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Sample records for additional studies evaluating

  1. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  2. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  3. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  6. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  8. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  9. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  10. Vital capacity and inspiratory capacity as additional parameters to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthmatic patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bronchodilator response in patients with asthma is evaluated based on post-bronchodilator increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). However, the need for additional parameters, mainly among patients with severe asthma, has already been demonstrated. Methods The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of vital capacity (VC) and inspiratory capacity (IC) to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthma patients with persistent airflow obstruction. The 43 asthma patients enrolled in the study were stratified into moderate or severe airflow obstruction groups based on baseline FEV1. All patients performed a 6-minute walk test before and after the bronchodilator (BD). A bipolar visual analogue scale post-BD was performed to assess clinical effect. The correlation between VC and IC and clinical response, determined by visual analogue scale (VAS) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT), was investigated. Results Patients in the severe group presented: 1) greater bronchodilator response in VC (48% vs 15%, p = 0.02), 2) a significant correlation between VC variation and the reduction in air trapping (Rs = 0.70; p < 0.01), 3) a significant agreement between VC and VAS score (kappa = 0.57; p < 0.01). There was no correlation between IC and the reduction in air trapping or clinical data. Conclusions VC may be a useful additional parameter to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthma patients with severe airflow obstruction. PMID:22950529

  11. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  12. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  13. Evaluation of effect of addition of 2% chlorhexidine on the sealing ability of Biodentine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Navleen Kaur; Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh; Jaiswal, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of the addition of 2% chlorhexidine on the sealing ability of Biodentine. Materials and Methods: Forty-six extracted human premolar teeth with single canal and apical foramen were selected, cleaned, and decoronated to standardize the length of 17 mm. Canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files till size F4. The samples were divided into 2 experimental groups of 20 samples each on the basis of absence/presence of 2% chlorhexidine in liquid: Group BM = Biodentine mixed with the provided liquid, Group BC = Biodentine mixed with 2% chlorhexidine in provided liquid. Three samples, each were assigned to control groups: Group BP (positive control) = No root end filling was placed, Group BN (negative control) = Root ends were filled as in Group BM, and entire external surface was coated with sticky wax. The samples were then evaluated for the apical sealing using fluid filtration method. Results: Results were analyzed using Student's t-test (P ≤ 0.05). Group BC showed the better sealing ability (3.06) as compared to Group BM (3.85). However, the difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of 2% chlorhexidine to the liquid enhanced the sealing ability of Biodentine. PMID:26752844

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment and revision of specifications for food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and intake data on various specific food additives (alpha-amylase from Bacillus lichenformis containing a genetically engineered alpha-amylase gene from B. licheniformis, annatto extracts, curcumin, diacetyl and fatty acid esters of glycerol, D-tagatose, laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, mixed xylanase, beta-glucanase enzyme preparation produced by a strain of Humicola insolens, neotame, polyvinyl alcohol, quillaia extracts and xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus expressed in Fusarium venenatum), flavouring agents, a nutritional source of iron (ferrous glycinate, processed with citric acid), a disinfectant for drinking-water (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and contaminants (cadmium and methylmercury). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives, recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications and further information requested or desired.

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bend, J; Bolger, M; Knaap, A G A C; Kuznesof, P M; Larsen, J C; Mattia, A; Meylan, I; Pitt, J I; Resnik, S; Schlatter, J; Vavasour, E; Rao, M Veerabhadra; Verger, P; Walker, R; Wallin, H; Whitehouse, B; Abbott, P J; Adegoke, G; Baan, R; Baines, J; Barlow, S; Benford, D; Bruno, A; Charrondiere, R; Chen, J; Choi, M; DiNovi, M; Fisher, C E; Iseki, N; Kawamura, Y; Konishi, Y; Lawrie, S; Leblanc, J C; Leclercq, C; Lee, H M; Moy, G; Munro, I C; Nishikawa, A; Olempska-Beer, Z; de Peuter, G; Pronk, M E J; Renwick, A G; Sheffer, M; Sipes, I G; Tritscher, A; Soares, L Valente; Wennberg, A; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular flavouring agents) and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (acidified sodium chlorite, asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed, cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, isoamylase from Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, magnesium sulfate, phospholipase A1 from Fusarium venenatum expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, sodium iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and steviol glycosides); eight groups of related flavouring agents (linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; aliphatic acyclic dials, trials and related substances; aliphatic acetals; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; and aliphatic alicyclic linear alpha, beta -unsaturated di- and trienals and related alcohols, acids and esters); and two food contaminants (aflatoxin and ochratoxin A). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: maltol and ethyl maltol, nisin preparation, pectins, polyvinyl alcohol, and sucrose esters of fatty acids. Specifications

  18. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  19. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  20. Evaluation of biodegradation-promoting additives for plastics.

    PubMed

    Selke, Susan; Auras, Rafael; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Castro Aguirre, Edgar; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-17

    Biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers are increasingly being used around the world with the claim that they effectively render commercial polymers biodegradable. However, there is a lot of uncertainty about their effectiveness in degrading polymers in different environments. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodegradation-promoting additives on the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Biodegradation was evaluated in compost, anaerobic digestion, and soil burial environments. None of the five different additives tested significantly increased biodegradation in any of these environments. Thus, no evidence was found that these additives promote and/or enhance biodegradation of PE or PET polymers. So, anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation are not recommended as feasible disposal routes for nonbiodegradable plastics containing any of the five tested biodegradation-promoting additives.

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...

  2. F-76 Lubricity Improver Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-16

    steel 8-inch extender tube is attached to the large bung of the drum and a stainless steel, air driven pump is placed into the extender tube. The...drum pump outlet line is then attached onto the 90-degree stainless steel fitting on the small bung of the drum and the additized referee fuel is

  3. Evaluated kinetics of terminal and non-terminal addition of hydrogen atoms to 1-alkenes: a shock tube study of H + 1-butene.

    PubMed

    Manion, Jeffrey A; Awan, Iftikhar A

    2015-01-22

    Single-pulse shock tube methods have been used to thermally generate hydrogen atoms and investigate the kinetics of their addition reactions with 1-butene at temperatures of 880 to 1120 K and pressures of 145 to 245 kPa. Rate parameters for the unimolecular decomposition of 1-butene are also reported. Addition of H atoms to the π bond of 1-butene results in displacement of either methyl or ethyl depending on whether addition occurs at the terminal or nonterminal position. Postshock monitoring of the initial alkene products has been used to determine the relative and absolute reaction rates. Absolute rate constants have been derived relative to the reference reaction of displacement of methyl from 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135TMB). With k(H + 135TMB → m-xylene + CH3) = 6.7 × 10(13) exp(-3255/T) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), we find the following: k(H + 1-butene → propene + CH3) = k10 = 3.93 × 10(13) exp(-1152 K/T) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), [880-1120 K; 145-245 kPa]; k(H + 1-butene → ethene + C2H5) = k11 = 3.44 × 10(13) exp(-1971 K/T) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), [971-1120 K; 145-245 kPa]; k10/k11 = 10((0.058±0.059)) exp [(818 ± 141) K/T), 971-1120 K. Uncertainties (2σ) in the absolute rate constants are about a factor of 1.5, while the relative rate constants should be accurate to within ±15%. The displacement rate constants are shown to be very close to the high pressure limiting rate constants for addition of H, and the present measurements are the first direct determination of the branching ratio for 1-olefins at high temperatures. At 1000 K, addition to the terminal site is favored over the nonterminal position by a factor of 2.59 ± 0.39, where the uncertainty is 2σ and includes possible systematic errors. Combining the present results with evaluated data from the literature pertaining to temperatures of <440 K leads us to recommend the following: k∞(H + 1-butene → 2-butyl) = 1.05 × 10(9)T(1.40) exp(-366/T) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), [220-2000 K]; k∞(H + 1-butene → 1

  4. Evaluation of effect of tray space on the accuracy of condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Aeran, Himanshu

    2012-09-01

    Optimal thickness of impression materials in the custom tray in order to get the most accurate impression. To investigate the effect of different tray spacer thickness on the accuracy and the dimensional stability of impressions made from monophasic condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials. Three different types of elastomeric monophasic impression materials were used for making the impression of a master die with tray having tray spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Each type of impression was poured in die stone after 1 h. Each cast was analyzed by a travelling microscope and compared with the master die. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 to 4 mm spaced trays produced more accurate stone casts when compared to 6 mm spaced tray. No statistical significant differences were observed between the accuracy and dimensional stability of the three materials tested. Minimum changes were observed when the cast was poured after 1 h and the tray space was 2 mm for all the materials tested. It is therefore advisable not to exceed tray space of 2 mm.

  5. Evaluation of zinc addition to PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Pathania, R.; Yagnik, S.; Gold, R.E.; Dove, M.; Kolstad, E.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies have shown that addition of zinc to a PWR environment reduces the general corrosion rates of materials in the primary system and delays the initiation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600. Because of the potential benefits of zinc addition in reducing radiation fields and mitigating PWSCC of Alloy 600 a project was initiated to qualify zinc addition to a PWR. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc addition on radiation fields, PWSCC of Alloy 600 and fuel cladding corrosion at the Farley-2 PWR. In order to provide an early warning of any potential adverse effects on the fuel cladding, corrosion studies were initiated at the Halden test reactor prior to zinc addition at Farley-2. This paper provides an overview of the scope of the zinc addition demonstration at Farley-2 and the fuel cladding corrosion tests at Halden. The zinc concentration in the Farley-2 coolant is approximately 40 ppb and that in Halden is 50 ppb. The paper presents initial results from these studies which are still in progress.

  6. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  7. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  8. Surface analysis and evaluation of progressive addition lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiying; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Progressive addition lens is used increasingly extensive with its advantages of meeting the requirements of distant and near vision at the same time. Started from the surface equations of progressive addition lens, combined with evaluation method of spherical power and cylinder power, the relationship equations between the surface sag and optical power distribution are derived. According to the requirements on difference of actual and nominal optical power from Chinese National Standard, the tolerance analysis and evaluation of prototype progressive addition surface with addition of 2.5m-1 ( 7.5m-1 10m-1 ) is given in detail. The tolerance analysis method provides theoretical proof for lens processing control accuracy, and the processing feasibility of lens is evaluated much more reasonably.

  9. A Four-step Approach for Evaluation of Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four step approach was developed for evaluating toxicity data on a chemical mixture for consistency with dose addition. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture guidance (EPA 2000), toxicologic interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a c...

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Evaluation of Boundary-Enhancement Additives for Perfluoropolyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R. , Jr.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Lin, Tzuhn-Yuan; Kawa, Hajimu

    1996-01-01

    Six additives were synthesized and evaluated as boundary lubrication enhancers for perfluoropolyethers. These additives included a phosphonate, a thiophosphonate, a beta-diketone, a benzothiazole, an amide and a sulfite. These additives were evaluated in a vacuum four-ball apparatus, at a one weight percent concentration in a perfluoropolyether based on hexafluoropropene oxide. Tests were performed in vacuum (less than 5.0 x 10(exp 6) Torr), at room temperature (approx. 23 C), at an initial Hertzian stress of 3.5 GPa (200N load), and a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 rpm). Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the 440 C specimens after testing. Wear rates for each formulation were determined from the slope of wear volume as a function of sliding distance. All additives yielded reductions in mean wear rates of at least 55 percent, with the exception of the benzothiazole which had no effect. Two of the additives, an amide and a sulfite, reduced the mean wear rate by at least 80 percent. IR and Raman analysis indicated the severity of wear can be correlated to the amount of surface fluorinated polymeric acid species (R(sub f)COOH) and amorphous carbon, in and around the wear scar.

  12. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Stainless Steel Components

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, William H.; Lou, Xiaoyuan; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Webber, David

    2016-09-01

    This collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric Company aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of the additively manufactured 316L stainless steel by ORNL’s Renishaw AM250 machine for nuclear application. The program also evaluated the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the same material in high temperature water environments. Results show the properties of this material to be similar to the properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated additively with equipment from other manufacturers with slightly higher porosity. The stress corrosion crack growth rate is similar to that for wrought 316L stainless steel for an oxygenated high temperature water environment and slightly higher for a hydrogenated high temperature water environment. Optimized heat treatment of this material is expected to improve performance in high temperature water environments.

  13. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  14. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  15. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  16. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  17. Evaluation of two bisimide additives in LARC-TPI adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; Stclair, Terry L.

    1990-01-01

    The processability of aromatic polyimides can be improved by the addition of bis (amide) acids or bisimides to LARC-TPI. These low molecular weight additives apparently lower the melt viscosity of aromatic polyimides without affecting the glass transition temperature. Well-consolidated, fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using this technology. LARC-TPI can be processed as a thermoplastic polyimide to form high strength bonds, however, this is generally accomplished by processing at relatively high bonding pressures. An adhesive investigation is presented on the effects of two bisimide additives to LARC-TPI in an attempt to improve the bonding process by lowering the viscosity of the material to achieve improved bond strength properties. Apparently, the high flow which is exhibited by the additives when they melt, tended to be masked by the more viscous LARC-TPI.

  18. A Novel Approach for Evaluating Carbamate Mixtures for Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two mathematical approaches were used to test the hypothesis ofdose-addition for a binary and a seven-chemical mixture ofN-methyl carbamates, toxicologically similar chemicals that inhibit cholinesterase (ChE). In the more novel approach, mixture data were not included in the ana...

  19. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  20. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  1. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives for Use in Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamoun, Zahi

    The objective of this research effort is to evaluate the use of warm-mix additives with polymer modified and terminal blend tire rubber asphalt mixtures from Nevada and California. The research completed over two stages: first stage evaluated two different WMA technologies; Sasobit and Advera, and second stage evaluated one additional WMA technology; Evotherm. The experimental program covered the evaluation of resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage, the performance characteristics of the mixtures, and mechanistic analysis of mixtures in simulated pavements. In the both stages, the mixture resistance to moisture damage was evaluated using the indirect tensile test and the dynamic modulus at multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and the resistance of the various asphalt mixtures to permanent deformation using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT). Resistance of the untreated mixes to fatigue cracking using the flexural beam fatigue was only completed for the first stage. One source of aggregates was sampled in, two different batches, three warm mix asphalt technologies (Advera, Sasobit and Evotherm) and three asphalt binder types (neat, polymer-modified, and terminal blend tire rubber modified asphalt binders) typically used in Nevada and California were evaluated in this study. This thesis presents the resistance of the first stage mixtures to permanent deformation and fatigue cracking using two warm-mix additives; Advera and Sasobit, and the resistance to moisture damage and permanent deformation of the second stage mixtures with only one warm-mix additive; Evotherm.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives: branching glycosyltransferase from Rhodothermus obamensis expressed in Bacillus subtilis, cassia gum, cyclamic acid and its salts (dietary exposure assessment), cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, ferrous ammonium phosphate, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, lycopene from all sources, lycopene extract from tomato, mineral oil (low and medium viscosity) class II and class III, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, sodium hydrogen sulfate and sucrose oligoesters type I and type II. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: diacetyltartaric acid and fatty acid esters of glycerol, ethyl lauroyl arginate, glycerol ester of wood rosin, nisin preparation, nitrous oxide, pectins, starch sodium octenyl succinate, tannic acid, titanium dioxide and triethyl citrate. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for intakes and toxicological evaluations of the food additives considered.

  3. Evaluation of dentinal tubule occlusion and depth of penetration of nano-hydroxyapatite derived from chicken eggshell powder with and without addition of sodium fluoride: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kunam, Divya; Manimaran, Sujatha; Sampath, Vidhya; Sekar, Mahalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated the degree of dentinal tubule occlusion and depth of penetration of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) derived from chicken eggshell powder with and without the addition of 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Materials and Methods: nHAp was synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Dentin discs were obtained from extracted teeth, pretreated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 5 min and were divided into four groups based on the experimental agents as follows: Group 1: Untreated (control), Group 2: 2% NaF, Group 3: nHAp, Group 4: Combination of nHAp and 2% NaF. The treatment protocol was carried out for 7 days, after which the specimens were viewed under SEM and CLSM. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison tests (P < 0.05). Results: All the experimental agents occluded the dentinal tubules, but to varying degrees and depths. Specimens treated with the combination of nHAp and 2% NaF showed complete dentinal tubular occlusion and significantly greater depth of penetration than those treated with nHAp and 2% NaF alone. Conclusion: The combination of nHAp and 2% NaF was the most effective in occluding dentinal tubules. PMID:27217637

  4. Evaluation of several additional dry lubricants for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Four transfer-film ball-bearing retainer materials were evaluated for their lubricating ability and wear capability under conditions of 120-gram radial load, 450-gram axial load, 3600-rpm unidirectional rotation, 23 C ambient temperature, and less than .1 microtorr pressure, using R-2 sized unshielded ball bearings. The 'stop-test' criterion was a total of one billion revolutions or a torque buildup greater than 18 gm-cm per bearing pair. A PTFE-fiberglass-MoS2 composite, a PTFE-bronze composite, and a tantalum-molybdenum-MoS2 composite operated for one billion revolutions without reaching the 18-gram torque limit. A p-oxybenzoyl polymer-MoS2 composite operated sixteen million revolutions before reaching the 18-gm cm stop-test torque. The first three materials are considered as suitable lubricants under the test conditions employed.

  5. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  6. Phase II Study Evaluating the Addition of Cetuximab to the Concurrent Delivery of Weekly Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, and Daily Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Suntharalingam, Mohan; Kwok, Young; Goloubeva, Olga; Parekh, Arti; Taylor, Rodney; Wolf, Jeffrey; Zimrin, Ann; Strome, Scott; Ord, Robert; Cullen, Kevin J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To report the mature data of a prospective Phase II trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab (CTX) added to the concurrent therapy of weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin (PC) and daily radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, a total of 43 patients were enrolled in the study. The median follow-up was 31 months (range, 9-59 months). All patients had Stage III/IV disease at presentation, and 67% had oropharyngeal primaries. The weekly IV dose schedules were CTX 250 mg/m{sup 2} (400 mg/m{sup 2} IV loading dose 1 week before RT), paclitaxel 40 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin AUC 2. RT was given at 1.8 Gy per day to 70.2 Gy. Intensity-modulated RTwas used in 70% of cases. Results: All patients completed the planned RT dose, 74% without any treatment breaks. The planned CTX and PC cycles were completed in 70% (91% with at least seven of planned nine cycles) and 56% (93% with at least seven of planned eight cycles) of patients, respectively. Toxicity included Grade 3 mucositis (79%), rash (9%), leucopenia (19%), neutropenia (19%), and RT dermatitis (16%). The complete response (CR) rate at the completion of therapy was 84%. The estimated 3-year local regional control rate was 72%. Six patients with an initial CR subsequently experienced a local recurrence, 10 patients experienced distant progression. The median overall survival and disease-free survivals have not been reached. The 3-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 59% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of CTX to weekly PC and daily RT was well tolerated and resulted in encouraging local control and survival rates.

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  8. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  9. Home Start Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

    Case studies of eight Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Binghamton, New York; Franklin, North Carolina; Cleveland, Ohio; Harrogate, Tennessee; Houston, Texas; Weslaco, Texas; Millville, Utah; Parkersburg, West Virginia. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail…

  10. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report details the evaluation fuel additives used to eliminate the effects of free water

  11. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  12. Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine.

  13. 34 CFR 300.305 - Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements for evaluations and... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Evaluations and Reevaluations § 300.305...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.356 - May the trust evaluation process be used for additional reviews?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews? 1000.356 Section 1000.356 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.356 May the trust evaluation process be used for additional reviews? Yes, if the parties agree....

  15. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Oxide Nanoparticles as Friction and Wear Improvement Additives in Motor Oil

    DOE PAGES

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Erck, Robert A.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; ...

    2017-01-01

    The effect of two nanoparticle oxides on friction and wear was studied under laboratory test conditions using a reciprocating test machine and two test configurations. The addition of these nanoparticles in base stock oil under certain conditions reduced the coefficient of friction and improved wear, but that depended on the test configuration. Examination of the rubbed surfaces showed the pronounced formation of a tribofilm in some cases, while polishing on the surface was also observed in other cases. Contact configuration is important when oxide nanoparticles are being evaluated and the conclusions about their efficacy can be vastly different.

  17. Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Metals for Use in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan; Cooper, Ken; Peralta, Stephen; Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Space Launch System, Commercial Resupply, and Commercial Crew programs have published intent to use additively manufactured (AM) components in propulsion systems and are likely to include various life support systems in the future. Parts produced by these types of additive manufacturing techniques have not been fully evaluated for use in oxygen systems and the inherent risks have not been fully identified. Some areas of primary concern in the SLS process with respect to oxygen compatibility may be the porosity of the printed parts, fundamental differences in microstructure of an AM part as compared to traditional materials, or increased risk of shed metal particulate into an oxygen system. If an ignition were to occur the printed material could be more flammable than components manufactured from a traditional billet of raw material and/or present a significant hazards if not identified and rigorously studied in advance of implementation into an oxygen system.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  19. Evaluation of an Al-Ce alloy for laser additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Plotkowski, A.; Rios, O.; Sridharan, N.; ...

    2016-12-27

    Our present research in metal additive manufacturing (AM) focuses on designing processing parameters around existing alloys designed for traditional manufacturing. However, to maximize the benefits of AM, alloys should be designed to specifically take advantage of the unique thermal conditions of these processes. Furthermore, our study focuses on the development of a design methodology for alloys in AM, using a newly developed Al-Ce alloy as an initial case study. To evaluate the candidacy of this system for fusion based additive manufacturing, single-line laser melts were made on cast Al-12Ce plates using three different beam velocities (100, 200, and 300 mm/min).more » The microstructure was evaluated in the as-melted and heat treated conditions (24 hrs at 300°C). An extremely fine microstructure was observed within the weld pools, evolving from eutectic at the outer solid-liquid boundaries to a primary Al FCC dendritic/cellular structure nearer the melt-pool centerline. We rationalized the observed microstructures through the construction of a microstructure selection map for the Al-Ce binary system, which will be used to enable future alloy design. Interestingly, the heat treated samples exhibited no microstructural coarsening.« less

  20. Evaluation of an Al-Ce alloy for laser additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkowski, A.; Rios, O.; Sridharan, N.; Sims, Z.; Unocic, K.; Ott, R. T.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2016-12-27

    Our present research in metal additive manufacturing (AM) focuses on designing processing parameters around existing alloys designed for traditional manufacturing. However, to maximize the benefits of AM, alloys should be designed to specifically take advantage of the unique thermal conditions of these processes. Furthermore, our study focuses on the development of a design methodology for alloys in AM, using a newly developed Al-Ce alloy as an initial case study. To evaluate the candidacy of this system for fusion based additive manufacturing, single-line laser melts were made on cast Al-12Ce plates using three different beam velocities (100, 200, and 300 mm/min). The microstructure was evaluated in the as-melted and heat treated conditions (24 hrs at 300°C). An extremely fine microstructure was observed within the weld pools, evolving from eutectic at the outer solid-liquid boundaries to a primary Al FCC dendritic/cellular structure nearer the melt-pool centerline. We rationalized the observed microstructures through the construction of a microstructure selection map for the Al-Ce binary system, which will be used to enable future alloy design. Interestingly, the heat treated samples exhibited no microstructural coarsening.

  1. Use of anatomical and kinetic models in the evaluation of human food additive safety.

    PubMed

    Roth, William L

    2005-09-22

    Toxicological testing in animals is relied upon as a surrogate for clinical testing of most food additives. Both animal and human clinical test results are generally available for direct additives when high levels of exposure are expected. Limited animal studies or in vitro test results may be the only sources of toxicological data available when low levels of exposure (microg/person/day) are expected and where no effects of the additive on the food itself are desired. Safety assessment of such materials for humans requires mathematical extrapolation from any effects observed in test animals to arrive at acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for humans. Models of anatomy may be used to estimate tissue and organ weights where that information is missing and necessary for evaluation of a data set. The effect of growth on target tissue exposure during critical phases of organ development can be more accurately assessed when models of growth and known physiological changes are combined with pharmacokinetic results for test species. Kinetic models, when combined with limited chemical property, kinetic, and distribution data, can often be used to predict steady-state plasma and tissue levels of a test material over the range of doses employed in chronic studies to aid in interpretation of effects that are often nonlinear with respect to delivered dose. A better understanding of the reasons for nonlinearity of effects in animals improves our confidence in extrapolation to humans.

  2. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  3. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  4. Evaluation of the performance of smoothing functions in generalized additive models for spatial variation in disease.

    PubMed

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas.

  5. Evaluation of the Performance of Smoothing Functions in Generalized Additive Models for Spatial Variation in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas. PMID:25983545

  6. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U; Slotwinski, John

    2016-03-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST's experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed.

  7. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  8. Characterization and safety evaluation of a Deinococcus member as feed additive for hens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Szu-Yin; Li, I-Chen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2016-04-01

    As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, in vitro chromosomal test, in vivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12 g kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers.

  9. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  10. SEM-EDX, water absorption, and wetting capability studies on evaluation of the influence of nano-zinc oxide as additive to paraloid B72 solutions used for wooden artifacts consolidation.

    PubMed

    Tuduce Traistaru, Ana-Adriana; Crina Anca Sandu, Irina; Cristina Timar, Maria; Lucia Dumitrescu, Georgeta; Sandu, Ion

    2013-02-01

    Consolidation of frail, degraded wood is a key issue of wooden cultural heritage conservation. Paraloid B72 is one of the most often used consolidant in conservation practice. The present research aimed at formulating stable consolidation solutions of Paraloid B72 with ZnO nano-additives and at determining the influence of these additives on the penetration pathways, retention of the consolidation material into wood and on the water behavior of the treated wood. The experiments were performed on sound samples of aspen (Populus tremula). The addition of nano-ZnO slightly increased the uptake and retention of the consolidant within the wooden structure and led to hydrophobic surfaces. However, the influence of nano-ZnO additives to the water absorption was not conclusive. Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an EDX Detector investigation proved vessels, fibers, and interconnecting pits as main pathways of consolidant penetration into the wooden structure as well as the presence and distribution of nano-ZnO.

  11. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested.

  12. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  13. Written debriefing: Evaluating the impact of the addition of a written component when debriefing simulations.

    PubMed

    Reed, Shelly J

    2015-11-01

    Debriefing, the reflective period following a simulation, is said to be where the bulk of simulation learning takes place. Many expert opinions regarding debriefing exist, but evidence-based best practices have yet to be identified. Written debriefing is one of these practices; experts state learning can be extended through the addition of a written component to the debriefing process, but no evidence exists to support this. This study compares three debriefing types: discussion alone, and discussion followed by journaling or blogging. Undergraduate nursing students participating in a simulation were randomized as a simulation group to one of these three debriefing types. Following completion of debriefing activities, students completed a Debriefing Experience Scale, a tool designed to evaluate the student experience during debriefing. Data obtained from completed scales were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD post hoc testing. The results showed the students preferred their experience with discussion debriefing over discussion debriefing with a written component added.

  14. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  16. Late Chondritic Additions and Planet and Planetesimal Growth: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites [1-4]. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth [5]. These conclusions are based almost entirely on the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os). The HSE are a group of eight elements that have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete (e.g., [6]). This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are so high, yet their concentration in the mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this is the result of core-mantle equilibration. Since the work of [6] there has been a realization that core formation at high PT conditions can explain the abundances of many siderophile elements in the mantle (e.g., [7]), but such detailed high PT partitioning data are lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies. Consideration of other chemical parameters reveals larger problems that are difficult to overcome, but must be addressed in any scenario which calls on the addition of chondritic material to a reduced mantle. Yet these problems are rarely discussed or emphasized, making the late chondritic (or late veneer) addition hypothesis suspect.

  17. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of Aryl Ester Boundary Additives for Perfluoropolyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John R.; Feuchter, Debra K.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A series of additives were developed for evaluation as boundary lubrication enhancers for perfluoropolyethers. They are composed of a hydrocarbon aryl component (for lubrication improvement) and a fluorinated side chain (for solubility enhancement). The two moieties are joined by an ester linkage. Five boundary additives were evaluated in a perfluoropolyether basestock (Fomblin Z25) using a specially designed four-ball apparatus. Additives were evaluated at a one wt percent concentration. Conditions included: an atmosphere of dry air at atmospheric pressure, a 200N load, a speed of 100 rpm, room temperature, and 440C stainless steel specimens. Two monoesters, 2,4,6-trimethyl E2 and H5PDFO yielded wear rate reductions of approximately 60 and 35 percent, respectively. One diester, H4(E2)(sub 2), had no activity, while two other diesters (a diester of bisphenol A and H4(E4)(sub 2)) were pro-wear.

  18. America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) Project 1: Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    titanium and nickel-base alloys after AM fabrication. 4.1 Additive Manufacturing Methods and Applications Three-dimensional printing ( 3D ...AM is defining the process of 3D printing , while additive manufacturing considers the broad application of 3D printing , and necessary manufacturing... printing could generate an economic impact of $230 billion to $550 billion per year by 2025.[4] According to the 2014 Wohlers Report, the 3D printing

  19. Contextual influences on implicit evaluation: a test of additive versus contrastive effects of evaluative context stimuli in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram; Deutsch, Roland; Seidel, Oliver

    2005-09-01

    Drawing on two alternative accounts of the affective priming effect (spreading activation vs. response interference), the present research investigated the underlying processes of how evaluative context stimuli influence implicit evaluations in the affective priming task. Employing two sequentially presented prime stimuli (rather than a single prime), two experiments showed that affective priming effects elicited by a given prime stimulus were more pronounced when this stimulus was preceded by a context prime of the opposite valence than when it was preceded by a context prime of the same valence. This effect consistently emerged for pictures (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2) as prime stimuli. These results suggest that the impact of evaluative context stimuli on implicit evaluations is mediated by contrast effects in the attention to evaluative information rather than by additive effects in the activation of evaluative information in associative memory.

  20. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  1. Evaluation of the protective effect of chemical additives in the oxidation of phenolic compounds catalysed by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Arriel; Chagas, Pricila Maria Batista; Silva, Maria Cristina; Dos Santos, Custódio Donizete; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxidoredutive enzymes in removing organic pollutants has been the subject of much research. The oxidation of phenolic compounds in the presence of chemical additives has been the focus of this study. In this investigation, the influence of the additives polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 was evaluated in the phenol oxidation, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds present in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) at different pH values, performed by turnip peroxidase and peroxidase extracted from soybean seed hulls. The influence of these additives was observed only in the oxidation of phenol and caffeic acid. In the oxidation of other studied phenolic compounds, the percentage of oxidation remained unchanged in the presence of these chemical additives. In the oxidation of CPW in the presence of additives, no change in the oxidation of phenolic compounds was observed. Although several studies show the importance of evaluating the influence of additives on the behaviour of enzymes, this study found a positive response from the economic point of view for the treatment of real wastewater, since the addition of these substances showed no influence on the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which makes the process less costly.

  2. Evaluation of a new lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for detergent additive capability.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Mamta; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62%) from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase.

  3. Evaluation of a New Lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for Detergent Additive Capability

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Mamta; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62%) from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase. PMID:24106703

  4. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  5. A Four Step Approach to Evaluate Mixtures for Consistency with Dose Addition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in environmental health risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (EPA 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (...

  6. Structural evaluation of mixer pump installed in Tank 241-AN-107 for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1995-06-16

    This report documents the structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump and caustic addition system to be used in Tank 107-AN. This pump will be installed in the central pump pit of this double- shell tank for the purpose of bringing the hydroxide ion concentration into compliance with Tank Farm operating specifications.

  7. Evaluation of Inoculum Addition To Stimulate In Situ Bioremediation of Oily-Sludge-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Jyot, Jeevan; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Lal, Banwari

    2001-01-01

    A full-scale study evaluating an inoculum addition to stimulate in situ bioremediation of oily-sludge-contaminated soil was conducted at an oil refinery where the indigenous population of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the soil was very low (103 to 104 CFU/g of soil). A feasibility study was conducted prior to the full-scale bioremediation study. In this feasibility study, out of six treatments, the application of a bacterial consortium and nutrients resulted in maximum biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 120 days. Therefore, this treatment was selected for the full-scale study. In the full-scale study, plots A and B were treated with a bacterial consortium and nutrients, which resulted in 92.0 and 89.7% removal of TPH, respectively, in 1 year, compared to 14.0% removal of TPH in the control plot C. In plot A, the alkane fraction of TPH was reduced by 94.2%, the aromatic fraction of TPH was reduced by 91.9%, and NSO (nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compound) and asphaltene fractions of TPH were reduced by 85.2% in 1 year. Similarly, in plot B the degradation of alkane, aromatic, and NSO plus asphaltene fractions of TPH was 95.1, 94.8, and 63.5%, respectively, in 345 days. However, in plot C, removal of alkane (17.3%), aromatic (12.9%), and NSO plus asphaltene (5.8%) fractions was much less. The population of introduced Acinetobacter baumannii strains in plots A and B was stable even after 1 year. Physical and chemical properties of the soil at the bioremediation site improved significantly in 1 year. PMID:11282620

  8. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Fluid-Loss Additive Systems Used in the Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, G.T.; Cramer, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    Many formations in the Williston Basin are naturally fractured limestones and dolomites. Naturally fractured reservoirs are typically the most difficult to maintain control of fracturing fluid leakoff. Treatments in the Mission Canyon, Midale and Ratcliffe formations of the Madison Group have had high fracturing fluid leakoffs. Polymer/inert solids mixtures, 100 mesh sand, silica flour and oil-soluble resins have been used in an attempt to control fluid loss. These additives have not consistently solved the problem of excessive fluid loss, and frequent screenouts, gel-outs or pressure-outs have resulted. A laboratory simulation of naturally fractured reservoir leakoff was employed to evaluate the efficiency of ten fluid loss additive systems. Tapered-slot fluid loss tests and proppant pack damage tests were performed using each additive system. Five fluid loss additive systems were identified which performed well in both tests. This paper also summarizes the results of a field evaluation of nine of the original ten fluid loss additive systems used in 70 wells in the Madison Group. Two fluid loss additive systems, a mixture of silica flour and 100 mesh sand, and a mixture of oil-soluble resin (nominal 250 mesh) and 100 mesh sand, performed well in the laboratory tests and had a high success rate in the field.

  10. Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  11. Evaluation of SHM System Produced by Additive Manufacturing via Acoustic Emission and Other NDT Methods

    PubMed Central

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called “effective structural health monitoring” (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals. PMID:26506349

  12. Subchronic delayed neurotoxicity evaluation of jet engine lubricants containing phosphorus additives.

    PubMed

    Daughtrey, W; Biles, R; Jortner, B; Ehrich, M

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing 3% of either commercial tricresyl phosphate (TCP), triphenylphosphorothionate (TPPT), or butylated triphenyl phosphate (BTP) additive were evaluated for neurotoxicity in the adult hen using clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological endpoints. Groups of 17-20 hens were administered the oils by oral gavage at a "limit dose" of 1 g/kg, 5 days a week for 13 weeks. A group of positive control hens was included which received 7.5 mg/kg of one isomer of TCP (tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, TOCP) on the same regimen, with an additional oral dose of 500 mg/kg given 12 days before the end of the experiment. A negative control group received saline. Neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity in brain and spinal cord of hens dosed with the lubricating oils was not significantly different from saline controls after 6 weeks of treatment. After 13 weeks of dosing, NTE was inhibited 23 to 34% in brains of lubricant-treated hens. Clinical assessments of walking ability did not indicate any differences between the negative control group and lubricant-treated hens. Moreover, neuropathological examination revealed no alterations indicative of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). In hens treated with the positive control, significant inhibition of NTE was observed in brain and spinal cord at both 6 and 13 weeks of dosing; this group also demonstrated clinical impairment and pathological lesions indicative of OPIDN. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that synthetic polyol-based lubricating oils containing up to 3% TCP, TPPT, or BTP had low neurotoxic potential and should not pose a hazard under realistic conditions of exposure.

  13. Evaluation of SHM system produced by additive manufacturing via acoustic emission and other NDT methods.

    PubMed

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-10-21

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called "effective structural health monitoring" (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals.

  14. Evaluation of laser ultrasonic testing for inspection of metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everton, Sarah; Dickens, Phill; Tuck, Chris; Dutton, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers a number of benefits over conventional processes. However, in order for these benefits to be realised, further development and integration of suitable monitoring and closed loop control systems are needed. Laser Ultrasonic Testing (LUT) is an inspection technology which shows potential for in-situ monitoring of metallic AM processes. Non-contact measurements can be performed on curved surfaces and in difficult to reach areas, even at elevated temperatures. Interrogation of each build layer generates defect information which can be used to highlight processing errors and allow for real-time modification of processing parameters, enabling improved component quality and yield. This study evaluates the use of laser-generated surface waves to detect artificially generated defects in titanium alloy (Ti- 6Al-4V) samples produced by laser-based Powder Bed Fusion. The trials undertaken utilise the latest LUT equipment, recently installed at Manufacturing Technology Centre which is capable of being controlled remotely. This will allow the system to optimise or adapt "on-the-fly", simplifying the eventual integration of the system within an AM machine.

  15. Using additive manufacturing in accuracy evaluation of reconstructions from computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin J; Anstey, Joseph A; Venne, Gabriel; Ellis, Randy E

    2013-05-01

    Bone models derived from patient imaging and fabricated using additive manufacturing technology have many potential uses including surgical planning, training, and research. This study evaluated the accuracy of bone surface reconstruction of two diarthrodial joints, the hip and shoulder, from computed tomography. Image segmentation of the tomographic series was used to develop a three-dimensional virtual model, which was fabricated using fused deposition modelling. Laser scanning was used to compare cadaver bones, printed models, and intermediate segmentations. The overall bone reconstruction process had a reproducibility of 0.3 ± 0.4 mm. Production of the model had an accuracy of 0.1 ± 0.1 mm, while the segmentation had an accuracy of 0.3 ± 0.4 mm, indicating that segmentation accuracy was the key factor in reconstruction. Generally, the shape of the articular surfaces was reproduced accurately, with poorer accuracy near the periphery of the articular surfaces, particularly in regions with periosteum covering and where osteophytes were apparent.

  16. Evaluating mixtures of 14 hygroscopic additives to improve antibody microarray performance.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Sébastien; Laforte, Veronique; Lo, Pik-Shan; Li, Huiyan; Juncker, David

    2015-11-01

    Microarrays allow the miniaturization and multiplexing of biological assays while only requiring minute amounts of samples. As a consequence of the small volumes used for spotting and the assays, evaporation often deteriorates the quality, reproducibility of spots, and the overall assay performance. Glycerol is commonly added to antibody microarray printing buffers to decrease evaporation; however, it often decreases the binding of antibodies to the surface, thereby negatively affecting assay sensitivity. Here, combinations of 14 hygroscopic chemicals were used as additives to printing buffers for contact-printed antibody microarrays on four different surface chemistries. The ability of the additives to suppress evaporation was quantified by measuring the residual buffer volume in open quill pins over time. The seven best additives were then printed either individually or as a 1:1 mixture of two additives, and the homogeneity, intensity, and reproducibility of both the spotted protein and of a fluorescently labeled analyte in an assay were quantified. Among the 28 combinations on the four slides, many were found to outperform glycerol, and the best additive mixtures were further evaluated by changing the ratio of the two additives. We observed that the optimal additive mixture was dependent on the slide chemistry, and that it was possible to increase the binding of antibodies to the surface threefold compared to 50 % glycerol, while decreasing whole-slide coefficient of variation to 5.9 %. For the two best slides, improvements were made for both the limit of detection (1.6× and 5.9×, respectively) and the quantification range (1.2× and 2.1×, respectively). The additive mixtures identified here thus help improve assay reproducibility and performance, and might be beneficial to all types of microarrays that suffer from evaporation of the printing buffers.

  17. Evaluation of a biomass-derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H.

    1995-12-31

    A biomass derived oil referred to as sludge derived oil (SDO) has been evaluated to determine its potential use as an asphalt cement additive. The oil is derived from a relatively low temperature (450{degrees}C) atmospheric pressure thermoconversion process called Enersludge. The Enersludge process converts dried sewage sludge to a liquid hydrocarbon fraction. Relatively high concentrations of polar groups were identified in extensive characterization tests which indicated SDO could be utilized as an additive for asphalt. The oil`s unique properties make it a antistripping additive. Also, its strong affinity for heavy asphaltic material makes it an ideal rejuvenating agent for recycled asphalt. The SDO performed as well as the commercial antistripping asphalt additives tested in static immersion stripping tests. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the strength of asphalt concrete produced using SDO is similar to that produced using commercial additives. In September 1994 SDO was used to pave a test strip in Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the work done at ERL/CANMET to develop SDO for antistripping applications.

  18. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-12-19

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.

  19. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  20. Evaluating an information system for medical care evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Holloway, D C; Wiczai, L J; Carlson, E T

    1975-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a computerized information system, the Professional Activity Study-Medical Audit Program (PAS-MAP), when used by the medical staff of a hospital to conduct medical care evaluation studies. PAS-MAP was compared to a manual system for collecting data not contained on the face sheets of medical records. The results indicated that, compared to the manual system, PAS-MAP: was less costly if more than 41 per cent of hospitalized patients were included in medical care evaluation studies; was as timely as the manual system for data it could provide but provided fewer clinical data elements than physicians requested; and was less protective against human error. Three decision makers assigned weights indicating the relative importance of these results. The weights were combined in an additive model to arrive at a score for each system. Based on these scores, the manual system was recommended for implementation.

  1. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing State-of-the-Discipline Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Walker, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) state of the art of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for additive manufacturing (AM), or "3-D printed", hardware. NASA's unique need for highly customized spacecraft and instrumentation is suited for AM, which offers a compelling alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing approaches. The Agency has an opportunity to push the envelope on how this technology is used in zero gravity, an enable in-space manufacturing of flight spares and replacement hardware crucial for long-duration, manned missions to Mars. The Agency is leveraging AM technology developed internally and by industry, academia, and other government agencies for its unique needs. Recent technical interchange meetings and workshops attended by NASA have identified NDE as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing. The impact of NDE on AM is cross cutting and spans materials, processing quality assurance, testing and modeling disciplines. Appropriate NDE methods are needed before, during, and after the AM production process.

  3. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Unsal, Ugur; Baser, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p = 0.50 and p = 0.509, resp.). The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.049, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, resp.) and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.001). The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities), whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading). PMID:27340560

  4. Additive Manufacturing (AM) Activities and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA personnel will be meeting with a delegation from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) at Langley Research Center on 2217 through 3217. The purpose of the meeting is a technical interchange between NASA and JAXA to discuss Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts and the HALT process (relates to accelerated life testing). The visitors will be a small group of Japanese citizens. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been asked to participate in the meeting, either in person or via teleconference. This presentation covers NDE efforts at GSFC and provides a cursory overview of AM and lab capabilities.

  5. A Method to Evaluate Additional Waste Forms to Optimize Performance of the HLW Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gombert; L. Lauerhass

    2006-02-01

    The DOE high-level waste (HLW) disposal system is based on decisions made in the 1970s. The de facto Yucca Mountain WAC for HLW, contained in the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), and the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) tentatively describes waste forms to be interred in the repository, and limits them to borosilicate glass (BSG). It is known that many developed waste forms are as durable as or better than environmental assessment or “EA”-glass. Among them are the salt-ceramic and metallic waste forms developed at ANL-W. Also, iron phosphate glasses developed at University of Missouri show promise in stabilizing the most refractory materials in Hanford HLW. However, for any of this science to contribute, the current Total System Performance Assessment model must be able to evaluate the additional waste form to determine potential impacts on repository performance. The results can then support the technical bases required in the repository license application. A methodology is proposed to use existing analysis models to evaluate potential additional waste forms for disposal without gathering costly material specific degradation data. The concept is to analyze the potential impacts of waste form chemical makeup on repository performance assuming instantaneous waste matrix dissolution. This assumption obviates the need for material specific degradation models and is based on the relatively modest fractional contribution DOE HLW makes to the repository radionuclide and hazardous metals inventory. The existing analysis models, with appropriate data modifications, are used to evaluate geochemical interactions and material transport through the repository. This methodology would support early screening of proposed waste forms through simplified evaluation of disposal performance, and would provide preliminary guidance for repository license amendment in the future.

  6. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  7. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  8. Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

  9. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  10. Application of laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique to additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Anthony J.; Kenderian, Shant; Helvajian, Henry

    2016-04-01

    The change in properties of a propagating ultrasonic wave has been a mainstay characterization tool of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) industry for identifying subsurface defects (e.g. damage). A variant of this concept could be applicable to 3D additive manufacturing where the existence of defects (e.g. pores) within a sub-layer could mark a product as non-qualifying. We have been exploring the utility of pulsed laser ultrasonic excitation coupled with CW laser heterodyne detection as an all optical scheme for characterizing sub surface layer properties. The all-optical approach permits a straight forward integration into a laser additive processing tool. To test the concept, we have developed an experimental system that generates pulsed ultrasonic waves (the probe) with high bandwidth (<<10MHz) and a surface displacement sensor that can capture the ultrasonic "return" signal with bandwidth close to 300 MHz. The use of high frequencies enables the detection of smaller defect sites. The technique is time resolved with the sensor and probe as point (>>30-200 microns) beams. Current tests include characterizing properties of spot weld joints between two thin stainless steel plates. The long term objective is to transition the technique into a laser additive manufacturing tool.

  11. Evaluation of additives required for periodontal disease formulation using basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Natori, Nobuyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2010-12-01

    To design a suitable periodontal disease formulation using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), legally available thickeners were evaluated focusing on their viscosity, extrusive force from a syringe, flow property and inertness to bFGF. Thirteen candidate thickeners showed appropriate viscosity (about 1×10⁴ mPa·s), and further evaluations were conducted on them. Flow property was evaluated by the tilting test tube method. As a result, most thickener solutions with the optimum viscosity showed appropriate flow time (about 100 s) and the flow time did not depend on thickener concentration, whereas the extrusive force from a syringe depended on thickener concentration despite the thickener type and grade. Thickener solutions of 2-3% showed ideal result (10-20 N) and thickener solutions prepared outside of the concentration range (2-3%) were found to show unsuitable extrusive force. Consequently, to obtain required properties for a dental drug formulation, thickener solutions needed to show adequate viscosity (about 1×10⁴ mPa·s) at 2-3% thickener concentration. In addition, several types of cellulose derivatives showed inertness to the bFGF because of their structure, without strong ionic dissociable groups, and neutral pH. Overall, the present work demonstrates that some water-soluble cellulose derivatives, such as hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), were suggested to have required properties for a dental drug formulation including bFGF.

  12. Optimizing and evaluating the biocompatibility of fiber composites with calcium phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    Suchý, Tomáš; Balík, Karel; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Sochor, Miroslav; Lapčíková, Monika; Sedláček, Radek

    2011-10-01

    Composite materials based on a polyamide fabric (aramid) and a polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix were designed for application in bone surgery. In order to increase the bioactivity, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol.% of nano/micro hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were added. We studied the effect of the additives on the biocompatibility of the composite. It appears that nano additives have a more favorable effect on mechanical properties than microparticles. 15 vol.% of nano hydroxyapatite additive is an optimum amount for final application of the composites as substitutes for bone tissue: in this case both the mechanical properties and the biological properties are optimized without distinct changes in the inner structure of the composite.

  13. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  14. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  15. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  16. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of a combined fluid-loss-control additive and gel breaker for fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Boyd, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200% increase in fracture conductivity and permeability was obtained when a new degradable fluid-loss-control additive was used in place of silica flour (SF) in 40-lbm crosslinked hydroxypropyl-guar (HPG) fracturing-fluid systems. The new additive, and organic acid particulate (OAP), slowly degraded into water-soluble monomeric units at temperatures {ge}150{degrees}F after fracture stimulation experiments. The high-acid-content degradation product then acted as an excellent HPG gel breaker and effectively cleaned the proppant packs. As a fluid-loss-control additive, the measured wall-building coefficients were as good as, or better than, those of SF in crosslinked-gel, linear-gel, and N{sub 2}-foam systems. This paper summarizes a 2-year study of the evaluation and application of this new product in fracturing-fluid systems.

  18. Evaluation of additional lead shielding in protecting the physician from radiation during cardiac interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Chida, Koichi; Morishima, Yoshiaki; Katahira, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Hiroo; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2005-12-20

    Since cardiac interventional procedures deliver high doses of radiation to the physician, radiation protection for the physician in cardiac catheterization laboratories is very important. One of the most important means of protecting the physician from scatter radiation is to use additional lead shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes and ceiling-mounted lead acrylic protection. During cardiac interventional procedures (cardiac IVR), however, it is not clear how much lead shielding reduces the physician dose. This study compared the physician dose [effective dose equivalent (EDE) and dose equivalent (DE)] with and without additional shielding during cardiac IVR. Fluoroscopy scatter radiation was measured using a human phantom, with an ionization chamber survey meter, with and without additional shielding. With the additional shielding, fluoroscopy scatter radiation measured with the human phantom was reduced by up to 98%, as compared with that without. The mean EDE (whole body, mean+/-SD) dose to the operator, determined using a Luxel badge, was 2.55+/-1.65 and 4.65+/-1.21 mSv/year with and without the additional shielding, respectively (p=0.086). Similarly, the mean DE (lens of the eye) to the operator was 15.0+/-9.3 and 25.73+/-5.28 mSv/year, respectively (p=0.092). In conclusion, although tableside drapes and lead acrylic shields suspended from the ceiling provided extra protection to the physician during cardiac IVR, the reduction in the estimated physician dose (EDE and DE) during cardiac catheterization with additional shielding was lower than we expected. Therefore, there is a need to develop more ergonomically useful protection devices for cardiac IVR.

  19. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  20. Hallux valgus: comparative study between two surgical techniques of proximal addition osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro; de Araujo, Bruno Vierno; Franco, Nelson; Hita, Roberto Minoru

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clinically and radiographically compare the results of treatment of hallux valgus, by two addition osteotomy techniques: one using resected exostosis, and the other using a plate fixation for addition wedge. METHODS: We evaluated 24 feet of 19 patients, mean age 51.3 years, affected by hallux valgus, with a mean follow-up of 50.1 months. 13 feet underwent addition osteotomy with resected exostosis (AORE) and 11 patients (11 feet) underwent addition osteotomy with plate (AOP). The AOFAS score, intermetatarsal 1 and 2 angles, and hallux valgus angle were evaluated before and after surgery. RESULTS: In the AORE technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 46.6, with IMA 14o and HVA 32o, while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 81.3, with IMA 9o and HVA 25o, and 92.3% satisfactory results. In the AOP technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 42.1, with IMA 15o and HVA 29o while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 77.4, with IMA 11o and HVA 23o and 81.8% of satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques proved to be effective in the treatment of hallux valgus, both clinically and radiografically, with no statistical difference between them. Level of evidence III, Retrospective comparative study. PMID:24453631

  1. Report From BPTCS Project Team On Evaluation Of Additive Manufacturing For Pressure Retaining Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.

    2016-09-22

    ASME is evaluating the use of additive manufacturing (AM) for the construction of pressure equipment. The information in this report assesses available AM technologies for direct metal fabrication of pressure equipment. Background information is included in the report to provide context for those not experienced in AM technology. Only commercially available technologies for direct metal fabrication are addressed in the report because these AM methods are the only viable approaches for the construction of pressure equipment. Metal AM technologies can produce near-net shape parts by using multiple layers of material from a three dimensional (3D) design model of the geometry. Additive manufacturing of metal components was developed from polymer based rapid prototyping or 3D printing. At the current maturity level, AM application for pressure equipment has the potential to reduce delivery times and costs for complex shapes. AM will also lead to a reduction in the use of high cost materials, since parts can be created with corrosion resistant layers of high alloy material and structural layers of lower cost materials.

  2. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  3. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  4. Quantum-chemical model evaluations of thermodynamics and kinetics of oxygen atom additions to narrow nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Zdenĕk; Stobinski, Leszek; Tomasik, Piotr; Lin, Hong-Ming; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a computational study of oxygen additions to narrow nanotubes, a problem frequently studied with fullerenes. In fact, fullerene oxides were the first observed fullerene derivatives, and they have naturally attracted the attention of both experiment and theory. C60O had represented a long-standing case of experiment-theory disagreement, and there has been a similar problem with C60O2. The disagreement has been explained by kinetic rather than thermodynamic control. In this paper a similar computational approach is applied to narrow nanotubes. Recently, very narrow nanotubes have been observed with a diameter of 5 A and even with a diameter of 4 A. It has been supposed that the narrow nanotubes are closed by fragments of small fullerenes like C36 or C20. In this report we perform calculations for oxygen additions to such model nanotubes capped by fragments of D2d C36, D4d C32, and Ih C20 fullerenic cages (though the computational models have to be rather short). The three models have the following carbon contents: C84, C80, and C80. Both thermodynamic enthalpy changes and kinetic activation barriers for oxygen addition to six selected bonds are computed and analyzed. The lowest isomer (thermodynamically the most stable) is never of the 6/6 type, that is, the enthalpically favored structures are produced by oxygen additions to the nanotube tips. Interestingly enough, the lowest energy isomer has, for the D2d C36 and D4d C32 cases, the lowest kinetic activation barrier as well.

  5. Evaluation of the benefit of addition of clidinium C to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen

    PubMed Central

    Chorami, Maryam; Naderi, Nosratollah; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Mirsattari, Dariush; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the success of H.pylori eradication therapy in patients with dyspepsia by therapeutics regimes with and without clidinium C. Background Helicobacter pylori infections are reported in all parts of the world. Appropriate antibiotic therapy can treat infection. The ideal treatment regimen has not been specified. Patients and methods In a randomized, double blind clinical trials study, 250 patients with dyspepsia were enrolled. All patients were treated by Omeprazole, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin and Bismuth (OMAB) for two weeks. One tablet clidinium C before each meal was added to this regimen in the intervention group (A). Urea Breath Test (UBT) was carried out after 8-12 weeks after treatment for evaluation of H.pylori eradication. Results 132 patients in the intervention group (A) and 118 patients in the control group (B) were enrolled to the study. The rate of eradication in group A was significantly higher than group B (62.1% vs. 50%, p=0.04). Conclusion The results supported the effect of clidinium C for increasing of helicobacter pylori eradication, but further studies need to be performed. PMID:24834261

  6. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  7. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    PubMed

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations.

  9. Evaluation of additive formulations to inhibit precipitation of positive electrolyte in vanadium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Faizur; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive study has been performed to develop blended additive formulations based on organic and inorganic compounds to prevent the precipitation of supersaturated V(V) species in the Vanadium Flow Battery at high temperatures around 50 °C. It was found that organic formulations are oxidized by the strong oxidizing effect of V(V) species and are hence ineffective. The inorganic additive formulation KS11 which consists of 1 wt% of K3PO4+ 1 wt% of SHMP appears to be very effective with a vanadium solution of composition 3.5 M V(V) in total sulphate/bisulphate concentration of 5.7 M up to a temperature of 40 °C. The phosphate ions (PO43-) released from K3PO4 and PO3- ions from SHMP (NaPO3)6 are believed to adsorb onto the nucleating ions, thus inhibiting the precipitation of scale forming species, or adsorption onto the growing crystals, deforming and/or inhibiting further formation of vanadium crystals. Although the electrochemical activity of 3.5 M V solutions was unaffected in the presence of the KS11, increasing vanadium concentration above 3.5 M and total sulphate/bisulphate concentration above 6 M is probably increasing the formation of electrochemically inactive complexes of vanadium-sulphate and polyvanadic species. This results in increased solution viscosity and subsequently reduces the electrochemical activity exponentially.

  10. Evaluation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Steam generator cleaning project

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The investigation of chelating agents for continuous water treatment of secondary loops of PWR steam generators were conducted in two general areas: the study of the chemistry of chelating agents and the study of materials compatability with chelating agents. The thermostability of both EDTA and HEDTA metal chelates in All Volatile Treatment (AVT) water chemistry were shown to be greater than or equal to the thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability study and from the Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal was transported through and cleaned from the MSG's. The Inconel 600 tubes of the salt water fouled model steam generators experienced pitting corrosion. Results of this study demonstrates the feasibility of EDTA as an on-line water treatment additive to maintain nuclear steam generators in a clean condition.

  11. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  15. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  16. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  17. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  19. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  20. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill.

  1. Subchronic toxicological evaluation of brea gum (Parkinsonia preacox) as a food additive in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    von Müller, Axel R; López, Cristina B; Eynard, Aldo R; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    Brea gum is a phloematic exudate from Parkinsonia praecox, an autoctonous tree that grows in the arid areas of Argentina. In this work, we propose its potential as a food additive. However, as no toxicological safety evaluation of brea gum has yet been reported, this preliminary study was conducted to evaluate its long-term toxicity over a 120-day period in BALB/c mice fed with brea gum at various levels in the diet. The results showed that animals on diets containing up to 5% brea gum were healthy, exhibiting growth curves similar to controls for both males (P = 0.9138) and females (P = 0.9459), thereby indicating that feed intake and utilization was not affected. A histopathological examination and weight recording of liver, kidneys, and intestine did not reveal any microscopic abnormalities or adverse toxicological effect (weights respect to control: P > 0.1). Moreover, hematological parameters and enzyme activities were within the normal values previously reported for mice. Our findings suggest that feeding brea gum at levels up to 5% to BALB/c mice do not exert any toxicological effects, supporting its potential use as a food additive for human consumption.

  2. Evaluation of the use of Syzygium cumini fruit extract as an antioxidant additive in orange juice and its sensorial impact.

    PubMed

    Tobal, Thaise Mariá; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Bolini, Helena Maria André; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2012-05-01

    This work is an exploratory study of the possibility of promoting the consumption of Syzygium cumini fruit by adding its extract to orange juice making good use of its functional (antioxidant) properties. S. cumini fruit extract was characterized in terms of its anthocyanin content (2.11 g/100 g expressed in cyanidine-3-glucoside equivalents), total phenolic compounds (360 mg/100 g expressed in gallic acid equivalents) and antioxidant capacity evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. The effects of the addition of S. cumini fruit crude extract as well as its chromatographic fractions on the juice were assessed chemically by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Only six compounds had their chromatographic peak intensities clearly changed and the results are discussed in terms of the inhibition of the formation of 2-octanone, hexanol, α-copaene, and α-panasinsene and the conservation of octyl acetate and p-menth-1-en-9-ol. Sensory evaluation of orange juice with and without S. cumini crude extract addition did not show any significant differences in the sensorial profile, discriminative and acceptance tests.

  3. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  4. Evaluation of adipic acid addition to a bench-scale Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    An experimental laboratory study testing the effectiveness of adipic acid in the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system has been sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. Additionally, economic calculations for the cost effectiveness of usng adipic acid in a commercial scale CT-121 FGD system have been performed. The results of this study indicate that although adipic acid can increase the SO/sub 2/ removal capability of the CT-121 system, it is not an economically attractive process improvement. This result is due to the CT-121 process chemistry which minimizes limestone consumption and sludge volume without the need of adipic acid. These two areas realize major cost savings when adipic is used in a conventional limestone FGD system. The economic evaluation indicates even though a lower gas-side pressue drop is achieved when adipic acid is used, the savings in electrical costs are insufficient to offset the cost of adipic acid.

  5. Evaluation of fuel additives for reduction of material imcompatibilities in methanol-gasoline blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, C. F.; Barbee, J. G.; Knutson, W. K.; Cuellar, J. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives which seemed to protect some of the metals were tested in higher concentrations and binary combinations in search of optimal application conditions. Results indicate that two of the additives have protective properties and combining them increases the protection of the metals corroded by methanol-gasoline blends. Half of the metals in the tests were not corroded. Testing at recommended concentrations and then at higher concentrations and in combinations shows that the additives would have no protective or harmful effects on the nonmetals. Two additives emerged as candidates for application to the protection of metals in automotive methanol-gasoline fuel systems. The additives tested were assigned letter codes to protect their proprietary nature.

  6. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; ...

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  7. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  8. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  9. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  10. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  11. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  12. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  13. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  14. Modeling, Simulation, Additive Manufacturing, and Experimental Evaluation of Solid and Porous NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Andani, Mohsen

    In recent years, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have entered a wide range of engineering applications in fields such as aerospace and medical applications. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) is the most commonly used SMAs due to its excellent functional characteristics (shape memory effect and superelasticity behavior). These properties are based on a solid-solid phase transformation between martensite and austenite. Beside these two characteristics, low stiffness, biocompatibility and corrosion properties of NiTi make it an attractive candidate for biomedical applications (e.g., bone plates, bone screws, and vascular stents). It is well know that manufacturing and processing of NiTi is very challenging. The functional properties of NiTi are significantly affected by the impurity level and due to the high titanium content, NiTi are highly reactive. Therefore, high temperature processed parts through methods such as melting and casting which result in increased impurity levels have inadequate structural and functional properties. Furthermore, high ductility and elasticity of NiTi, adhesion, work hardening and spring back effects make machining quite challenging. These unfavorable effects for machining cause significant tool wear along with decreasing the quality of work piece. Recently, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant attention for manufacturing NiTi. Since AM can create a part directly from CAD data, it is predicted that AM can overcome most of the manufacturing difficulties. This technique provides the possibility of fabricating highly complex parts, which cannot be processed by any other methods. Curved holes, designed porosity, and lattice like structures are some examples of mentioned complex parts. This work investigates manufacturing superelastic NiTi by selective laser melting (SLM) technique (using PXM by Phenix/3D Systems). An extended experimental study is conducted on the effect of subsequent heat treatments with different aging conditions on phase

  15. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  16. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  17. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(-)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(-) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a "lesser" POC-CCA "level of positivity." The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of

  18. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  19. Evaluation of the EHL Film Thickness and Extreme Pressure Additives on Gear Surface Fatigue Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1994-01-01

    Surface pitting fatigue life tests were conducted with seven lubricants, using AISI 9310 spur gears. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-esters with various viscosities and additive packages. The lubricant with a viscosity that provided a specific film thickness greater than one and with an additive package produced gear surface fatigue lives that were 8.6 times that for lubricants with a viscosity that provided specific film thickness less than one. Lubricants with the same viscosity and similar additive packages gave equivalent gear surface fatigue lives.

  20. Additional Guidance for Evaluating and Calculating Degradation Kinetics in Environmental Media

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EFED compiled examples where the PestDF (version 0.8.4), the tool used most commonly by USEPA to conduct kinetic analysis following the NAFTA guidance, results required additional interpretation. Here are some of these examples.

  1. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum.

  2. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  3. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  4. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  5. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  6. Evaluation of formulation properties and skin penetration in the same additive-containing formulation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Maeda, Rikimaru; Shimura, Arisa; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the physicochemical properties of the external preparation, the effect on the skin permeability and the human senses. Miconazole nitrate cream formulation (MCZ-A: bland name and MCZ-B, −C, −D: generics) to measure the physicochemical properties, was performed by the skin permeation test and human sensory test. The flattening, viscoelasticity, and water content of each cream were measured and each cream was subjected to near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy and human sensory testing. The yield value was calculated based on measured flattening and was 734.8 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-A, 1198.9 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-B, 461.3 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-C and 3112.3 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-D. Measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity revealed that MCZ-C had a smaller tanδ than the other 3 creams at 25 °C. NIR absorption spectroscopy revealed that MCZ-A had the highest absorption peak due to hydroxyl groups, followed by MCZ-C, −B, and then −D. Measurement of water content revealed that MCZ-A had a water content of 65.9%, MCZ-B, −C, and −D had a water content of around 56.3%. Human sensory testing revealed differences between MCZ-A and MCZ-C and between MCZ-B and MCZ-D in terms of spreadability and feel. These findings indicate that differences in water and oil content and emulsification resulted in the creams having different physical properties, such as flattening, internal structure, and dynamic viscoelasticity. NIR absorption spectroscopy, which allows non-destructive measurement of a sample’s physicochemical properties, and measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity, which allows measurement of a sample’s dynamic viscoelasticity, revealed differences in the physical properties of creams. The skin permeation test, skin MCZ amount was 7.48 µg/cm2 for MCZ-A, 5.11 µg/cm2 for MCZ-B, 12.08 µg/cm2 for MCZ-C and 3.75 µg/cm2 for MCZ-D. In addition, since the drug spread is good about the skin migration, spreadability is

  7. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  8. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  9. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  10. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 2 - PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Functional Vision of +1.5 Diopters near Addition, Aspheric, Rotational Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Methods Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. Results The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. Conclusions The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance. PMID:27729759

  12. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Engineering evaluation of the proposed boiler addition for Minnegasco Energy Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Abendroth, H.R.; Poon, A.

    1981-03-16

    The results are reported of a technical evaluation of alternate fuels for the proposed oil and natural gas fired No. 3 boiler at the Minnegasco Energy Center (MEC) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion for their use in considering an alternate fuel exemption petition submitted by MEC. The fuels considered for the proposed boiler include oil, natural gas, bituminous coal, petroleum coke/coal mixture, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel fired. The purchase of steam from the Northern States Power Company (NSPCo) was also considered as an alternative to construction of another boiler at MEC. Evaluation of each fuel included review of the overall plant design, estimates of capital and O and M costs, salvage value, useful life, and quantities of solid waste produced. The MEC supplies steam and chilled water to the downtown Minneapolis area for building heating and cooling using two presently owned and operated 200,000 lb/h oil/natural gas fired boilers. If the proposed boiler is permitted to burn oil and natural gas, it will be identical in design to the existing boilers. The evaluation showed that the use of oil, natural gas, coal, petroleum coke-coal mixtures, coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel firing appear technically feasible as fuel choices for the proposed boiler. The purchase of steam from the NSPCo appears feasible as an alternative to the installation of a new boiler at the MEC. Offsite storage space would be required for receiving and storing coal, petroleum coke, or RDF Offsite fuel preparation facilities are required for preparing petroleum coke-coal mixtures and RDF.

  14. Evaluation of Five Additional Enhancements to the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF TEST/DEMONSTRATION U’ WORK UNIT NO./TITLE OF TEST: T3B, Blast Enhancements Evaluation PERFORMING LABORATORY: USACERL...gram, work unit EA-KAI, "Test New BLAST Enhancements," and project 4A162784AT45, "Energy and Energy Conservation," work unit XG2, "Energy Analysis...air economy cycle. 2. SZDT-DX. Single zone draw-through fan systems with a direct expansion condensing unit tor zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone I

  15. Evaluating Generalization of Addition-Fact Fluency Using the Taped-Problems Procedure in a Second-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelli C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Gibby, Lana; Galyon, Charles E.; Meadows-Allen, Sadonya

    2011-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design across math-fact sets was used to evaluate the effects of a taped-problems intervention on students' performance with addition facts and their inverses in an intact, rural, second-grade classroom. Results suggested that the procedure was effective in improving fluency on math facts as well as their inverses. Across 3…

  16. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  17. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; Bukowski, Eric J

    2017-01-20

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

  18. Raising Standards for Pupils Who Have English as an Additional Language (EAL) through Monitoring and Evaluation of Provision in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to further knowledge and understand how monitoring and evaluation of pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL) is undertaken in primary schools. This is a comparative study across primary schools using qualitative approaches to help gain insight into current good practice and identify future needs in EAL.…

  19. Detection and identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Schiff-base adducts along with products of Michael addition using data-dependent neutral loss-driven MS3 acquisition: method evaluation through an in vitro study on cytochrome c oxidase modifications.

    PubMed

    Rauniyar, Navin; Prokai, Laszlo

    2009-11-01

    We report a data-dependent neutral-loss-driven MS(3) acquisition to enhance, in addition to abundant Michael adducts, the detection of Schiff-base adducts of proteins and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a reactive end product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro modification of cytochrome c oxidase, a mitochondrial protein complex, was used as a model to evaluate the method. The technique allowed for a confident validation of modification sites and also identified a Schiff-base adduct in subunit Vb of the protein complex.

  20. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  1. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  2. Addition theorem of Slater type orbitals: a numerical evaluation of Barnett Coulson/Löwdin functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouferguene, Ahmed

    2005-04-01

    When using the one-centre two-range expansion method to evaluate multicentre integrals over Slater type orbitals (STOs), it may become necessary to compute numerical values of the corresponding Fourier coefficients, also known as Barnett-Coulson/Löwdin Functions (BCLFs) (Bouferguene and Jones 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 5718). To carry out this task, it is crucial to not only have a stable numerical procedure but also a fast algorithm. In previous work (Bouferguene and Rinaldi 1994 Int. J. Quantum Chem. 50 21), BCLFs were represented by a double integral which led to a numerically stable algorithm but this turned out to be disappointingly time consuming. The present work aims at exploring another path in which BCLFs are represented either by an infinite series involving modified Bessel functions {\\bf K}_{\

  3. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  4. Electronics Manufacturer Provided With Testing and Evaluation Data Necessary to Obtain Additional Orders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A local electronics manufacturer, the Sterling Manufacturing Company, was presented with the opportunity to supply 30,000 automotive cellular antennas to a European subsidiary of a large U.S. auto manufacturer. Although the company built an antenna that they believed would meet the auto manufacturer's specifications, they were unable to conduct the necessary validation tests in-house. They decided to work with NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division, which, as part of its technology development program, evaluates the performance of antennas in its Microwave Systems Lab to assess their capabilities for space communications applications. Data measured in Lewis' Microwave Systems Lab proved that Sterling's antenna performed better than specified by the auto manufacturer.

  5. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  6. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W H; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity and surface topography evaluation of additive manufacturing titanium implant materials.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Jukka T; Björkstrand, Roy V; Pernu, Mikael L; Salmi, Mika V J; Huotilainen, Eero I; Wolff, Jan E H; Vallittu, Pekka K; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2017-03-01

    Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. "Processed" and "polished" DMLS and EBM disks were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed titanium alloy particles and surface flaws on the processed materials. These surface flaws were subsequently removed by polishing. Surface roughness of EBM processed titanium was higher than that of DMLS processed. The cytotoxicity results of the DMLS and EBM discs were compared with a "gold standard" commercially available titanium mandible reconstruction plate. The mean cell viability for all discs was 82.6% (range, 77.4 to 89.7) and 83.3% for the control reconstruction plate. The DMLS and EBM manufactured titanium plates were non-cytotoxic both in "processed" and in "polished" forms.

  8. Beamforming for directional sources: additional estimator and evaluation of performance under different acoustic scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Christian; Havelock, David I; Bouchard, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Beamforming is done with an array of sensors to achieve a directional or spatially-specific response by using a model of the arriving wavefront. Conventionally, a plane wave or point source model is used and this can cause decreased array gain or even total breakdown of beamforming when the source is directional. To avoid this, the authors proposed in recent work an alternative beamforming method which defines a set of "sub-beamformers," each designed to respond to a different spatial mode of the source. The outputs of the individual sub-beamformers are combined in a weighted sum to give an overall output of better quality than that of a monopole beamformer. This paper extends the previous work by introducing an additional estimator for the weighted sum and by presenting simulation results to demonstrate the relative performance of the proposed method and the different estimators for a directional source in the presence of diffuse noise, reverberation, and an interfering source. Gain optimization subject to a constraint on the white-noise gain with the proposed beamforming method is also introduced. Generally, when beamforming on directional sources, the proposed method outperforms beamforming with a point source model when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0 dB or higher.

  9. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  10. Novel approach to DPI carrier lactose with mechanofusion process with additives and evaluation by IGC.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Michiko; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kusai, Akira; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2006-11-01

    The effect of lactose carrier surface property on the inhalation profile of dry powder inhaler (DPI) was evaluated using a micronized drug (Compound A) by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Mechanofusion with magnesium stearate (Mg-St) or sucrose stearate increased the fine particle fraction (FPF), considered to be due to decrease in the interaction between Compound A and the lactose carrier. The effect of Compound A concentration on FPF was smaller in mechanofusion-processed lactose compared to intact lactose, especially when processed with Mg-St. The relationship between the IGC parameters of the lactose and FPF was also investigated. FPF increased as both the dispersive component of the surface energy and acidity similarity between the lactose carriers and Compound A increased. Although further investigation is necessary, it could be suggested that acidity similarity decreases the interaction between Compound A and lactose, thus contributing to the increase in the FPF. In conclusion, (1) mechanofusion with Mg-St or sucrose stearate could be an effective method to improve FPF of a DPI drug formulation; (2) IGC would be a valuable method to investigate the interaction between a drug and the DPI carrier; and (3) a relationship between surface acidity and inhalation profile was suggested.

  11. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  12. Evaluation -- Shanti: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.; Mulcahy, Gene

    1975-01-01

    This newsletter comprises four sections: (1) the educational philosophy and objectives of Shanti, a public alternative school in Hartford, Connecticut; (2) Rosen's statements about the difficulties of finding an evaluation model for alternative schools and the implications of the methodology that he later used in evaluating the Shanti school in…

  13. Evaluation of the ability of Eleutherine americana crude extract as natural food additive in cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Ifesan, B O T; Siripongvutikorn, S; Hutadilok-Towatana, N; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2009-09-01

    The scavenging activities of crude ethanolic extract from Eleutherine americana, on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radicals were investigated. The results revealed that the extract produced IC(50) values of 8.4 microg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL on DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, respectively. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the crude extract yielded high phenolic content of 4.56 mumol gallic acid equivalent per milligram dried extract. The extract, at different concentrations, was incorporated into pork, cooked in the microwave, and stored at 4 degrees C for 9 d. The crude extract demonstrated antioxidant activity, which increases with increased extract concentrations and retarded lipid oxidation in the cooked pork. Antibacterial activity of the extract against Staphylococcus aureus in the cooked pork revealed that at a concentration of 10.8 mg/100 g, the extract reduced the bacterial population by 0.57 log compared to control at 9 d of storage. The sensory results revealed that the pork samples treated with the extract and the control sample were not significantly different from day 0 to 6; however, on day 9 the treatments were significantly scored higher than the control. Furthermore, addition of the extract led to an increase in the redness values of the pork and this was acceptable from the sensory point of view. E. americana crude extract could be a promising novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation and a potential natural color enhancer of red meat and meat products.

  14. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W.H.; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings. PMID:26949333

  15. Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Stability-Improving Additives for JP-8, Phase 2 - Specification, Materials, Filtration, and Fit-For-Purpose Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    outside-in for the separators. Both coalescer technologies use glass to generate larger water droplets and Teflon separator screens to repel any water ...mainly to anomalous or nebulous data relating to filtration and water separation. It is recommended that these additives undergo additional filtration... water separation testing and that the results of the testing in this program be combined with any new data to re- evaluate AFRL’s position regarding

  16. Evaluation of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans by Addition of Probiotics in the form of Curd in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mantha, Somasundar; Murthi, Surekha; Sura, Himagiri; Kadaru, Pravallika; Jangra, Jogender Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when taken in adequate amounts provide a health benefit on the host. They have been used to improve gastrointestinal health, and their popularity has prompted increased interest for their role in the promotion of oral health also. The study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of diet alteration on oral microflora with the addition of probiotics in the form of curd in the diet. Materials and Methods: Sample pool included total 20 children, 15 in experimental group; who were given curd containing probiotic bacteria in their diet daily and 5 children in control group; who were contradicted of food containing probiotics. All the children were followed for over a period of 1-year. A pre and post quantitative analysis of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli were done in the saliva of both active and control groups, and caries score was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The data thus compiled were statistically evaluated using Chi-square test and Pearson correlation on SPSS software version 14. Results: In experimental group, 87% children showed decrease and 7% showed increase in S. mutans count (P = 0.83), whereas 67% showed increase and 7% decrease in Lactobacilli count (P = 0.002) after 1-year of follow-up. Conclusions: Probiotics are upcoming as an intriguing field in oral health. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of the general dental practitioners with this facet of oral disease therapy and promote the implementation of the concept of “food rather than medicine.” PMID:26229377

  17. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. Part-whole bias in intertemporal choice: An empirical study of additive assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-12-01

    Additive assumption means the overall value of multiple-dated outcomes is based on a simple aggregation of the values of each individual outcome. This assumption is generally accepted in the field of intertemporal choices. However, recent studies show additive assumption is questionable. In this paper, we experimentally tested the additive property of multiple-dated monetary rewards. Our results show: (1) additive assumption does not hold regardless of gain or loss; (2) the sum of subjective values of individual rewards is consistently larger than the valuation placed on the same rewards as a whole. This finding suggests that part-whole bias exists in the context of valuation of intertemporal monetary rewards.

  4. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  5. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  6. Tackling missing data in community health studies using additive LS-SVM classifier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanjin; Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2016-12-01

    Missing data is a common issue in community health and epidemiological studies. Direct removal of samples with missing data can lead to reduced sample size and information bias, which deteriorates the significance of the results. While data imputation methods are available to deal with missing data, they are limited in performance and could introduce noises into the dataset. Instead of data imputation, a novel method based on additive least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed in this paper for predictive modeling when the input features of the model contain missing data. The method also determines simultaneously the influence of the features with missing values on the classification accuracy using the fast leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. The performance of the method is evaluated by applying it to predict the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people using health data collected in the community. The dataset involves demographics, socioeconomic status, health history and the outcomes of health assessments of 444 community-dwelling elderly people, with 5% to 60% of data missing in some of the input features. The QOL is measured using a standard questionnaire of the World Health Organization. Results show that the proposed method outperforms four conventional methods for handling missing data - case deletion, feature deletion, mean imputation and K-nearest neighbor imputation, with the average QOL prediction accuracy reaching 0.7418. It is potentially a promising technique for tackling missing data in community health research and other applications.

  7. Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of MTA with and without Additives Like Silver Zeolite and Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand; Giriyappa, Ramesh Halebathi; Singh, Thakur Veerandar; Jyotsna, Sistla Venkata; Rairam, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microorganisms, predominantly Enterococcus faecalis are found responsible in the progression of pulpal, periradicular diseases and in endodontic failures. Unsuccessful conventional treatment might necessitate the need for a surgical approach; where in retrograde restorative materials are used to seal the apex. Among the root end filling materials, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is considered biocompatible and is most commonly used in clinical applications but it has limited antibacterial activity. Metallic silver and chlorhexidine have been added into various dental materials to enhance the antibacterial activity. Aim This study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of MTA, MTA mixed with silver zeolite and MTA mixed with chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods Test materials used in the study were divided into three groups namely Group 1- MTA, Group 2-MTA + Silver Zeolite, Group 3-MTA + Chlorhexidine. Direct contact test was done by placing a standardized suspension of Enterococcus faecalis on the test materials in a 96 well microtiter plate. The bacterial growth was measured spectrophotometrically using ELISA reader at intervals of one, three and seven days. Statistical Analysis Data was collected by recording the optical density and analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post hoc test followed by paired-t test. Results and Conclusion All test groups showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis at day one, three and seven. MTA with silver zeolite showed the maximum antibacterial activity followed by MTA with 2% chlorhexidine. The least antibacterial effect was shown by MTA mixed with sterile water. PMID:27504400

  8. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  9. Social Studies. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 11 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 3-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  10. Evaluation of rhamnolipid addition on the natural attenuation of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Mitsue M; Gavazza, Sávia; Kato, Mario T; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2016-07-07

    The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil. The following two experiments were performed: natural attenuation (NA) and stimulated natural attenuation (SNA), using rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. Sediment samples were accommodated into glass columns and then contaminated with diesel oil on the top. The column profiles were separated into surface, middle, and bottom for the analyses. The 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) prioritized by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were monitored for 349 days. Those with three and four rings showed increasing concentrations through the operation period in the middle and bottom samples, particularly between days 111 and 338, and in the SNA experiment. Those with five and six rings were also detected in the deeper portions of the columns, suggesting the percolation of PAHs with a high molecular weight. Total organic carbon was reduced by 91 and 89 % in the NA and SNA samples, respectively, although no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the two treatments. The analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated a slight shift in the microbial community structure over the experiments. Microorganisms belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria phylum were the main bacteria involved. The archaeal community exhibited dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, indicating the obligate anaerobic biodegradation of intermediate compounds from hydrocarbon degradation.

  11. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  12. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  13. Detection of stanozolol O- and N-sulfate metabolites and their evaluation as additional markers in doping control.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Matabosch, Xavier; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-10-07

    Stanozolol (STAN) is one of the most frequently detected anabolic androgenic steroids in sports drug testing. STAN misuse is commonly detected by monitoring metabolites excreted conjugated with glucuronic acid after enzymatic hydrolysis or using direct detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It is well known that some of the previously described metabolites are the result of the formation of sulfate conjugates in C17, which are converted to their 17-epimers in urine. Therefore, sulfation is an important phase II metabolic pathway of STAN that has not been comprehensively studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sulfate fraction of STAN metabolism by LC-MS/MS to establish potential long-term metabolites valuable for doping control purposes. STAN was administered to six healthy male volunteers involving oral or intramuscular administration and urine samples were collected up to 31 days after administration. Sulfation of the phase I metabolites commercially available as standards was performed in order to obtain MS data useful to develop analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) to detect potential sulfate metabolites. Eleven sulfate metabolites (M-I to M-XI) were detected and characterized by LC-MS/MS. This paper provides valuable data on the ionization and fragmentation of O-sulfates and N-sulfates. For STAN, results showed that sulfates do not improve the retrospectivity of the detection compared to the previously described long-term metabolite (epistanozolol-N-glucuronide). However, sulfate metabolites could be additional markers for the detection of STAN misuse.

  14. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2014-02-28

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARα. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPARα transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPARα in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPARα luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPARα agonist (WY14643, 10 μM), PFOA at 1-128μM, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 μM, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 μM, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 μM or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 μM to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 8×8 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC₅₀s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPARα in this in vitro system.

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  16. Study raises questions about measurement of 'additionality,'or maintaining domestic health spending amid foreign donations.

    PubMed

    Garg, Charu C; Evans, David B; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Izazola-Licea, José-Antonio; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Ejeder, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2012-02-01

    Donor nations and philanthropic organizations increasingly require that funds provided for a specific health priority such as HIV should supplement domestic spending on that priority-a concept known as "additionality." We investigated the "additionality" concept using data from Honduras, Rwanda, and Thailand, and we found that the three countries increased funding for HIV in response to increased donor funding. In contrast, the study revealed that donors, faced with increased Global Fund resources for HIV in certain countries, tended to decrease their funding for HIV or shift funds for use in non-HIV health areas. More broadly, we found many problems in the measurement and interpretation of additionality. These findings suggest that it would be preferable for donors and countries to agree on how best to use available domestic and external funds to improve population health, and to develop better means of tracking outcomes, than to try to develop more sophisticated methods to track additionality.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  18. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a mobile phase additive during top 3 label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, Dominika; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E

    2015-11-30

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been advocated as a beneficial additive to electrospray solvents for peptide analysis due to the improved ionisation efficiency conferred. Previous reports have shown that the resultant improvements in peptide ion signal intensities are non-uniform. As a result, it was hypothesised that inclusion of DMSO in electrospray solvents could be detrimental to the outcome of intensity-based label-free absolute quantification approaches, specifically the top 3 method. The effect of DMSO as a mobile phase additive in top 3 label-free quantification was therefore evaluated. We show that inclusion of DMSO enhances data quality, improving the precision and number of proteins quantified, with no significant change to the quantification values observed in its absence.

  19. Study of adsorption of detergent-dispersion additives on solid particles dispersed in oil using the method of electrical conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, B.; Buczak, H.; Olszewska, A.; Szeglowski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    By measuring electrical conductivity of paraffin oil solutions in isooctane (1:1 by volume) the variation in concentration of detergent-dispersant additives is studied; this variation is caused by their adsorption on solid particles (carbon black, aluminum powder). It is shown that dispersants have an improved ability to undergo adsorption, compared with detergents. Studies of adsorption of additives on model sorbents may be used to develop tests for evaluating additive properties. 7 references, 4 figures.

  20. [Bootstrap method-based estimation on the confidence interval for additive interaction in cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-ren; Chen, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Interaction assessment is an important step in epidemiological analysis. When etiological study is carried out, the logarithmic models such as logistic model or Cox proportional hazard model are commonly used to estimate the independent effects of the risk factors. However, estimating interaction between risk factors by the regression coefficient of the product term is on multiplicative scale, and for public-health purposes, it is supposed to be on additive scale or departure from additivity. This paper illustrates with a example of cohort study by fitting Cox proportional hazard model to estimate three measures for additive interaction which presented by Rothman. Adopting the S-Plus application with a built-in Bootstrap function, it is convenient to estimate the confidence interval for additive interaction. Furthermore, this method can avoid the exaggerated estimation by using ORs in a cohort study to gain better precision. When using the complex combination models between additive interaction and multiplicative interaction, it is reasonable to choose the former one when the result is inconsistent.

  1. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  2. Comparative study of electrolyte additives using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Aiken, C. P.; Ye, Hui; VanElzen, Collette M.; Jain, Gaurav; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of various electrolyte additives and additive combinations added to a 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte on the positive and negative electrodes surface of 1 year old wound LiCoO2/graphite cells and Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2])O2/graphite cells was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetric cells. The additives tested were: vinylene carbonate (VC), trimethoxyboroxine (TMOBX), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and H2O alone or in combination. In general, compared to control electrolyte, the additives tested reduced the impedance of the positive electrode and increased the impedance of the negative electrode with the exception of LiTFSI in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite wound cells. Higher charge voltage led to higher positive electrode impedance, with the exception of 2%VC + 2% FEC, and 2% LiTFSI. In some cases, some additives when mixed with another controlled the formation of the SEI at one electrode, and shared the formation of the SEI at one electrode when mixed with a different additive.

  3. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  4. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  5. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  6. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  7. Evaluating enhanced sulfate reduction and optimized volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor by Fe (III) addition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-17

    Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. Simultaneously, the produced Fe (II) from IRB can alleviate the inhibition of undissociated H2S on microorganisms through iron sulfide precipitation, resulting in further improvement of the performance. In addition, the enhancement on reactor performance by Fe (III) is found to be more significantly favored at relatively low organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 1.0) than at high organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 4.5). The Fe (III)-based process of this work can be easily integrated with a commonly used strategy for phosphorus recovery, with the produced sulfide being recovered and then deposited into conventional chemical phosphorus removal sludge (FePO4) to achieve FeS precipitation for phosphorus recovery while the required Fe (III) being acquired from the waste ferric sludge of drinking water treatment process, to enable maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving high-rate sulfate removal.

  8. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen®) in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    PubMed Central

    García-Menor, Emilia; García-Marín, Fátima; Vecino-López, Raquel; Horcajo-Martínez, Gloria; de Ibarrondo Guerrica-Echevarría, María-José; Gómez-González, Pedro; Velasco-Ortega, Syra; Suárez-Almarza, Javier; Nieto-Magro, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001). The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range) was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377). The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children. PMID:28229091

  9. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  10. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  11. Evaluation of heat-cured resin bases following the addition of denture teeth using a second heat cure.

    PubMed

    Polukoshko, K M; Brudvik, J S; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1992-04-01

    This study compared heat-cured acrylic resin denture baseplate distortions following a second heat cure used to add the denture teeth. The second heat cure was done with three different water-bath curing temperatures. The distortions were evaluated in three planes by use of a measuring microscope. Recorded distortions were not clinically significant.

  12. Oxidative addition of methane and benzene C--H bonds to rhodium center: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhu, Shufen

    2006-11-01

    A density functional theory study on mechanisms of the oxidative addition of methane and benzene C-H bonds to the rhodium center containing Cp and PMe 3 ligands has been performed. Our calculated results confirm that the C-H bond cleavage from a sigma complex to a hydride alkyl complex is the rate-determining step. Compared with the case of methane C-H bond, the oxidative addition of benzene C-H bond is more favorable kinetically and thermodynamically. Stronger backdonation from metal center to the σ ∗ antibonding orbital of benzene C-H bond is responsible for the observations.

  13. Clinical Applications of Evaluation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry S.

    A series of followup investigations exploring the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, methadone detoxification treatment, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free treatment for the drug abuser was conducted. Limitations of these modalities were revealed in the followup studies. Implications for treatment and policy include: (1)…

  14. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment.

  15. Evaluating the combustion reactivity of drop tube furnace and thermogravimetric analysis coal chars with a selection of metal additives

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Le Manquais; Colin E. Snape; Ian McRobbie; Jim Barker

    2011-03-17

    Opportunities exist for effective coal combustion additives that can reduce the carbon content of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) to below 6%, thereby making it saleable for filler/building material applications without the need for postcombustion treatment. However, with only limited combustion data currently available for the multitude of potential additives, catalytic performance under pulverized fuel (PF) boiler conditions has received relatively little attention. This paper therefore compares the reactivity of catalyzed bituminous coal chars from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with those generated by devolatilization in a drop tube furnace (DTF). The principal aim was to explore the fundamental chemistry behind the chosen additives' relative reactivities. Accordingly, all eight of the investigated additives increased the TGA burnout rate of the TGA and DTF chars, with most of the catalysts demonstrating consistent reactivity levels across chars from both devolatilization methods. Copper(I) chloride, silver chloride, and copper nitrate were thus identified as the most successful additives tested, but it proved difficult to establish a definitive reactivity ranking. This was largely due to the use of physical mixtures for catalyst dispersion, the relatively narrow selection of additives examined, and the inherent variability of the DTF chars. Nevertheless, one crucial exception to normal additive behavior was discovered, with copper(I) chloride perceptibly deactivating during devolatilization in the DTF, even though it remained the most effective catalyst tested. As a prolonged burnout at over 1000{sup o}C was required to replicate this deactivation effect on the TGA, the phenomenon could not be detected by typical testing procedures. Subsequently, a comprehensive TGA study showed no obvious relationship between the catalyst-induced reductions in the reaction's apparent activation energy and the samples recorded burnout rates.

  16. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records.

  17. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  18. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  19. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  20. Lesion removal and lesion addition algorithms in lung volumetric data sets for perception studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Mark T.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Ellingson, Andrew; Thompson, Brad H.; Mullan, Brian F.

    2006-03-01

    Image perception studies of medical images provide important information about how radiologists interpret images and insights for reducing reading errors. In the past, perception studies have been difficult to perform using clinical imaging studies because of the problems associated with obtaining images demonstrating proven abnormalities and appropriate normal control images. We developed and evaluated interactive software that allows the seamless removal of abnormal areas from CT lung image sets. We have also developed interactive software for capturing lung lesions in a database where they can be added to lung CT studies. The efficacy of the software to remove abnormal areas of lung CT studies was evaluated psychophysically by having radiologists select the one altered image from a display of four. The software for adding lesions was evaluated by having radiologists classify displayed CT slices with lesions as real or artificial scaled to 3 levels of confidence. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the radiologist had difficulty in distinguishing the raw clinical images from those that had been altered. We conclude that this software can be used to create experimental normal control and "proven" lesion data sets for volumetric CT of the lung fields. We also note that this software can be easily adapted to work with other tissue besides lung and that it can be adapted to other digital imaging modalities.

  1. A kinetic study of struvite precipitation recycling technology with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongtai; Ren, Hongqiang; Wang, Yanru; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jingji; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Struvite precipitation recycling technology is received wide attention in removal ammonium and phosphate out of wastewater. While past study focused on process efficiency, and less on kinetics. The kinetic study is essential for the design and optimization in the application of struvite precipitation recycling technology. The kinetics of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition were studied by thermogravimetry analysis with three rates (5, 10, 20 °C/min), using Friedman method and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method, respectively. Degradation process of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was three steps. The stripping of ammonia from struvite was mainly occurred at the first step. In the first step, the activation energy was about 70 kJ/mol, which has gradually declined as the reaction progress. By model fitting studies, the proper mechanism function for struvite decomposition process with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was revealed. The mechanism function was f(α)=α(α)-(1-α)(n), a Prout-Tompkins nth order (Bna) model.

  2. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  3. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Mineral Additive-free Perfluoropolymer Nanocomposite O-ring in Simulated Geothermal Environments of 300C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Pyatina, Tatiana

    2015-12-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of O-rings made with a mineral additive-free perfluoropolymer (FFKM) nanocomposite in mitigating irremovable silica- and silicate-scaling, inhibiting oxidative reactions, minimizing the changes in mechanical behaviors, and maintaining the integrity of O-rings after their exposure to the five different simulated geothermal environments at 300°C: 1) 0.01N sodium metasilicate (SMS)-laden non-aerated (NR2R R(g) Rsaturated) steam-cooling cycles; 2) 0.01N SMS-laden aerated steam-cooling cycles; 3) water-based drilling fluid; 4) COR2R-rich geo-brine fluid; and, 5) heat-cool water quenching cycles (thermal shock). All the thermochemical environments 1 to 4 were carried out under a pressure of 8.3 MPs.

  5. Peer Evaluation: An Interview Study of Teachers Evaluating Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzley, Janet; And Others

    The Salt Lake City School District (SLCSD) teacher evaluation system, which includes peer review and assistance for deficient teachers, was instituted in 1975. The Performance Assistance program provides for strong, experienced teachers (peer reviewers) to work with teachers identified by their principals as deficient. This study addresses the…

  6. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  7. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-02-14

    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  8. TEM and HRTEM studies of ball milled 6061 aluminium alloy powder with Zr addition.

    PubMed

    Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L; Dutkiewicz, J; Maziarz, W; Rogal, Ł

    2010-03-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying on the microstructure of atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with a zirconium addition was studied in the work. The atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with addition of 2 wt.% Zr were milled in a planetary ball mill and investigated using X-ray diffraction measurements, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. An increase of stresses was observed in milled powders after the refinement of crystallites beyond 100 nm. In the powder with zirconium addition, some part of the Zr atoms diffused in aluminium forming a solid solution containing up to 0.5 wt.% Zr. The remaining was found to form Zr-rich particles containing up to 88 wt.% Zr and were identified as face centred cubic (fcc) phase with lattice constant a= 0.48 nm. That fcc phase partially transformed into the L1(2) ordered phase. Eighty-hour milling brought an increase of microhardness (measured with Vickers method) from about 50 HV (168 MPa) for the initial 6061 powder to about 170 HV (552 MPa). The addition of zirconium had no influence on the microhardness.

  9. White tea as a promising antioxidant medium additive for sperm storage at room temperature: a comparative study with green tea.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Socorro, Sílvia; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2014-01-22

    Storage of sperm under refrigeration reduces its viability, due to oxidative unbalance. Unfermented teas present high levels of catechin derivatives, known to reduce oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of white tea (WTEA) on epididymal spermatozoa survival at room temperature (RT), using green tea (GTEA) for comparative purposes. The chemical profiles of WTEA and GTEA aqueous extracts were evaluated by (1)H NMR. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate was the most abundant catechin, being twice as abundant in WTEA extract. The antioxidant power of storage media was evaluated. Spermatozoa antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation, and viability were assessed. The media antioxidant potential increased the most with WTEA supplementation, which was concomitant with the highest increase in sperm antioxidant potential and lipid peroxidation decrease. WTEA supplementation restored spermatozoa viability to values similar to those obtained at collection time. These findings provide evidence that WTEA extract is an excellent media additive for RT sperm storage, to facilitate transport and avoid the deleterious effects of refrigeration.

  10. Family Assessment in Psychoeducational Evaluations: Case Studies with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Most recent articles on school psychologist involvement with families have been theoretical or conceptual in nature, and little has appeared regarding useful procedures. This article suggests an existing self-report measure that may be a useful addition to psychoeducational evaluations. Four case studies using the technique are presented, its…

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  12. Adding Ultrasound to the Evaluation of Patients with Pathologic Nipple Discharge to Diagnose Additional Breast Cancers: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Park, Byeong-Woo; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the malignancy yield of ultrasound Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification and the diagnostic value of adding ultrasound to diagnosis of breast cancer in patients with pathologic nipple discharge. Of 267 patients with pathologic nipple discharge seen from February 2003 to March 2011, 198 with histopathologic confirmation and follow-up data were included. Ultrasound images and mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. The malignancy rate for each BI-RADS category and the difference in diagnostic performance resulting from the addition of ultrasound to mammography were calculated. Of the 198 enrolled patients, 34 were diagnosed with a malignancy. The malignancy rates obtained with the addition of ultrasound to mammography were 0.0% (0 of 27) for category 1, 5.9% (1/17) for category 2, 9.4% (5/53) for category 3, 21.5% (20/93) for category 4 and 100% (8/8) for category 5. The malignancy rates for mammography alone were 7.7%-9.0% for categories 1-3, 68.5% (13/19) for category 4 and 100.0% (5/5) for category 5. Adding US to mammography did not significantly increase sensitivity compared with mammography alone. Other diagnostic performance markers such as specificity and positive predictive value were not improved. Among patients for whom mammograms were available, ultrasound detected 5 breast cancers (26.3%) in addition to the 19 breast cancers found by positive mammography. Although it did not increase overall diagnostic performance in patients with pathologic nipple discharge, addition of ultrasound to mammography did detect an additional 26.3% of malignant lesions.

  13. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  14. Evaluating the Evaluator: A Case Study Illustrating Three Critical Mistakes No Evaluator Should Make

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Most employees do not like to be evaluated because they fear the process and people involved. Although optimal performance evaluators can minimize people's anxieties about being assessed, actual performance evaluators can perpetuate employees' fears and, worse, lower their job performances and morale. A case study illustrates the actions of an…

  15. Couples Counseling in Alzheimer’s Disease: Additional Clinical Findings from a Novel Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    AUCLAIR, URSULA; EPSTEIN, CYNTHIA; MITTELMAN, MARY

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the clinical findings of a study designed to assess the benefit of counseling for couples, one of whom is in the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported our findings based on the first 12 couples that enrolled in the study. Based on the treatment of 30 additional couples, we have refined our treatment strategy to include concepts of Gestalt Therapy and Transactional Analysis and identified prevalent issues of concern to this cohort. The study design has remained as described in the earlier article (Epstein et al., 2006), and has proven to be appropriate to meet the goals of this intervention as indicated by our clinical experience and feedback from the participating couples. Case vignettes demonstrate how to conduct the sessions so that the experience of each member of the dyad is validated, while acknowledging the differential impact of the disease on them. PMID:19865591

  16. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  17. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  18. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV).

  19. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  20. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-09

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  1. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  3. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706.

  4. Rate Constants of Hydroperoxyl Radical Addition to Cyclic Nitrones: A DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Villamena, Frederick A.; Merle, John K.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Zweier*, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones are potential synthetic antioxidants against the reduction of radical-mediated oxidative damage in cells, and as analytical reagent for the identification of HO2• and other such transient species. In this work, the PCM/B3LYP/6−31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6−31G(d) and PCM/mPW1K/6−31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) methods were employed to predict the reactivity of HO2• with various functionalized nitrones as spin traps. The calculated second-order rate constants and free energies of reaction at both levels of theory were in the range of 100−103 M−1 s−1 and 1 to −12 kcal mol−1, respectively, and the rate constants for some nitrones are on the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally. The trend in HO2• reactivity to nitrones could not be explained solely on the basis of the relationship of the theoretical positive charge densities on the nitronyl-C, with their respective ionization potentials, electron affinities, rate constants, or free energies of reaction. However, various modes of intramolecular H-bonding interaction were observed at the transition state (TS) structures of HO2• addition to nitrones. The presence of intramolecular H-bonding interactions in the transition states were predicted and may play a significant role towards a facile addition of HO2• to nitrones. In general, HO2• addition to ethoxycarbonyl- and spirolactam- substituted nitrones, as well as those nitrones without electron-withdrawing substituents, such as 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and 5-spirocyclopentyl-pyrroline N-oxide (CPPO), are most preferred compared to the methylcarbamoyl-substituted nitrones. This study suggests that the use of specific spin traps for efficient trapping of HO2• could pave the way toward improved radical detection and antioxidant protection. PMID:17845014

  5. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  6. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  7. Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

    1994-03-01

    The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

  8. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-02

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements.

  9. Extensions of the framework for evaluation of crater detection algorithms: new ground truth catalogue with 57633 craters, additional subsystems and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamunićcar, Goran

    Crater detection algorithms' (CDAs) applications range from approximating the age of a planetary surface and autonomous landing to planets and asteroids to advanced statistical analyses [ASR, 33, 2281-2287]. A large amount of work on CDAs has already been published. However, problems arise when evaluation results of some new CDA have to be compared with already published evaluation results. The Framework for Evaluation of Crater Detection Algorithms (FECDA) was recently proposed as an initial step for solving the problem of objective evaluation of CDAs [ASR, in press, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.028]. The framework includes: (1) a definition of the measure for differences between craters; (2) test-field topography based on the 1/64° MOLA data; (3) the Ground Truth (GT) catalogue wherein each of 17582 impact craters is aligned with MOLA data and confirmed with catalogues by N. G. Barlow et al. and J. F. Rodionova et al.; (4) selection of methodology for training and testing; and (5) a Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristics (F-ROC) curves as a way to measure CDA performance. Recently, the GT catalogue with 17582 craters has been improved using cross-analysis. The result is a more complete GT catalogue with 18711 impact craters [7thMars abstract 3067]. Once this is done, the integration with Barlow, Rodionova, Boyce, Kuzmin and the catalogue from our previous work has been completed by merging. The result is even more complete GT catalogue with 57633 impact craters [39thLPS abstract 1372]. All craters from the resulting GT catalogue have been additionally registered, using 1/128° MOLA data as bases, with 1/256° THEMIS-DIR, 1/256° MDIM and 1/256° MOC data-sets. Thanks to that, the GT catalogue can also be used with these additional subsystems, so the FECDA can be extended with them. Part of the FECDA is also the Craters open-source C++ project. It already contains a number of implemented CDAs [38thLPS abstract 1351, 7thMars abstract 3066, 39thLPS abstracts

  10. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

  11. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  12. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.

  13. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  14. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  15. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  16. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  17. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  18. Ribotyping as an additional molecular marker for studying Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Tondella, M L; Sacchi, C T; Neves, B C

    1994-01-01

    The molecular method of ribotyping was used as an additional epidemiological marker to study the epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, referred to as the ET-5 complex, responsible for the epidemic which occurred in greater São Paulo, Brazil. Ribotyping analysis of these strains showed only a single rRNA gene restriction pattern (Rb1), obtained with ClaI restriction enzyme. This method, as well as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, provided useful information about the clonal characteristics of the N. meningitidis serogroup B strains isolated during this epidemic. The N. meningitidis serogroup B isolates obtained from epidemics which occurred in Norway, Chile, and Cuba also demonstrated the same pattern (Rb1). Ribotyping was a procedure which could be applied to a large number of isolates and was felt to be appropriate for routine use in laboratories, especially because of the convenience of using nonradioactive probes. Images PMID:7852566

  19. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  20. Modular system for studying tonal sound excitation in resonators with heat addition and mean flow.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Konstantin I; Hernandez, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    An educational experimental system has been developed for studying tonal sound generation in acoustic resonators. Tones are excited by either heat addition or vortex shedding in the presence of mean flow. The system construction is straightforward and inexpensive. Several test arrangements and experimental data are described in this paper. The experimental setups include a modified Rijke tube, a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine, a baffled tube with mean flow, and an acoustic energy harvester with a piezoelement. Simplified mathematical models for interpreting data are discussed, and references are provided to literature with more advanced analyses. The developed system can assist both graduate and undergraduate students in understanding acoustic instabilities via conducting and analyzing interesting experiments.

  1. Genetic Assessment of Additional Endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Calkins, Monica E.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  2. Mössbauer spectroscopy: an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, R. E.; Hus, J. J.; de Grave, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery a half century ago of the resonant gamma absorption, known as the Mössbauer effect, the derived spectroscopic method (MS) has proven to be a very suitable tool for the characterization of soil and rock minerals. From the conventional absorption spectra of iron containing compounds, so-called hyperfine parameters are derived which are more or less typical for each kind of mineral. So, MS has a certain analytical power for the characterization of iron-bearing minerals. This is especially true for magnetic minerals for which the spectrum contains an additional hyperfine parameter. Moreover, MS also allows retrieving information about the magnetic structure and behavior. Because the relative area of the spectra is to some extent proportional to the amount of iron atoms in their environment, MS yields not only quantitative information about the various minerals present but also about the iron in the different crystallographic sites. The power of MS as an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments could be well demonstrated in the joint research with Jozef Hus (CPG-IRM, Dourbes). In our common work, the emphasis went mainly to the study of Chinese loess and soils. Using MS on magnetically separated samples the various magnetic species in a loess and its associated soil were for the first time discerned in a direct way. Further, magnetically enriched samples of four different loess/paleosol couplets from a loess sequence in Huangling have been systematically investigated by MS. From the obtained qualitative and quantitative information the neoformation of magnetite/maghemite in the soils, responsible for the increased observed remanence and susceptibility, could be evidenced.

  3. Spin-probe ESR and molecular modeling studies on calcium carbonate dispersions in overbased detergent additives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Luciano; Frigerio, Francesco

    2010-08-15

    Oil-soluble calcium carbonate colloids are used as detergent additives in lubricating oils. They are colloidal dispersions of calcium carbonate particles stabilized by different surfactants; in this study alkyl-aryl-sulfonates and sulfurized alkyl-phenates, widely used in the synthesis of these additives, are considered. The physical properties of surfactant layers surrounding the surfaces of calcium carbonate particles were analyzed by using some nitroxide spin-probes (stable free radicals) and observing the corresponding ESR spectra. The spin-probe molecules contain polar groups which tend to tether them to the carbonate particle polar surface. They can reach these surfaces only if the surfactant layers are not very compact, hence the relative amounts of spin-probe molecules accessing carbonate surfaces are an index of the compactness of surfactant core. ESR signals of spin-probe molecules dissolved in oil or "locked" near the carbonate surfaces are different because of the different molecular mobility. Through deconvolution of the ESR spectra, the fraction of spin-probes penetrating surfactant shells have been calculated, and differences were observed according to the surfactant molecular structures. Moreover, by using specially labeled spin-probes based on stearic acids, functionalized at different separations from the carboxylic acid group, it was possible to interrogate the molecular physical behavior of surfactant shells at different distances from carbonate surfaces. Molecular modeling was applied to generate some three-dimensional micellar models of the colloidal stabilizations of the stabilized carbonate particles with different molecular structures of the surfactant. The diffusion of spin-probe molecules into the surfactant shells were studied by applying a starting force to push the molecules towards the carbonate surfaces and then observing the ensuing behavior. The simulations are in accordance with the ESR data and show that the geometrical

  4. Two step purification of Acinetobacter sp. lipase and its evaluation as a detergent additive at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Saisubramanian, N; Sivasubramanian, S; Nandakumar, N; Indirakumar, B; Chaudhary, N Amaranath; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2008-08-01

    Acinetobacter sp. lipase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step process. The crude enzyme (along with biomass) was subjected to partial purification by aqueous two phase system (ATPS), avoiding centrifugation and filtration steps. Conditions for lipase partitioning by ATPS were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and a combination of 29.45% polyethylene glycol 8000, 15.5% phosphate, and a pH of 7.0 resulted in an optimal partition coefficient. Partially pure lipase was further purified by a modified batch process using Octyl Sepharose CL-4B in a vacuum filtration apparatus. This two-step process resulted in a purified lipase with a yield of 74.6% having a specific activity of 88.8 U/mg of protein and a purification fold of 14.92. The homogeneity of the lipase preparation obtained by the purification process was confirmed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography profile. The molecular weight of the purified lipase was found to be around 32 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified lipase exhibited pH and temperature optima of 8.5 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The lipase was active at low temperatures and it retained 86.8% activity at 10 degrees C. It also displayed other features such as stability over a broad range of pH (3.0-9.0) as well as stability in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and commercial detergents. Based on these characteristics, the potential of this lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulation was evaluated under low temperature wash conditions. The results indicated that Acinetobacter sp. lipase increased the washing efficiency of the detergent Nirma by 21-24% at 15 degrees C-20 degrees C, respectively.

  5. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  6. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  7. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: a preliminary study on the effect of additive in granulating liquid.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing alginate-based pellets by extrusion/spheronization and also to improve the formation of spherical alginate-based pellets by investigating the effect of additive in granulating liquid on characteristics and drug release from resulting pellets. Two types of sodium alginate (30%) were evaluated in combination with theophylline (20%), microcrystalline cellulose (50%) and different granulation liquids. The pellets were then prepared in a basket extruder, then spheronized and dried. The final products were characterized by morphological examination and drug release study. Different additives in the granulating liquid influenced the ability of the extruded mass to form pellets (the processability) with this technique. However, different sodium alginate types responded to shape modifications to a different extent. Long, dumbbell-shaped pellets were obtained with viscous granulating liquids. However, short, nearly spherical pellets were obtained with watery granulation liquid with calcium chloride that reduced the swelling ability of sodium alginate. Improvements in the pellet characteristics were also dependent on the sodium alginate type employed. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60min and showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. Higher amount of 3% calcium chloride, as a granulating liquid, in the formulation showed higher mean dissolution time resulting from the cross-linking properties of calcium ions to the negative charges of alginate molecules.

  8. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  9. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  10. Theoretical study of the formation of naphthalene from the radical/π-bond addition between single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Andrea; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2011-06-09

    The experimental investigations performed in the 1960s on the o-benzyne + benzene reaction as well as the more recent studies on reactions involving π-electrons highlight the importance of π-bonding for different combustion processes related to PAH's and soot formation. In the present investigation radical/π-bond addition reactions between single-ring aromatic compounds have been proposed and computationally investigated as possible pathways for the formation of two-ring fused compounds, such as naphthalene, which serve as precursors to soot formation. The computationally generated optimized structures for the stationary points were obtained with uB3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations, while the energies of the optimized complexes were refined using the uCCSD(T) method and the cc-pVDZ basis set. The computations have addressed the relevance of a number of radical/π-bond addition reactions including the singlet benzene + o-benzyne reaction, which leads to formation of naphthalene and acetylene through fragmentation of the benzobicyclo[2,2,2]octatriene intermediate. For this reaction, the high-pressure limit rate constants for the individual elementary reactions involved in the overall process were evaluated using transition state theory analysis. Other radical/π-bond addition reactions studied were between benzene and triplet o-benzyne, between benzene and phenyl radical, and between phenyl radicals, for all of which potential energy surfaces were produced. On the basis of the results of these reaction studies, it was found necessary to propose and subsequently confirm additional, alternative pathways for the formation of the types of PAH compounds found in combustion systems. The potential energy surface for one reaction in particular, the phenyl + phenyl addition, is shown to contain a low-energy channel leading to formation of naphthalene that is energetically comparable to the other examined conventional pathways leading to formation of biphenyl compounds. This

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  12. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  13. An fMRI study of magnitude comparison and exact addition in children.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Gatenby, J Christopher; Warton, Christopher; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Gore, John C; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2010-04-01

    By contrast to the adult literature, in which a consistent parietofrontal network for number processing has been identified, the data from studies of number processing in children have been less consistent, probably due to differences in study design and control conditions. Number processing was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 right-handed children (8-12 years) from the Cape Coloured community in Cape Town, South Africa, using Proximity Judgment and Exact Addition (EA) tasks. The findings were consistent with the hypothesis that, as in adults, the anterior horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) plays a major role in the representation and manipulation of quantity in children. The posterior medial frontal cortex, believed to be involved in performance monitoring in more complex arithmetic manipulations in adults, was extensively activated even for relatively simple symbolic number processing in the children. Other areas activated to a greater degree in the children included the left precentral sulcus, which may mediate number knowledge and, for EA, the head of the caudate nucleus, which is part of a fronto-subcortical circuit involved in the behavioral execution of sequences. Two regions that have been linked to number processing in adults - the angular gyrus and posterior superior parietal lobule - were not activated in the children. The data are consistent with the inference that although the functional specialization of the anterior HIPS may increase as symbolic number processing becomes increasingly automatic, this region and other elements of the parietofrontal network identified in adults are already reliably and robustly activated by middle childhood.

  14. An evaluation of EDTA additions for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of different plants under various cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji; Xie, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that phytoremediation usually requires soil amendments, such as chelates, to mobilize low bioavailability heavy metals for better plant absorption and, consequently, for remediation efficiency. A total dry biomass of 3.39 and 0.0138 kg per plant was produced by a phytoremediator, Eucalyptus globulus, and a nitrogen fixing crop, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), respectively. The accumulation of Pb in E. globulus and chickpea reached 1170.61 and 1.33 mg per plant (700 and 324 mg kg(-1)), respectively, under an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, which was a five and sixfold increase over the value in untreated experiments, respectively. EDTA enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency and increased the heavy metal concentration in the soil solution. In pot experiments, approximately 27 % of the initial Pb leached from the spiked soil after EDTA and 25 mm artificial precipitation additions into soil without plants, which was considerably larger than the value under the same conditions without EDTA application (7 %). E. globulus planted in a mixed culture had higher water use efficiency than monocultures of either species in field experiments, and E. globulus intercepted almost all of the artificial precipitation in the pot experiments. This study demonstrates that E. globulus can maximize the potential of EDTA for improving the phytoremediation efficiency and minimizing its negative effects to the environment simultaneously by absorbing the metal-rich leachate, especially in a mixed culture of E. globulus and chickpeas.

  15. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  16. Evaluation of gold nanoparticles as the additive in real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green I dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Mi, Lijuan; Cao, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Chunhai; Hu, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proven to be able to improve the specificity or increase the efficiency of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when a suitable amount of AuNPs was used. However, there is still a lack of systematic evaluation of AuNPs in real-time PCR. In this study, DNA degradation and the fluorescence quenching effect of AuNPs were first tested in real-time PCR. Then two different kinds of Taq DNA polymerase, native and recombinant Taq polymerase, were employed to evaluate the AuNPs' effect on the threshold cycle (CT) values, standard curves and melting curves in real-time PCR. Different ratios of the amount of native Taq DNA polymerase to the amount of AuNPs were also tested. It was found that AuNPs could be applied in real-time PCR with correlation coefficient R2>0.989. The combination of 2.09 nM AuNPs with 3.75 U of native Taq DNA polymerase could make the amplification curves shift to the left and enhance the efficiency of the real-time PCR (0.628 39 without AuNPs compared with 0.717 89 with 2.09 nM AuNPs), thus enabling faster detection in comparison with those of control samples. However, no improvement ability of AuNPs was found in real-time PCR based on recombinant rTaq DNA polymerase. Besides, the results suggest that a complex interaction exists between AuNPs and native Taq DNA polymerase.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of cooling and of the addition of collagenase on llama sperm DNA using toluidine blue.

    PubMed

    Carretero, M I; Giuliano, S M; Casaretto, C I; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2012-05-01

    The effect cryopreservation has on sperm chromatin condensation has been studied in many species but not in South American camelids. The objectives of this study were to evaluate with toluidine blue (TB) the effects of cooling and of adding collagenase on llama sperm DNA condensation. The optimum incubation time (30 s, 1.5 and 3 min) with a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) was also determined. When comparing cooled samples with the raw ejaculate, a significant increase in sperm showing a high degree of decondensation (TB positive) was observed (P = 0.005). A positive correlation was observed, both in raw and cooled semen, between sperm head morphological abnormalities observed in TB-stained cells and TB-positive sperm (highly decondensed DNA), but not with TB-intermediate spermatozoa (moderately decondensed DNA). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in samples incubated with or without 0.1% collagenase. In cooled semen, but not in raw, a significant increase (P = 0.000) in reacted sperm (TB positive) was observed using 3-min incubation with 1% dithiothreitol (DTT). To conclude, cooling would seem to produce an increase in llama sperm chromatin decondensation. Also, 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA could be added to raw semen to aid its manipulation as it would not seem to increase DNA decondensation.

  18. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    3-D effects result in large heat flux, temperature, and heat transfer variations around the tube wall; (b) there is a large difference in the heat transfer coefficient predicted by turbulence models and heat transfer correlations, and this underscores the need of experimental work to validate the thermal performance of the RCCS; and (c) tests at the NSTF would embody all important fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the RCCS, in addition to covering the entire parameter ranges that characterize these phenomena. Additional supporting scaling study results are available in Reference 2. The purpose of this work is to develop a high-level engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF in order to meet the following two technical objectives: (1) provide CFD and system-level code development and validation data for the RCCS under prototypic (full-scale) natural convection flow conditions, and (2) support RCCS design validation and optimization. As background for this work, the report begins by providing a summary of the original NSTF design and operational capabilities. Since the facility has not been actively utilized since the early 1990's, the next step is to assess the current facility status. With this background material in place, the data needs and requirements for the facility are then defined on the basis of supporting analysis activities. With the requirements for the facility established, appropriate mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF are then developed in order to meet the overall project objectives. A cost and schedule for modifying the facility to satisfy the RCCS data needs is then provided.

  19. The Challenge of Studying Evaluation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why evaluation has a field has not studied its own theory systematically and examines the tensions between the often-cited claim of K. Lewin that there is noting as practical as a good theory and the response of M. Fullan that there is nothing as theoretical as good practice. (Author/SLD)

  20. Superintendent Evaluation: What AASA's Study Discovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a snapshot study of the superintendency conducted by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA). The findings revealed that superintendents were evaluated highly by their boards, but the number of leaders who received the highest ratings have declined during the past six years. The report, which…

  1. Theoretical study of ignition reactions of linear symmetrical monoethers as potential diesel fuel additives: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrouni, Karim El; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Kaliaguine, Serge

    This work investigates the chemical reactivity of four linear symmetrical monoethers with molecular oxygen. Such oxygenated compounds may be considered as potential diesel fuel additives in order to reduce the ignition delay in diesel fuel engines. For this purpose, a kinetic study is proposed to clarify the relation between the molecular structure of the fuel molecule and its ignition properties. To this end, DFT calculations were performed for these reactions using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and BH&HLYP/6-311G(d,p) to determine structures, energies, and vibrational frequencies of stationary points as well as activated complexes involved in each gas-phase combustion initiation reaction of the monoethers CH3OCH3, C2H5OC2H5, C3H7OC3H7, or C4H9OC4H9 with molecular oxygen. This theoretical kinetic study was carried out using electronic structure results and the transition state theory, to assess the rate constants for all studied combustion reactions. As it has been shown in our previous work [Abou-Rachid et al., J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003, 621, 293], the cetane number (CN) of a pure organic molecule depends on the initiation rate of its homogeneous gas-phase reaction with molecular oxygen. Indeed, the calculated initiation rate constants of the H-abstraction process of linear monoethers with O2 show a very good correlation with experimental CN data of these pure compounds at T D 1,000 K. This temperature is representative of the operating conditions of a diesel fuel engine.0

  2. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  4. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  5. Meiofaunal and bacterial community response to diesel additions in a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-03-01

    Effects of low PAH-containing diesel were studied in a 60-day microcosm experiment at PAH concentrations 130, 1300 and 13,000μg/kg sediment. Nutrient fluxes, potential nitrification and meiofaunal community composition were analysed at three time points. Changed ∑NOx-fluxes indicated reduced sediment nitrification in Medium and High with time, in agreement with lowered potential nitrification rates in all treatments. Reduction in silicate and phosphate fluxes over time suggested severe effects on activity of meiofauna. Reduced activity increased the anoxic sediment layer, which could have contributed to the changed ∑NOx-fluxes. There were significant differences in meiofaunal community composition after 30 and 60days in Medium and High. Changes were due to increasing numbers of harpacticoids and the foraminiferan group Rotaliina, as well as decreasing numbers of Nematodes and the foraminiferan group Reophax. In spite of the low PAH-level, small additions of this diesel can still have pronounced effects on meiofaunal and bacterial communities.

  6. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  7. Reference points suitable for evaluation of the additional arch length required for leveling the curve of Spee

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Hwa; Gang, Sung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Objective The additional arch length required for leveling (AALL) the curve of Spee (COS) can be estimated by subtracting the two-dimensional (2D) arch circumference, which is the projection of the three-dimensional (3D) arch circumference onto the occlusal plane, from the 3D arch circumference, which represents the arch length after leveling the COS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cusp tips or proximal maximum convexities are more appropriate reference points for estimating the AALL. Methods Sixteen model setups of the mandibular arch with COS depths ranging from 0 mm to 4.7 mm were constructed using digital simulation. Arch circumferences in 2D and 3D were measured from the cusp tips and proximal maximum convexities and used to calculate the AALL. The values obtained using the two reference points were compared with the paired t-test. Results Although the 3D arch circumference should be constant regardless of the COS depth, it decreased by 3.8 mm in cusp tip measurements and by 0.4 mm in proximal maximum convexity measurements as the COS deepened to 4.7 mm. AALL values calculated using the cusp tips as reference points were significantly smaller than those calculated using the proximal maximum convexities (p = 0.002). Conclusions The AALL is underestimated when the cusp tips are used as measurement reference points; the AALL can be measured more accurately using the proximal maximum convexities. PMID:27896209

  8. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  9. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  10. Evaluation of the JP-8+100 additive candidates in the extended duration thermal stability test system

    SciTech Connect

    Binns, K.E.; Dieterle, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    The most promising JP-8+100 additive candidates consists of dispersants, detergents, antioxidants and metal deactivators. A series of tests were conducted in the Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test System to determine the thermal stability effects of the individual JP-8+100 additives and combinations of the additives. This paper will cover the test results and their relationship to future aircraft fuel systems. The Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test System was designed to conduct long duration tests at non-accelerated temperature conditions and resident times representative or aircraft/engine fuel systems. This system and its operating characteristics will also be covered in this paper.

  11. Does Addition of Propolis to Glass Ionomer Cement Alter its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Girish Babu, K L; Neeraja, G; Pillai, S

    Propolis is a natural resinous substance produced by honey bees. The antimicrobial effects of glass ionomer cement have been shown to improve with the addition of propolis; however its effect on the physicomechanical properties of the cement is not known.

  12. Comparative Studies of Cathodically-Promoted and Base-Catalyzed Michael Addition Reactions of Levoglucosenone.

    PubMed

    Samet, Alexander V.; Niyazymbetov, Murat E.; Semenov, Victor V.; Laikhter, Andrei L.; Evans, Dennis H.

    1996-12-13

    Regioselective Michael addition of nitro and heterocyclic compounds to levoglucosenone, 1, is effectively catalyzed by amines and also by cathodic electrolysis. In comparison to the base-catalyzed reaction, it was found that under electrochemical conditions the reaction proceeds under milder conditions and with higher yields. Cathodically-initiated Michael addition of thiols to levoglucosenone using small currents produces the previously unknown threo addition product in several instances. The normal erythro isomer, identified as the kinetic product, tends to be formed when large currents are used. In contrast, slow, low current electrolyses promote equilibration of the two forms so that erythro can be converted to threo by the retro reaction and readdition. Addition of 2-naphthalenethiol to (R)-(+)-apoverbenone is also reported.

  13. Study of metal whiskers growth and mitigation technique using additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Vikranth

    For years, the alloy of choice for electroplating electronic components has been tin-lead (Sn-Pb) alloy. However, the legislation established in Europe on July 1, 2006, required significant lead (Pb) content reductions from electronic hardware due to its toxic nature. A popular alternative for coating electronic components is pure tin (Sn). However, pure tin has the tendency to spontaneously grow electrically conductive Sn whisker during storage. Sn whisker is usually a pure single crystal tin with filament or hair-like structures grown directly from the electroplated surfaces. Sn whisker is highly conductive, and can cause short circuits in electronic components, which is a very significant reliability problem. The damages caused by Sn whisker growth are reported in very critical applications such as aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and military weapons systems. They are also naturally very strong and are believed to grow from compressive stresses developed in the Sn coating during deposition or over time. The new directive, even though environmentally friendly, has placed all lead-free electronic devices at risk because of whisker growth in pure tin. Additionally, interest has occurred about studying the nature of other metal whiskers such as zinc (Zn) whiskers and comparing their behavior to that of Sn whiskers. Zn whiskers can be found in flooring of data centers which can get inside electronic systems during equipment reorganization and movement and can also cause systems failure. Even though the topic of metal whiskers as reliability failure has been around for several decades to date, there is no successful method that can eliminate their growth. This thesis will give further insights towards the nature and behavior of Sn and Zn whiskers growth, and recommend a novel manufacturing technique that has potential to mitigate metal whiskers growth and extend life of many electronic devices.

  14. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  15. Serum Basal Paraoxonase 1 Activity as an Additional Liver Function Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Chandrakanth K; Pyati, Sudharani A; Nagaraj; Wali, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of currently available standard panel of liver function tests is not satisfactory for the reliable diagnosis of chronic liver disorders. Earlier studies have reported that serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity measurement may add a significant contribution to the liver function tests. Aim To assess whether the measurement of serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity would be useful as an index of liver function status in chronic hepatitis patients. Materials and Methods The study included 50 chronic hepatitis patients and 50 apparently healthy controls based on inclusion & exclusion criteria. In all the subjects, standard liver function tests were analysed by using standard methods. Basal PON1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate. Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests and ROC curve analysis were the methods used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results The serum basal PON1 activity was significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis cases when compared to controls (p< 0.001). Also basal PON1 activity was positively correlated with serum total protein and albumin, and negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.001) in chronic hepatitis cases but not in healthy controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed, basal PON1 activity was a better discriminator of chronic hepatitis than total protein, albumin and ALP with sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 75%. ROC curve analysis demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy for ALT (AUC = 0.999) followed by PON1 (AUC = 0.990), total bilirubin (AUC = 0.977), ALP (AUC = 0.904), total protein (AUC = 0.790) and albumin (AUC = 0.595). Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of serum PON1 activity is better than total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and

  16. Can ligand addition to soil enhance Cd phytoextraction? A mechanistic model study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongbing; Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is a potential method for cleaning Cd-polluted soils. Ligand addition to soil is expected to enhance Cd phytoextraction. However, experimental results show that this addition has contradictory effects on plant Cd uptake. A mechanistic model simulating the reaction kinetics (adsorption on solid phase, complexation in solution), transport (convection, diffusion) and root absorption (symplastic, apoplastic) of Cd and its complexes in soil was developed. This was used to calculate plant Cd uptake with and without ligand addition in a great number of combinations of soil, ligand and plant characteristics, varying the parameters within defined domains. Ligand addition generally strongly reduced hydrated Cd (Cd(2+)) concentration in soil solution through Cd complexation. Dissociation of Cd complex ([Formula: see text]) could not compensate for this reduction, which greatly lowered Cd(2+) symplastic uptake by roots. The apoplastic uptake of [Formula: see text] was not sufficient to compensate for the decrease in symplastic uptake. This explained why in the majority of the cases, ligand addition resulted in the reduction of the simulated Cd phytoextraction. A few results showed an enhanced phytoextraction in very particular conditions (strong plant transpiration with high apoplastic Cd uptake capacity), but this enhancement was very limited, making chelant-enhanced phytoextraction poorly efficient for Cd.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of an additional fertilizer on the dynamics of microbial community and the decomposition of organic matter in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiola, B.; Olivier, M.; Houdusse, F.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia, M. J. M.; Lévêque, J.; Yvin, J. C.; Maron, P. A.; Lemenager, D.

    2012-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) influences many of the soil functions and occupies a central position in the global carbon cycle. At the scale of the agro-ecosystem, primary productivity is dependent on the recycling of soil organic matter (SOM) by the action of decomposers (mainly bacteria and fungi), which mineralize organic compounds, releasing the nutrients needed for plant growth. At a global scale, the recycling of the SOM determines the carbon flux between soil and atmosphere, with major consequences in terms of environmental quality. In this context, the management of SOM stocks in agro-ecosystems is a major issue from which depend the maintenance of the productivity and sustainability of agricultural practices. The use of additional fertilizer appears to be a promising way to achieve such management. These products have been proven effectives in many field trials. However, their mode of action, particularly in terms of impact on soil microbial component, is still nearly unknown. In this context, this study aims to test the influence of an additional fertilizer on (i) soil microbial communities (total biomass, density of bacteria and fungi), and (ii) soil functioning in terms of dynamics of organic matter. It is based on experiments in soil microcosms which follow in parallel the kinetics of mineralization of different organic carbon compartments (endogenous compartment: soil organic matter; exogenous compartment: wheat residue provided) and the dynamics of microbial communities after the addition of wheat residues in soil. Two different soils were used to evaluate the influence of soil physicochemical characteristics on the effect induced by the addition in terms of fertilization. The first results show a significant effect of the input of additional fertilizer on the dynamics of soil organic matter. They also show that soil pH as well as the dose at which the additional fertilizer is applied are important for modulating the observed effect. Characterization of

  18. Home Start Evaluation Study. Interim Report III: Summative Evaluation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Dennis; And Others

    This report presents data collected in six of the 16 Home Start sites in operation in the spring of 1973. The major task of the pilot summative evaluation was to try out the measurement battery so necessary modifications could be completed before beginning the actual evaluation in fall 1973. Another purpose was to train a capable field staff and…

  19. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  20. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  1. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  2. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  3. Inaccuracy of Self-Evaluation as Additional Variable for Prediction of Students at Risk of Failing First-Year Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Ackermann, Mia; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2010-01-01

    Early identification of students at risk of failing first-year chemistry allows timely intervention. Cognitive factors alone are insufficient predictors for success; however, non cognitive factors are usually difficult to measure. We have explored the use of demographic and performance variables, as well as the accuracy of self-evaluation as an…

  4. Evaluation of formic acid and propionic acid feed additives on environmental and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of formic acid and propionic acid on environmental and cecal recovery of Salmonella. Trial 1: Chicks (33/pen) were placed in one of 3 treatments with 8 reps, Trt A: 1 kg/ton formic acid, Trt B: 5 kg/ton formic acid, and Trt C: no formic acid....

  5. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation Study 3

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, N.; Achten, J.; Griffin, X. L.; Costa, M. L.; Reed, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately half of all hip fractures are displaced intracapsular fractures. The standard treatment for these fractures is either hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. The recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on hip fracture management recommends the use of ‘proven’ cemented stem arthroplasty with an Orthopaedic Device Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating of at least 3B (97% survival at three years). The Thompsons prosthesis is currently lacking an ODEP rating despite over 50 years of clinical use, likely due to the paucity of implant survival data. Nationally, adherence to these guidelines is varied as there is debate as to which prosthesis optimises patient outcomes. Design This study design is a multi-centre, multi-surgeon, parallel, two arm, standard-of-care pragmatic randomised controlled trial. It will be embedded within the WHiTE Comprehensive Cohort Study (ISRCTN63982700). The main analysis is a two-way equivalence comparison between Hemi-Thompson and Hemi-Exeter polished taper with Unitrax head. Secondary outcomes will include radiological leg length discrepancy measured as per Bidwai and Willett, mortality, re-operation rate and indication for re-operation, length of index hospital stay and revision at four months. This study will be supplemented by the NHFD (National Hip Fracture Database) dataset. Discussion Evidence on the optimum choice of prosthesis for hemiarthroplasty of the hip is lacking. National guidance is currently based on expert opinion rather than empirical evidence. The incidence of hip fracture is likely to continue to increase and providing high quality evidence on the optimum Cite this article: A. L. Sims. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation Study 3: Hemiarthroplasty Evaluation by Multicentre Investigation – WHITE 3: HEMI – An Abridged Protocol. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:18–25. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000473 PMID:26825319

  6. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  7. A Search for Additional Planets in the Exoplanetary Systems Studied by the NASA EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sarah; Christiansen, J. L.; Charbonneau, D.; Holman, M. J.; Deming, D.; Wellnitz, D. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; EPOXI Team

    2010-01-01

    The EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission used the HRI camera aboard the Deep Impact spacecraft to observe transiting exoplanet systems from January through August 2008. The majority of these targets were each observed nearly continuously for several weeks at a time. We searched these high-precision time series for additional planets in these systems, which could be revealed either directly through their photometric transits, or indirectly through the variations these second planets induce on the times of transit of the previously known planet. We present upper limits on putative additional planets in six of the systems observed by EPOXI: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, GJ 436, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7.

  8. Thiopeptin, a New Feed-Additive Antibiotic: Biological Studies and Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mine, K.; Miyairi, N.; Takano, N.; Mori, S.; Watanabe, N.

    1972-01-01

    Thiopeptin is a new antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces tateyamensis and developed solely for animal use as a feed additive. The antibiotic content in animal tissue and feed was assayed in terms of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma laidlawii A. This antibiotic was found to be relatively nontoxic in rats and mice. In chickens, this antibiotic is excreted into feces within 48 hr of administration and is not absorbed in tissue. It is well tolerated in both broilers and swine and is highly stable in animal feed. Thiopeptin-supplemented feed contributes to the improvement of weight gain, feed efficiency in chickens and swine, and the egg performance in layers. Thus, thiopeptin, when used as a feed additive, is quite suitable for supplementing animal nutrition. PMID:4680812

  9. Technical and economic evaluation of organic acid addition to a commercial FGD system. Final report, August 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The report summarizes the results of organic acid addition tests at a commercial FGD system. The tests were conducted at San Miguel Electric Cooperative's 410 MW lignite-fired Unit 1, outside Jourdanton, TX. During the program, several organic acid mixtures were tested over a range of operating conditions to determine if the use of organic acids would allow San Miguel to reduce FGD system operating costs. Based on the test results, a cost analysis indicated that the use of organic acid addition at San Miguel will result in a first-year cost savings of over $600,000. In terms of cumulative net present worth, the estimated savings over a 15-year period will be $7.2 million in 1984 dollars.

  10. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  11. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    This simple process is the basis for most consumer-grade desktop AM machines, commonly known as 3D printers (Pham & Gault, 1998:1270). Material...as a single purchase to decrease initial capital costs. Once the 3D printers are purchased and delivered, the selected bases can begin training...for several Questions if you would liKe to explain or elaborate on your answers. Additional information •out 3D printers and UTCs is provided as an

  12. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  13. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  14. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product.

  15. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged.

  16. Study of the structure of steel 12Kh12M1BFP modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. A.; Bakulina, A. S.; Efremov, I. V.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Yagodkin, Yu. D.; Glezer, A. M.; Rashkovskii, A. Yu.; Vainshtein, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy are used to study the structure of compacted specimens of steel 12Kh12M1BFP, modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. The effect of additions on the microhardness of compacted specimens is established.

  17. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  18. Using a logic model to evaluate the Kids Together early education inclusion program for children with disabilities and additional needs.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Kathleen; Manning, Claire; Williams, Kathryn; O'Brien, Ginger; Sutherland, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Despite clear evidence that learning and social opportunities for children with disabilities and special needs are more effective in inclusive not segregated settings, there are few known effective inclusion programs available to children with disabilities, their families or teachers in the early years within Australia. The Kids Together program was developed to support children with disabilities/additional needs aged 0-8 years attending mainstream early learning environments. Using a key worker transdisciplinary team model, the program aligns with the individualised package approach of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS).

  19. A Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Addition Silicone of Different Consistencies with Two Different Spacer Designs - In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Eswaran, B; Eswaran, MA; Prabhu, R; Geetha, KR; Krishna, GP; Jagadeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dimensional accuracy of impression materials is crucial for the production of working casts in Fixed Prosthodontics. The accurate replication of tooth preparations and their arch position requires impression materials that exhibit limited distortion. Methods: This study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the dimensional accuracy of additional silicones by comparing two different techniques and spacer designs, by measuring the linear changes in interpreparation distance. The impressions were made from a stainless steel master die simulating a three unit bridge. A total 80 die stone (type IV, Ultrarock) models were obtained from the impressions made using two different parameters. The two different parameters are Multimix and Monophasic technique and different spacer designs. Result: The interpreparation distance of the abutments in the casts was measured using a travelling microscope. Each sample was measured thrice and the mean value was calculated. The results obtained were statistically analysed and the values fall within the clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: The most accurate combination is multimix technique with spacer design which uses less bulk of impression material. PMID:25177635

  20. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  1. Studying Instructional Television: What Should Be Evaluated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    The evaluation of instructional television (ITV) is a new field with evaluation methods largely borrowed from other disciplines. The evaluator is not apt to be trained specifically in this area but will learn "on the job" while defining his role for those with whom he works. The evaluator should consider the following recommendations: (1)…

  2. A Review of Approaches to the Study of Turbulence Modification by Means of Non-Newtonian Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    interesting class of polymers for drag reduction studies. These polymers ( xanthomonas campestris , guar gum) were found to show long term stability...and their superiority to "typical" drag reducing polymers like polyethylene oxide, was evident. His degradation studies showed that the xanthomonas ... campestris is a better and more durable additive than guar gum. One of the most important biological additives is the DNA. It is actually a random

  3. A pilot-scale study of selective desulfurization via urea addition in iron ore sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hong-ming; Wu, Xue-jian; Chun, Tie-jun; Di, Zhan-xia; Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min

    2016-11-01

    The iron ore sintering process is the main source of SO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. In our previous research, we proposed a novel technology for reducing SO2 emissions in the flue gas in the iron ore sintering process by adding urea at a given distance from the sintering grate bar. In this paper, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out in a commercial sintering plant. The results showed that, compared to the SO2 concentration in flue gas without urea addition, the SO2 concentration decreased substantially from 694.2 to 108.0 mg/m3 when 0.10wt% urea was added. NH3 decomposed by urea reacted with SO2 to produce (NH4)2SO4, decreasing the SO2 concentration in the flue gas.

  4. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  6. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-27

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  9. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  10. Evaluation of mineral-based additives as sorbents for hazardous trace metal capture and immobilization in incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, S.; Fournier, D.J. Jr.; Waterland, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Considerable interest exists in the use of mineral-based sorbents for capturing and retaining hazardous constituent trace metals in the incineration process. The suitability of six minerals, silica, diatomaceous earth, kaolin, bauxite, alumina and attapulgite clay, as potential sorbents for the capture and immobilization of trace metals was evaluated. The behavior of five trace metals, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel was tested. The first five minerals constitute a spectrum of alumino-silicate compounds ranging from pure SiO{sub 2} (silica) to pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (alumina). The sixth mineral, attapulgite clay, is primarily a magnesium hydroxide-related test programs at the Incineration Research Facility (IRF) as a carrier of metals and organics in blended synthetic waste streams. The objective of this test program was to evaluate the candidate sorbents with respect to: (1) the degree to which they facilitate retention of the trace metals in the sorbent (2) the degree to which they retain trace metals in the sorbent when subjected to TCLP extraction. Bench-scale tests were conducted in the IRF`s thermal treatability unit (TTU). The test matrix was defined by varying: (1) mineral (sorbent) type (2) treatment temperature; treatment temperatures of 540{degrees}, 700{degrees}, and 870{degrees}C were tested (3) chlorine concentration in the feed; 0 and 4 percent by weight chlorine in the feed were tested. Given the preliminary nature of the tests the results must be viewed qualitatively. Nevertheless, overall trends indicate that under specific conditions, varying for each mineral, all of the mineral sorbents showed promise in limiting metal vaporization, and or TCLP leachability. Combining the dual criteria of limiting metal vaporization and reducing leachability, kaolin and attapulgite clay appear to have the greatest promise as potential sorbents. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  13. Using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores as Additional Predictors of Student Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…

  14. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  15. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a(PPARa) activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARa. Our previous studies showed that ind...

  16. An EPA Pilot Study Evaluating Personal, Housing, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA pilot studyAddresses how young children’s exposures to various indoor pollutants (both chemical and biological agents) change as a result of building renovation-based interventions, potentially affecting their asthma exacerbation and morbidityProvide additional information on chemical exposures and children’s interactions with their environments to enhance ongoing research in the Green Housing Study’s evaluation of green housing and impacts on childhood asthma Invited presentation to the NC Lead and Healthy Homes Task Force Meeting, Wednesday, February 24, 2016, UNC Institute for the Environment, Chapel Hill, NC

  17. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  18. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  19. Evaluating the time and source of hydrocarbon additions to soils using lead isotopes and historical changes in industrial lead sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.W. California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1994-04-01

    Isotopic analysis of anthropogenic Pb in well-dated, southern California coastal sediments have been integrated with historical changes in ore Pb sources to produce calibration curves (206Pb/207Pb vs. time) that allow us to model the time anthropogenic Pb was added to a soil horizon. The major, historical sources of anthropogenic Pb in southern California are fossil fuels (e.g. gasoline). Hence, Pb model ages (LABILE model; Los Angeles Borderland Industrial Lead) provide time constraints on Pb deposition from fossil fuel combustion via airborne deposition, runoff, and/or sewage outfall in this region. The correlation between the LABILE model age and known times of anthropogenic Pb additions at 17 specific sites is good (r = 0.978); the accuracy of the method ranges from one to five years in the post-1960 time interval. Factors influencing accuracy include analytical uncertainties in Pb isotopic measurements ([<=]0.1%), the scatter in isotopic ratios of anthropogenic Pb (circa 0.2%), and the uncertainty in the sediment age used to calibrate the method (0-15 yr). At one site three statistically distinguishable events were identified; they correlate with residential development (1968), airborne vehicular Pb deposition (1983), and site remediation (1991). Gasoline incursions at two tests sites have been dated accurately ([+-] 1 yr). The limitations of the LABILE model (geographic, age, types of hydrocarbons, and industry to which it applies) are now under investigation.

  20. Effectiveness of a diode laser in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy: study of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. PMID:26161248

  1. Handling time in economic evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Permsuwan, Unchalee; Guntawongwan, Kansinee; Buddhawongsa, Piyaluk

    2014-05-01

    The discount rates and time horizons used in a health technology assessment (HTA) can have a significant impact on the results, and thus the prioritization of technologies. Therefore, it is important that clear guidance be provided on the appropriate discount rates for cost and health effect and appropriate time horizons. In this paper we conduct a review of relevant case studies and guidelines and provide guidance for all researchers conducting economic evaluations of health technologies in the Thai context. A uniform discount rate of 3% is recommended for both costs and health effects in base case analyses. A sensitivity analysis should also be conducted, with a discount range of 0-6%. For technologies where the effects are likely to sustain for at least 30y ears, a rate of 4% for costs and 2% for health effects is recommended. The time horizon should be long enough to capture the full costs and effects of the programs.

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  4. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  5. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  6. Re-Evaluation of HSE DATA in Light of High P-T Partitioning Data: Late Chondritic Addition to Inner Solar System Bodies Not Always Required for HSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial peridotite and martian and achondritic meteorites have led to the conclusion that addition of chondritic material to growing planets or planetesimals, after core formation, occurred on Earth, Moon, Mars, asteroid 4 Vesta, and the parent body of the angritic meteorites. One study even proposed that this was a common process in the final stages of growth. These conclusions are based al-most entirely on the 8 highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os), which have been used to argue for late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth after core formation was complete. This idea was originally proposed because the D(metal/silicate) values for the HSE are very high (greater than 10,000), yet their concentration in the terrestrial mantle is too high to be consistent with such high Ds. The HSE in the terrestrial mantle also are present in chondritic relative abundances and hence require similar Ds if this was the result of core-mantle equilibration. The conclusion that late chondritic additions are required for all five of these bodies is based on the chondritic relative abundances of the HSE, as well as their elevated concentrations in the samples. An easy solution is to call upon addition of chondritic material to the mantle of each body, just after core formation; however, in practice this means similar additions of chondritic materials to each body just after core formation which ranges from approximately 4-5 Ma after T(sub 0) for 4 Vesta and the angrites, to 10-25 Ma for Mars, to 35 to 60 Ma for Moon and perhaps the Earth. Since the work of there has been a realization that high PT conditions can lower the partition coefficients of many siderophile elements, indicating that high PT conditions (magma ocean stage) can potentially explain elevated siderophile element abundances. However, detailed high PT partitioning data have been lacking for many of the HSE to evaluate whether such ideas are viable for all four bodies

  7. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid

    2015-10-01

    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.

  8. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soil using four additives, two foliar fertilisers and two varieties of pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Renwei; Qiu, Weiwen; Lian, Fei; Yu, Zhihong; Yang, YiXin; Song, Zhengguo

    2013-07-30

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal planting mode for pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) in Cd-contaminated soil to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts while maintaining yields. Four additives (red mud (RM), silicon calcium fertiliser (SC), spodium (SP) and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP)), two foliar fertilisers (Ca and Zn) and two varieties of pakchoi (Aijiaohuang (AJ) and Baixuegongzhu (BX)) were used in this study. The results show that the addition of SC and RM had an effect, but the other additives did not appear to increase the biomasses of AJ and BX. In some cases, the growth responses of AJ and BX to the same treatment were different. Extra additions of Ca or Zn to additive-treated pakchoi did not help the additives stimulate the growth of AJ and BX, except for SC-treated AJ and BX and SP-treated AJ. The SC and CMP additives significantly reduced the available Cd concentration in both the AJ soil and the BX soil; however, they did not significantly decrease the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. The RM treatments (for both levels) and some treatments containing SP reduced the available Cd concentration in the soils and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the two pakchoi varieties. Additions of Ca or Zn fertiliser significantly reduced the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. However, when Ca or Zn was sprayed on the additive-treated AJ and BX, they did not help the additives reduce the Cd accumulation in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX, except for the additive CMP. This study shows that RM may be an optimal amendment to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of pakchoi while simultaneously maintaining yields. The utilisation of Ca or Zn as a foliar fertiliser to additive-treated pakchoi showed positive effects only under some conditions.

  9. Investigating Heuristic Evaluation: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Kate Haley; Bendoly, Laura

    When museum professionals speak of evaluating a web site, they primarily mean formative evaluation, and by that they primarily mean testing the usability of the site. In the for-profit world, usability testing is a multi-million dollar industry, while non-profits often rely on far too few dollars to do too much. Hence, heuristic evaluation is one…

  10. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  11. A Micro-Developmental Approach to Studying Young Children's Problem Solving Behavior in Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study that investigated the process of change in 5-6-year-old children's successful problem-solving approaches when tackling a multiple-step task in elementary arithmetic. Micro-developmental changes in children's successful problem-solving behavior were analyzed using Karmiloff-Smith's model of representational redescription…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  13. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  14. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  15. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  16. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  17. Revisioning the Process: A Case Study in Feminist Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Rebecca M.; Miller, Michelle Hughes

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a case study of the evaluation of a women's substance abuse prevention program and identified three key aspects of negotiated evaluation. Discusses the processes involved in feminist evaluation, including collaborative agenda setting and cooperative teamwork. (SLD)

  18. The effects of workplace psychosocial factors on whether Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children have additional children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    EGUCHI, Hisashi; SHIMAZU, Akihito; FUJIWARA, Takeo; IWATA, Noboru; SHIMADA, Kyoko; TAKAHASHI, Masaya; TOKITA, Masahito; WATAI, Izumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effect of workplace psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support) on dual-earner couples in Japan having additional children, using a prospective study design. We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study with 103 dual-earner couples with preschool children in Japan, as part of the Tokyo Work–Family Interface Study II. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the prospective association of job strain (categorized into low-strain job, active job, passive job, and strain job groups) and workplace social support (high and low) with couples having additional children during the follow-up period, adjusting for age, for men and women separately. Men in the active job group (i.e., with high job demands and high job control) had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having additional children during the follow-up period, after controlling for age (OR 9.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.27–64.85). No significant association between any workplace psychosocial factor and having additional children was confirmed among women. Having an active job may have a positive influence on having additional children among men in dual-earner couples. PMID:27760893

  19. Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Zr Addition in L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) Using First-Principles Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Xue, Jilai; Wang, Zengjie; Yang, Zhenhai; Qian, Ping

    2016-05-01

    L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) can be used as a grain refiner and recrystallization inhibitor in forming and heat-treatment of wrought aluminum alloy. In this work, the mechanical properties of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) (0 < x< 0.5) have been systematically evaluated using first principles calculations. The optimized structural parameters obtained through the virtual crystal approximation were in good agreement with available experimental and calculated data. The computed bulk modulus of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) increased while the shear modulus and Young's modulus decreased with increasing Zr addition. The ductility of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) estimated by Pugh empirical criterion and Cauchy pressure were improved with Zr addition. The calculated ideal strength of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) along the [001], [110] and { 111} [1bar{1}0] directions increased linearly with Zr additions. The addition of Zr gave great improvements in the ideal strength along the [110] direction and the ductility in the [001] direction, respectively. The calculated electronic density of states and the charge density distribution revealed that the valence electron increased with Zr addition and hence strengthened the p-d covalent bonding and d-d bonding, resulting in the improvements in ideal strength and ductility. The evaluation data would be useful in materials design and process optimization for Al alloys in forming and heat treatment.

  20. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  1. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  2. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  3. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Spray Dam, Eden, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1981-01-30

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Spray Dam near Eden, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 10 ft., was built in 1898 for hydroelectric power generation with one of 2 installed units currently operating. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is possible and that the economics of retrofits will depend on whether existing equipment can be repaired or will have to be replaced. (LCL)

  4. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  5. [Analysis on evaluation tool for literature quality in clinical study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhai, Wei; Tan, Ya-qin; Huang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    The tools used for the literature quality evaluation are introduced. The common evaluation tools that are publicly and extensively used for the evaluation of clinical trial literature quality in the world are analyzed, including Jadad scale, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the others. Additionally, the present development, updates and applications of these tools are involved in analysis.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of demineralized bone matrix or calcium sulfate addition to polycaprolactone-bioglass composites.

    PubMed

    Erdemli, O; Captug, O; Bilgili, H; Orhan, D; Tezcaner, A; Keskin, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the efficacy of polycaprolactone/bioglass (PCL/BG) bone substitute using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) or calcium sulfate (CS) as a third component. Composite discs involving either DBM or CS were prepared by compression moulding. Bioactivity of discs was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following simulated body fluid incubation. The closest Calcium/Phosphate ratio to that of hydroxyl carbonate apatite crystals was observed for PCL/ BG/DBM group (1.53) after 15 day incubation. Addition of fillers increased microhardness and compressive modulus of discs. However, after 4 and 6-week PBS incubations, PCL/BG/DBM discs showed significant decrease in modulus (from 266.23 to 54.04 and 33.45 MPa, respectively) in parallel with its highest water uptakes (36.3 and 34.7%). Discs preserved their integrity with only considerable weight loss (7.5-14.5%) in PCL/BG/DBM group. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that all discs were biocompatible.

  7. Enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography with substituted β-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive and evaluation of inclusion complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    The enantioseparation of ten mandelic acid derivatives was performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) or sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additives, in which inclusion complex formations between cyclodextrins and enantiomers were evaluated. The effects of various factors such as the composition of mobile phase, concentration of cyclodextrins and column temperature on retention and enantioselectivity were studied. The peak resolutions and retention time of the enantiomers were strongly affected by the pH, the organic modifier and the type of β-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase, while the concentration of buffer solution and temperature had a relatively low effect on resolutions. Enantioseparations were successfully achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L-1 of HP-β-CD or SBE-β-CD. Semi-preparative enantioseparation of about 10 mg of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid and α-cyclopentylmandelic acid were established individually. Cyclodextrin-enantiomer complex stoichiometries as well as binding constants were investigated. Results showed that stoichiomertries for all the inclusion complex of cyclodextrin-enantiomers were 1:1. PMID:24893270

  8. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices.

  9. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  10. [Anatomical and radiological studies on additional mandible teeth anesthesia considering innervation variability].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, S V; Dydykin, S S; Kuzin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents studies on nutritional foramina of the mandible. Some nutritional foramina located in the frontal mandibular region on the lingual surface and containing significant blood vessels and nerves are found to be more typical for teeth-bearing mandible. In retromolar area in case of third molars presence intraosseous canals were revealed leading to inferior alveolar nerve canal. One should consider intraligamental and lingual anesthesia by lower incisors extraction. Intraosseous anesthesia and retromolar area infiltration significantly increase anesthesia efficiency by third molar extraction.

  11. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  12. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  13. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues.

  14. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food.

  16. A Comparative Kirkwood-Buff Study of Aqueous Methanol Solutions Modeled by the CHARMM Additive and Drude Polarizable Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study on aqueous methanol solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields was carried out by employing Kirkwood-Buff analysis. It was shown that both models reproduced the experimental Kirkwood-Buff integrals and excess coordination numbers adequately well over the entire concentration range. The Drude model showed significant improvement over the additive model in solution densities, partial molar volumes, excess molar volumes, concentration-dependent diffusion constants, and dielectric constants. However, the additive model performed somewhat better than the Drude model in reproducing the activity derivative, excess molar Gibbs energy and excess molar enthalpy of mixing. This is due to the additive achieving a better balance among solute-solute, solute-solvent, and solvent-solvent interactions, indicating the potential for improvements in the Drude polarizable alcohol model. PMID:23947568

  17. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  18. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  19. Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P < 0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P < 0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P < 0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion

  20. African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)

    PubMed Central

    Girkin, Christopher A.; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Jain, Sonia; Bowd, Christopher; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Racette, Lyne; Dirkes, Keri A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To define differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure between healthy participants of African (AD) and European descent (ED) using quantitative imaging techniques in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Methods Reliable images were obtained using stereoscopic photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography [HRT]), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for 648 healthy subjects in ADAGES. Findings were compared and adjusted for age, optic disc area, and reference plane height where appropriate. Results The AD participants had significantly greater optic disc area on HRT (2.06 mm2; P<.001) and OCT (2.47 mm2; P<.001) and a deeper HRT cup depth than the ED group (P<.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was greater in the AD group except within the temporal region, where it was significantly thinner. Central macular thickness and volume were less in the AD group. Conclusions Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area. However, differences remain in HRT cup depth, OCT macular thickness and volume, and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness independent of these variables. These differences should be considered in the determination of disease status. PMID:20457974

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. Evaluation of various additives on the preparation of rice husk ash (RHA)/CaO-based sorbent for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Irvan; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines the effectiveness of 10 additives toward improving SO2 sorption capacities (SSC) of rice husk ash (RHA)/lime (CaO) sorbent. The additives examined are NaOH, CaCl2, LiCl, NaHCO3, NaBr, BaCl2, KOH, K2HPO4, FeCl3 and MgCl2. Most of the additives tested increased the SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent, whereby NaOH gave highest SSC (30mg SO2/g sorbent) at optimum concentration (0.25mol/l) compared to other additives examined. The SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent prepared with NaOH addition was also increases from 17.2 to 39.5mg SO2/g sorbent as the water vapor increases from 0% RH to 80% RH. This is probably due to the fact that most of additives tested act as deliquescent material, and its existence increases the amount of water collected on the surface of the sorbent, which played an important role in the reaction between the dry-type sorbent and SO2. Although most of the additives were shown to have positive effect on the SSC of the RHA/CaO sorbent, some were found to have negative or insignificant effect. Thus, this study demonstrates that proper selection of additives can improve the SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent significantly.

  3. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  4. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  5. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  6. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  7. Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Study Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckendahl, Chad W.; Davis, Susan L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Zenisky, April L.; Wells, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The "Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Study Reports" describes the special studies that comprised the design of the evaluation. In the Final Report, the authors presented a practical discussion of the evaluation studies to its primary, intended audience, namely policymakers. On this accompanying CD, readers…

  8. The self-study: an ongoing evaluative process.

    PubMed

    Scott, E

    1986-01-01

    The benefits from an ongoing evaluation process cannot be overstated for programs in radiologic technology. The importance of an ongoing evaluation is heightened because of the relationship of accreditation. Problems may be detected early in their development and appropriate solutions found before a crisis stage is reached. Additionally, ongoing evaluations would give us a body of information to contribute to our professional literature. A values-oriented approach to evaluation should be used as these evaluations provide information on the worth of a project and solutions for improvement. The CIPP model lends itself perfectly to our needs in radiologic technology.

  9. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-sixth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of JECFA, including compounds without an ADI or MRL; recommendations on principles and methods in derivation of MRLs, including a new procedure for estimating chronic dietary intakes; the use of a spreadsheet-based procedure for the statistical evaluation of residue depletion data; a revised approach for the derivation of microbiological ADIs; and the Committee's review of and comments on documents provided by the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: three antimicrobial agents (colistin, erythromycin, flumequine), two production aids (melengestrol acetate, ractopamine hydrochloride), an insecticide (trichlorfon (metrifonate)) and an anthelminthic (triclabendazole). In addition, the attempt by the Committee to use tylosin as an example to investigate if evaluations are possible based on published data in the absence of data submissions from sponsors is described. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes and proposed maximum residue limits.

  10. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  11. Use of dehydrated waste grape skins as a natural additive for producing rosé wines: study of extraction conditions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya

    2011-10-26

    Dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were used as an additive to produce rosé wines. Maceration time, particle size, dosage, alcoholic content, and maceration temperature were first studied in model wine solutions using two different dehydrated waste grape skins. Full factorial experimental designs together with Factor Analysis and Multifactor ANOVA allowed for the evaluation of each parameter according to the composition of color and phenolic and aroma compounds. Higher maceration time favored the extraction of anthocyanins; phenolic compound release was influenced by dosage independent from other factors studied. Rosé wines were produced by direct addition of dehydrated waste grape skins, according to selected parameters in two different white wines, achieving characteristics equivalent to commercial rosé wines. After three months of storage, rosé wine composition was stable.

  12. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies of bovine serum albumin interaction with sodium acetate food additive.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Dehghan, Parvin; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-08-01

    Sodium acetate (SA) has been used as a highly effective protectant in food industry and the possible effect of this additive on the binding to albumin should be taken into consideration. Therefore, for the first time, the mechanism of SA interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods under physiological conditions. Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching analysis showed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of BSA upon increasing the amounts of SA. The high affinity of SA to BSA was demonstrated by a binding constant value (1.09×10(3) at 310°K). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic binding plays a main role in the binding of SA to Albumin. Furthermore, the results of UV-vis spectra confirmed the interaction of this additive to BSA. In addition, molecular modeling study demonstrated that A binding sites of BSA play the main role in the interaction with acetate.

  13. The Evaluation of Teaching the Nursing Process Using Traditional Lecture, Campus Laboratory, Clinical, and the Addition of High Fidelity Human Simulation (HFHS) Unfolding Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    It is not sufficient to just make changes in a nursing curriculum without a plan to evaluate the impact on program outcomes. This study sought to determine the outcomes of teaching the nursing process to Foundation of Nursing students in an Associate Degree Nursing program using a factorial design study. Four groups of students were taught the…

  14. Study on reduction of acrylamide in fried bread sticks by addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves and extract of green tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the efficiency of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) and extract of green tea (EGT) on the reduction of acrylamide in fried bread sticks and summarized the optimal levels of two additives. Seven experimental groups including a control group were organized for both of additives. Fried bread sticks were made via traditional processing technology. The flour was mixed with different levels (0.002-4.9 g/kg flour) of AOB and EGT, respectively. The acrylamide level in fried bread sticks was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sensory evaluation was performed in double blind manner. Results showed that nearly 82.9% and 72.5% of acrylamide were reduced when the AOB and EGT addition levels were 1 and 0.1 g/kg, respectively. The elevated inhibitory effects of AOB and EGT on the acrylamide formation were achieved with an increase of additive levels unless the spiking levels of AOB and EGT were greater than 1 and 0.1 g/kg, respectively. Sensory evaluation results showed that the flavor and texture of fried bread sticks processed by AOB and EGT had no significant difference compared to normal food matrixes (p>0.05) when both AOB and EGT addition levels were no more than 1 g/kg. The present study indicated that both AOB and EGT could significantly reduce the acrylamide content generated in fried bread sticks and keep original flavor and crispness of fried bread sticks. This study could be regarded as an important contribution on the reduction of acrylamide by natural antioxidants.

  15. A mechanistic study of manganese(iii) acetate-mediated phosphonyl group additions to [60]- and [70]-fullerenes: the oxidative-ion-transfer mechanism vs. free radical addition.

    PubMed

    Tumanskii, Boris L; Sabirov, Denis S; Lyakhovetsky, Yury I

    2016-11-14

    The phosphonylation of C60 with HP(O)(OAlk)2 and Mn(OAc)3·2H2O has been considered to occur via a free radical (FR) path involving intermediate radicals ˙P(O)(OAlk)2. The present study provides evidence in support of another mechanism for the reactions, oxidative-ion-transfer (OIT). The mechanism involves the change of an acetate group in Mn(OAc)3 for the phosphonate group and oxidation of C60 by the Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 formed to a pair: (C60˙(+), Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2˙(-)) followed by the transfer of the phosphonate anion to give the monophposphonylfullerenyl radical. It undergoes reversible dimerization. The polyaddition occurs analogously. Moreover, the compounds Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 (Alk = Et and i-Pr) obtained make novel reagents for phosphonylation of fullerenes working by the OIT mechanism. The reactions of C60 in benzene with equimolar amounts of Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OPr-i)2 or Hg[P(O)(OPr-i)2]2 which is known as working by the FR mechanism since it produces radical ˙P(O)(OPr-i)2 under UV-irradiation, furnished the same radical ˙C60P(O)(OPr-i)2. However, at a 20-fold molar excess of the reagent toward C60, a single derivative C60[P(O)(OPr-i)2]4 and a mixture of derivatives bearing between two and eight phosphonyls were obtained in the former and latter cases, respectively. With C70, the change of the mechanism produced a change in the regioselectivity: 5 and 3 isomers of ˙C70P(O)(OPr-i)2 were obtained, respectively. DFT-calculations provided the hyperfine coupling (hfc) constants of the isomers and explained the regioselectivity change.

  16. Enantioselective conjugate addition of nitro compounds to α,β-unsaturated ketones: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Rubén; Andrés, José M; Álvarez, Rosana; Muruzábal, María D; de Lera, Ángel R; Pedrosa, Rafael

    2011-05-16

    A series of chiral thioureas derived from easily available diamines, prepared from α-amino acids, have been tested as catalysts in the enantioselective Michael additions of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated ketones. The best results are obtained with the bifunctional catalyst prepared from L-valine. This thiourea promotes the reaction with high enantioselectivities and chemical yields for aryl/vinyl ketones, but the enantiomeric ratio for alkyl/vinyl derivatives is very modest. The addition of substituted nitromethanes led to the corresponding adducts with excellent enantioselectivity but very poor diastereoselectivity. Evidence for the isomerization of the addition products has been obtained from the reaction of chalcone with [D(3)]nitromethane, which shows that the final addition products epimerize under the reaction conditions. The epimerization explains the low diastereoselectivity observed in the formation of adducts with two adjacent tertiary stereocenters. Density functional studies of the transition structures corresponding to two alternative activation modes of the nitroalkanes and α,β-unsaturated ketones by the bifunctional organocatalyst have been carried out at the B3LYP/3-21G* level. The computations are consistent with a reaction model involving the Michael addition of the thiourea-activated nitronate to the ketone activated by the protonated amine of the organocatalyst. The enantioselectivities predicted by the computations are consistent with the experimental values obtained for aryl- and alkyl-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  17. Economic Evaluation alongside Multinational Studies: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oppong, Raymond; Jowett, Sue; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study This study seeks to explore methods for conducting economic evaluations alongside multinational trials by conducting a systematic review of the methods used in practice and the challenges that are typically faced by the researchers who conducted the economic evaluations. Methods A review was conducted for the period 2002 to 2012, with potentially relevant articles identified by searching the Medline, Embase and NHS EED databases. Studies were included if they were full economic evaluations conducted alongside a multinational trial. Results A total of 44 studies out of a possible 2667 met the inclusion criteria. Methods used for the analyses varied between studies, indicating a lack of consensus on how economic evaluation alongside multinational studies should be carried out. The most common challenge appeared to be related to addressing differences between countries, which potentially hinders the generalisability and transferability of results. Other challenges reported included inadequate sample sizes and choosing cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions It is recommended that additional guidelines be developed to aid researchers in this area and that these be based on an understanding of the challenges associated with multinational trials and the strengths and limitations of alternative approaches. Guidelines should focus on ensuring that results will aid decision makers in their individual countries. PMID:26121465

  18. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  19. Case study of an evaluation coaching model: exploring the role of the evaluator.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Kallemeyn, Leanne M; Rempert, Tania; Wade, James; Polanin, Megan

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of the external evaluator as a coach. More specifically, using an evaluative inquiry framework (Preskill & Torres, 1999a; Preskill & Torres, 1999b), it explored the types of coaching that an evaluator employed to promote individual, team and organizational learning. The study demonstrated that evaluation coaching provided a viable means for an organization with a limited budget to conduct evaluations through support of a coach. It also demonstrated how the coaching processes supported the development of evaluation capacity within the organization. By examining coaching models outside of the field of evaluation, this study identified two forms of coaching--results coaching and developmental coaching--that promoted evaluation capacity building and have not been previously discussed in the evaluation literature.

  20. WMC Database Evaluation. Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Palounek, Andrea P. T

    2015-10-29

    The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.

  1. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  2. Who Evaluates the Evaluator?--A Case Study of Evaluators Practicing Their Precepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drezek, Stan; And Others

    The Evaluation Services component of the Education Service Center, in San Antonio, Texas, evaluated nine Special Education programs conducted by the Center. It was decided to evaluate the actual impact of these reports, which examined the programs' major accomplishments. The thirty professional staff involved in the programs were surveyed. Fifty…

  3. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  4. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  5. Course Evaluation Study in Europe: The Current Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Israel Gutiérrez; Crespo, Raquel M.; Leony, Derick; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    Course evaluation is one of the key processes in the educational context that is in charge of the assurance of quality of courses taught in an institution. Although it is an essential process realized in every institution, the procedure followed for course evaluation does not comply with any evaluation standard. The objectives of this document are: to define a course evaluation concept map to understand better the needs of this field; to analyze the course evaluation standard ISO/IEC 19796, the only standard for course evaluation; and finally, to carry out a study of European institutions evaluation processes to determine why anyone is using standards in this learning process.

  6. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  7. St. Lawrence Seaway N.Y. Feasibility Study for Additional Locks and Other Navigation Improvements: Plan of Study. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    throughout has increased. The shift to larger vessels, laker and ocean, has been faster than the rate of growth in tonnage demand for carriage. Various studies...Conditions Navigation Season 15 April to 15 December (1) (Thousands of Short Tons) :Annual * : Rate of * * *: Growth Commodity :: 1980- Group :1980 1990...December (1) (Thousands of Short Tons) * . * *:Annual * * * *: Rate of *: Growth Commodity : *: 1980- Group :1980 :1990 :2000 :2010 :2020 :2030 : 2030

  8. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    triplet PES than on the singlet PES for the formation of similar analogues. There are fewer competitive reaction pathways on the triplet surface than on the singlet PES. Also, cycloadditions that seem impossible on the singlet PES seem possible on the doublet and or triplet PESs, this is the case typically for the Rh and Co complexes, illustrating the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions.Graphical AbstractTable of Contents Synopsis: A study of the mechanism of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3)(M=Co,Rh,Ir) shows the reactions of the Co complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3+2] and [2+2] addition pathways and fewer side reactions than those of Rh and Ir. Reactions are more feasible and selective on the triplet PES than on the singlet PES. These illustrate the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions and shows catalyst activity and selectivity decreases down the group.

  9. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  10. Applying GEP-HI for the planning of an evaluation study: a case study walkthrough (workshop).

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Brender, Jytte; Ammenwerth, Elske; Talmon, Jan; Rigby, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A Good evaluation practice in Health Informatics (GEP-HI) Evaluation Practice guideline has been developed through a consensus making process. The guideline lists a set of 60 issues that are relevant for planning, implementation and execution of an evaluation study in the health informatics domain. These issues cover the phases of an evaluation study: Study exploration, first study design, operationalization of methods, detailed study design, execution and finalization of an evaluation study. In this seminar we walk through a case study to present how to plan a health information system evaluation study applying the good evaluation practice guideline.

  11. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles.

  12. EVALUATIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEUX, MILTON; AND OTHERS

    A SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH WAS USED IN AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THREE MAJOR INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS THAT ARE ENCOUNTERED IN TEACHING VALUE PROBLEMS IN TWO SOCIAL STUDIES TOPICS ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION--FLOURIDATION AND THE USE OF PESTICIDES. "VALIDITY" WHICH IS CONCERNED WITH THE APPROPRIATE CRITERIA FOR MAKING VALUE JUDGMENTS WAS STUDIED BY…

  13. Effects on enteric methane production and bacterial and archaeal communities by the addition of cashew nut shell extract or glycerol-an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Werner-Omazic, Anna; Ramin, Mohammad; Schnürer, Anna; Griinari, Mikko; Dicksved, Johan; Bertilsson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) and glycerol (purity >99%) on enteric methane (CH4) production and microbial communities in an automated gas in vitro system. Microbial communities from the in vitro system were compared with samples from the donor cows, in vivo. Inoculated rumen fluid was mixed with a diet with a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio and, in total, 5 different treatments were set up: 5mg of CNSE (CNSE-L), 10mg of CNSE (CNSE-H), 15mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-L), and 30mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-H), and a control without feed additive. Gas samples were taken at 2, 4, 8, 24, 32, and 48h of incubation, and the CH4 concentration was measured. Samples of rumen fluid were taken for volatile fatty acid analysis and for microbial sequence analyses after 8, 24, and 48h of incubation. In vivo rumen samples from the cows were taken 2h after the morning feeding at 3 consecutive days to compare the in vitro system with in vivo conditions. The gas data and data from microbial sequence analysis (454 sequencing) were analyzed using a mixed model and principal components analysis. These analyses illustrated that CH4 production was reduced with the CNSE treatment, by 8 and 18%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. Glycerol instead increased CH4 production by 8 and 12%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. The inhibition with CNSE could be due to the observed shift in bacterial population, possibly resulting in decreased production of hydrogen or formate, the methanogenic substrates. Alternatively the response could be explained by a shift in the methanogenic community. In the glycerol treatments, no main differences in bacterial or archaeal population were detected compared with the in vivo control. Thus, the increase in CH4 production may be explained by the increase in substrate in the in vitro system. The reduced CH4 production in vitro with CNSE suggests that CNSE can be a promising inhibitor of

  14. Principals' Experiences of Being Evaluated: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to understand principals' lived experiences of being evaluated with reliance on the principles of developmental supervision and adult learning theory. Analysis of interview data from 16 principals revealed 3 major constructs in principal evaluation: evaluation is a complex, constantly changing system; principal…

  15. Formative Evaluation as a Social Process: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon-Cox, Leslie; Holzner, Burkart

    This paper reports the results of a case study of the process of formative evaluation in the development of one unit of Individualized Science (IS). It is an analytic description of the curriculum project's experiences in formative evaluation rather than an evaluative critique. Following an introductory explanation, the IS program and the IS…

  16. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  17. Inside the Black Box--An Implementation Evaluation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Patricia; Bakacs, Michele; Rowe, Amy; Barbour, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The case study presented in this article is an example of an implementation evaluation. The evaluation investigated significant components of the implementation of a long-term environmental educational program. Direct observation, evaluation-specific survey data, and historical data were used to determine program integrity as identified by…

  18. A study on fibre addition to gluten free bread: its effects on bread quality and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sciarini, L S; Bustos, M C; Vignola, M B; Paesani, C; Salinas, C N; Pérez, G T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fibre addition on gluten-free (GF) dough properties and bread technological quality, and on protein and starch in vitro digestibility. Soluble (Inulin, In) and insoluble fibres (oat fibre, OF, and type IV resistant starch, RSIV) were used at 5 and 10% substitution levels. Dough firmness increased when insoluble fibres were added, and decreased when In was used. Incorporation of insoluble fibres resulted into bread with a low specific volume (SBV) since firmer dough were more difficult to expand during proofing and baking. Staling rate was reduced after fibre addition, with the exception being OF 10%, as its lower SBV may have favoured molecule re-association. In general, protein and starch digestibility increased when fibres were added at 5%, and then decreased after further increasing the level. Fibres may have disrupted bread crumb structure, thus increasing digestibility, although the higher addition may have led to a physical and/or chemical impediment to digestion. Inulin has well-known physiological effects, while RS presented the most important effect on in vitro starch digestibility (GI). These results showed the possibility of adding different fibres to GF bread to decrease the GI and increase protein digestibility, while obtaining an overall high quality end-product.

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN FIVE OF THE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS STUDIED BY THE NASA EPOXI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara; Veverka, Joseph F.

    2011-05-01

    We present time series photometry and constraints on additional planets in five of the exoplanetary systems studied by the EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7. We conduct a search of the high-precision time series for photometric transits of additional planets. We find no candidate transits with significance higher than our detection limit. From Monte Carlo tests of the time series using putative periods from 0.5 days to 7 days, we demonstrate the sensitivity to detect Neptune-sized companions around TrES-2, sub-Saturn-sized companions in the HAT-P-4, TrES-3, and WASP-3 systems, and Saturn-sized companions around HAT-P-7. We investigate in particular our sensitivity to additional transits in the dynamically favorable 3:2 and 2:1 exterior resonances with the known exoplanets: if we assume coplanar orbits with the known planets, then companions in these resonances with HAT-P-4b, WASP-3b, and HAT-P-7b would be expected to transit, and we can set lower limits on the radii of companions in these systems. In the nearly grazing exoplanetary systems TrES-3 and TrES-2, additional coplanar planets in these resonances are not expected to transit. However, we place lower limits on the radii of companions that would transit if the orbits were misaligned by 2.{sup 0}0 and 1.{sup 0}4 for TrES-3 and TrES-2, respectively.

  1. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  2. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model-observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.

  3. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGES

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  4. Vibroacoustic test plan evaluation: Parameter variation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloef, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical decision models are shown to provide a viable method of evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternate vibroacoustic test plans and the associated test levels. The methodology developed provides a major step toward the development of a realistic tool to quantitatively tailor test programs to specific payloads. Testing is considered at the no test, component, subassembly, or system level of assembly. Component redundancy and partial loss of flight data are considered. Most and probabilistic costs are considered, and incipient failures resulting from ground tests are treated. Optimums defining both component and assembly test levels are indicated for the modified test plans considered. modeling simplifications must be considered in interpreting the results relative to a particular payload. New parameters introduced were a no test option, flight by flight failure probabilities, and a cost to design components for higher vibration requirements. Parameters varied were the shuttle payload bay internal acoustic environment, the STS launch cost, the component retest/repair cost, and the amount of redundancy in the housekeeping section of the payload reliability model.

  5. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  6. Validation of a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zetterman, Corey V; Sweitzer, Bobbie J; Webb, Brad; Barak-Bernhagen, Mary A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2011-01-01

    Patients scheduled for surgery at the Omaha VA Medical Center were evaluated preoperatively via telemedicine. Following the examination, patients filled out a 15 item, 5 point Likert scale questionnaire regarding their opinion of preoperative evaluation in a VTC format. Evaluations were performed under the direction of nationally recognized guidelines and recommendations of experts in the field of perioperative medicine and were overseen by a staff anesthesiologist from the Omaha VA Medical Center. No significant difficulties were encountered by the patient or the evaluator regarding the quality of the audio/visual capabilities of the VTC link and its ability to facilitate preoperative evaluation. 87.5% of patients felt that virtual evaluation would save them travel time; 87.5% felt virtual evaluation could save them money; 7.3% felt uncomfortable using the VTC link; 12.2% felt the virtual evaluation took longer than expected; 70.7% preferred to be evaluated via VTC link; 21.9% were undecided; 9.7% felt they would rather be evaluated face-to-face with 26.8% undecided; 85.0% felt that teleconsultation was as good as being seen at the Omaha surgical evaluation unit; 7.5% were undecided. Our study has shown that effective preoperative evaluation can be performed using a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic; patients are receptive to the VTC format and, in the majority of cases, prefer it to face-to-face evaluation.

  7. Data evaluation, analysis, and scientific study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive work was performed in data analysis and modeling of solar active phenomena. The work consisted in the study of UV data from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. These data were studied in conjunction with X-rays from the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) instrument, and with H-alpha and magnetographic data from ground-based observatories. The processes we studied are the active phenomena which result from the interaction of the solar magnetic fields with the plasma in the outer regions of the solar atmosphere. These processes include some very dynamic processes such as the prominence eruptions and the 'microflares'. Our research aimed at characterizing the following: the observed phenomena, the possible physical models, and the relevance to the chromospheric and coronal heating.

  8. Understanding carbohydrate structures fermented or resistant to fermentation in broilers fed rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal to evaluate the effect of acid treatment and enzyme addition.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; de Vries, Sonja; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2014-04-01

    Unprocessed and acid-extruded rapeseed meal (RSM) was fed to broiler chickens, with and without addition of commercial pectolytic enzymes. Nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fermentability and unfermented NSP structures from RSM were studied in the excreta in detail. From unprocessed RSM, 24% of the nonglucose polysaccharides could be fermented. Acid treatment did not have a significant effect, but enzyme addition did improve fermentability to 38%. Most likely, the significant increase in NSP fermentability can be ascribed to the addition of pectolytic enzymes, which decreased branchiness of the water-soluble arabinan. Mainly xyloglucan, (glucurono-)xylan, (branched) arabinan, and cellulose remained in the excreta. The proportion of unextractable carbohydrates increased in excreta from broilers fed acid-extruded RSM. Probably, acid extrusion resulted in a less accessible NSP matrix, also decreasing the accessibility for pectolytic enzymes added in the diet. During alkaline extraction of the excreta, 39 to 52% (wt/wt) of the insoluble carbohydrates was released as glucosyl- and uronyl-rich carbohydrates, probably originally present via ester linkages or hydrogen bonding within the cellulose-lignin network. These linkages are expected to hinder complete NSP fermentation and indicate that digestibility of RSM may benefit substantially from an alkaline treatment or addition of esterases.

  9. In vitro and in vivo study of sustained nitric oxide release coating using diazeniumdiolate-oped poly(vinyl chloride) matrix with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) additive.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hitesh; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Major, Terry C; Refahiyat, Lahdan; Amoako, Kagya A; Annich, Gail M; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2013-08-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion and activation that can be released from a NO donor species, such as diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2) within a polymer coating. In this study, various Food and Drug Administration approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) species were evaluated as additives to promote a prolonged NO release from DBHD/N2O2 within a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. When using an ester-capped PLGA additive with a slow hydrolysis time, the resulting coatings continuously release between 7-18×10(-10) mol cm(-2) min(-1) NO for 14 d at 37°C in PBS buffer. The corresponding pH changes within the polymer films were visualized using pH sensitive indicators and are shown to correlate with the extended NO release pattern. The optimal combined diazeniumdiolate/PLGA-doped NO release (NOrel) PVC coating was evaluated in vitro and its effect on the hemodynamics was also studied within a 4 h in vivo extracorporeal circulation (ECC) rabbit model of thrombogenicity. Four out of 7 control circuits clotted within 3 h, whereas all the NOrel coated circuits were patent after 4 h. Platelet counts on the NOrel ECC were preserved (79 ± 11% compared to 54 ± 6% controls). The NOrel coatings showed a significant decrease in the thrombus area as compared to the controls. Results suggest that by using ester-capped PLGAs as additives to a conventional plasticized PVC material containing a lipophilic diazeniumdiolates, the NO release can be prolonged for up to 2 weeks by controlling the pH within the organic phase of the coating.

  10. From linked open data to molecular interaction: studying selectivity trends for ligands of the human serotonin and dopamine transporter† †The authors declare no competing interests. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6md00207b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hellsberg, Eva; Viereck, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    Retrieval of congeneric and consistent SAR data sets for protein targets of interest is still a laborious task to do if no appropriate in-house data set is available. However, combining integrated open data sources (such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform) with workflow tools now offers the possibility of querying across multiple domains and tailoring the search to the given research question. Starting from two phylogenetically related protein targets of interest (the human serotonin and dopamine transporters), the whole chemical compound space was explored by implementing a scaffold-based clustering of compounds possessing biological measurements for both targets. In addition, potential hERG blocking liabilities were included. The workflow allowed studying the selectivity trends of scaffold series, identifying potentially harmful compound series, and performing SAR, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a consistent data set of 56 cathinones. This delivered useful insights into driving determinants for hDAT selectivity over hSERT. With respect to the scaffold-based analyses it should be noted that the cathinone data set could be retrieved only when Murcko scaffold analyses were combined with similarity searches such as a common substructure search. PMID:27891211

  11. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  12. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    PubMed

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  13. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  14. Addition of parenteral cefoxitin to regimen of oral antibiotics for elective colorectal operations. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Schoetz, D J; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral neomycin/erythromycin base. In addition a perioperative parenteral antibiotic was given in three divided doses to 101 patients. The other 96 patients received no parenteral antibiotics. The overall incidence of intra-abdominal septic complications was 7.3% (7 of 96) in the control group (no cefoxitin) and 5% (5 of 101) in the treatment group (cefoxitin). This difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of abdominal wound infection was 14.6% in the control group and 5% in the treatment group, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). The addition of perioperative parenteral cefoxitin greatly reduced the incidence of wound infections in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations who had been prepared with mechanical bowel cleansing and oral antimicrobial agents. PMID:2100983

  15. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  16. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  17. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects. PMID:27667204

  18. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects.

  19. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  20. A study of the rhombohedral distortion of the magnetostrictive samarium-iron compounds with addition of molybdenum or vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zen-Bao; Tai, Li-Chi

    1981-03-01

    The mechanical hardness and magnetostriction of annealed pseudo-binary compounds, based on the binary Laves phase, SmFe2 compound with additions of small percentage of Cu, Ni, V or Mo, have been studied. It is found that the compounds containing Mo have optimum hardness and values of magnetostriction. The pseudo-binary compounds SmFe2-xMox and SmFe2-xVx (x = 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2) have been studied by using X-ray counter diffractometer. Owing to the broadening and the splitting of line profiles at higher Bragg angles, a precision determination of lattice parameters becomes difficult. From the data the angles of rhombohedral cells and the relative change in lattice spacings of cubic (400) reflections in these compounds have been calculated.

  1. In-situ study of the influence of additives on the growth behavior of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiwen

    Trace organic additives are known to be essential in obtaining desired metal electrodeposits in the microelectronic industry, however, fundamental design principles for their use and a scientific understanding of their interaction during electrodeposition is lacking. In the present study we investigated electrodeposition of copper on the Cu(100) surface in air-saturated or dearated acid-sulfate plating solutions containing several combinations of chloride and additives benzotriazole (BTA) and 3-mercapto propane sulfonic acid (MPSA) under galvanostatic pulse-current conditions. The electrodeposition process was followed using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were quantitatively analyzed by pattern-recognition and scaling procedures. In the absence of additives, copper deposits grew in a layer-by-layer mode from the earliest stage of deposition. The surface consisted of smooth terraces separated by steps. The scaling analysis result was consistent with a process dominated by surface diffusion and step growth. In chloride containing solutions, square-pyramidal mounds were initiated and grew to cover the surface. Mound slope increased with deposition time with no indication of reaching a steady-state value. This growth mode was consistent with a surface diffusion mechanism. The scaling result was similar to the additive-free system, but indicated that surface diffusion was more dominant in the presence of chloride. BTA inhibited the surface and produced nucleation-limited growth at hemispheroidal centers whose height to base radius aspect ratio increased linearly with deposition time. Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional nodules started randomly across the entire surface. The nodules were smaller in size than the mounds observed without BTA. The number and density of nodules were much higher than the mounds density. The deposit growth was dominated by a roughening mechanism that can be described by the random roughening term of a stochastic model

  2. [Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: evaluation study].

    PubMed

    Boutelier, P

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered as a safe and effective procedure without randomised prospective trial. Two physician insurers associations (in France and in USA) have shown an important increase of the lawsuits after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially concerning common bile duct injuries. An exhaustive study of the literature demonstrates that in the rare prospective studies collecting all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies realised in one country or one state, the percentage of biliary tract injuries is form twice to five times as big as with open surgery, and bigger in case of acute cholecystitis. It seems that diffusion of the monopolar current can explain a good number of them. These injuries are difficult for repairing because of their high localisation and the associated tissular burn. Their long term morbidity is important and their cost is huge. Three recent prospective studies comparing laparoscopic versus minilaparotomy approach demonstrate that the advantages of laparoscopic approach according to the cost and the recovery's speed are, except for the obese patients, less evident than one could believe.

  3. Online Continuing Professional Education: An Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullen, Darren L.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation study, assessing the pedagogical and instructional design (e-pedagogy) effectiveness of online continuing professional education (CPE) courses offered by a large Australasian CPE provider to health care professionals (HCPs). The study used a naturalistic theory approach in conjunction with a multilevel evaluation to examine the…

  4. An Evaluation of Digital Stories Created for Social Studies Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Burcu Sezginsoy

    2016-01-01

    Digital stories are useful tools for combining technology with education, in terms of the preparation stage, practicality, availability and usability as an evaluation instrument. In this study, digital stories created in a social studies teaching class were evaluated and the opinions of primary school teacher candidates were obtained concerning…

  5. Cytotoxicity study of rock wool by cell magnetometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuichiro; Kotani, Makoto; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-11-01

    The cytotoxicity of rock wool (RW), an asbestos substitute, was evaluated by cell magnetometry. Alveolar macrophages were isolated from male Fisher rats. Following addition of triiron tetraoxide (Fe(3)O(4)) to macrophages, RW was added. Then, the remnant magnetic field strength was measured for 20min after magnetization by an external field. Relaxation, an indicator of decay of cytotoxicity, was observed by cell magnetometry immediately postmagnetization in the group to which RW was added. In general, materials phagocytosed by macrophages are ingested into phagosomes and digested while migrating. This migration of phagosomes occurs by polymerization and depolymerization of the cytoskeleton. As a result of evaluation, relaxation was not delayed by addition of RW, since RW caused no effect on the cytoskeleton. It was suggested that RW has no cytotoxicity as evaluated by cell magnetometry.

  6. Evaluation of di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite as a film-forming additive on the MCMB anode of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiangzhen; Wang, Wenguo; Huang, Tao; Fang, Guihuang; Pan, Ying; Wu, Maoxiang

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates a sulfur-based compound, di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite (DTFES), as a new solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) forming additive on mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). When placed in the electrolyte, it can dramatically enhance the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The capacity loss was significantly decreased from 17.4% to 6.3% after 100 charge-discharge cycles due to the addition of DTFES. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) versus voltage (V) analysis showed that DTFES was decomposed in advance versus to electrolyte solvents. The effects of DTFES were characterized by charge-discharge testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that the SEI film formed on MCMB by DTFES plays an important role in LIBs performance. Their subsequent reaction pathways are proposed in the paper.

  7. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  8. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  9. Additional benefit of yoga to standard lifestyle modification on blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity. Considering the growing evidence of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of high BP, we designed a randomized, parallel active-controlled study on the effect of yoga and standard lifestyle modification (LSM) on BP and heart rate in individuals with prehypertension (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg). Volunteers (20-60 years) of both genders without any known cardiovascular disease were randomized into either LSM group (n = 92) or LSM+yoga group (n = 92). Before the intervention, age, waist circumference, physical activity, BP and fasting plasma glucose and lipids were comparable between the groups. After 12 weeks of intervention, we observed a significant reduction in the BP and heart rate in both the groups. Further, the reduction in systolic BP was significantly more in LSM+yoga group (6 mm Hg) as compared with LSM group (4 mm Hg). In addition, 13 prehypertensives became normotensives in LSM+yoga group and four in LSM group. The results indicate efficacy of nonpharmacological intervention and the additional benefit of yoga to standard LSM. Further research in this field may add to the level of evidence on the benefit of yoga, in the reduction of BP in high BP subjects, in the scientific literature.

  10. Comparative studies between the influence of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes addition on Gd-123 superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Aly, A. I.; Anas, M.; Ebrahim, Shaker; Awad, R.; Eldeen, I. G.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) addition on the phase formation and the superconducting properties of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ phase has been studied. Therefore, composite superconductor samples of type (CNTs)x GdBa2Cu3O7-δ, 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 wt.% have been synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction technique. The samples have been characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of XRD show an enhancement in the phase formation up to 0.06 wt.% and 0.08 wt.% for SWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively. SEM and TEM reveal that CNTs form an electrical network resulting in well-connected superconducting grains. The electrical properties of the prepared samples have been examined by electric resistivity and I-V measurements, and their results reinforce the XRD, SEM and TEM. Consequently, both Tc and Jc improve as the addition percentage increases up to 0.06 wt.% and 0.08 wt.% for SWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively.

  11. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  12. Linearity and additivity in cluster-induced sputtering: A molecular-dynamics study of van der Waals bonded systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2004-10-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study sputtering of a condensed-gas solid induced by the impact of atomic clusters with sizes 1{<=}n{<=}10{sup 4}. Above a nonlinear onset regime, we find a linear increase of the sputter yield Y with the total energy E of the bombarding cluster. The fitting coefficients in the linear regime depend only on the cluster size n such that for fixed bombardment energy, sputtering decreases with increasing cluster size n. We find that to a good approximation the sputter yield in this regime obeys an additivity rule in cluster size n such that doubling the cluster size at the same cluster velocity amounts to doubling the sputter yield. The sputter-limiting energy {epsilon}{sub s} is introduced which separates erosion ({epsilon}>{epsilon}{sub s}) from growth ({epsilon}<{epsilon}{sub s}) under cluster impact.

  13. Theoretical study of the hydroxyl radical addition to uracil and photochemistry of the formed U6OH• adduct.

    PubMed

    Francés-Monerris, Antonio; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel

    2014-03-20

    Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is produced in biological systems by external or endogenous agents. It can damage DNA/RNA by attacking pyrimidine nucleobases through the addition to the C5═C6 double bond. The adduct resulting from the attachment at the C5 position prevails in the experimental measurements, although the reasons for this preference remain unclear. The first aim of this work is therefore to shed light on the comprehension of this important process. Thus, the thermal (•)OH addition to the C5═C6 double bond of uracil has been studied theoretically by using DFT, MP2, and the multiconfigurational CASPT2//CASSCF methodologies. The in-vacuo results obtained with the latter protocol plus the analysis of solvent effects support the experimental observation. A significant lower barrier height is predicted for the C5 pathway with respect to that of the C6 route. In contrast to the C5 adduct, the C6 adduct is able to absorb visible light. Hence, the second aim of the work is to study the photochemistry of this species using the CASPT2//CASSCF methodology within the framework of the photochemical reaction path approach (PRPA). The nonradiative decay to the ground state of this compound has been characterized. A photoreactive character is predicted for the C6 adduct in the excited states according to the presence of excited-state minima along the main decay channel. Finally, a new mechanism of photodissociation has been explored, which implies the photoinduced regeneration of the canonical nucleobase by irradiating with visible light, being therefore relevant in RNA protection against damage by reactive oxygen species.

  14. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  15. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differed from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.

  16. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGES

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  17. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  18. In situ electron microscopy studies of calcium carbonate precipitation from aqueous solution with and without organic additives.

    PubMed

    Verch, Andreas; Morrison, Ian E G; Locht, Renee van de; Kröger, Roland

    2013-08-01

    For the understanding of mineral formation processes from solution it is important to obtain a deeper insight into the dynamics of crystal growth. In this study we applied for this purpose a novel atmospheric scanning electron microscope that allows the investigation of CaCO3 particle formation in solution under atmospheric conditions with a resolution of approximately 10nm. Furthermore it permits the in situ observation of the dynamics of crystal evolution. With this tool the precipitation of CaCO3 was studied in the absence and presence of additives, namely poly(acrylic acid) and poly(styrene sulfonate-co-maleic acid) which are known to influence the crystal growth rate and morphology. We determined particle growth rates and investigated the formation and dissolution dynamics of an observed transient phase, believed to be amorphous calcium carbonate. This technique also enabled us to study the depletion zones, areas of lower intensity due to reduced ion concentrations. Ion flux rates were obtained from the depletion zone width, which amounted to several μm assuming the formation and dissolution dynamics of amorphous calcium carbonate being the rate determining process. This assumption was confirmed since the obtained fluxes were found to be in good agreement with fluxes derived from the experimentally observed crystal growth rates.

  19. Dual-source dual-energy CT with additional tin filtration: Dose and image quality evaluation in phantoms and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Primak, Andrew N.; Giraldo, Juan Carlos Ramirez; Eusemann, Christian D.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kantor, B.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect on radiation dose and image quality of the use of additional spectral filtration for dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Materials and Methods A commercial DSCT scanner was modified by adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube, and radiation output and noise measured in water phantoms. Dose values for equivalent image noise were compared among DE-modes with and without tin filtration and single-energy (SE) mode. To evaluate DECT material discrimination, the material-specific DEratio for calcium and iodine were determined using images of anthropomorphic phantoms. Data were additionally acquired in 38 and 87 kg pigs, and noise for the linearly mixed and virtual non-contrast (VNC) images compared between DE-modes. Finally, abdominal DECT images from two patients of similar sizes undergoing clinically-indicated CT were compared. Results Adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube improved the DE contrast between iodine and calcium as much as 290%. Pig data showed that the tin filtration had no effect on noise in the DECT mixed images, but decreased noise by as much as 30% in the VNC images. Patient VNC-images acquired using 100/140 kV with added tin filtration had improved image quality compared to those generated with 80/140 kV without tin filtration. Conclusion Tin filtration of the high-kV tube of a DSCT scanner increases the ability of DECT to discriminate between calcium and iodine, without increasing dose relative to SECT. Furthermore, use of 100/140 kV tube potentials allows improved DECT imaging of large patients. PMID:20966323

  20. Evaluation of sodium thiosulfate additive on the performance of a spray tower (train 100) scrubber system using limestone slurry, May 5, 1982-August 17, 1982. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, J.B.; Garrison, F.C.; Newton, S.F.; Patterson, J.G.; Runyan, R.A.; Wells, W.L.

    1983-11-23

    A 10 MW test using a limestone system with thiosulfate additive, was funded by the TVA Office of Power and was conducted at the Shawnee Test Facility between May 5 and August 17, 1982 on train 100 (spray tower). The primary purpose of the test was to evaluate the effect of sodium thiosulfate additive on spray tower system performance under typical commercial scrubbing conditions. A secondary test purpose was to obtain engineering data on scrubber system components under test conditions that would permit the comparison of actual performance with design performance. For specific test conditions (pH = 5.8, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio = 65 gal/1000 acf flue gas), SO/sub 2/ removal was unaffected by thiosulfate ion concentration, and the effective slurry liquor thiosulfate ion concentration for scale-free scrubbing was approximately 100 ppM. Another important finding was the increase of up to 20% in solids content of horizontal belt filter cake at a thiosulfate ion concentration in the slurry liquid of 600 ppM compared with belt filter cake solids when no thiosulfate ion was in the slurry liquid. Overall mass transfer coefficients (K/sub g/a for SO/sub 2/ absorption into limestone slurry ranged from 9.8 to 10.4 lb moles/hr ft/sup 3/ ATM. Comparisons of test K/sub g/a values with previously published values suggest that the gas film component was of predominant importance during all tests. Capital investment costs for the limestone-sodium thiosulfate scrubber system at 500 MW are approximately 6% lower than for a comparable limestone forced-oxidation system. The operating costs for a 500 MW limestone-sodium thiosulfate scrubber system are 5% lower than for a limestone forced-oxidation system of comparable size.

  1. The Know Your Body program: a review of evaluation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, K.; Cross, D.; Wynder, E.

    1993-01-01

    Know Your Body is a comprehensive school health promotion program for kindergarten through six grades, initially developed in the 1970s by the American Health Foundation. The impact of the KYB program has been evaluated in three field trials, the results of which have been reviewed in this article. Across the three studies, at 3-year follow-up, consistent positive intervention effects were reported for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking, HDL-cholesterol, and health knowledge. Results for total blood cholesterol, fitness score, heart-healthy snacks, fruit/vegetable intake, whole milk intake, and health attitudes were mixed. For body mass index, triceps skinfold, all remaining dietary variables, self-esteem/self-efficacy, and locus of control no significant effects were observed. Overall, significant treatment effects were reported for 19 of the 40 variables assessed at 3-year follow-up, an effects ratio of 48%. Consistent positive results at 5-year follow-up were reported for smoking and health knowledge. Mixed results were obtained for total blood cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and percent kilocalories from saturated fat. Consistent null results were reported for HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, triceps skinfold, fitness score, percentage kilocalories from fat, cholesterol intake, and fiber intake. Overall, significant treatment effects were reported for 7 of 36 variables at 5-year follow-up, an effects ratio of 19%. Although reported program effects were largely mixed, they seem consistent with other health education evaluations. Null results may have been related to insufficient teacher implementation as well as weaknesses in design and assessment. Additional research is needed to determine the effect of the program on a broader range of outcomes, to what degree increasing the "dose" produces larger and more enduring treatment effects, and the relative impact of the various components that comprise the

  2. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  3. Oxidative addition of halogens to homoleptic perfluoromethyl or perfluorophenyl derivatives of platinum(II): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Menjón, Babil; Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Gómez-Saso, Miguel A; Forniés, Juan; Falvello, Larry R; Martín, Antonio; Tsipis, Athanassios

    2009-06-22

    Chlorocarbon solvents (solv=CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3)) are suggested to play an active role in the oxidative addition of halogens, X(2) (X=Cl, Br, I), to homoleptic d(8) perfluoromethyl and -phenyl platinum(II) species [Pt(R(F))(4)](2-) (R(F)=CF(3), C(6)F(5)). The perfluoromethyl group, CF(3), has been found to be considerably less prone to undergo reductive elimination processes, and is, therefore, more suitable for stabilizing organoplatinum(IV) derivatives (see scheme).The equilibrium geometries of the homoleptic perfluorinated organoplatinate(II) anions [Pt(CF(3))(4)](2-) and [Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)](2-) have been computed at the B3P86/LANL2DZ level of theory. Remarkably good agreement with the experimentally determined structures has been obtained by X-ray diffraction methods. The reactivity of [NBu(4)](2)[Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) towards halogens (Cl(2), Br(2), and I(2)) has been investigated by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. The perfluoromethyl derivative 1 has been found to undergo clean oxidative addition of the three halogens under investigation, giving rise to [NBu(4)](2)[trans-Pt(CF(3))(4)X(2)] (X=Cl (7), Br (10), I (13)) in a quantitative and stereoselective way. In the low-temperature reaction of the perfluorophenyl derivative [NBu(4)](2)[Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)] (3) with Cl(2) or Br(2), the corresponding oxidative-addition products [NBu(4)](2)[trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)X(2)] (X=Cl (14), Br (15)) can also be obtained. In the case in which X=Br and working in CHCl(3) at -55 degrees C, it has been possible to detect the formation of an intermediate species to which we assign the formula [trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)Br(ClCHCl(2))](-) (16). The solvento complex 16 is thermally unstable and prone to undergo reductive elimination of C(6)F(5)--C(6)F(5). In the presence of PhCN, complex [NBu(4)][trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)Br(NCPh)] (17) was isolated and structurally characterized. The reaction of 3 with I(2) gave no organoplatinum(IV) compound. Our comparative study reveals that

  4. Trade study of substituting VIIRS M10 with aggregated I3 to enable addition of a water vapor channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Weather Service currently assimilates into its numerical weather prediction models satellite observations from the aging MODIS instruments that track polar winds from motion of both clouds and atmospheric moisture. Next generation weather observations are provided by VIIRS instruments, but VIIRS lacks a water vapor channel at 6.7 μm, allowing for only cloud-tracking of winds. An addition of the 6.7 μm channel to future VIIRS instruments has been proposed. The additional channel could replace a 750-m channel at 1.6 μm (M10) that shares spectral response characteristics with a 375-m channel (I3). M10 data would then be synthesized by the 2-by-2 aggregation of I3 pixels. Radiometric response of such a synthesized channel is very similar to the actual one, although some differences exist. In this study, SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) for the M10 data simulated by the aggregation of the I3 pixels was compared with SNR for the actual M10 data. SNR for the simulated M10 was found to be always lower than SNR for the actual M10. This result contrasts with results of an analogous SNR comparison for bands I2 and M7 that share the same spectral response at 865 nm. Aggregated I2 data have SNR comparable to actual M7 data measured with the low gain, although lower than high-gain M7. The main reason for the different SNR behavior may be the use of microlenses with the I3 and M10 detectors, but not with the I2 and M7 ones.

  5. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  6. Preparation of surface-modified lanthanum fluoride-graphene oxide nanohybrids and evaluation of their tribological properties as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cuizhen; Hou, Xiao; Li, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaohong; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    Oleic acid surface-modified Lanthanum trifluoride-graphene oxide (OA-LaF3-GO) nanohybrids were successfully prepared by surface modification technology. The morphology and phase structure of as-prepared samples were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman spectrometry and thermogravimetry. The results revealed that OA were bonded onto the surface of LaF3-GO nanohybrids. Subsequently, the tribological properties of OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined on a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Tribological results showed that OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids had excellent friction reduction and antiwear ability at the loading of 0.5 wt.% OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids, compared to liquid paraffin alone. The results of energy dispersive spectrometer revealed that improved tribological properties resulted from OA-LaF3-GO could transfer to the rubbed steel surface and decompose to form protective layers, which help to improve tribological properties.

  7. George Washington High School Study. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, David J.

    This study's purpose is to support educational planning and decision-making through systematic evaluation. Staff members of George Washington High School (GW), feeder junior high school staff members and the superintendent of Kanawha County Schools are the main audience. The School Based Evaluation Model provided the conceptual basis for this…

  8. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  9. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  10. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Evaluation of dengue virus strains for human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Mammen, M P; Lyons, A; Innis, B L; Sun, W; McKinney, D; Chung, R C Y; Eckels, K H; Putnak, R; Kanesa-thasan, N; Scherer, J M; Statler, J; Asher, L V; Thomas, S J; Vaughn, D W

    2014-03-14

    Discordance between the measured levels of dengue virus neutralizing antibody and clinical outcomes in the first-ever efficacy study of a dengue tetravalent vaccine (Lancet, Nov 2012) suggests a need to re-evaluate the process of pre-screening dengue vaccine candidates to better predict clinical benefit prior to large-scale vaccine trials. In the absence of a reliable animal model and established correlates of protection for dengue, a human dengue virus challenge model may provide an approach to down-select vaccine candidates based on their ability to reduce risk of illness following dengue virus challenge. We report here the challenge of flavivirus-naïve adults with cell culture-passaged dengue viruses (DENV) in a controlled setting that resulted in uncomplicated dengue fever (DF). This sets the stage for proof-of-concept efficacy studies that allow the evaluation of dengue vaccine candidates in healthy adult volunteers using qualified DENV challenge strains well before they reach field efficacy trials involving children. Fifteen flavivirus-naïve adult volunteers received 1 of 7 DENV challenge strains (n=12) or placebo (n=3). Of the twelve volunteers who received challenge strains, five (two DENV-1 45AZ5 and three DENV-3 CH53489 cl24/28 recipients) developed DF, prospectively defined as ≥2 typical symptoms, ≥48h of sustained fever (>100.4°F) and concurrent viremia. Based on our study and historical data, we conclude that the DENV-1 and DENV-3 strains can be advanced as human challenge strains. Both of the DENV-2 strains and one DENV-4 strain failed to meet the protocol case definition of DF. The other two DENV-4 strains require additional testing as the illness approximated but did not satisfy the case definition of DF. Three volunteers exhibited effusions (1 pleural/ascites, 2 pericardial) and 1 volunteer exhibited features of dengue (rash, lymphadenopathy, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia), though in the absence of fever and symptoms. The occurrence of

  13. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods.

    PubMed

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  14. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  15. Characterization and comparative study of coal combustion residues from a primary and additional flue gas secondary desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, S.; Francois, M.; Evrard, O.; Pellissier, C.

    1998-11-01

    An extensive characterization and comparative study was done on two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residues derived from the same coal. LR residues (originated from Loire/Rhone in the south of Lyon, France) are obtained after a primary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is trapped by reaction with CaO at a temperature of about 1100 C), and LM residues (originating from La Maxe, near Metz in the east of France) are obtained after an additional secondary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is removed further by reaction with Ca(OH){sub 2} at a temperature of about 120 C). Various and complementary investigation methods were used to determine their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties: x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis, granulometric distribution, pycnometric density, BET specific surface area and pH, conductivity measurements, and chemical analysis of their insoluble fraction. The FGD residues contain basically two main components: a silico-aluminous fly ash part and calcic FGD phases. In the LR residues the two components can be considered as independent, whereas they are linked in the LM residues because chemical reactions have occurred, leading to the formation of silico-calcic gel CSH, hydrated aluminate AFm, and AFt phases.

  16. A five-year study of the impact of nitrogen addition on methane uptake in alpine grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ping; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Hu, Yukun; Mohammat, Anwar; Christie, Peter; Liu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition affects soil methane (CH4) uptake in semiarid and arid zones. An in situ field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014 to systematically study the effect of various N application rates (0, 10, 30, and 90 kg N ha−1 yr−1) on CH4 flux in alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. No significant influence of N addition on CH4 uptake was found. Initially the CH4 uptake rate increased with increasing N application rate by up to 11.5% in 2011 and then there was gradual inhibition by 2014. However, the between-year variability in CH4 uptake was very highly significant with average uptake ranging from 52.9 to 106.6 μg C m−2 h−1 and the rate depended largely on seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature. CH4 uptake was positively correlated with soil temperature, air temperature and to a lesser extent with precipitation, and was negatively correlated with soil moisture and NO3−-N content. The results indicate that between-year variability in CH4 uptake was impacted by precipitation and temperature and was not sensitive to elevated N deposition in alpine grassland. PMID:27571892

  17. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  18. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  19. Did the addition of concomitant chemotherapy to radiotherapy improve outcomes in hypopharyngeal cancer? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S.F.; Griffiths, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background For oncologists and for patients, no site-specific clinical trial evidence has emerged for the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy (ccrt) over radiotherapy (rt) alone for cancer of the hypopharynx (hpc) or for other human papilloma virus–negative head-and-neck cancers. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study using administrative data compared treatments over time (1990–2000 vs. 2000–2010), treatment outcomes, and outcomes over time in 1333 cases of hpc diagnosed in Ontario between January 1990 and December 2010. Results The incidence of hpc is declining; the use of ccrt that began in 2001 is increasing; and the 3-year overall survival for all patients remains poor at 34.6%. No difference in overall survival was observed in a comparison of patients treated in the decade before ccrt and of patients treated in the decade during the uptake of ccrt. Conclusions The addition of ccrt to the armamentarium of treatment options for oncologists treating head-and-neck patients did not improve outcomes for hpc at the population level. PMID:27536177

  20. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.