to rapid translocation times of proteins and poor signal-to-noise of small peptides. Recently, improvements in high-bandwidth acquisition and in signal-to-noise have made the study of small peptides using solid-state nanopores feasible. Here we report on the detection and characterization of peptides as small as 33 amino-acids in length using sub-10 nm thin silicon nitride nanopores, giving high signal levels, combined with high-bandwidth electronics. In addition we show differentiation between monomers and dimer forms of the GCN-4 p1 leucine zipper, a coil-coil structure, and compare this with the unstructured 33-mer. The differentiation between these two forms demonstrates the possibility of extracting useful structural information from short peptide structures using modern solid-state nanopore systems.

  20. Structure-Informed Design of an Enzymatically Inactive Vaccine Component for Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Henningham, Anna; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Langer, Karla; Casey, Lachlan W.; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Chhatwal, G. Singh; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Batzloff, Michael R.; Kobe, Bostjan; Walker, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes ~700 million human infections/year, resulting in >500,000 deaths. There is no commercial GAS vaccine available. The GAS surface protein arginine deiminase (ADI) protects mice against a lethal challenge. ADI is an enzyme that converts arginine to citrulline and ammonia. Administration of a GAS vaccine preparation containing wild-type ADI, a protein with inherent enzymatic activity, may present a safety risk. In an approach intended to maximize the vaccine safety of GAS ADI, X-ray crystallography and structural immunogenic epitope mapping were used to inform vaccine design. This study aimed to knock out ADI enzyme activity without disrupting the three-dimensional structure or the recognition of immunogenic epitopes. We determined the crystal structure of ADI at 2.5 Å resolution and used it to select a number of amino acid residues for mutagenesis to alanine (D166, E220, H275, D277, and C401). Each mutant protein displayed abrogated activity, and three of the mutant proteins (those with the D166A, H275A, and D277A mutations) possessed a secondary structure and oligomerization state equivalent to those of the wild type, produced high-titer antisera, and avoided disruption of B-cell epitopes of ADI. In addition, antisera raised against the D166A and D277A mutant proteins bound to the GAS cell surface. The inactivated D166A and D277A mutant ADIs are ideal for inclusion in a GAS vaccine preparation. There is no human ortholog of ADI, and we confirm that despite limited structural similarity in the active-site region to human peptidyl ADI 4 (PAD4), ADI does not functionally mimic PAD4 and antiserum raised against GAS ADI does not recognize human PAD4. PMID:23919999

  1. Structure and high-temperature properties of Ti5Si3 with interstitial additions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jason

    1999-12-01

    This study was motivated by the fact that previous research on the structure and properties of Ti5Si3 showed unacceptably inconsistent results. The primary reason for these inconsistencies was interstitial contamination of Ti5Si3 by carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Thus, this study measured the effects that these interstitial atoms have on some of the previously reported properties. These properties include crystalline structure, thermal expansion anisotropy, electronic structure and bonding, and high temperature oxidation resistance. In Chapter 2 of this study, the lattice parameters and atomic positions of Ti5Si3 as a function of carbon, nitrogen or oxygen content were measured via x-ray and neutron diffraction. Comparing these lattice parameters to those reported in other studies on supposedly pure Ti5Si3 confirmed that the majority of the previous studies had samples with a considerable amount of interstitial impurities. In fact, the lattice parameter trends given in Chapter 2 can be used to estimate the types and level of impurities in these studies. Furthermore, Chapter 2 discusses how atomic positions change as interstitial atoms are incorporated into the lattice. These changes in atomic separations suggest that strong bonds form between the interstitial atoms and the surrounding titanium atoms. This is in full agreement with the electronic structure calculations given in Chapter 4. These calculations show that bonding does occur between titanium d-states and interstitial atom p-states at the expense of bonding between some of the titanium and silicon atoms. In addition, carbon seems to be the most strongly bonded interstitial atom. Knowledge of the exact interstitial content and its effect on bonding is important because Chapters 3 and 5 have shown that interstitial atoms have a marked effect on the thermal expansion and oxidation resistance. As discussed in Chapter 3, all

  2. Information Structure in Finnish Live Ice Hockey Reporting: An Answer to Tomlin (1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiirikoski, Juhani

    The purpose of this article is to investigate ways that the grammatical and semantic structures of the Finnish clause limit its possibilities for expressing information structure. The study aims to discover whether there is a correlation between the semantic structure of the sentence and the possibility of using the inverted word order for…

  3. Information-System Structure by Communication-Technology Concepts: A Cybernetic Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisig, Gerhard H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the "Evidence-of-Existence" information system in which the structure is developed, with application of cybernetic concepts, as an isomorphic model in analogy to the system structure of communication technology. Three criteria of structuring are postulated: (1) source-channel-sink, with input-output characteristics, (2) filter-type…

  4. Structure of iron phosphate glasses modified by alkali and alkaline earth additions: neutron and x-ray diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Bingham, P A; Barney, E R

    2012-05-02

    The structure of iron phosphate glasses modified by additions of K(2)O and BaO, with nominal molar compositions [(1 - x)(0.6P(2)O(5)-0.4Fe(2)O(3))]xMe(y)O, where x = 0-0.4 in increments of 0.1; Me=K or Ba; and y = 1 or 2, has been investigated using neutron diffraction and x-ray diffraction techniques. Fitted coordination numbers for P-O and Fe-O showed a notable change in the P-O(NBO) and P-O(BO) contributions at greater than 20 mol% modifier addition, with barium producing a markedly larger increase in P-O(NBO) contribution than potassium. Fitting of T(N)(r) and T(X)(r) provided average n(BaO) = 9 and n(KO) = 6. Iron occurs in a range of coordination sites in these glasses: ([6])Fe(2+), ([4])Fe(3+), ([5])Fe(3+) and ([6])Fe(3+). The partitioning between these sites gives average n(FeO) = 5.2-5.8, with barium-doped glasses exhibiting higher average n(FeO) than potassium-doped glasses. The stronger depolymerizing effect of Ba(2+) than K(+) on the phosphate network, coupled with its greater ionic charge and higher Me-O, Fe-O and O···O coordination numbers, explain previously observed divergences in physical properties between the barium-doped and the potassium-doped glasses.

  5. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-01

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  6. Assessment of the micro-structure and depletion potentials in two-dimensional binary mixtures of additive hard-disks.

    PubMed

    Perera-Burgos, Jorge Adrián; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-09-14

    Depletion forces are a particular class of effective interactions that have been mainly investigated in binary mixtures of hard-spheres in bulk. Although there are a few contributions that point toward the effects of confinement on the depletion potential, little is known about such entropic potentials in two-dimensional colloidal systems. From theoretical point of view, the problem resides in the fact that there is no general formulation of depletion forces in arbitrary dimensions and, typically, any approach that works well in three dimensions has to be reformulated for lower dimensionality. However, we have proposed a theoretical framework, based on the formalism of contraction of the description within the integral equations theory of simple liquids, to account for effective interactions in colloidal liquids, whose main feature is that it does not need to be readapted to the problem under consideration. We have also shown that such an approach allows one to determine the depletion pair potential in three-dimensional colloidal mixtures even near to the demixing transition, provided the bridge functions are sufficiently accurate to correctly describe the spatial correlation between colloids [E. López-Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104908 (2013)]. We here report an extensive analysis of the structure and the entropic potentials in binary mixtures of additive hard-disks. In particular, we show that the same functional form of the modified-Verlet closure relation used in three dimensions can be straightforwardly employed to obtain an accurate solution for two-dimensional colloidal mixtures in a wide range of packing fractions, molar fractions, and size asymmetries. Our theoretical results are explicitly compared with the ones obtained by means of event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and recent experimental results. Furthermore, to assess the accuracy of our predictions, the depletion potentials are used in an effective one-component model to reproduce

  7. Informational structure of genetic sequences and nature of gene splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, E. N.

    1991-10-01

    Only about 1/20 of DNA of higher organisms codes for proteins, by means of classical triplet code. The rest of DNA sequences is largely silent, with unclear functions, if any. The triplet code is not the only code (message) carried by the sequences. There are three levels of molecular communication, where the same sequence ``talks'' to various bimolecules, while having, respectively, three different appearances: DNA, RNA and protein. Since the molecular structures and, hence, sequence specific preferences of these are substantially different, the original DNA sequence has to carry simultaneously three types of sequence patterns (codes, messages), thus, being a composite structure in which one had the same letter (nucleotide) is frequently involved in several overlapping codes of different nature. This multiplicity and overlapping of the codes is a unique feature of the Gnomic, language of genetic sequences. The coexisting codes have to be degenerate in various degrees to allow an optimal and concerted performance of all the encoded functions. There is an obvious conflict between the best possible performance of a given function and necessity to compromise the quality of a given sequence pattern in favor of other patterns. It appears that the major role of various changes in the sequences on their ``ontogenetic'' way from DNA to RNA to protein, like RNA editing and splicing, or protein post-translational modifications is to resolve such conflicts. New data are presented strongly indicating that the gene splicing is such a device to resolve the conflict between the code of DNA folding in chromatin and the triplet code for protein synthesis.

  8. Learning with incomplete information and the mathematical structure behind it.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Reimer; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the problem of learning with incomplete information as exemplified by learning with delayed reinforcement. We study a two phase learning scenario in which a phase of Hebbian associative learning based on momentary internal representations is supplemented by an 'unlearning' phase depending on a graded reinforcement signal. The reinforcement signal quantifies the success-rate globally for a number of learning steps in phase one, and 'unlearning' is indiscriminate with respect to associations learnt in that phase. Learning according to this model is studied via simulations and analytically within a student-teacher scenario for both single layer networks and, for a committee machine. Success and speed of learning depend on the ratio lambda of the learning rates used for the associative Hebbian learning phase and for the unlearning-correction in response to the reinforcement signal, respectively. Asymptotically perfect generalization is possible only, if this ratio exceeds a critical value lambda( c ), in which case the generalization error exhibits a power law decay with the number of examples seen by the student, with an exponent that depends in a non-universal manner on the parameter lambda. We find these features to be robust against a wide spectrum of modifications of microscopic modelling details. Two illustrative applications-one of a robot learning to navigate a field containing obstacles, and the problem of identifying a specific component in a collection of stimuli-are also provided.

  9. The structure of somatosensory information for human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Ribeiro, P.; Oie, K.; Lackner, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the properties of the somatosensory stimulus that alter its temporal coupling to body sway. Six standing subjects were tested while touching a metal plate positioned either directly in front of or lateral to the subject. In each condition, the plate moved 4 mm at 0.2 Hz in either the medial-lateral (ML) or anterior-posterior direction (AP). The results showed that coupling between body sway and touch plate movement was strongest when the touch plate moved in a direction along the longitudinal axis of the arm. Coupling strength was weaker when the touch plate moved perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The results consistently show that a radial expansion stimulus was more effective than a lamellar-type stimulus at the fingertip. Moreover, somatosensory information from a surface is interpreted in terms of the orientation of the contact limb and the potential degrees of freedom available through its movement.

  10. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management decisions on coastal resources. Municipal and agricultural growth in the Guánica Bay watershed has provided social and economic value but has led to changes in forest cover (highly valued for biodiversity, endangered species and ecotourism), declining quality and availability of drinking water, and increased sediment and nutrient runoff that adversely affects coastal seagrasses, mangroves and coral reefs. Communities in the coastal region, such as the city of Guánica, rely partially on fishing and tourism economies, both of which are adversely affected by diminishing coastal water quality. In 2008, with funding from NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, the Center for Watershed Protection developed a Watershed Management Plan (WMP) that included a suite of proposed management actions to reduce sediment runoff and its harmful effects in the coastal zone. The WMP served as the initial SDM decision context for EPA’s research to generate tools and procedures to better inform the decisions made across the watershed and to facilitate complementary actions.Application of SDM in Guánica Bay included archival research on social and economic history of the region and three workshops with s

  11. Description of the Structural Materials Information Center being established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, B.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and concrete-related material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors will be collected and assembled into a database. This database will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Materials property data and information will be collected at the Structural Materials Information Center from open literature, published references, and identifiable sources. Initially, the database will include portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon and structural steel materials. Then, as data and information for other material systems are obtained, the database will be expanded and updated. The database will be developed and presented in two complementary formats. The Structural Materials Handbook will be published in four volumes as an expandable, hard copy handbook. The Materials Electronic Database will be developed to reflect the same information as contained in the handbook, but will be formatted for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer.

  12. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, J.; Zheng, B.; Gaiser, K.; Reynolds, T.; Clemon, L.; Lu, W. Y.; Schoenung, J. M.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. The study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. The study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. The current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer via Direct Melt Electrospinning Writing for Producing High Strength Structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Hochleitner, Gernot; Woodfield, Tim; Groll, Juergen; Dalton, Paul D; Amsden, Brian G

    2016-01-11

    Melt electrospinning writing (MEW) is an emerging additive manufacturing technique that enables the design and fabrication of micrometer-thin fibrous scaffolds made of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. By using a computer-aided deposition process, a unique control over pore size and interconnectivity of the resulting scaffolds is achieved, features highly interesting for tissue engineering applications. However, MEW has been mainly used to process low melting point thermoplastics such as poly(ε-caprolactone). Since this polymer exhibits creep and a reduction in modulus upon hydration, we manufactured scaffolds of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone-co-acryloyl carbonate) (poly(LLA-ε-CL-AC)), a photo-cross-linkable and biodegradable polymer, for the first time. We show that the stiffness of the scaffolds increases significantly (up to ∼10-fold) after cross-linking by UV irradiation at room temperature, compared with un-cross-linked microfiber scaffolds. The preservation of stiffness and high average fiber modulus (370 ± 166 MPa) within the cross-linked hydrated scaffolds upon repetitive loading (10% strain at 1 Hz up to 200,000 cycles) suggests that the prepared scaffolds may be of potential interest for soft connective tissue engineering applications. Moreover, the approach can be readily adapted through manipulation of polymer properties and scaffold geometry to prepare structures with mechanical properties suitable for other tissue engineering applications.

  14. Inframolecular acid–base and coordination properties towards Na+ and Mg2+ of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate: a structural approach to biologically relevant species† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Application of the Cluster Expansion Method (Table S1); 31P NMR spectra (Fig. S1); Structural details of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Mg2+ interaction (Fig. S2); Comparative fit of alternative chemical models for the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5–Na+ system (Fig. S3). See DOI: 10.1039/c2dt31807e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; Godage, Himali Y.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs) are specific signalling metabolites ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Although Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 is the second most abundant member of the InsPs family, its certain biological roles are far from being elucidated, in part due to the large number of species formed by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 in the presence of metal ions. In light of this, we have strived in the past to make a complete and at the same time “biological-user-friendly” description of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 chemistry with mono and multivalent cations. In this work we expand these studies focusing on the inframolecular aspects of its protonation equilibria and the microscopic details of its coordination behaviour towards biologically relevant metal ions. We present here a systematic study of the Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 intrinsic acid–base processes, in a non-interacting medium, and over a wide pH range, analyzing the 31P NMR curves by means of a model based on the Cluster Expansion Method. In addition, we have used a computational approach to analyse the energetic and structural features of the protonation and conformational changes of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5, and how they are influenced by the presence of two physiologically relevant cations, Na+ and Mg2+. PMID:23183928

  15. Graduating to Postdoc: Information-Sharing in Support of Organizational Structures and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Lucas, Paul J.; Compton, Michael M.; Stewart, Helen J.; Baya, Vinod; DelAlto, Martha

    1999-01-01

    The deployment of information-sharing systems in large organizations can significantly impact existing policies and procedures with regard to authority and control over information. Unless information-sharing systems explicitly support organizational structures and needs, these systems will be rejected summarily. The Postdoc system is a deployed Web-based information-sharing system created specifically to address organizational needs. Postdoc contains various organizational support features including a shared, globally navigable document space, as well as specialized access control, distributed administration, and mailing list features built around the key notion of hierarchical group structures. We review successes and difficulties in supporting organizational needs with Postdoc

  16. Quantifying the information in the long-range order of words: semantic structures and universal linguistic constraints.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2014-06-01

    We review some recent progress on the characterisation of long-range patterns of word use in language using methods from information theory. In particular, two levels of structure in language are considered. The first level corresponds to the patterns of words usage over different contextual domains. A direct application of information theory to quantify the specificity of words across different sections of a linguistic sequence leads to a measure of semantic information. Moreover, a natural scale emerges that characterises the typical size of semantic structures. Since the information measure is made up of additive contributions from individual words, it is possible to rank the words according to their overall weight in the total information. This allows the extraction of keywords most relevant to the semantic content of the sequence without any prior knowledge of the language. The second level considered is the complex structure of correlations among words in linguistic sequences. The degree of order in language can be quantified by means of the entropy. Reliable estimates of the entropy were obtained from corpora of texts from several linguistic families by means of lossless compression algorithms. The value of the entropy fluctuates across different languages since it depends on linguistic organisation at various levels. However, when a measure of relative entropy that specifically quantifies the degree of word ordering in language is estimated, it presents an almost constant value over all the linguistic families studied. This suggests that the entropy of word ordering is a novel quantitative linguistic universal.

  17. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  18. Integrating network structure and dynamic information for better routing strategy on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Gai; Wong, Eric W. M.; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2009-06-01

    We study information packet routing processes on scale-free networks by mimicking the Internet traffic delivery strategies. We incorporate both the global network structure information and local queuing information in the dynamic processes. We propose several new routing strategies to guide the packet routing. The performance of the routing strategies is measured by the average transit time of the packets as well as their dependence on the traffic amount. We find that the routing strategies which integrate both global network structure information and local dynamic information perform much better than the traditional shortest-path routing protocol which takes into account only the global topological information. Moreover, from comparative studies of these routing strategies, we observe that some of our proposed methods can decrease the average transit time of packets but the performance is closely dependent on the total amount of traffic while some other proposed methods can have good performance independent of the total amount of traffic with hyper-excellent average transit time of packets. Also, numerical results show that our proposed methods integrating network structure information and local dynamic information can work much better than the methods recently proposed in [S. Sreenivasan, R. Cohen, E. López, Z. Toroczkai, H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 036105, Zhi-Xi Wu, Gang Peng, Eric W.M. Wong, Kai-Hau Yeung, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P11002.], which only considered network structure information.

  19. Structural information in two-dimensional patterns: entropy convergence and excess entropy.

    PubMed

    Feldman, David P; Crutchfield, James P

    2003-05-01

    We develop information-theoretic measures of spatial structure and pattern in more than one dimension. As is well known, the entropy density of a two-dimensional configuration can be efficiently and accurately estimated via a converging sequence of conditional entropies. We show that the manner in which these conditional entropies converge to their asymptotic value serves as a measure of global correlation and structure for spatial systems in any dimension. We compare and contrast entropy convergence with mutual-information and structure-factor techniques for quantifying and detecting spatial structure.

  20. Fragment-guided approach to incorporating structural information into a CoMFA study: BACE-1 as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, Lívia Barros; Valadares, Napoleão Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease, and BACE-1 has become an attractive validated target for its therapy, with more than a hundred crystal structures deposited in the PDB. In the present study, we present a new methodology that integrates ligand-based methods with structural information derived from the receptor. 128 BACE-1 inhibitors recently disclosed by GlaxoSmithKline R&D were selected specifically because the crystal structures of 9 of these compounds complexed to BACE-1, as well as five closely related analogs, have been made available. A new fragment-guided approach was designed to incorporate this wealth of structural information into a CoMFA study, and the methodology was systematically compared to other popular approaches, such as docking, for generating a molecular alignment. The influence of the partial charges calculation method was also analyzed. Several consistent and predictive models are reported, including one with r 2 = 0.88, q 2 = 0.69 and r pred 2 = 0.72. The models obtained with the new methodology performed consistently better than those obtained by other methodologies, particularly in terms of external predictive power. The visual analyses of the contour maps in the context of the enzyme drew attention to a number of possible opportunities for the development of analogs with improved potency. These results suggest that 3D-QSAR studies may benefit from the additional structural information added by the presented methodology.

  1. Development of elementary school students' cognitive structures and information processing strategies under long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of long-term constructivist-oriented science instruction on elementary school students' process of constructing cognitive structures. Furthermore, such effects on different science achievers were also investigated. The subjects of this study were 69 fifth graders in Taiwan, while they were assigned to either a constructivist-oriented instruction group or a traditional teaching group. The research treatment was conducted for 5 months, including six instructional units, and students' cognitive structures were probed through interviews coupled with a metalistening technique'' after the instruction of each unit. The interview narratives were transcribed into the format of flow maps. In addition, the information processing modes shown in the flow maps were also investigated through a series of content analyses. The findings showed that the students in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained significantly better learning outcomes in terms of the extent and integration of their cognitive structures, metacognition engagement, and the usage of information processing strategies. Moreover, it was also revealed that both high achievers and low achievers benefited from the constructivist-oriented instructional activities, but in different ways. For example, both high achievers and low achievers in the constructivist-oriented instruction group attained better usage of information processing strategies than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did; but only high achievers displayed better usage of higher order information processing modes (i.e., inferring or explaining) than their counterparts in traditional teaching group did. The results in this study finally suggest a four-stage model for students' process of constructing cognitive structure under the constructivist-oriented science instruction, including cognitive structure acquisition, metacognition enrichment, cognitive structure

  2. Guidance manual for the input of biological information to water-intake-structure design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    This manual is intended to provide guidance to the biologist who is asked to provide biological input during the construction or subsequent alteration of a water intake structure. Examples of the types of biological information that might be included in intake design are presented. Procedures for quantifying biological information and defining specific tasks that will generate quantifiable data are discussed. Procedures described apply both to new and modified water intake structures.

  3. NIST method for determining model-independent structural information by X-ray reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Windover, D.; Cline, J. P.; Henins, A.; Gil, D. L.; Armstrong, N.; Hung, P. Y.; Song, S. C.; Jammy, R.; Diebold, A.

    2007-09-26

    This work provides a method for determining when X-ray reflectometry (XRR) data provides useful information about structural model parameters. State-of-the-art analysis approaches for XRR data emphasize fitting measured data to a single structural model using fast optimization methods, such as genetic algorithms (GA). Though such optimization may find the best solution for a given model, it does not adequately map the parameter space to provide uncertainty estimates or test structural model validity. We present here two approaches for determining which structural parameters convey accurate information about the physical reality. First, using GA refinement, we repeatedly fit the data to several structural models. By comparing the maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters in each model, we identify model-independent information. Second, we perform a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) analysis using the most self-consistent structural model to provide uncertainty estimates for structural parameters. This two step approach uses fast, optimized refinement to search a range of models to locate structural information and a more detailed MCMC sampling to estimate parameter uncertainties. Here we present an example of this approach on a ZrN/TiN/Si structure, concentrating on thickness.

  4. "Information in Context": Co-Designing Workplace Structures and Systems for Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary M.; Howard, Zaana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses an "information in context" design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. Method: This action research project is founded within shared leadership, informed learning and…

  5. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…

  6. Analysis of Problems Posed by Sixth-Grade Middle School Students for the Addition of Fractions in Terms of Semantic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kar, Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the semantic structures of problems posed by sixth-grade middle school students for the addition of fractions affect their problem-posing performance. The students were presented with symbolic operations involving the addition of fractions and asked to pose two different problems related to daily-life situations…

  7. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying-Tien

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.

  8. [Underreporting of tuberculosis in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN): primary default and case detection from additional data sources using probabilistic record linkage].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Andrade, Vanusa de Lemos; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), based on the following data sources: Mortality Information System (SIM), Registry and Follow-up Book for TB Case Treatment (LPATB), and Laboratory Registry Book (LRLAB). Probabilistic record linkage was used between the SIM (2007-2008) and SINAN (2002-2008). A search was conducted in LPATB and LRLAB (2007-2008) for cases not recorded in SINAN. There were 125 deaths, of which 44.8% were not recorded in SINAN. In LPATB, 58 cases (5.1%) were in treatment and were not reported in SINAN. LRLAB showed 32 smear-positive cases not reported to SINAN and without treatment, representing primary default. Addition of the retrieved cases, led to a 14.6% increase in the incidence rate in 2007 and 11.6% in 2008. Underreporting of deaths from or with TB in the Mortality Information System and primary default revealed difficulties in access to adequate and timely treatment, calling for rethinking of strategies to detect cases for timely treatment.

  9. Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Juan Ignacio; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-12-01

    The quest for a quantitative characterization of community and modular structure of complex networks produced a variety of methods and algorithms to classify different networks. However, it is not clear if such methods provide consistent, robust, and meaningful results when considering hierarchies as a whole. Part of the problem is the lack of a similarity measure for the comparison of hierarchical community structures. In this work we give a contribution by introducing the hierarchical mutual information, which is a generalization of the traditional mutual information and makes it possible to compare hierarchical partitions and hierarchical community structures. The normalized version of the hierarchical mutual information should behave analogously to the traditional normalized mutual information. Here the correct behavior of the hierarchical mutual information is corroborated on an extensive battery of numerical experiments. The experiments are performed on artificial hierarchies and on the hierarchical community structure of artificial and empirical networks. Furthermore, the experiments illustrate some of the practical applications of the hierarchical mutual information, namely the comparison of different community detection methods and the study of the consistency, robustness, and temporal evolution of the hierarchical modular structure of networks.

  10. Laboratory information management system for membrane protein structure initiative--from gene to crystal.

    PubMed

    Troshin, Petr V; Morris, Chris; Prince, Stephen M; Papiz, Miroslav Z

    2008-12-01

    Membrane Protein Structure Initiative (MPSI) exploits laboratory competencies to work collaboratively and distribute work among the different sites. This is possible as protein structure determination requires a series of steps, starting with target selection, through cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and finally structure determination. Distributed sites create a unique set of challenges for integrating and passing on information on the progress of targets. This role is played by the Protein Information Management System (PIMS), which is a laboratory information management system (LIMS), serving as a hub for MPSI, allowing collaborative structural proteomics to be carried out in a distributed fashion. It holds key information on the progress of cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. PIMS is employed to track the status of protein targets and to manage constructs, primers, experiments, protocols, sample locations and their detailed histories: thus playing a key role in MPSI data exchange. It also serves as the centre of a federation of interoperable information resources such as local laboratory information systems and international archival resources, like PDB or NCBI. During the challenging task of PIMS integration, within the MPSI, we discovered a number of prerequisites for successful PIMS integration. In this article we share our experiences and provide invaluable insights into the process of LIMS adaptation. This information should be of interest to partners who are thinking about using LIMS as a data centre for their collaborative efforts.

  11. Atmospheric Black Carbon: Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Individual Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, M. K.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Marten, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of aerosols from both natural and anthropogenic sources affects the Earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere. Aerosols containing black carbon (BC) that are released into the atmosphere from the burning of biomass, natural fires and the combustion of coals, diesel and jet fuels, contribute a large positive component to this radiative forcing, thus causing a heating of the atmosphere. A distinct type of biomass burn aerosol referred to as "tar balls" has recently been reported in the literature and is characterized by a spherical morphology, high carbon content and ability to efficiently scatter and absorb light. At present, very little is known about the exact nature and variation of the range of BC aerosols in the atmosphere with regards to optical, chemical and physical properties. Additionally, the similarity of these aerosols to surrogates used in the laboratory as atmospheric mimics remains unclear. The local chemical bonding, structural ordering and carbon-to-oxygen ratios of a plethora of black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecular mass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric aerosols from a variety of sources are examined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. STXM/NEXAFS enables single aerosol particles of diameter upwards of 100 nm to be studied, which allows the diversity of atmospheric aerosol collected during a variety of field missions to be assessed. We apply a semi-quantitative peak fitting method to the recorded NEXAFS spectral fingerprints allowing comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS to BC aerosol originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burning events. This method allows us to distinguish between anthropogenic combustion and biomass burn aerosol using both chemical bonding and structural ordering information. The STXM/NEXAFS technique has also been utilized to

  12. Knowledge structure representation and automated updates in intelligent information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Stephen; Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems is examined. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within the proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. Potential techniques are studied for developing such an automated update capability and IIMS update requirements are examined in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.

  13. Infrared Spectra and Structure of Poly(Vinylalcohol) Films Obtained From Aqueous Solutions with Potassium Iodide Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, N. I.; Zagorskaya, S. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.

    2013-11-01

    The crystallinity and H-bonds in poly(vinylalcohol) films obtained from aqueous solutions with potassium iodide additive were investigated by IR spectroscopy. It was established that addition of KI caused the degree of polymer crystallinity to increase. The band of hydroxyl stretching vibrations (νOH) shifted toward higher frequency in spectra of films with KI additive. This indicated a change in the system of H-bonds in the polymer. The dependences of both the degree of crystallinity and the shift of the νOH band on the salt concentration were qualitatively different in shape.

  14. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  15. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-09-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m-2·yr-1), P addition (15 g P m-2·yr-1), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m-2·yr-1, respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests.

  16. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-09-23

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m(-2)·yr(-1)), P addition (15 g P m(-2)·yr(-1)), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m(-2)·yr(-1), respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests.

  17. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m−2·yr−1), P addition (15 g P m−2·yr−1), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m−2·yr−1, respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests. PMID:26395406

  18. Quantifying information transfer by protein domains: Analysis of the Fyn SH2 domain structure

    PubMed Central

    Lenaerts, Tom; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Stricher, Francois; Serrano, Luis; Schymkowitz, Joost WH; Rousseau, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Background Efficient communication between distant sites within a protein is essential for cooperative biological response. Although often associated with large allosteric movements, more subtle changes in protein dynamics can also induce long-range correlations. However, an appropriate formalism that directly relates protein structural dynamics to information exchange between functional sites is still lacking. Results Here we introduce a method to analyze protein dynamics within the framework of information theory and show that signal transduction within proteins can be considered as a particular instance of communication over a noisy channel. In particular, we analyze the conformational correlations between protein residues and apply the concept of mutual information to quantify information exchange. Mapping out changes of mutual information on the protein structure then allows visualizing how distal communication is achieved. We illustrate the approach by analyzing information transfer by the SH2 domain of Fyn tyrosine kinase, obtained from Monte Carlo dynamics simulations. Our analysis reveals that the Fyn SH2 domain forms a noisy communication channel that couples residues located in the phosphopeptide and specificity binding sites and a number of residues at the other side of the domain near the linkers that connect the SH2 domain to the SH3 and kinase domains. We find that for this particular domain, communication is affected by a series of contiguous residues that connect distal sites by crossing the core of the SH2 domain. Conclusion As a result, our method provides a means to directly map the exchange of biological information on the structure of protein domains, making it clear how binding triggers conformational changes in the protein structure. As such it provides a structural road, next to the existing attempts at sequence level, to predict long-range interactions within protein structures. PMID:18842137

  19. The closed-mindedness that wasn’t: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information

    PubMed Central

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness. PMID:26191017

  20. Investigating information-processing performance of different command team structures in the NATO Problem Space.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Rothrock, Ling; Harvey, Catherine; Sorensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The structure of command teams is a significant factor on their communications and ability to process, and act upon, information. The NATO Problem Space was used in this study to represent three of the main dimensions in the battle-space environment: familiarity, rate of change, and strength of information position. Results show that the five common team structures (chain, Y, circle, wheel and all-connected) did not generally perform as predicted in team literature. Findings suggest that under dynamic and highly variable conditions, high levels of synchronisation and trust should be present. On the other hand, synchronisation and trust are less important in hierarchical, highly centralised structures, because team members are more willing to accept the authority of a single leader and this tight control ensures that these teams can perform well as long as the Problem Space is familiar, information is explicit and the environment does not change. Practitioner Summary: Some types of team structures are better suited to particular constraints of the battle-space than others. This research has shown that the much touted all-connected structure is often the worst performing structure and that the traditional hierarchy of command and control has much merit in the digital information age.

  1. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  2. Hierarchical structure of the Sicilian goats revealed by Bayesian analyses of microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Siwek, M; Finocchiaro, R; Curik, I; Portolano, B

    2011-02-01

    Genetic structure and relationship amongst the main goat populations in Sicily (Girgentana, Derivata di Siria, Maltese and Messinese) were analysed using information from 19 microsatellite markers genotyped on 173 individuals. A posterior Bayesian approach implemented in the program STRUCTURE revealed a hierarchical structure with two clusters at the first level (Girgentana vs. Messinese, Derivata di Siria and Maltese), explaining 4.8% of variation (amovaФ(ST) estimate). Seven clusters nested within these first two clusters (further differentiations of Girgentana, Derivata di Siria and Maltese), explaining 8.5% of variation (amovaФ(SC) estimate). The analyses and methods applied in this study indicate their power to detect subtle population structure.

  3. Syntactic Structure and Information Structure: The Acquisition of Portuguese Clefts and "Be"-Fragments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Maria; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Soares-Jesel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of different types of clefts and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese. We first present the main syntactic and discourse properties of different cleft structures and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese, and we discuss how data from first language acquisition may contribute to…

  4. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Ma, Jun-An

    2015-11-07

    Dihydrobenzoxazinones and dihydroquinazolinones are the core units present in many anti-HIV agents, such as Efavirenz, DPC 961, DPC 963, and DPC 083. All these molecules contain a trifluoromethyl moiety at the quaternary stereogenic carbon center with S configuration. The enantioselective addition of carbon nucleophiles to ketones or cyclic ketimines could serve as a key step to access these molecules. This tutorial review provides an overview of significant advances in the synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents and relative analogues, with an emphasis on asymmetric addition reactions for the establishment of the CF3-containing quaternary carbon centers.

  5. Defense Acquisitions: Additional Guidance Needed to Improve Visibility into the Structure and Management of Major Weapon System Subcontracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-28

    ProvisionCovered Information 1American National Standards Institute / Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748 , Earned Value Management Systems (ANSI/ EIA ... 748 ). Source: GAO analysis of FARS and DFARS. Table 3: Acquisition Regulations That Provide Definitions of Major Subcontract Page 27 Page

  6. Scientific Change as AN Evolutionary, Information Process: its Structural, Conceptual and Cultural Elements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bustany, Fatin Khalil Ismail

    1989-09-01

    My aim in this dissertation is to develop an evolutionary conception of science based on recent studies in evolution theory, the thermodynamics of non-equilibrium and information theory, as exemplified in the works of Prigogine, Jantsch, Wicken and Gatlin. The nature of scientific change is of interest to philosophers and historians of science. Some construe it after a revolutionary model (e.g. Kuhn), others adopt an evolutionary view (e.g. Toulmin). It appears to me that it is possible to construct an evolutionary model encompassing the revolutionary mode as well. The following strategies are employed: (1) A distinction is made between two types of growth: one represents gradual change, the other designates radical transformations, and two principles underlying the process of change, one of conservation, the other of innovation. (2) Science in general, and scientific theories in particular, are looked upon as dissipative structures. These are characterised by openness, irreversibility and self-organisation. In terms of these, one may identify a state of "normal" growth and another of violent fluctuations leading to a new order (revolutionary phase). These fluctuations are generated by the flow of information coming from the observable world. The chief merits of this evolutionary model of the development of science lie in the emphasis it puts on the relation of science to its environment, in the description of scientific change as a process of interaction between internal and external elements (structural, conceptual, and cultural), in the enhancement of our understanding progress and rationality in science, and in the post Neo -Darwinian conception of evolution, stressing self-organisation, the innovativeness of the evolutionary process and the trend toward complexification. These features are also manifested in the process of discovery, which is a fundamental part of the scientific enterprise. In addition, a distinction is made between two types of discovery

  7. Effect of Graphite Addition on Structure and Properties of Ti(CN) Coatings Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Pengbo; He, Jining; Zhao, Hongjian; Ni, Zenglei; Ye, Fuxing

    2016-12-01

    Ti(CN) coatings with graphite addition ranging from 0 to 50 wt.% were prepared using reactive plasma spraying technology and their microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, and block-on-ring wear testing. The results showed that graphite addition resulted in crystallite size refinement and an increase in the amount of amorphous phase. The Ti(CN) coatings consisted of a mixture of Ti(CN), graphite, CN x , and amorphous phases. The hardness first increased then decreased as the graphite content was increased, with a maximum of 1450 HV0.2 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The fracture toughness decreased from 4.38 MPa m1/2 to 2.76 MPa m1/2 with increasing graphite content. The friction coefficient decreased due to unreacted graphite embedded in the matrix. Also, the wear rate first decreased then increased, with a minimum value of 2.65 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The wear mechanisms of the Ti(CN) coatings included abrasive, adhesive, and oxidation wear.

  8. Dynamic Information Networks: Geometry, Topology and Statistical Learning for the Articulation of Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0143 DYNAMIC INFORMATION NETWORKS: GEOMETRY, TOPOLOGY, AND STATISTICAL LEARNING FOR THE ARTICULATION OF STRUCTURE Daniel Rockmore...and machine learning . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Information networks, machine learning , link prediction, hyperbolic geometry, multiscale networks, complex...ideas  from  linear  algebra,  markov  processes,  diffusion  networks,  differential   geometry,  and  machine   learning

  9. Modeling proteins using a super-secondary structure library and NMR chemical shift information.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vilas; Vallat, Brinda K; Dybas, Joseph M; Fiser, Andras

    2013-06-04

    A remaining challenge in protein modeling is to predict structures for sequences with no sequence similarity to any experimentally solved structure. Based on earlier observations, the library of protein backbone supersecondary structure motifs (Smotifs) saturated about a decade ago. Therefore, it should be possible to build any structure from a combination of existing Smotifs with the help of limited experimental data that are sufficient to relate the backbone conformations of Smotifs between target proteins and known structures. Here, we present a hybrid modeling algorithm that relies on an exhaustive Smotif library and on nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift patterns without any input of primary sequence information. In a test of 102 proteins, the algorithm delivered 90 homology-model-quality models, among them 24 high-quality ones, and a topologically correct solution for almost all cases. The current approach opens a venue to address the modeling of larger protein structures for which chemical shifts are available.

  10. Studies on D-A-π-A structured porphyrin sensitizers with different additional electron-withdrawing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Futai; Wang, Xuexiang; Zhao, Yanming; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Yaqing

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of an additional acceptor to a typical donor-π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) type porphyrin sensitizer results in a D-A-π-A featured porphyrin. Two porphyrins containing an additional acceptor with different electron-withdrawing abilities such as 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline (DPQ) for LP-11 and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) for LP-12 between the porphyrin core and the anchoring group have been synthesized for use as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Compared to LP-11, LP-12 with the stronger electron-withdrawing additional acceptor BTD possesses better light harvesting properties with regard to red-shifted Q-band absorption and a broader IPCE spectrum, resulting in a greater short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) output. Interestingly, the steric hindrance of the DPQ group is favorable for suppressing dye aggregation, leading to a larger open-circuit voltage (Voc) value for LP-11-based cell. However, the loss in Voc of LP-12 is overcompensated by an improvement in Jsc. The optimized cell based on LP-12 achieves the better performance with a Jsc of 15.51 mA cm-2, a Voc of 674 mV, a fill factor (FF) of 0.7 and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.37% under standard AM 1.5 G irradiation. The findings provide a guidance for the future molecular design of highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers for use in DSCs.

  11. Effects of successive additions of two capping ligands on the structural properties of PbO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangi, Uzma K. H.; Han, Wooje; Yoo, Byungwook; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2013-11-01

    A cost-effective approach to the synthesis of lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles by successive additions of two capping ligands using a simple method of precipitation is reported herein. The successive additions of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) cap the Pb(OH)2 with a primary layer of PVP and a secondary layer of CTAB, forming a bilayer system around Pb(OH)2. PVP controls the PbO particle size, while CTAB enhances the particle size of the PVP-treated PbO by seeding growth process. The effects of the successive additions of these two capping ligands were studied by varying the relative percentages of PVP and CTAB from 0 to 100 %. From transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results, it was confirmed that the size of the PbO nanoparticles decreased with a relative increase in the percentage of PVP (and corresponding decrease in the percentage of CTAB). Furthermore, X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the formation of a pure α-PbO phase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed the increase in grain size with the decrease in the percentage of PVP. Infrared spectroscopy depicted the formation of PbO along with the presence of PVP and CTAB covering the particle surface. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis revealed the decomposition of lead oxalate to α-PbO at around 370 °C.

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Water Retention and Structure Stability in Smectitic or Kaolinitic Loam and Clay Soils Affected by Polyacrylamide Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Amirakh; Levy, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Studying the effects of polyacrylamide (PAM) on soil aggregate and structure stability is important in developing effective soil and water conservation practices and in sustaining soil and water quality. Five concentrations of an anionic PAM (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg L-1) with a high molecular weight were tested on loam and clay soils having either a predominant smectitic or kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The effects of the PAM and of soil texture on soil water retention at near saturation and on aggregate and structure stability were investigated using the high energy moisture characteristic (HEMC) method. The S-shaped water retention curves obtained by the HEMC method were characterized by the modified van Genuchten (1980) model that provided: (i) the model parameters α and n, which represent the location of the inflection point and the steepness of the water retention curve, respectively; and (ii) the soil structure index, SI =VDP/MS, where VDP is the volume of drainable pores, an indicator of the quantity of water released by a soil over the range of applied suctions (0-5 J kg-1), and MS is the modal suction representing the most frequent pore sizes (> 60 μm). In general, the treatments tested (clay mineralogy, soil type and PAM concentration) resulted in: (i) a considerable modification of the shape of the water retention curves as indicated by the changes in the α and n values; and; (ii) substantial effects on the stability indices and other model parameters. The contribution of PAM concentration to soil structure stability depended on the clay mineralogy, being more effective in the smectitic soils than in the kaolinitic ones. Although kaolinitic soils are usually more stable than smectitic soils, when the latter were treated with PAM (25-200 mg L-1) the opposite trend was observed. In the loam soils, increasing the PAM concentration notably decreased the differences between values of the stability indices of the smectitic and kaolinitic samples. The

  14. Predicting Protein Secondary Structure Using Consensus Data Mining (CDM) Based on Empirical Statistics and Evolutionary Information.

    PubMed

    Kandoi, Gaurav; Leelananda, Sumudu P; Jernigan, Robert L; Sen, Taner Z

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the secondary structure of a protein from its sequence still remains a challenging problem. The prediction accuracies remain around 80 %, and for very diverse methods. Using evolutionary information and machine learning algorithms in particular has had the most impact. In this chapter, we will first define secondary structures, then we will review the Consensus Data Mining (CDM) technique based on the robust GOR algorithm and Fragment Database Mining (FDM) approach. GOR V is an empirical method utilizing a sliding window approach to model the secondary structural elements of a protein by making use of generalized evolutionary information. FDM uses data mining from experimental structure fragments, and is able to successfully predict the secondary structure of a protein by combining experimentally determined structural fragments based on sequence similarities of the fragments. The CDM method combines predictions from GOR V and FDM in a hierarchical manner to produce consensus predictions for secondary structure. In other words, if sequence fragment are not available, then it uses GOR V to make the secondary structure prediction. The online server of CDM is available at http://gor.bb.iastate.edu/cdm/ .

  15. From information management to protein annotation: preparing protein structures for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Peat, Tom; de La Fortelle, Eric; Culpepper, Janice; Newman, Janet

    2002-11-01

    In contrast to academic pursuits of structural genomics, Structural GenomiX (SGX) solves protein structures at high throughput for the main purpose of enhancing drug-discovery projects, either internally or in partnership with pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies. This involves a radical redesign of the pipeline of methods that turn a gene sequence into a three-dimensional protein structure. The various processes all report electronically to a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) to make sure all the parameters of the experiment are recorded in an accessible and 'mineable' form, helping guarantee reproducibility of results. Quality control at several key points keeps the process from branching out on a wrong hypothesis. Protein annotation, in a broad sense, takes care of the interpretation of a protein crystal structure or the crystal structure of one or several protein-ligand complexes. This interpretation both gathers all necessary biological information (protein function, mechanism, specific features within a protein family etc.) and hands over this information in a form accessible to medicinal chemistry teams designing specific small-molecule agonists or antagonists.

  16. Effect of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} addition on structure and ionic conductivity of lithium borosilicotitanate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Satpute, N. S.; Deshpande, A. V.

    2014-04-24

    Lithium borosilicotitanate glasses containing Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were prepared by melt quenching technique. Electrical conductivity, density, molar volume and glass transition temperature T{sub g} for all the glass samples were measured. IR spectroscopy was used for structural studies of these glasses in the range from 400 to 2000 cm{sub −1}. The conductivity of the Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} containing glasses was found to be half an order higher than the base glass. The electrical conductivity was interpreted from the point of view of glass structure which suggests that an enhancement in conductivity is due to the incorporation of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the macromolecular network. The molar volume and glass transition temperature T{sub g} results are found to be in good correlation with conductivity results.

  17. An Experimental and Computational Approach to Defining Structure/Reactivity Relationships for Intramolecular Addition Reactions to Bicyclic Epoxonium Ions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Shuangyi; Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, K. N.; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript we report that oxidative cleavage reactions can be used to form oxocarbenium ions that react with pendent epoxides to form bicyclic epoxonium ions as an entry to the formation of cyclic oligoether compounds. Bicyclic epoxonium ion structure was shown to have a dramatic impact on the ratio of exo- to endo-cyclization reactions, with bicyclo[4.1.0] intermediates showing a strong preference for endo-closures and bicyclo[3.1.0] intermediates showing a preference for exo-closures. Computational studies on the structures and energetics of the transition states using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method provide substantial insight into the origins of this selectivity. PMID:17547399

  18. Deformation of rotational structures in {sup 73}Kr and {sup 74}Rb: Probing the additivity principle at triaxial shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston-Theasby, F.; Jenkins, D. G.; Joshi, P.; Wadsworth, R.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Austin, R. A. E.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J.; Moore, F.; Mukherjee, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Goergen, A.; Reviol, W.

    2008-09-15

    Lifetimes have been deduced in the intermediate/high-spin range for the three known rotational bands in {sup 73}Kr and the T=0 band in {sup 74}Rb using the residual Doppler shift method. This has enabled relative transition quadrupole moments to be studied for the first time in triaxial nuclei as a function of spin. The data suggest that the additivity principle for transition quadrupole moments is violated, a result that is in disagreement with predictions from cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky and cranked relativistic mean-field theory calculations. The reasons for the discrepancy are not understood but may indicate that important correlations are missing from the models.

  19. Analysis of information gain and Kolmogorov complexity for structural evaluation of cellular automata configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaheri Javid, Mohammad Ali; Blackwell, Tim; Zimmer, Robert; Majid al-Rifaie, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.

  20. Mesoporous Titania Powders: The Role of Precursors, Ligand Addition and Calcination Rate on Their Morphology, Crystalline Structure and Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Masolo, Elisabetta; Meloni, Manuela; Garroni, Sebastiano; Mulas, Gabriele; Enzo, Stefano; Baró, Maria Dolors; Rossinyol, Emma; Rzeszutek, Agnieszka; Herrmann-Geppert, Iris; Pilo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of the use of different titania precursors, calcination rate, and ligand addition on the morphology, texture and phase content of synthesized mesoporous titania samples, parameters which, in turn, can play a key role in titania photocatalytic performances. The powders, obtained through the evaporation-induced self-assembly method, are characterized by means of ex situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) measurements, N2 physisorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy. The precursors are selected basing on two different approaches: the acid-base pair, using TiCl4 and Ti(OBu)4, and a more classic route with Ti(OiPr)4 and HCl. For both precursors, different specimens were prepared by resorting to different calcination rates and with and without the addition of acetylacetone, that creates coordinated species with lower hydrolysis rates, and with different calcination rates. Each sample was employed as photoanode and tested in the water splitting reaction by recording I-V curves and comparing the results with commercial P25 powders. The complex data framework suggests that a narrow pore size distribution, due to the use of acetylacetone, plays a major role in the photoactivity, leading to a current density value higher than that of P25. PMID:28344237