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Sample records for additional studies examining

  1. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  2. Through the lens of the microscope: Examining the addition of traditional and digital microscopes to the study of cell theory in a rural middle school setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Jackie Strum

    2005-07-01

    Situated in the classrooms of three middle school teachers in a rural school system in North Carolina, this study examined the variable of microscope use on three levels---no microscopes, analog microscopes, and digital microscopes---during the unit on cells. The study benefited from the use of two complementary parts---a quasi-experimental quantitative part and a qualitative component. The quantitative component of the study utilized two instruments, the Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) (Moore & Foy, 1997) and a content test developed for this study. Each instrument was administered as a pretest and a posttest to the three groups of students. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted. Results of the ANCOVA on the content test showed that when controlling for the pretest scores, there were no differences between the mean posttest scores of the students. Results of the ANCOVA on the SAI II showed that when controlling for the pretest scores, there was a statistically significant difference (p<.05) among the mean posttest scores. However, Scheffe's Method of Multiple Comparisons revealed no significant differences among the scores of the three groups of students. Descriptive data provided the students' scores disaggregated by gender and by racial identity. The qualitative component utilized classroom observation, teacher interviews, and student interviews as data sources in the three learning environments. Analysis of the data revealed that the students in all three classrooms were engaged in the learning activities and benefited from the learning experiences. However, the students who used the digital microscopes were more engaged than the other groups. These students used technology as a mindtool to help them bridge the concrete experiences to the abstract concepts associated with cell theory. Yet, the teacher who used the digital microscopes missed opportunities for them to use the devices for knowledge construction. Two types of digital

  3. Addition of thymidine to culture media for accurate examination of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Ota, Yusuke; Kasuga, Eriko; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yaguchi, Tomomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing subpopulations of various auxotrophic bacterial strains. Thymidine-dependent SCVs (TD-SCVs) are unable to synthesize thymidine; hence, these variants fail to grow in a medium without thymidine. In this study, we used 10 TD-SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus, of which four strains possessed mecA. We compared the efficacy of a newly modified medium containing thymidine for the detection of TD-SCVs of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to the efficacy of routinely used laboratory media. We observed that none of the 10 TD-SCVs of S. aureus grew in Mueller-Hinton agar, and four TD-SCVs of MRSA failed to grow on all MRSA screening media, except for the ChromID™ MRSA medium. Laboratory tests conducted using medium with thymidine incorporated showed that thymidine did not affect the minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin and cefoxitin for clinical isolates of S. aureus, and was able to detect MRSA, including TD-SCVs. These findings showed that thymidine-incorporated media are able to detect TD-SCVs of MRSA without altering the properties of other clinically isolated MRSA strains.

  4. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  5. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Nothing in this part shall limit in any manner the right of the Finance Board to conduct any examination... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  6. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  7. Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an Additional Social Space in a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…

  8. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus.

  9. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  10. Examination of Calcium Silicate Cements with Low-Viscosity Methyl Cellulose or Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Additive.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshiaki; Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the operability of calcium silicate cements (CSCs) such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. The flow, working time, and setting time of CSCs with different compositions containing low-viscosity methyl cellulose (MC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) additive were examined according to ISO 6876-2012; calcium ion release analysis was also conducted. MTA and low-heat Portland cement (LPC) including 20% fine particle zirconium oxide (ZO group), LPC including zirconium oxide and 2 wt% low-viscosity MC (MC group), and HPC (HPC group) were tested. MC and HPC groups exhibited significantly higher flow values and setting times than other groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, flow values of these groups were higher than the ISO 6876-2012 reference values; furthermore, working times were over 10 min. Calcium ion release was retarded with ZO, MC, and HPC groups compared with MTA. The concentration of calcium ions was decreased by the addition of the MC or HPC group compared with the ZO group. When low-viscosity MC or HPC was added, the composition of CSCs changed, thus fulfilling the requirements for use as root canal sealer. Calcium ion release by CSCs was affected by changing the CSC composition via the addition of MC or HPC.

  11. Examination of Calcium Silicate Cements with Low-Viscosity Methyl Cellulose or Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Additive

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the operability of calcium silicate cements (CSCs) such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. The flow, working time, and setting time of CSCs with different compositions containing low-viscosity methyl cellulose (MC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) additive were examined according to ISO 6876-2012; calcium ion release analysis was also conducted. MTA and low-heat Portland cement (LPC) including 20% fine particle zirconium oxide (ZO group), LPC including zirconium oxide and 2 wt% low-viscosity MC (MC group), and HPC (HPC group) were tested. MC and HPC groups exhibited significantly higher flow values and setting times than other groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, flow values of these groups were higher than the ISO 6876-2012 reference values; furthermore, working times were over 10 min. Calcium ion release was retarded with ZO, MC, and HPC groups compared with MTA. The concentration of calcium ions was decreased by the addition of the MC or HPC group compared with the ZO group. When low-viscosity MC or HPC was added, the composition of CSCs changed, thus fulfilling the requirements for use as root canal sealer. Calcium ion release by CSCs was affected by changing the CSC composition via the addition of MC or HPC. PMID:27981048

  12. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  13. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  14. High School Social Studies Homework: An Examination of Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezios, Melissa Joan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines high school students' perspectives on social studies homework. Specifically, it uses the high school student perspective to determine the types of social studies homework that students perceive most benefit them academically and developmentally. In addition, it examines how homework should be evaluated. Findings are…

  15. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  18. Cystoscopy in cattle--a valuable additional tool for clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Winter, Petra; Baumgartner, W

    2004-01-01

    Based on the findings of physical examination and on laboratory findings the urinary bladder of 23 cows was examined endoscopically in order to investigate the application of cystoscopy in cattle. The endoscopic findings of all examined cows were compared with the findings of physical examination and the results of macroscopic and microscopic urinalysis and the bacteriological culture of the urine. By physical examination only 3 cows were diagnosed to have urinary tract disease, whereas all other cows were suspected of having an urinary tract disease. Bacteriological culture of the urine revealed Corynebacterium renale and Escherichia coli infection in 18 cows, while the remaining 5 cows were negative. By cystoscopy catarrhal cystitis was diagnosed in 2 cases, haemorrhagic cystitis in 5 cases, and fibrinous-purulent and fibrinous-haemorrhagic cystitis in 13 cases. Three cows showed no pathological changes of the urinary bladder mucosa by endoscopic examination. Cystoscopy facilitates diagnosis through the direct visualisation of mucosal lesions and makes it possible to give a more accurate prognosis based upon the findings.

  19. A comparison study of hair examination methodologies.

    PubMed

    Kolowski, Jason C; Petraco, Nicholas; Wallace, Margaret M; De Forest, Peter R; Prinz, Mechthild

    2004-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accuracy between two methods of hair analysis: PCR-STR DNA analysis and microscopic comparison analysis. Standard sets of pubic hairs were collected from volunteers, and unknown sets were generated from these samples. Three out of five (60%) of the hairs analyzed produced full DNA profiles that were correctly matched to the standard sets. DNA analysis was inconclusive (partial or no DNA profile) for two out of five (40%) of the samples. In contrast, the microscopic comparison analysis correctly matched four out of five (80%) of the samples to the standard sets but mis-identified one out of five (20%) of the samples. These results reinforce the practice of preliminary microscopic hair examination in narrowing down a set of hairs for DNA analysis. Microscopic comparison analysis is sufficiently reliable to remain a rapid and inexpensive method for forensic hair analysis.

  20. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  1. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  2. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  3. Examining the association between rumination, negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced auditory serial addition task.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W

    2006-09-01

    The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes.

  4. Study examines sulfate-reducing bacteria activity

    SciTech Connect

    McElhiney, J.E.; Hardy, J.A.; Rizk, T.Y.; Stott, J.F.D.; Eden, R.D.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater injection can reduce the potential of an oil reservoir turning sour because of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) convert sulfate ions in seawater used in waterflooding into sulfide with the concomitant oxidation of a carbon source. A recent study at Capcis investigated the efficiency of SRB under various conditions of sulfate limitation. This study was conducted in a flowing bioreactor at 2,000 psia with different temperature zones (mesophilic 35 C and thermophilic 60--80 C). The study mixed microfloral populations derived from real North Sea-produced fluids, and included an active population of marine methanogenic bacteria present to provide competition for the available carbon sources. In general, results showed that SRB continue to convert sulfate to sulfide in stoichiometric quantities without regard to absolute concentrations. The paper discusses the results and recommends nanofiltration of seawater for ``sweet`` reservoirs.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  6. Examination of the jarosite-alunite precipitate addition in the raw meal for the production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker.

    PubMed

    Katsioti, M; Tsakiridis, P E; Leonardou-Agatzini, S; Oustadakis, P

    2006-04-17

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding a jarosite-alunite chemical precipitate, a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process developed to treat economically low-grade nickel oxides ores, in the raw meal for the production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared, one contained 20% gypsum, as a reference sample ((SAC)Ref) and another with 11.31% jarosite-alunite precipitate ((SAC)J/A). Both raw meals were sintered at 1300 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the jarosite-alunite precipitate did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced sulfoaluminate cement clinker and there was confirmed the formation of the sulfoaluminate phase (C4A3S), the most typical phase of this cement type. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of jarosite-alunite precipitate did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  7. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  8. Using Computers To Write Comprehensive Examinations: A Study of Doctoral Level Examinations in Educational Administration Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fansler, A. Gigi; And Others

    Comprehensive examinations, long a bastion in many doctoral programs, are one of many customs under scrutiny for possible change in a movement towards more authentic means of educational assessment. This preliminary study surveyed chairs of departments of educational administration from universities across the United States to learn how computers…

  9. Examining Undergraduate Agriculture Students' Attitudes and Decisions Regarding Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jodi Loeffelholz

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively market and promote study abroad programs, the reasons for undergraduate students' decisions to or not to study abroad need to be considered. Limited research was found identifying students' reasons for or against studying abroad. This researcher examined the reasons students identified in their decision to or not to study…

  10. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  11. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  12. Examining Teacher Burnout Using Emotional Intelligence Quotients: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern if there are significant differences in a teacher's level of burnout based on his or her emotional intelligence quotient. This quantitative study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, an emotional quotient inventory, and a burnout inventory to find significant relationships between…

  13. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U; Slotwinski, John

    2016-03-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST's experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed.

  14. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  15. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested.

  16. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  17. Two Studies Examining Subconscious Cognitive Processing in Collaboration Technology Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Taylor Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how the usage of collaboration technologies consciously and subconsciously affects both communicators and how they communicate. I present two related studies examining different facets of how the use of collaboration technologies such as email and voicemail influence affective processing in the communicator and…

  18. Examining Elementary Social Studies Marginalization: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Model) was developed to examine the association of teacher/classroom and state level indicators on reported elementary social studies instructional time. Findings indicated that state testing policy was a…

  19. Driver License Examiner Supervisors; Basic Training Program. Trainee Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, John T.; Patton, C. Duane

    This is the third part of a four-part systematized training program intended for driver license examiner supervisors. The purpose of this study guide is to act as a program compendium to aid the trainee in successfully completing the program. The lesson material presented, apart from the introduction, is: orientation to license examiner…

  20. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  1. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  2. A Nonexperimental Study Examining Online Military Learner Satisfaction and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, Cheryl T.

    2011-01-01

    Adult, underserved learners in higher education face many challenges in postsecondary degree attainment. To overcome the obstacles of busy lifestyles, many choose to study in online programs but higher attrition rates are found in distance learning courses, further contributing to national attrition rates. In addition, the adult demographic is so…

  3. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  4. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  5. Examining the English Examination. A Study of the Linguistic Content of ESLAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Eugene V.

    An analysis is presented by the Puerto Rico office of the College Board of the English as a Second Language Achievement Test (ESLAT), which was undertaken to measure the specifications and item content of the examination against the students' performance. The report, based on 400 randomly selected structure items used in one or more versions of…

  6. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  7. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  8. Examining graphene field effect sensors for ferroelectric thin film studies.

    PubMed

    Rajapitamahuni, A; Hoffman, J; Ahn, C H; Hong, X

    2013-09-11

    We examine a prototype graphene field effect sensor for the study of the dielectric constant, pyroelectric coefficient, and ferroelectric polarization of 100-300 nm epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films. Ferroelectric switching induces hysteresis in the resistivity and carrier density of n-layer graphene (n = 1-5) below 100 K, which competes with an antihysteresis behavior activated by the combined effects of electric field and temperature. We also discuss how the polarization asymmetry and interface charge dynamics affect the electronic properties of graphene.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations for the examination of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/ poly α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate under additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanen; Wei, Qinghua; Pan, Feilong; Yang, Mingming; Wei, Shengmin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations emerged to be a helpful tool in the field of material science. In rapid prototyping artificial bone scaffolds process, the binder spraying volume and mechanism are very important for bone scaffolds mechanical properties. In this study, we applied MD simulations to investigating the binding energy of α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) on Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallographic planes (001, 100 and 110), and to calculating and analyzing the mechanical properties and radial distribution function of the HA(110)/NBCA mixed system. The simulation results suggested that HA (110) has the highest binding energy with NBCA owing to the high planar atom density, and the mechanical properties of HA(110)/NBCA mixed system is stronger than pure HA system. Therefore, the multi-grade strength bone scaffold could be fabricated through spraying various volume NBCA binders during 3D printing process. By calculating the radial distribution function of HA(110)/NBCA, the essence of the interface interaction were successfully elucidated. The forming situation parameters can be referred to calculation results. There exists a strong interaction between HA crystallographic plane (110) and NBCA, it is mainly derived from the hydrogen bonds between O atoms which connect with C atoms of NBCA and H atoms in HA crystal. Furthermore, a strong adsorption effect can be demonstrated between HA and NBCA.

  10. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.

  11. A Qualitative Case Study Examining Intervention Tailoring for Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Toobert, Deborah; Smith, Matthew Lee; Osuna, Diego; McKay, James; Villarreal, Edna K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rimer, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore issues of intervention tailoring for ethnic minorities based on information and experiences shared by researchers affiliated with the Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC). Methods A qualitative case study methodology was used with the administration of a survey (n=17 principal investigators) and follow-up telephone interviews. Descriptive and content analyses were conducted, and a synthesis of the findings was developed. Results: A majority of the HMC projects used individual tailoring strategies regardless of the ethnic background of participants. Follow-up interview findings indicated that key considerations in the process of intervention tailoring for minorities included formative research; individually oriented adaptations; and intervention components that were congruent with participants’ demographics, cultural norms, and social context. Conclusions Future research should examine the extent to which culturally tailoring long-term maintenance interventions for ethnic minorities is efficacious and should be pursued as an effective methodology to reduce health disparities. PMID:20604705

  12. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  13. The Lebanese Brevet Chemistry and Physics Examinations: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Jaber, Lama Z.; Rizk, Nadya G.; Bayoud, Jana M.

    2009-01-01

    The high-stakes Lebanese Brevet examinations are undertaken by almost all school students at the end of year 9 and include papers in Chemistry and Physics. This research presents an analysis of the 2007 examinations in these two science subjects using official statistics and response patterns arising from samples of candidate scripts. The…

  14. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Narrigan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  16. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  17. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. Methods To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Results Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China’s road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Conclusion Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China. PMID:27071008

  18. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  19. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  20. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  1. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  2. Examining Scholarship in China's Academe: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung Brian; Chen, Mingxin Luke

    2010-01-01

    We selected five Chinese university-based journals and five Western university-based journals to examine the extent of contributions by editorial board members and faculty from the universities in which the journals are published over a 6-year period from 2001 to 2006. A disproportionate contribution of faculty papers was from editorial board…

  3. Content Validation Studies of the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Hessy L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a curriculum survey of general chemistry courses at the college level and an evaluation survey of the advanced placement chemistry examination. Results indicated that the AP chemistry course should remain broad in coverage and should expand its laboratory component. Analyses also indicated that the AP exam was appropriate and valid.…

  4. [Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations].

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-03-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T1 weighted image (T1WI) and T2 weighted image (T2WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T1WI and T2WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmψ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker.

  5. Preservice Teachers in Secondary Social Studies: Examining Conceptions and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 11 preservice teachers' beliefs and practices about secondary social studies education. Finds that the preservice teachers held positive conceptions about social studies, stressing active learning techniques and knowledge construction. (ACM)

  6. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  7. Academic reflective writing: a study to examine its usefulness.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marion; Addyman, Berni

    Reflection is widely regarded as important for learning from practice in Nursing. Academic reflective writing (ARW) is increasingly being used to assess reflective practice. However, there is currently scant literature on ARW, which is extremely complex, requiring students to link their own experiences to published literature. There are also concerns in the literature about the validity of ARW as a medium of assessment. In this paper, an exploratory discussion on ARW is illustrated with reference to the views of 8 self-selected students on a course for post-registered nurses. These students found ARW extremely challenging, and highlighted a range of difficulties associated with it. In conclusion, it is argued that the student experience of ARW warrants further investigation. In addition, it is suggested that either scaffolding should be put in place to facilitate the production of successful ARW, or alternatives should be explored.

  8. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  9. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  10. Studies Examine Major Influences on Freshmen's Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Three new studies of college freshmen suggest that even the most promising among them can run into academic difficulties as a long-term consequence of experiences like attending a violence-plagued high school or being raised by parents who never went to college. Two of the studies call into question a large body of research on the educational…

  11. Two Studies Examining Argumentation in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Richard; Jones, Sarah; Doherty, John

    2008-01-01

    Asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) would seem to be an ideal medium for supporting development in student argumentation. This paper investigates this assumption through two studies. The first study compared asynchronous CMC with face-to-face discussions. The transactional and strategic level of the argumentation (i.e. measures of…

  12. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  13. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko

  14. Examining the etiology of childhood obesity: The IDEA study.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Leslie A

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is of great public health concern. A social ecological framework that is transdisciplinary and multilevel by nature is recognized as the most promising approach for studying this problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe longitudinal research using a social ecological framework to study the etiology of childhood obesity. Individual and contextual factors are assessed in a cohort of youth and their parents including psychosocial factors, and home, school and neighborhood environments. The conceptual model guiding the research and the study design and measures used to operationalize the factors in the model and the descriptive characteristics of the baseline sample of youth and parents enrolled in the research are presented. The use of a conceptual model to guide the research, a transdisciplinary approach, a longitudinal cohort design and state-of-the-art measures of the individual and the environment are strengths of this research.

  15. Studying a Town with Non-Examination Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard

    1979-01-01

    Describes five successful geography courses centered around local studies for students in the lower ability range. Includes pollution, mapping, traffic surveys of cars and pedestrians, and discovering town trails. Journal available from Longman Group Ltd, Directories and Periodicals Division, 43/45 Annandale Street, Edinburgh EH7 4AT Scotland.…

  16. A misexpression study examining dorsal thorax formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rangel, María Teresa; Rodriguez, Isabel; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan Rafael

    2002-01-01

    We studied thorax formation in Drosophila melanogaster using a misexpression screen with EP lines and thoracic Gal4 drivers that provide a genetically sensitized background. We identified 191 interacting lines showing alterations of thoracic bristles (number and/or location), thorax and scutellum malformations, lethality, or suppression of the thoracic phenotype used in the screen. We analyzed these lines and showed that known genes with different functional roles (selector, prepattern, proneural, cell cycle regulation, lineage restriction, signaling pathways, transcriptional control, and chromatin organization) are among the modifier lines. A few lines have previously been identified in thorax formation, but others, such as chromatin-remodeling complex genes, are novel. However, most of the interacting loci are uncharacterized, providing a wealth of new genetic data. We also describe one such novel line, poco pelo (ppo), where both misexpression and loss-of-function phenotypes are similar: loss of bristles and scutellum malformation. PMID:11901120

  17. Performance of residents using digital images versus glass slides on certification examination in anatomical pathology: a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mirham, Lorna; Naugler, Christopher; Hayes, Malcolm; Ismiil, Nadia; Belisle, Annie; Sade, Shachar; Streutker, Catherine; MacMillan, Christina; Rasty, Golnar; Popovic, Snezana; Joseph, Mariamma; Gabril, Manal; Barnes, Penny; Hegele, Richard G.; Carter, Beverley; Yousef, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is anticipated that many licensing examination centres for pathology will begin fully digitizing the certification examinations. The objective of our study was to test the feasibility of a fully digital examination and to assess the needs, concerns and expectations of pathology residents in moving from a glass slide-based examination to a fully digital examination. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study that compared, after randomization, the performance of senior residents (postgraduate years 4 and 5) in 7 accredited anatomical pathology training programs across Canada on a pathology examination using either glass slides or digital whole-slide scanned images of the slides. The pilot examination was followed by a post-test survey. In addition, pathology residents from all levels of training were invited to participate in an online survey. Results: A total of 100 residents participated in the pilot examination; 49 were given glass slides instead of digital images. We found no significant difference in examination results between the 2 groups of residents (estimated marginal mean 8.23/12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.72-8.87, for glass slides; 7.84/12, 95% CI 7.28-8.41, for digital slides). In the post-test survey, most of the respondents expressed concerns with the digital examination, including slowly functioning software, blurring and poor detail of images, particularly nuclear features. All of the respondents of the general survey (n = 179) agreed that additional training was required if the examination were to become fully digital. Interpretation: Although the performance of residents completing pathology examinations with glass slides was comparable to that of residents using digital images, our study showed that residents were not comfortable with the digital technology, especially given their current level of exposure to it. Additional training may be needed before implementing a fully digital examination, with consideration for a

  18. Randomized crossover trial studying the effect of music on examination anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chen, Chia-Jung; Chang, Hui-Kuan; Peng, Tai-Chu; Chang, Fwu-Mei

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of lento music on examination anxiety among nursing students. A randomized crossover classroom-based trial was conducted. Thirty-eight students with a mean age of 19.4 years (SD = .54) were randomly assigned to either a music/silence or a silence/music group sequence. The students in the music group were given a 40-min group-based music intervention in a classroom, whereas the students in the silence group received the regular test without music. Using paired t-tests, there were no significant different in pretest scores for state anxiety, examination anxiety, finger temperature and pulse rate between the two conditions. Nonetheless, the findings indicated that music intervention did effectively decrease examination anxiety and state anxiety as well as reducing pulse rate and increasing higher finger temperature (p = 0.05 to 0.001). In addition, significant differences were detected between the pretest and posttest measures for silence (p = 0.001). The results suggest that lento music is effective at anxiety reduction. This study provides evidence for nursing faculty and clinical educators to foster nursing students' mastering over the anxiety of examination by using lento music.

  19. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    PubMed

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift.

  20. An action research study on the effect of an examination preparation course on Veterinary Technology National Examination scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Jennifer S.

    The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.

  1. Transition Supports to Students with Mental Retardation: An Examination of Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Woodruff, Nancy; Dixon, April

    2005-01-01

    Effective transition planning is of paramount importance in maximizing post school outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to examine data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study--2 regarding the transition planning for students with mental retardation. In addition, for comparison purposes, data on transition…

  2. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  3. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  4. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  5. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  6. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  7. The use of additive and subtractive approaches to examine the nuclear localization sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the N-terminal (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of VP1 protein was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP1 (full-length VP1) and pSG5 delta 5'VP1 (truncated VP1, lacking amino acids Ala1-Cys11). These constructs were used to transfect COS-7 cells, and expression and intracellular localization of the VP1 protein was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP1 was expressed and localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. These findings were substantiated by an "additive" approach using FITC-labeled conjugates of synthetic peptides homologous to the NLS of VP1 cross-linked to bovine serum albumin or immunoglobulin G. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm of 3T6 cells. The importance of individual amino acids found in the basic sequence (Lys3-Arg-Lys5) of the NLS was also investigated. This was accomplished by synthesizing three additional peptides in which lysine-3 was substituted with threonine, arginine-4 was substituted with threonine, or lysine-5 was substituted with threonine. It was found that lysine-3 was crucial for nuclear transport, since substitution of this amino acid with threonine prevented nuclear localization of the microinjected, FITC-labeled conjugate.

  8. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of a...

  9. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of ...

  10. An fMRI study of magnitude comparison and exact addition in children.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Gatenby, J Christopher; Warton, Christopher; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Gore, John C; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2010-04-01

    By contrast to the adult literature, in which a consistent parietofrontal network for number processing has been identified, the data from studies of number processing in children have been less consistent, probably due to differences in study design and control conditions. Number processing was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 right-handed children (8-12 years) from the Cape Coloured community in Cape Town, South Africa, using Proximity Judgment and Exact Addition (EA) tasks. The findings were consistent with the hypothesis that, as in adults, the anterior horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) plays a major role in the representation and manipulation of quantity in children. The posterior medial frontal cortex, believed to be involved in performance monitoring in more complex arithmetic manipulations in adults, was extensively activated even for relatively simple symbolic number processing in the children. Other areas activated to a greater degree in the children included the left precentral sulcus, which may mediate number knowledge and, for EA, the head of the caudate nucleus, which is part of a fronto-subcortical circuit involved in the behavioral execution of sequences. Two regions that have been linked to number processing in adults - the angular gyrus and posterior superior parietal lobule - were not activated in the children. The data are consistent with the inference that although the functional specialization of the anterior HIPS may increase as symbolic number processing becomes increasingly automatic, this region and other elements of the parietofrontal network identified in adults are already reliably and robustly activated by middle childhood.

  11. Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…

  12. Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes.

    PubMed

    Atroszko, Paweł Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. Methods The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey. Results The test-retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only. Conclusions Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later.

  13. Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes

    PubMed Central

    Atroszko, Paweł Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims “Study addiction” has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. Methods The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey. Results The test–retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only. Conclusions Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later. PMID:27156381

  14. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  15. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  16. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  17. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  18. Zopiclone as positive control in studies examining the residual effects of hypnotic drugs on driving ability.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Spence, D Warren; Shahid, Azmeh; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Roth, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Zopiclone (7.5 mg) is frequently used as a positive control in studies that examine the residual effects of hypnotic drugs on driving ability and related skills. This review summarizes studies examining the effects of zopiclone, and discusses its usefulness as a comparator drug for investigations of residual effects of novel sleep medication. A literature review (Pubmed and Embase) was conducted searching for studies that tested zopiclone on driving. Cross references were checked for additional papers. Eight studies utilizing the standardized on-the-road driving test consistently showed that in the morning following bedtime administration zopiclone (7.5 mg) significantly impaired driving performance. A total of 191 healthy volunteers were tested after placebo and zopiclone (7.5 mg). Meta analyses showed no significant differences in driving performance after zopiclone (7.5 mg) between adult and elderly healthy volunteers. The combined effect size (ES) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for healthy volunteers was 0.782 (0.620, 0.944). Relative to placebo, an average increment of 3.0 cm in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) was observed when treated with zopiclone (7.5 mg). This deviation was higher than the increment in SDLP reported for drivers with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05% (+2.4 cm). Results from driving simulators and psychometric tests are consistent with the on-road driving test results. In conclusion, zopiclone (7.5 mg) is a reliable positive control, that consistently shows significant and meaningful impairment on the on-the-road driving test.

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. Part-whole bias in intertemporal choice: An empirical study of additive assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-12-01

    Additive assumption means the overall value of multiple-dated outcomes is based on a simple aggregation of the values of each individual outcome. This assumption is generally accepted in the field of intertemporal choices. However, recent studies show additive assumption is questionable. In this paper, we experimentally tested the additive property of multiple-dated monetary rewards. Our results show: (1) additive assumption does not hold regardless of gain or loss; (2) the sum of subjective values of individual rewards is consistently larger than the valuation placed on the same rewards as a whole. This finding suggests that part-whole bias exists in the context of valuation of intertemporal monetary rewards.

  5. A Qualitative Examination of the Attitudes of Liberal Studies Markers towards Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    In Hong Kong, onscreen marking (OSM) is superseding paper-based marking (PBM) across the entire national examinations system. This paper describes a qualitative study of the attitudes of Liberal Studies markers towards OSM. This becomes a compulsory subject in Hong Kong's new senior secondary school curriculum to be first examined in 2012, with a…

  6. Perceptions and health beliefs of Greek nursing students about breast self-examination: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Breast self-examination is a screening option for young women. Among students, knowledge about breast self-examination ranges from insufficient to average. This descriptive study was planned in order to determine the health beliefs and perceptions of nursing students regarding breast self-examinations. We recruited 538 nursing students in a single Higher Technological Educational Institute in Greece. Data were collected using the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Parametric tests were used in the data analysis. We found significant differences in the results of the subscales of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale on comparing people with respect to nationality, previous education about breast self-examination, smoking status and semester in which they were studying. The 'confidence' subscale was positively associated with the frequency of breast self-examination. The results of the present study demonstrated that nursing students have knowledge about breast-self examination but inadequate practice.

  7. Examination of participant flow in the CONSORT diagram can improve the understanding of the generalizability of study results.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental principle in research is that the findings of a study can only be generalized to the population from which the sample of the study was drawn. What this population was can be discerned from an examination of the study selection criteria. Additional insights can sometimes be gleaned from the study flowchart or CONSORT diagram, which may show sample attenuation between subject screening and final recruitment. Such sample attenuation, if present, implies further limitation to the generalizability of the study outcomes. Two large, 2-year, randomized controlled maintenance therapy trials are described to illustrate sample attenuation that limits study generalizability, one in the context of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus antidepressant drugs for recurrent major depressive disorder and the other in the context of quetiapine versus placebo for bipolar disorder. Readers therefore need to examine both study selection criteria and the CONSORT diagram in order to better understand the extent to which study results apply to the patients whom they see.

  8. Pilot study examining the efficacy of an electronic intervention to promote HIV medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Claborn, Kasey R; Leffingwell, Thad R; Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Stephens, Johnny R

    2014-01-01

    Widespread dissemination of current interventions designed to improve HIV medication adherence is limited by several barriers, including additional time and expense burdens on the health care systems. Electronic interventions could aid in dissemination of interventions in the clinic setting. This study developed and tested the feasibility and acceptability of a computer-based adaption of an empirically supported face-to-face adherence promotion intervention. HIV-positive individuals (N = 92) on antiretroviral therapy with self-reported adherence <95% were randomized to the electronic intervention + treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU only. Study outcome variables which included treatment self-efficacy and self-reported medication adherence were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Time × condition interaction effects in mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVAs) examined the differences in patterns of change in the outcome variables over time between the two groups. Participants in the electronic intervention condition reported higher levels of self-efficacy to adhere to their medication at follow-up compared to the control condition. Although nonsignificant, levels of adherence tended to improve over time in the intervention condition, while TAU adherence remained constant. This was the first study to investigate a single-session, computer-based adherence intervention. Results suggest that electronic interventions are feasible and this method may be effective at increasing self-efficacy and adherence among patients reporting suboptimal adherence levels.

  9. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  10. Examining sufficiency and equity in the geographic distribution of physicians in Japan: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Koji; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Kunisawa, Susumu; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to longitudinally examine the geographic distribution of physicians in Japan with adjustment for healthcare demand according to changes in population age structure. Methods We examined trends in the number of physicians per 100 000 population in Japan's secondary medical areas (SMAs) from 2000 to 2014. Healthcare demand was adjusted using health expenditure per capita. Trends in the Gini coefficient and the number of SMAs with a low physician supply were analysed. A subgroup analysis was also conducted where SMAs were divided into 4 groups according to urban–rural classification and initial physician supply. Results The time-based changes in the Gini coefficient and the number of SMAs with a low physician supply indicated that the equity in physician distribution had worsened throughout the study period. The number of physicians per 100 000 population had seemingly increased in all groups, with increases of 22.9% and 34.5% in urban groups with higher and lower initial physician supply, respectively. However, after adjusting healthcare demand, physician supply decreased by 1.3% in the former group and increased by 3.5% in the latter group. Decreases were also observed in the rural groups, where the number of physicians decreased by 4.4% in the group with a higher initial physician supply and 7.6% in the group with a lower initial physician supply. Conclusions Although the total number of physicians increased in Japan, demand-adjusted physician supply decreased in recent years in all areas except for urban areas with a lower initial physician supply. In addition, the equity of physician distribution had consistently deteriorated since 2000. The results indicate that failing to adjust healthcare demand will produce misleading results, and that there is a need for major reform of Japan's healthcare system to improve physician distribution. PMID:28292766

  11. Using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores as Additional Predictors of Student Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…

  12. [Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2011-03-01

    Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine published "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2002. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan established "Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Studies" in 2003, and amended the document in 2008. According to the guidelines, Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine revised the "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2010. Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies are discussed.

  13. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. Objective This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. Methods An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter’s Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms “chiropractic,” “chiropractor,” and “spinal manipulation therapy.” Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. Results There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of “stroke” and “vertebral artery dissection” is also minute (0.1%). Conclusions In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated. PMID:27637456

  14. DIETFITS study (diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) - Study design and methods.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michael V; Robinson, Jennifer L; Kirkpatrick, Susan M; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin C; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa C; Trepanowski, John F; Hauser, Michelle E; Hartle, Jennifer C; Cherin, Rise J; King, Abby C; Ioannidis, John P A; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25kg weight loss to ~5kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40kg/m(2) (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study.

  15. Examining the Cultural Competence of Third- and Fourth-Year Nutrition Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Rebekah; Hekmat, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Latifeh

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary Canadian research assessing nutrition students' cultural competence and to identify areas for future education initiatives in dietetic education that could ultimately improve dietitians' cultural competence. A mixed-methods study was conducted using a 24-item questionnaire that was administered to students enrolled in third- and fourth-year undergraduate nutrition classes (n = 133). In total, 115 questionnaires were analyzed for quantitative data, and 109 were analyzed for qualitative data. The students scored an overall medium-high level of cultural competence. Out of the 5 areas examined (skills, attitudes, awareness, desires, knowledge), students' multicultural knowledge scores were the lowest. It was found that a lower number of barriers to learning about other cultures were significantly associated with a higher overall cultural competence score, and taking a course in cultural foods significantly increased the students' knowledge and overall cultural competence (P ≤ 0.05). The qualitative data found that students felt the cultural competence curriculum had gaps and identified several ideas for improvement. In conclusion, this research data provides novel insights into the cultural competence of Canadian dietetic students and additionally supports future research and curriculum development to enhance cultural competence.

  16. An Examination of University Conducting Faculty Members' Score Study Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Springer, D. Gregory; Eubanks, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine university conducting teachers' attitudes about score study, the source materials they used to teach score study, their personal score study practices, and the score study approaches they taught their undergraduate conducting students. Respondents (N = 236) were members of the College Band Directors…

  17. Nondestructive and Destructive Examination Studies on Removed-from-Service Control Rod Drive Mechanism Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Seffens, Rob J.; Schuster, George J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Harris, Robert V.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2007-06-07

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objectives of this work are to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. Two CRDM assemblies were removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE and destructive examination (DE) measurements; this report addresses the following questions: 1) What did each NDE technique detect? 2) What did each NDE technique miss? 3) How accurately did each NDE technique characterize the detected flaws? 4) Why did the NDE techniques perform or not perform? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. This report focuses on a CRDM assembly that contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data and through-wall leakage. The NDE measurements used to examine the CRDM assembly followed standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. These techniques included eddy current testing (ET), time-of-flight diffraction ultrasound, and penetrant testing. In addition, laboratory-based NDE methods were employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assembly with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. These techniques included volumetric ultrasonic inspection of the J-groove weld metal and visual testing via replicant material of the J-groove weld. The results from these NDE studies were used to

  18. An Examination of Oregon Writing Project Teachers: A Qualitative Study of Professional Development Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obery, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the influence of the 2011 Oregon Writing Project (OWP) Summer Institute (SI) on the professional development of six teachers in the following ways: 1. The development of case descriptions of teachers' personal and professional backgrounds relevant to their teaching of writing. 2. An examination of the effects of the…

  19. Study Guide for the Regents External Degree Examination in Health Support--Area II (4 Credits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Regents External Degree Program.

    A study guide for the Health Support Area II examination of the University of the State of New York Regents External Degree Program is presented. The examination tests the use of the nursing process to support the health of the client at risk for major health problems throughout the life cycle. Emphasis is placed on nursing actions related to…

  20. A Two-Study Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Production Deviance and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Hunter, Emily M.; Whitten, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Building on the spillover and crossover literatures of work-family conflict and the theoretical framework of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989) we examine the effects of conflict on production deviance. Using a two-study constructive replication and extension design, we examine how partner work-to-family conflict contributes to job…

  1. A Comparative Study Examining Academic Cohorts with Transnational Migratory Intentions towards Canada and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…

  2. Impact of Breast Self-Examination Planned Educational Messages on Social Network Communications: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravell, Joanne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the effect of college women's participation in a breast self-examination (BSE) educational program on discussion of BSE with specific members of their social network. Also, the characteristics of college women who did report discussion with others were investigated as was the relationship between this discussion and the…

  3. Multiple Integrated Examinations: An Observational Study of Different Academic Curricula Based on a Business Administration Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardolino, Piermatteo; Noventa, Stefano; Formicuzzi, Maddalena; Cubico, Serena; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An observational study has been carried out to analyse differences in performance between students of different undergraduate curricula in the same written business administration examination, focusing particularly on possible effects of "integrated" or "multi-modular" examinations, a recently widespread format in Italian…

  4. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  5. Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

    1986-12-01

    Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners.

  6. Study raises questions about measurement of 'additionality,'or maintaining domestic health spending amid foreign donations.

    PubMed

    Garg, Charu C; Evans, David B; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Izazola-Licea, José-Antonio; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Ejeder, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2012-02-01

    Donor nations and philanthropic organizations increasingly require that funds provided for a specific health priority such as HIV should supplement domestic spending on that priority-a concept known as "additionality." We investigated the "additionality" concept using data from Honduras, Rwanda, and Thailand, and we found that the three countries increased funding for HIV in response to increased donor funding. In contrast, the study revealed that donors, faced with increased Global Fund resources for HIV in certain countries, tended to decrease their funding for HIV or shift funds for use in non-HIV health areas. More broadly, we found many problems in the measurement and interpretation of additionality. These findings suggest that it would be preferable for donors and countries to agree on how best to use available domestic and external funds to improve population health, and to develop better means of tracking outcomes, than to try to develop more sophisticated methods to track additionality.

  7. [Bootstrap method-based estimation on the confidence interval for additive interaction in cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-ren; Chen, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Interaction assessment is an important step in epidemiological analysis. When etiological study is carried out, the logarithmic models such as logistic model or Cox proportional hazard model are commonly used to estimate the independent effects of the risk factors. However, estimating interaction between risk factors by the regression coefficient of the product term is on multiplicative scale, and for public-health purposes, it is supposed to be on additive scale or departure from additivity. This paper illustrates with a example of cohort study by fitting Cox proportional hazard model to estimate three measures for additive interaction which presented by Rothman. Adopting the S-Plus application with a built-in Bootstrap function, it is convenient to estimate the confidence interval for additive interaction. Furthermore, this method can avoid the exaggerated estimation by using ORs in a cohort study to gain better precision. When using the complex combination models between additive interaction and multiplicative interaction, it is reasonable to choose the former one when the result is inconsistent.

  8. Effects of a Smartphone Application on Breast Self-Examination: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaesung; Chun, Mison; Lee, Ki Young; Oh, Young-Taek; Noh, O Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to develop a smartphone application to encourage breast self-examination (BSE), and to evaluate the effects of this application in terms of modifying BSE behavior. Methods A smartphone application, based on the Android OS, was developed with functions including a BSE date alarm, a reminder to encourage mother and daughter to practice BSE together, record keeping, and educational content with video clips. Females aged 19 and over were enrolled to evaluate the effectiveness of the application. Two series of questionnaires were carried out (before and after use of the application) by e-mail, telephone, and face-to-face interviews between July and September 2012. Results Forty-five subjects were enrolled in the study (age 29.5-5.9 years). Of the participants, only 28 (62.2%) had ever practiced BSE and only one of these (2.2%) was carried out at the appropriate time, based on the results of the baseline survey. After using the application, the number of participants practicing BSE increased from 28 to 32 (62.2% to 71.1%, p = 0.503). In subgroup analysis (age < 30 years), the number of participants using BSE increased from 8 to 18 (36.4% to 81.8%, p = 0.002), and the number of those using it at the appropriate time rose from 1 to 15 (2.2% to 33.3%, p < 0.001). Conclusions The use of the developed smartphone application increased BSE in females younger than 30 years. To confirm the long-term benefits of the mobile application, additional studies must be carried out. PMID:24523989

  9. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  10. Comparative study of electrolyte additives using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Aiken, C. P.; Ye, Hui; VanElzen, Collette M.; Jain, Gaurav; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of various electrolyte additives and additive combinations added to a 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte on the positive and negative electrodes surface of 1 year old wound LiCoO2/graphite cells and Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2])O2/graphite cells was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetric cells. The additives tested were: vinylene carbonate (VC), trimethoxyboroxine (TMOBX), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and H2O alone or in combination. In general, compared to control electrolyte, the additives tested reduced the impedance of the positive electrode and increased the impedance of the negative electrode with the exception of LiTFSI in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite wound cells. Higher charge voltage led to higher positive electrode impedance, with the exception of 2%VC + 2% FEC, and 2% LiTFSI. In some cases, some additives when mixed with another controlled the formation of the SEI at one electrode, and shared the formation of the SEI at one electrode when mixed with a different additive.

  11. Examining Technology Perception of Social Studies Teachers with Rogers' Diffusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Özkan; Koçoglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Mobile learning has started to take place in education literature with the developing technology, and this technology started to have an increasing spread along with its advantages. This study examines the responses of social studies teachers to the innovations in the field of mobile learning. The study was designed within the framework of theory…

  12. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  13. An Examination of Leadership Styles in Implementing Instructional Technology: A Case Study to Examine the Elementary School Principal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Technology is a powerful tool with incredible potential for altering established forms of pedagogy. The school principal is the key factor affecting the successful integration of technology. The purpose of this study was to identify the leadership styles practiced by school principals who are implementing instructional technology in their…

  14. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  15. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  16. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  17. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Dawson, Deirdre R.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Butters, Meryl A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S.; Becker, James T.; Holm, Margo B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Design Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study Setting Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health center Participants Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than 5 days were excluded. Intervention Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30–40 minutes daily, 5 days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures We assessed feasibility through participants’ recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants’ comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants’ satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Results Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at 6 months [M(SE)=117 (3)] than attention control participants [M(SE)=96 (14); t8=7.87, p=.02]. Conclusions It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability. PMID:24113727

  18. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  19. Neurological Examination of the Upper Limb: A Study of Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Jørgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We have previously demonstrated that neurological individual findings and patterns can be reliably assessed in the examination of the upper limb and also that they are related to pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. This study aimed to study further aspects of the construct validity of the neurological examination. Methods: Blinded to patient-characteristics, two examiners assessed the function of 16 muscles, the sensibility in 7 territories, and the nerve-mechanosensitivity at 20 locations in 82 upper limbs. Based on anatomical patterns and pre-designed algorithms, one or both examiners rated neuropathy as “possible” or “definite” in 40 limbs and also determined the location( s). We developed and tested hypotheses on anatomically and regionally related locations of nerve afflictions (a selective vulnerability of neurons, double and multiple crush, and a tendency to regional spread) and examined the stability of the internal structure of the constructs in different situations. The interrelations of findings were analyzed by hypothesis testing and factor analyses, and the homogeneity of location profiles was analyzed by a conditional likelihood test. Results: Out of 30 limbs with related locations of neuropathy, the findings of each examiner correlated positively (gamma > 0.35) in 22/25, respectively. The patterns of the interrelations identified by the two examiners were similar, with no evidence of any heterogeneity of location profiles for either examiner. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of the physical examination. However, feasibility of its application requires the demonstration of further aspects of construct validity and a favorable influence on patient-management and/or prevention. PMID:20148172

  20. Oxidative addition of methane and benzene C--H bonds to rhodium center: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhu, Shufen

    2006-11-01

    A density functional theory study on mechanisms of the oxidative addition of methane and benzene C-H bonds to the rhodium center containing Cp and PMe 3 ligands has been performed. Our calculated results confirm that the C-H bond cleavage from a sigma complex to a hydride alkyl complex is the rate-determining step. Compared with the case of methane C-H bond, the oxidative addition of benzene C-H bond is more favorable kinetically and thermodynamically. Stronger backdonation from metal center to the σ ∗ antibonding orbital of benzene C-H bond is responsible for the observations.

  1. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  2. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  3. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  4. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  5. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  6. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Spray Dam, Eden, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1981-01-30

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Spray Dam near Eden, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 10 ft., was built in 1898 for hydroelectric power generation with one of 2 installed units currently operating. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is possible and that the economics of retrofits will depend on whether existing equipment can be repaired or will have to be replaced. (LCL)

  7. Pilot Fullerton examines SE-81-8 Insect Flight Motion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton examines Student Experiment 81-8 (SE-81-8) Insect Flight Motion Study taped to the airlock on aft middeck. Todd Nelson, a high school senior from Minnesota, won a national contest to fly his experiment on this particular flight. Moths, flies, and bees were studied in the near weightless environment.

  8. Examining the Role of Gender Studies in the Teaching of Talmudic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the application of a recent interpretive trend in the field of gender studies to the study of Talmudic texts as well as its potential role in the teaching of Talmudic literature. It explores what kind of contribution we can make to our students' education in seminaries and Jewish Day schools when we open our texts up to…

  9. Examining the Organizational Cynicism among Teachers at Schools: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levent, Faruk; Keser, Sitar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the organizational cynicism among teachers at schools. In this study, which was conducted by a mixed method, "the Organizational Cynicism Scale for Teachers" was used in the quantitative dimension, while a semi-structured interviewing technique was used in the qualitative dimension. The…

  10. A Semester Late: A Phenomenological Study Examining the Experiences of Spring Admits in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Francis, Chrissy

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of new college students begin their higher education careers outside of the traditional fall start date (National Student Clearinghouse, 2012). This study examines the social, personal, and academic experiences of spring admits at a large, private research institution in the western United States. In this study, a spring admit is…

  11. Block Scheduling and the End of Course Examination Program (ECOEP): A South Carolina Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Nanci Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This causal-comparative study investigates the differences in the End of Course Examination Program (EOCEP) test scores of ninth grade students in English I and Algebra I/Math for the technologies, as influenced by schedules used in South Carolina public high schools during the 2005-2006 academic year. Framing this study is the previous…

  12. Summer Study-Abroad Program as Experiential Learning: Examining Similarities and Differences in International Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Garland, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the study-abroad experience enhances intercultural communication competence. This study used Bennett's (1986, 1993) model of ethnorelative typology of acceptance, adaptation, and integration to explore intercultural communication competency. Central to intercultural communication competency is intercultural sensitivity and…

  13. A Statewide Study of Academic Variables Affecting Performance of Baccalaureate Nursing Graduates on Licensure Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Eleanor; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study validated findings from two previous studies investigating the relationships between admission selection variables and achievement in baccalaureate nursing programs and performance on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Results suggest that students' prenursing grade point average and American…

  14. Using a University-Wide Syllabus Study to Examine Learning Outcomes and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham-McLain, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    This cross-disciplinary study examined syllabus quality (n = 280) and the connection of learning outcomes to the Dimensions of a Duquesne Education for two purposes: informing instructional development and writing an accreditation self-study. Three researchers coded the syllabi for learning outcomes, assessment, and the presence of these…

  15. Examining College Students' Culture Learning before and after Summer Study Abroad in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Anzai, Shinobu; Zimmerman, Erica

    2011-01-01

    With study abroad becoming an integral part of the American higher-education curriculum, home-institution instructors face the challenge of understanding the type and content of learning taking place abroad. We report on a study conducted at a service academy on the U.S. East Coast to examine American college students' cultural learning in the…

  16. Examining Teachers' Understanding of the Mathematical Learning Progression through Vertical Articulation during Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines elementary- and middle-grade teachers' understanding of the mathematical learning progression as they participated in a 6-month professional learning project. Teachers participated in a professional development project that consisted of a 1-week summer content-focused institute with school-based follow-up Lesson Study cycles in…

  17. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  18. A kinetic study of struvite precipitation recycling technology with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongtai; Ren, Hongqiang; Wang, Yanru; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jingji; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Struvite precipitation recycling technology is received wide attention in removal ammonium and phosphate out of wastewater. While past study focused on process efficiency, and less on kinetics. The kinetic study is essential for the design and optimization in the application of struvite precipitation recycling technology. The kinetics of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition were studied by thermogravimetry analysis with three rates (5, 10, 20 °C/min), using Friedman method and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method, respectively. Degradation process of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was three steps. The stripping of ammonia from struvite was mainly occurred at the first step. In the first step, the activation energy was about 70 kJ/mol, which has gradually declined as the reaction progress. By model fitting studies, the proper mechanism function for struvite decomposition process with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was revealed. The mechanism function was f(α)=α(α)-(1-α)(n), a Prout-Tompkins nth order (Bna) model.

  19. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adolescents – study design of a feasibility study concerning examination related emotions].

    PubMed

    Jaite, Charlotte; Bachmann, Christian; Dewey, Marc; Weschke, Bernhard; Spors, Birgit; von Moers, Arpad; Napp, Adriane; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Numerous research centres apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for research purposes in children. In view of this practical research, ethical concerns regarding the strains the study participants are exposed to during the MRI examination are discussed. The study evaluates whether an MRI examination induces negative emotions in children and adolescents which are more intense than the ones caused by electroencephalography (EEG), an examination method currently classified as causing "minimal stress." Furthermore, the emotional stress induced by the MRI examination in children and adolescents is compared with that induced in adults. The study gathers data on examination-related emotions in children (age 8-17;11, male and female) who undergo an MRI examination of the cerebrum with a medical indication. The comparison group is a sample of children and adolescents examined with EEG (age 8-17;11, male and female) as well as a sample of adults (age 18-65, male and female) examined with MRI. At present, the study is in the stage of data collection. This article presents the study design of the MRI research project.

  20. Comparative study between physical examination, electroneuromyography and ultrasonography in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Filho, Arnaldo Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Bruno Fajardo; Amorim, Marcelo de Carvalho; Naus, Ronald Alan Sauaia; Loures, Elmano de Araújo; Moratelli, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of electromyography and ultrasonography in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), in comparison with physical examination, which is considered to be the gold standard. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the medical files of 56 patients with 70 hands affected by CTS who were attended between March 2010 and June 2012 were reviewed. The study included patients with a clinical diagnosis of CTS. The sensitivity of the complementary examinations was analyzed and compared with physical examination. Results Nocturnal symptoms were found in 96.4%, thenar atrophy in 62.5% and abnormal sense of touch in 50%. The sensitivities found were: ultrasonography, 67.1% (95% CI: 55.7%–78.6%); an association of physical examination tests, 95.7% (95% CI: 90.0%–100%); and electromyography, 98.6% (95% CI: 95.7%–100%). The presence of atrophy, abnormalities of the sense of touch and longer-duration symptoms increased the sensitivity of ultrasonography and physical examination. Conclusion The sensitivity of ultrasonography for CTS was lower than that of electromyography and physical examination. PMID:26229843

  1. The role of physical examination in diagnosing common causes of vaginitis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rameet H; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Brown, Kathryn M; Madden, Tessa; Gaydos, Charlotte; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated agreement in diagnoses for bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) between clinicians examining the patient and performing diagnostic tests versus a clinician with access only to the patient’s history and diagnostic findings from self-obtained vaginal swabs (SOVS). Design Women presenting with vaginal discharge to a sexually transmitted infections clinic provided SOVS for evaluation and completed the study and qualitative questionnaires. A clinician then obtained a history and performed speculum and bimanual examinations. Participants’ history and diagnostic test results from SOVS were provided to a masked non-examining clinician who rendered independent diagnoses. Overall agreement in diagnoses and κ statistics was calculated. Results The prevalence of infections among the 197 participants was 63.4% (BV), 19% (TV) and 14% (VVC). The per cent agreement between the examining and non-examining clinician for the diagnoses of BV was 68.5%, 90.9% for TV and 91.9% for VVC. Of the 105 women diagnosed with BV by the examining clinician, 34 (32%) were missed by the non-examining clinician. The non-examining clinician missed 13 (48%) of 27 women and 12 (34%) of 35 women treated for VVC and TV, respectively. Four women who all presented with abdominal pain were diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions Tests from SOVS and history alone cannot be used to adequately diagnose BV, TV and VVC in women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge. Cost benefits from eliminating the speculum examination and using only tests from SOVS may be negated by long-term costs of mistreatment. PMID:23019659

  2. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  3. Self examination of the breast: is it beneficial? Meta-analysis of studies investigating breast self examination and extent of disease in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D.; White, V.; Jolley, D.; Mapperson, K.

    1988-01-01

    The question whether the aggregated published research suggests that breast self examination is beneficial was explored in a meta-analysis of 12 studies including a total of 8118 patients with breast cancer that related the practice of breast self examination to regional lymph node state or tumour diameter. Based on the six studies for which data were available, 39% of patients (1115/2852) who reported having done breast self examination at least once before their illness had evidence of cancer in the lymph nodes compared with 50% of women (1348/2713) who had not done the examination. Logistic regression analysis showed this difference to be significant (odds ratio 0.66, confidence interval 0.59 to 0.74). Combining six studies which reported the circumstances of detection disclosed that 42% of women (272/652) who found their tumour while doing breast self examination had evidence of cancer in the nodes compared with 46% of women (871/1901) who found the tumour accidentally; this difference was not significant. Analysis of eight studies which used the diameter of the tumour to indicate the extent of disease tended to confirm the findings on lymph node state, in particular the benefit of premorbid breast self examination. Significantly fewer women who had practised the examination before the illness (56%; 1205/2137) had tumours of 2 cm or more diameter compared with women who had not practised the examination (66%; 1500/2260). The combined odds ratio for that analysis was 0.56, confidence interval 0.38 to 0.81. These findings appear to be good evidence of the benefit of encouraging women to practise self examination of the breasts regularly. PMID:3416148

  4. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  5. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  6. TEM and HRTEM studies of ball milled 6061 aluminium alloy powder with Zr addition.

    PubMed

    Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L; Dutkiewicz, J; Maziarz, W; Rogal, Ł

    2010-03-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying on the microstructure of atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with a zirconium addition was studied in the work. The atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with addition of 2 wt.% Zr were milled in a planetary ball mill and investigated using X-ray diffraction measurements, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. An increase of stresses was observed in milled powders after the refinement of crystallites beyond 100 nm. In the powder with zirconium addition, some part of the Zr atoms diffused in aluminium forming a solid solution containing up to 0.5 wt.% Zr. The remaining was found to form Zr-rich particles containing up to 88 wt.% Zr and were identified as face centred cubic (fcc) phase with lattice constant a= 0.48 nm. That fcc phase partially transformed into the L1(2) ordered phase. Eighty-hour milling brought an increase of microhardness (measured with Vickers method) from about 50 HV (168 MPa) for the initial 6061 powder to about 170 HV (552 MPa). The addition of zirconium had no influence on the microhardness.

  7. Hallux valgus: comparative study between two surgical techniques of proximal addition osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro; de Araujo, Bruno Vierno; Franco, Nelson; Hita, Roberto Minoru

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clinically and radiographically compare the results of treatment of hallux valgus, by two addition osteotomy techniques: one using resected exostosis, and the other using a plate fixation for addition wedge. METHODS: We evaluated 24 feet of 19 patients, mean age 51.3 years, affected by hallux valgus, with a mean follow-up of 50.1 months. 13 feet underwent addition osteotomy with resected exostosis (AORE) and 11 patients (11 feet) underwent addition osteotomy with plate (AOP). The AOFAS score, intermetatarsal 1 and 2 angles, and hallux valgus angle were evaluated before and after surgery. RESULTS: In the AORE technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 46.6, with IMA 14o and HVA 32o, while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 81.3, with IMA 9o and HVA 25o, and 92.3% satisfactory results. In the AOP technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 42.1, with IMA 15o and HVA 29o while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 77.4, with IMA 11o and HVA 23o and 81.8% of satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques proved to be effective in the treatment of hallux valgus, both clinically and radiografically, with no statistical difference between them. Level of evidence III, Retrospective comparative study. PMID:24453631

  8. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2016-07-19

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  9. Examining the link between traumatic events and delinquency among juvenile delinquent girls: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marsiglio, Mary C; Chronister, Krista M; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have postulated associations between childhood trauma and delinquency, but few have examined the direction of these relationships prospectively and, specifically, with samples of delinquent girls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between traumatic events and delinquency for girls in the juvenile justice system using a cross-lagged model. Developmental differences in associations as a function of high school entry status were also examined. The sample included 166 girls in the juvenile justice system who were mandated to community-based out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency. Overall, study results provide evidence that trauma and delinquency risk pathways vary according to high school entry status. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  10. Examining the link between traumatic events and delinquency among juvenile delinquent girls: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglio, Mary C.; Chronister, Krista M.; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have postulated associations between childhood trauma and delinquency, but few have examined the direction of these relationships prospectively and, specifically, with samples of delinquent girls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between traumatic events and delinquency for girls in the juvenile justice system using a cross-lagged model. Developmental differences in associations as a function of high school entry status were also examined. The sample included 166 girls in the juvenile justice system who were mandated to community-based out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency. Overall, study results provide evidence that trauma and delinquency risk pathways vary according to high school entry status. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25580179

  11. Programs of Study: A Cross-Study Examination of Programs in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam; Shumer, Robert; Stipanovic, Natalie; Murphy, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Center on Career and Technical Education has supported four studies on one of the major components of Perkins legislation: programs of study. In this article, we present qualitative data linking the research center's longitudinal projects based on programs of study, via a one-time cross-case study of sites deemed highly…

  12. Effective radiation doses of CT examinations in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Minami, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Chida, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to estimate the effective radiation doses from CT examinations of both adults and children in Japan and to study the impact of various scan parameters on the effective doses. Methods: A questionnaire, which contained detailed questions on the CT scan parameters employed, was distributed to 3000 facilities throughout Japan. For each scanner protocol, the effective doses for head (non-helical and helical), chest and upper abdomen acquisitions were estimated using ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator software v. 1.0.4 (St George's Hospital, London, UK). Results: The mean effective doses for chest and abdominal examinations using 80–110 kV were significantly lower than those using 120 kV. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean effective doses for head scans between facilities employing 80–110 kV and 120 kV. In chest and abdominal examinations, the mean effective doses using CT scanners from Western manufacturers [Siemens (Forchheim, Germany), Philips (Eindhoven, Netherlands) and GE Medical Systems (Milwaukee, WI)] were significantly lower than those of examinations using Japanese scanners [Hitachi (Kashiwa, Japan) and Toshiba (Otawara, Tochigi, Japan)], except for in paediatric chest examinations. Conclusion: The mean effective doses for adult head, chest and abdominal CT examinations were 2.9, 7.7 and 10.0 mSv, respectively, whereas the corresponding mean effective doses for paediatric examinations were 2.6, 7.1 and 7.7 mSv, respectively. Advances in knowledge: Facilities using CT scanners by Western manufacturers commonly adopt low-tube-voltage techniques, and low-tube-voltage CT may be useful for reducing the radiation doses to the patients, particularly for the body region. PMID:26647804

  13. A Content Analysis of the TEFL M.A. Entrance Examinations (Case Study: Majors Courses)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Heydari Tabrizi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The MA Entrance Examinations (MAEE) held in Iran since 1990 are frequently criticized as being invalid, unstandardized exams with lots of problem in terms of principles of testing in general and test construction in particular (for instance, Jafarpur, 1996). To make sound judgments about such objections, the present study dealt with a content…

  14. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  15. Markers' Perceptions regarding the Onscreen Marking of Liberal Studies in the Hong Kong Public Examination System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David; Yeung, Sau-chu Alison

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the move from paper-based marking (PBM) to onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong for the subject Liberal Studies--whose objectives involve broadening students' horizons through critical examination of current issues. While currently a small candidature subject of approximately 3300, from 2009, the subject will become compulsory…

  16. Entrepreneurial Educators: A Narrative Study Examining Entrepreneurial Educators in Launching Innovative Practices for K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the entrepreneurial orientation reflected in the experiences of seasoned entrepreneurial educators as they reflect on the development of their innovative practices. The researcher used the Entrepreneurial Orientation of Lumpkin and Dess (1996) as a theoretical lens to accompany interpretive research…

  17. An Exploratory Study Examining the Spatial Dynamics of Illicit Drug Availability and Rates of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Treno, Andrew J.; Lascala, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the spatial relationship between drug availability and rates of drug use in neighborhood areas. Responses from 16,083 individuals were analyzed at the zip code level (n = 158) and analyses were conducted separately for youth and adults using spatial regression techniques. The dependent variable is the percentage of respondents…

  18. The 1983 National Teacher Examinations Core Battery Louisiana Validation Study: Final Report. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvue, Robert; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery for use in teacher certification in Louisiana. This information was produced to assist in the recommendation and establishment of a required score on the NTE. The jury judgment approach was used. Panels of faculty members were drawn from…

  19. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  20. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  1. Examining Student Writing Proficiencies across Genres: Results of an Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the patterns of growth across both taught and untaught genres of writing for deaf and hard of hearing students in grades 4-6. Twenty-three students were exposed to Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) for 5 weeks, during which time they received guided, interactive instruction focused on how writers address…

  2. Cultural Intelligence: An Examination of Predictive Relationships in a Study Abroad Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Bryan James

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationships between cultural intelligence (CQ) and four predictor variables: gender, degree level, major, and prior travel abroad, through a post-test only research design. Participants included undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in one of three large, public, research universities in the southeast…

  3. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  4. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

  5. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library…

  6. Assessment of Morale in Further Education Students Studying for A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigley, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study of psychological morale in further education students. Success in A-level examinations is dependant on a number of factors, not only intellectual ability but also morale and other personality factors. This investigation aimed to assess the influence of these factors in the 16-18 years age range.…

  7. An Examination of the Adjustment Journey of International Students Studying in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouropoulos, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined at two Australian university campuses the types of problems that prompt international students to seek counselling services. The concerns reported by ninety students fell within three broad categories; adjustment issues, academic concerns and psychosocial problems. Follow-up interviews with a subset of these students (21) were…

  8. An Examination of the Fostering and Display of Historical Empathy in One Secondary Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined the place that perspective recognition and care as components of historical empathy occupy in one history teacher's purpose, instruction, and students' response. Abigail, a high school history teacher, and four tenth grade students from one section of her Advanced Placement European History course participated in this…

  9. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Early Childhood Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Case Study Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alison; McFarland, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three primary teacher education students participating in early childhood-focused community play sessions, as well as their perceptions of early childhood and primary philosophy and pedagogy. The purpose was to explore perceived differences in primary and early childhood pre-service teacher courses, which may…

  10. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  11. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  12. Examining Perspectives of Entry-Level Teacher Candidates: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    This study examines entry-level teacher candidates on career choice, professional goals and view on a teacher's role. The candidates were enrolled in two elementary teacher education programs in the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. A total of 66 participants responded in writing to three questions about why they decided…

  13. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  14. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  15. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  16. A study of perianesthesia nursing practice: the foundation for newly revised CPAN and CAPA certification examinations.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, B S; Muenzen, P

    2001-06-01

    The CPAN and CAPA nursing certification programs, sponsored by ABPANC, are designed to promote and enhance the quality of care delivered to patients who have received anesthesia. This article describes ABPANC's most recent Role Delineation Study (RDS), also called the Study of Practice. The work of a think tank that convened to reconceptualize the organizing framework for the certification examination programs is described, including the results of an environmental analysis. A variety of methods were used to conduct the study. As a result of study findings, the CPAN and CAPA programs have been redesigned to focus on the physiological, behavioral and cognitive, safety, and advocacy needs of perianesthesia patients. Those needs and the knowledge base that is required of perianesthesia nurses to meet those needs are defined. The first CPAN and CAPA examinations using the new framework will be given November 3, 2001.

  17. [The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination. Study of interobserver reliability].

    PubMed

    Llinàs, J; Vilalta, J; López Pousa, S; Vidal, C; Amiel, J

    1990-04-01

    Three teams formed by psychologists with experience in the administration of structured interviews evaluated by the CAMDEX (The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination) in a sample of 41 patients for the interrater reliability study. While a psychologist interview patient, the other one observes each patient. The CAMDEX were completed independently by each of the examiners. The results demonstrate an elevated level agreement both for the different scales (p less than 0.001) and for the different diagnostic criteria employed by the CAMDEX (kappa = 0.88 for the DSM-III-R and Kappa = 1 for the ICD-10).

  18. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; ...

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  19. Clinical neurological examination vs electrophysiological studies: Reflections from experiences in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-06-26

    Seventy-five percent of upper limb disorders that are related to work are regarded as diagnostically unclassifiable and therefore challenging to the clinician. Therefore it has been generally less successfully to prevent and treat these common and frequently disabling disorders. To reach a diagnosis requires the identification of the responsible pathology and the involved tissues and structures. Consequently, improved diagnostic approaches are needed. This editorial discusses the potentials of using the clinical neurologic examination in patients with upper limb complaints related to work. It is argued that a simple but systematic physical approach permits the examiner to frequently identify patterns of neurological findings that suggest nerve afflictions and their locations, and that electrophysiological studies are less likely to identify pathology. A diagnostic algorithm for the physical assessment is provided to assist the clinician. Failure to include representative neurological items in the physical examination may result in patients being misinterpreted, misdiagnosed and mistreated.

  20. Couples Counseling in Alzheimer’s Disease: Additional Clinical Findings from a Novel Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    AUCLAIR, URSULA; EPSTEIN, CYNTHIA; MITTELMAN, MARY

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the clinical findings of a study designed to assess the benefit of counseling for couples, one of whom is in the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported our findings based on the first 12 couples that enrolled in the study. Based on the treatment of 30 additional couples, we have refined our treatment strategy to include concepts of Gestalt Therapy and Transactional Analysis and identified prevalent issues of concern to this cohort. The study design has remained as described in the earlier article (Epstein et al., 2006), and has proven to be appropriate to meet the goals of this intervention as indicated by our clinical experience and feedback from the participating couples. Case vignettes demonstrate how to conduct the sessions so that the experience of each member of the dyad is validated, while acknowledging the differential impact of the disease on them. PMID:19865591

  1. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  2. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  3. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV).

  4. Self-reported study habits for enhancing medical students’ performance in the National Medical Unified Examination

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd. Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. Objective: To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. Methods: First through 3rd year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Results: Significantly higher score was associated with >15 study h/day and allocating 1–40% of study time for practicing questions. Mean NMUE score was not significantly different in relation to preparation months for examination or for those who reported spending all their time studying alone compared with spending any amount of time in a group setting. Scores of 231–240 on the Syrian scientific high school exam correlated with significantly higher NMUE performance compared with fewer scores, except scores of 221–230. For every 10 point increase in medical school cumulative grades, the NMUE score increased 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5–4.8). Conclusion: The NMUE score was significantly affected by hours spent studying per day, number of practice questions completed, percentage of study time allocated for doing questions, Syrian scientific high school exam scores, and the cumulative medical school class grades. It was not significantly affected by preparation months or studying in a group setting. More studies are needed to further describe and investigate the factors that might affect performance in the NMUE. PMID:27144140

  5. Development and Validation of Filters for the Retrieval of Studies of Clinical Examination From Medline

    PubMed Central

    Badgett, Robert G; Pi, Mina; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K. Ann; Ketchum, Andrea M; Haynes, R. Brian

    2011-01-01

    Background Efficiently finding clinical examination studies—studies that quantify the value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of disease—is becoming increasingly difficult. Filters developed to retrieve studies of diagnosis from Medline lack specificity because they also retrieve large numbers of studies on the diagnostic value of imaging and laboratory tests. Objective The objective was to develop filters for retrieving clinical examination studies from Medline. Methods We developed filters in a training dataset and validated them in a testing database. We created the training database by hand searching 161 journals (n = 52,636 studies). We evaluated the recall and precision of 65 candidate single-term filters in identifying studies that reported the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms or signs in the training database. To identify best combinations of these search terms, we used recursive partitioning. The best-performing filters in the training database as well as 13 previously developed filters were evaluated in a testing database (n = 431,120 studies). We also examined the impact of examining reference lists of included articles on recall. Results In the training database, the single-term filters with the highest recall (95%) and the highest precision (8.4%) were diagnosis[subheading] and “medical history taking”[MeSH], respectively. The multiple-term filter developed using recursive partitioning (the RP filter) had a recall of 100% and a precision of 89% in the training database. In the testing database, the Haynes-2004-Sensitive filter (recall 98%, precision 0.13%) and the RP filter (recall 89%, precision 0.52%) showed the best performance. The recall of these two filters increased to 99% and 94% respectively with review of the reference lists of the included articles. Conclusions Recursive partitioning appears to be a useful method of developing search filters. The empirical search filters proposed here can assist in the retrieval of

  6. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706.

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  9. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P < 0.001). Restricting the analysis to the lowest dose scores of under 50 did not materially change these results. We conclude that chromosome damage is associated with low levels of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  10. Initial evaluation of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: history, physical examination, imaging studies, surgical and nonsurgical indications.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, Emilio; Simon, David A; Johnson, Donald H

    2010-12-01

    Compared with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, posterior cruciate ligament injuries are a rare event. The mechanisms are predictable and a thorough physical examination is mandatory to rule out or define combined injury patterns. Stress radiography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are very helpful adjuncts. Acute and chronic injuries require slightly different approaches. As our understanding of normal and pathologic knee joint kinematics develops, nonoperative rehabilitation goals and operative techniques continue to evolve.

  11. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  12. Rate Constants of Hydroperoxyl Radical Addition to Cyclic Nitrones: A DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Villamena, Frederick A.; Merle, John K.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Zweier*, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones are potential synthetic antioxidants against the reduction of radical-mediated oxidative damage in cells, and as analytical reagent for the identification of HO2• and other such transient species. In this work, the PCM/B3LYP/6−31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6−31G(d) and PCM/mPW1K/6−31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) methods were employed to predict the reactivity of HO2• with various functionalized nitrones as spin traps. The calculated second-order rate constants and free energies of reaction at both levels of theory were in the range of 100−103 M−1 s−1 and 1 to −12 kcal mol−1, respectively, and the rate constants for some nitrones are on the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally. The trend in HO2• reactivity to nitrones could not be explained solely on the basis of the relationship of the theoretical positive charge densities on the nitronyl-C, with their respective ionization potentials, electron affinities, rate constants, or free energies of reaction. However, various modes of intramolecular H-bonding interaction were observed at the transition state (TS) structures of HO2• addition to nitrones. The presence of intramolecular H-bonding interactions in the transition states were predicted and may play a significant role towards a facile addition of HO2• to nitrones. In general, HO2• addition to ethoxycarbonyl- and spirolactam- substituted nitrones, as well as those nitrones without electron-withdrawing substituents, such as 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and 5-spirocyclopentyl-pyrroline N-oxide (CPPO), are most preferred compared to the methylcarbamoyl-substituted nitrones. This study suggests that the use of specific spin traps for efficient trapping of HO2• could pave the way toward improved radical detection and antioxidant protection. PMID:17845014

  13. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  14. Twins eye study in Tasmania (TEST): rationale and methodology to recruit and examine twins.

    PubMed

    Mackey, David A; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2009-10-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause of morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: (1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited, (2) utilizing the national twin registry, (3) word-of-mouth and local media publicity, (4) directly approaching schools, and finally (5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins.

  15. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  16. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  17. Examining the Effectiveness of Primary Sources during Close Reading in Social Studies: A Case Study of Middle School Resource Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using primary sources to support close reading in social studies among students with disabilities in grade 7 middle school resource rooms. The setting is a middle school in a suburban school district located in Western New York. Two resource rooms of 10 students with reading or writing difficulties were…

  18. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-02

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements.

  19. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  20. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.

  1. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: a preliminary study on the effect of additive in granulating liquid.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing alginate-based pellets by extrusion/spheronization and also to improve the formation of spherical alginate-based pellets by investigating the effect of additive in granulating liquid on characteristics and drug release from resulting pellets. Two types of sodium alginate (30%) were evaluated in combination with theophylline (20%), microcrystalline cellulose (50%) and different granulation liquids. The pellets were then prepared in a basket extruder, then spheronized and dried. The final products were characterized by morphological examination and drug release study. Different additives in the granulating liquid influenced the ability of the extruded mass to form pellets (the processability) with this technique. However, different sodium alginate types responded to shape modifications to a different extent. Long, dumbbell-shaped pellets were obtained with viscous granulating liquids. However, short, nearly spherical pellets were obtained with watery granulation liquid with calcium chloride that reduced the swelling ability of sodium alginate. Improvements in the pellet characteristics were also dependent on the sodium alginate type employed. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60min and showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. Higher amount of 3% calcium chloride, as a granulating liquid, in the formulation showed higher mean dissolution time resulting from the cross-linking properties of calcium ions to the negative charges of alginate molecules.

  2. Addition of parenteral cefoxitin to regimen of oral antibiotics for elective colorectal operations. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Schoetz, D J; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral neomycin/erythromycin base. In addition a perioperative parenteral antibiotic was given in three divided doses to 101 patients. The other 96 patients received no parenteral antibiotics. The overall incidence of intra-abdominal septic complications was 7.3% (7 of 96) in the control group (no cefoxitin) and 5% (5 of 101) in the treatment group (cefoxitin). This difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of abdominal wound infection was 14.6% in the control group and 5% in the treatment group, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). The addition of perioperative parenteral cefoxitin greatly reduced the incidence of wound infections in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations who had been prepared with mechanical bowel cleansing and oral antimicrobial agents. PMID:2100983

  3. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  4. Ribotyping as an additional molecular marker for studying Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Tondella, M L; Sacchi, C T; Neves, B C

    1994-01-01

    The molecular method of ribotyping was used as an additional epidemiological marker to study the epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, referred to as the ET-5 complex, responsible for the epidemic which occurred in greater São Paulo, Brazil. Ribotyping analysis of these strains showed only a single rRNA gene restriction pattern (Rb1), obtained with ClaI restriction enzyme. This method, as well as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, provided useful information about the clonal characteristics of the N. meningitidis serogroup B strains isolated during this epidemic. The N. meningitidis serogroup B isolates obtained from epidemics which occurred in Norway, Chile, and Cuba also demonstrated the same pattern (Rb1). Ribotyping was a procedure which could be applied to a large number of isolates and was felt to be appropriate for routine use in laboratories, especially because of the convenience of using nonradioactive probes. Images PMID:7852566

  5. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  6. Modular system for studying tonal sound excitation in resonators with heat addition and mean flow.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Konstantin I; Hernandez, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    An educational experimental system has been developed for studying tonal sound generation in acoustic resonators. Tones are excited by either heat addition or vortex shedding in the presence of mean flow. The system construction is straightforward and inexpensive. Several test arrangements and experimental data are described in this paper. The experimental setups include a modified Rijke tube, a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine, a baffled tube with mean flow, and an acoustic energy harvester with a piezoelement. Simplified mathematical models for interpreting data are discussed, and references are provided to literature with more advanced analyses. The developed system can assist both graduate and undergraduate students in understanding acoustic instabilities via conducting and analyzing interesting experiments.

  7. A cross-sectional study examining factors related to critical thinking in nursing.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gary Morris; Beach, Nick Lee; Patrician, Patricia A; Martin, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking skills among registered nurses who work in a military hospital. Sixty-five nurses were administered the Health Sciences Reasoning Test to obtain scores in inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation skills. Results showed no significant association between critical thinking skills and years of experience; however, differences were identified among racial/ethnic groups. It is hoped that findings from this study create a platform for dialogue among staff development nurses who are best situated to develop strategies that address these issues.

  8. A study of operative treatment and bacteriological examination of persistent oro-antral fistulas.

    PubMed

    Sindet-Pedersen, S; Skoglund, L A; Hvidegaard, T; Holst, E

    1983-10-01

    A retrospective study of 35 patients with oro-antral fistulas of more than 2 weeks duration is presented. Treatment results by using the Rehrmann plastic procedure, as well as complications and sequelae are described. The results of bacteriological examination in 15 patients with maxillary sinusitis in association with oro-antral fistulas are presented. The bacteriological findings suggest that broad spectrum antibiotics in certain conditions should be administered in cases of persisting oro-antral fistulas associated with maxillary sinusitis. The results of the present study show that the Rehrmann-operation proves satisfactory even in treatment-resistent cases.

  9. Genetic Assessment of Additional Endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Calkins, Monica E.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  10. Mössbauer spectroscopy: an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, R. E.; Hus, J. J.; de Grave, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery a half century ago of the resonant gamma absorption, known as the Mössbauer effect, the derived spectroscopic method (MS) has proven to be a very suitable tool for the characterization of soil and rock minerals. From the conventional absorption spectra of iron containing compounds, so-called hyperfine parameters are derived which are more or less typical for each kind of mineral. So, MS has a certain analytical power for the characterization of iron-bearing minerals. This is especially true for magnetic minerals for which the spectrum contains an additional hyperfine parameter. Moreover, MS also allows retrieving information about the magnetic structure and behavior. Because the relative area of the spectra is to some extent proportional to the amount of iron atoms in their environment, MS yields not only quantitative information about the various minerals present but also about the iron in the different crystallographic sites. The power of MS as an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments could be well demonstrated in the joint research with Jozef Hus (CPG-IRM, Dourbes). In our common work, the emphasis went mainly to the study of Chinese loess and soils. Using MS on magnetically separated samples the various magnetic species in a loess and its associated soil were for the first time discerned in a direct way. Further, magnetically enriched samples of four different loess/paleosol couplets from a loess sequence in Huangling have been systematically investigated by MS. From the obtained qualitative and quantitative information the neoformation of magnetite/maghemite in the soils, responsible for the increased observed remanence and susceptibility, could be evidenced.

  11. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  12. Spin-probe ESR and molecular modeling studies on calcium carbonate dispersions in overbased detergent additives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Luciano; Frigerio, Francesco

    2010-08-15

    Oil-soluble calcium carbonate colloids are used as detergent additives in lubricating oils. They are colloidal dispersions of calcium carbonate particles stabilized by different surfactants; in this study alkyl-aryl-sulfonates and sulfurized alkyl-phenates, widely used in the synthesis of these additives, are considered. The physical properties of surfactant layers surrounding the surfaces of calcium carbonate particles were analyzed by using some nitroxide spin-probes (stable free radicals) and observing the corresponding ESR spectra. The spin-probe molecules contain polar groups which tend to tether them to the carbonate particle polar surface. They can reach these surfaces only if the surfactant layers are not very compact, hence the relative amounts of spin-probe molecules accessing carbonate surfaces are an index of the compactness of surfactant core. ESR signals of spin-probe molecules dissolved in oil or "locked" near the carbonate surfaces are different because of the different molecular mobility. Through deconvolution of the ESR spectra, the fraction of spin-probes penetrating surfactant shells have been calculated, and differences were observed according to the surfactant molecular structures. Moreover, by using specially labeled spin-probes based on stearic acids, functionalized at different separations from the carboxylic acid group, it was possible to interrogate the molecular physical behavior of surfactant shells at different distances from carbonate surfaces. Molecular modeling was applied to generate some three-dimensional micellar models of the colloidal stabilizations of the stabilized carbonate particles with different molecular structures of the surfactant. The diffusion of spin-probe molecules into the surfactant shells were studied by applying a starting force to push the molecules towards the carbonate surfaces and then observing the ensuing behavior. The simulations are in accordance with the ESR data and show that the geometrical

  13. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J.; Norton, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors). t-tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted 0.51 ± 1.93 times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population. PMID:24089620

  14. Theoretical study of the formation of naphthalene from the radical/π-bond addition between single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Andrea; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2011-06-09

    The experimental investigations performed in the 1960s on the o-benzyne + benzene reaction as well as the more recent studies on reactions involving π-electrons highlight the importance of π-bonding for different combustion processes related to PAH's and soot formation. In the present investigation radical/π-bond addition reactions between single-ring aromatic compounds have been proposed and computationally investigated as possible pathways for the formation of two-ring fused compounds, such as naphthalene, which serve as precursors to soot formation. The computationally generated optimized structures for the stationary points were obtained with uB3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations, while the energies of the optimized complexes were refined using the uCCSD(T) method and the cc-pVDZ basis set. The computations have addressed the relevance of a number of radical/π-bond addition reactions including the singlet benzene + o-benzyne reaction, which leads to formation of naphthalene and acetylene through fragmentation of the benzobicyclo[2,2,2]octatriene intermediate. For this reaction, the high-pressure limit rate constants for the individual elementary reactions involved in the overall process were evaluated using transition state theory analysis. Other radical/π-bond addition reactions studied were between benzene and triplet o-benzyne, between benzene and phenyl radical, and between phenyl radicals, for all of which potential energy surfaces were produced. On the basis of the results of these reaction studies, it was found necessary to propose and subsequently confirm additional, alternative pathways for the formation of the types of PAH compounds found in combustion systems. The potential energy surface for one reaction in particular, the phenyl + phenyl addition, is shown to contain a low-energy channel leading to formation of naphthalene that is energetically comparable to the other examined conventional pathways leading to formation of biphenyl compounds. This

  15. A station-based concept for teaching the neurological examination: A prospective quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Brich, Jochen; Rijntjes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The neurological examination is considered to be complex and contributes to the phenomenon of “neurophobia”. It is traditionally taught in small groups by residents (“traditional concept”), making the learning success partially dependent on the resident’s level of clinical training, didactic education and personal motivation. Aim of this study was to examine the effects of a newly developed concept (“station concept”) for teaching the neurological examination on achieving an improved and more equal transfer of knowledge and practical skills. Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental design was used to compare the traditional concept with the newly developed station concept, in which the teaching content was divided in eight subdivisions (stations) with one resident being assigned to one station. The primary endpoints of the study were the differences in students’ self-assessments of learning success in the different subdomains of the neurological examination, and secondary analyses focused on evaluation results of students and residents. Results: 144 students and 28 residents participated in the traditional concept (summer semester 2012) and 151 students and 28 residents in the station concept (winter semester 2012/13). In the station-concept students’ self-assessment significantly improved in the domains “Motor System”, “Coordination” and “Mental Status” compared to the traditional concept. Students’ evaluation showed significant improvement in five out of eight points. Fifty percent of residents rated the new approach superior to the traditional approach, ten percent as inferior. Conclusion: The station concept improved students’ self-assessed learning success as well as evaluation results while simultaneously achieving high acceptance in residents. PMID:27990473

  16. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues.

  17. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  18. Electron microscopic examination of effects of bogma raki and walnut on cochlea: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Cevik, C; Ozler, G S; Arli, C; Tatar, I; Sargon, M F; Zeren, C; Yonden, Z; Akoglu, E

    2015-03-01

    Illegal alcohol beverages known as bogma raki in our country are consumed widely in our region. The studies investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and hearing ability report different results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of bogma raki that contains neurotoxic substances on cochlea by electron microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in the literature. A total of 48 Wistar male albino rats (aged 12-16 weeks and weighing 200-240 g) were used in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups with 12 animals in each group. The groups include control, bogma raki, walnut, and walnut + bogma raki groups. Bogma raki (30% v/v, 9.2 ml kg(-1) day(-1)) is added to drinking water of rats in bogma raki group (n = 12) for 4 weeks. Walnut group rats (n = 12) are fed with standard rat food and walnut without limitation (10 g kg(-1) day(-1)). Bogma raki + walnut group rats (n = 12) are fed with standard rat food and walnut and bogma raki is added to drinking water. The cochleas were dissected and removed en bloc and examined by electron microscopy. Perineuronal oedema around neurons of spiral ganglion and hairy cells of organ of Corti were present in the bogma raki group, walnut group and bogma raki + walnut group under electron microscopic examination. Comparing these three groups, there were no differences in the ultrastructural pathological changes. In the ultrastructural examination of the myelinated axons forming cochlear nerve, no ultrastructural pathology was detected in all the groups.

  19. Sexual history disclosure polygraph examinations with cybercrime offences: a first Dutch explorative study.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Jos; Bogaerts, Stefan; Foulger, Sarah; Wilcox, Daniel; Sosnowski, Daniel; Cushman, Barry

    2010-06-01

    This article presents the first study on post-conviction polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study is designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 25 participants who are in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results indicate that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision, and more effective containment of offending behaviour and the reduction of future victimization.

  20. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  1. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  2. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  4. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  5. Comparative studies between the influence of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes addition on Gd-123 superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Aly, A. I.; Anas, M.; Ebrahim, Shaker; Awad, R.; Eldeen, I. G.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) addition on the phase formation and the superconducting properties of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ phase has been studied. Therefore, composite superconductor samples of type (CNTs)x GdBa2Cu3O7-δ, 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 wt.% have been synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction technique. The samples have been characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of XRD show an enhancement in the phase formation up to 0.06 wt.% and 0.08 wt.% for SWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively. SEM and TEM reveal that CNTs form an electrical network resulting in well-connected superconducting grains. The electrical properties of the prepared samples have been examined by electric resistivity and I-V measurements, and their results reinforce the XRD, SEM and TEM. Consequently, both Tc and Jc improve as the addition percentage increases up to 0.06 wt.% and 0.08 wt.% for SWCNTs and MWCNTs, respectively.

  6. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  7. A study of success predictors in the entrance examination to the school medicine (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Marcela; Enders, Julia; Burrone, María S; Fernández, Alicia R

    2010-01-01

    Institutions involved in training health professionals are permanently concerned with improving the quality of their graduates and their skills for meeting healthcare demands. Research has been conducted in the field of health education and related areas with the purpose of identifying the incidence of high-school GPAs, learning styles and demographic factors on pre-university performance of students. It has been widely assumed that performance at this stage is one of the best predictors of subsequent academic performance. In the year 2000 the School of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba introduced an Entrance Examination as part of a comprehensive curricular reform. Therefore, the study of the predictors of performance in the entrance examination can be a valuable contribution to pedagogical decision making. Our aim is to assess the predictive capacity of a series of indicators associated to the population of candidates attempting entrance to medical studies. The survey comprises the period 2006-2008. The variables under study are: sociodemographic characteristics, high-school specialization, and high-school grade point average (GPA). ANOVA was applied to measurable variables, whereas attribute variables were submitted to categorical data and multiple correspondence analyses. We conclude that predictors are associated to sociocultural factors related to family environment, mainly educational level of the mother, and to a high-school GPA value between 8 and 9 points.

  8. [Health examination survey of the Lausanne population: first results of the CoLaus study].

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, P; Hayoz, D; Preisig, M; Pécoud, A; Warterworht, D; Mooser, V; Paccaud, F; Waeber, G

    2006-11-08

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in our society. CoLaus is a population-based health examination survey started in 2003 in Lausanne in order to assess: 1. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, 2. New genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, 3. Association of mood disorders with incidence of cardiovascular events and 4. Trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. In order to do so, over 6000 subjects (ages 35-75 years) provided data on CVD risk factors. Herein we provide preliminary results of this study, in particular on classical risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Implications and perspectives of this population based-study for public health and genetic studies are also discussed.

  9. Dimensionality and consequences of employee commitment to supervisors: a two-study examination.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guylaine; Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Research on the 3-component model of organizational commitment--affective, normative, and continuance--has suggested that continuance commitment comprises 2 subcomponents, perceived lack of alternatives and sacrifice (e.g., S. J. Jaros, 1997; G. W. McGee & R. C. Ford, 1987). The authors aimed to extend that research in the context of employees' commitment to their immediate supervisors. Through two studies, they examined the validity and consequences of a 4-factor model of commitment to supervisors including affective, normative, continuance-alternatives, and continuance-sacrifice components. Study 1 (N = 317) revealed that the 4 components of commitment to supervisors were distinguishable from the corresponding components of organizational commitment. Study 2 (N = 240) further showed that the 4 components of commitment to supervisors differentially related to intention to leave the supervisor, supervisor-directed negative affect and emotional exhaustion. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the management of employee commitment in organizations.

  10. Theoretical study of ignition reactions of linear symmetrical monoethers as potential diesel fuel additives: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrouni, Karim El; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Kaliaguine, Serge

    This work investigates the chemical reactivity of four linear symmetrical monoethers with molecular oxygen. Such oxygenated compounds may be considered as potential diesel fuel additives in order to reduce the ignition delay in diesel fuel engines. For this purpose, a kinetic study is proposed to clarify the relation between the molecular structure of the fuel molecule and its ignition properties. To this end, DFT calculations were performed for these reactions using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and BH&HLYP/6-311G(d,p) to determine structures, energies, and vibrational frequencies of stationary points as well as activated complexes involved in each gas-phase combustion initiation reaction of the monoethers CH3OCH3, C2H5OC2H5, C3H7OC3H7, or C4H9OC4H9 with molecular oxygen. This theoretical kinetic study was carried out using electronic structure results and the transition state theory, to assess the rate constants for all studied combustion reactions. As it has been shown in our previous work [Abou-Rachid et al., J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003, 621, 293], the cetane number (CN) of a pure organic molecule depends on the initiation rate of its homogeneous gas-phase reaction with molecular oxygen. Indeed, the calculated initiation rate constants of the H-abstraction process of linear monoethers with O2 show a very good correlation with experimental CN data of these pure compounds at T D 1,000 K. This temperature is representative of the operating conditions of a diesel fuel engine.0

  11. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Peer Physical Examination: Findings from an International Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Charlotte E.; Wearn, Andy M.; Vnuk, Anna K.; Sato, Toshio J.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes…

  13. Examination and Public Speaking Anxiety Case Studies: A Learning-Performance Discrepancy Issue for CB/PBTE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzasko, Joseph A.

    This study was undertaken to examine the possibility of controlling examination and public speaking anxiety through behavior therapy techniques. It was assumed that a reduction of examination and public speaking anxiety through such techniques would improve student performance. Three subjects participated in the study--all female, 30 years old,…

  14. The Comprehensive Examination: Study Groups and Their Effectiveness--A Message to Counselor Education Faculty and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Lisa; Brodwin, Martin G.

    2006-01-01

    Counselor Education professors can assist students with comprehensive examination preparation. The first author, a graduate student in counseling, developed these ideas while studying for the comprehensive examination for the Master of Science degree program in counseling. All five members of her study group passed the examination the first time.

  15. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  16. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  17. Meiofaunal and bacterial community response to diesel additions in a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-03-01

    Effects of low PAH-containing diesel were studied in a 60-day microcosm experiment at PAH concentrations 130, 1300 and 13,000μg/kg sediment. Nutrient fluxes, potential nitrification and meiofaunal community composition were analysed at three time points. Changed ∑NOx-fluxes indicated reduced sediment nitrification in Medium and High with time, in agreement with lowered potential nitrification rates in all treatments. Reduction in silicate and phosphate fluxes over time suggested severe effects on activity of meiofauna. Reduced activity increased the anoxic sediment layer, which could have contributed to the changed ∑NOx-fluxes. There were significant differences in meiofaunal community composition after 30 and 60days in Medium and High. Changes were due to increasing numbers of harpacticoids and the foraminiferan group Rotaliina, as well as decreasing numbers of Nematodes and the foraminiferan group Reophax. In spite of the low PAH-level, small additions of this diesel can still have pronounced effects on meiofaunal and bacterial communities.

  18. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  19. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  20. Tackling missing data in community health studies using additive LS-SVM classifier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanjin; Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2016-12-01

    Missing data is a common issue in community health and epidemiological studies. Direct removal of samples with missing data can lead to reduced sample size and information bias, which deteriorates the significance of the results. While data imputation methods are available to deal with missing data, they are limited in performance and could introduce noises into the dataset. Instead of data imputation, a novel method based on additive least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed in this paper for predictive modeling when the input features of the model contain missing data. The method also determines simultaneously the influence of the features with missing values on the classification accuracy using the fast leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. The performance of the method is evaluated by applying it to predict the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people using health data collected in the community. The dataset involves demographics, socioeconomic status, health history and the outcomes of health assessments of 444 community-dwelling elderly people, with 5% to 60% of data missing in some of the input features. The QOL is measured using a standard questionnaire of the World Health Organization. Results show that the proposed method outperforms four conventional methods for handling missing data - case deletion, feature deletion, mean imputation and K-nearest neighbor imputation, with the average QOL prediction accuracy reaching 0.7418. It is potentially a promising technique for tackling missing data in community health research and other applications.

  1. A Longitudinal Field Study Comparing a Multiplicative and an Additive Model of Motivation and Ability. Technical Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.; And Others

    The relative contribution of motivation to ability measures in predicting performance criteria of sales personnel from successive fiscal periods was investigated. In this context, the merits of a multiplicative and additive combination of motivation and ability measures were examined. The relationship between satisfaction and motivation and…

  2. Examining evidence for behavioural mimicry of parental eating by adolescent females. An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Maxine; Higgs, Suzanne; Blissett, Jackie; Nouwen, Arie; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Allen, Harriet A; Robinson, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.

  3. Breast self-examination: clinical results from a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Philip, J.; Harris, W. G.; Flaherty, C.; Joslin, C. A.; Rustage, J. H.; Wijesinghe, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the Department of Health's National Breast Screening Trial a seven year study is in progress in Huddersfield to assess the effect of an educational programme in Breast Self Examination (BSE) on the mortality due to breast cancer among women aged 45-64. The initial cohort of 22,484 women have completed 3 years in the study and show a higher than expected annual incidence rate of breast cancer. There is no significant difference in the incidence rates between those who attended meetings for BSE instruction and those who did not. Similarly there is no difference in stages of presentation of cancers between attenders and non-attenders at these meetings and also between cancers detected in the first, second and third years. Those who discovered abnormalities during self examination, however, presented with smaller lumps compared to other women. Assessment of prognostic factors do not at this time provide sufficient evidence to show that a community-base BSE campaign will result in a significant improvement in the stage of breast cancer presentation. PMID:6743516

  4. An examination of social capital and social disorganisation in neighbourhoods in the British household panel study.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in social science research suggest that social environmental factors may be important for explaining community variations in health. We investigate the structural sources of two mechanisms that produce community variations in health. Using survey data collected from a representative cross-section of British households we examine variations in neighbourhood social capital and neighbourhood social disorganisation across a sample of British neighbourhoods. Adjusting for respondent's attributes, we assess the effects of neighbourhood characteristics measured by the 1991 census in Britain. The results show that concentrated affluence, residential instability and ethnic heterogeneity predict social capital for women. Population density is the only neighbourhood characteristic to predict social capital for men. For both men and women concentrated disadvantage and population density are associated with social disorganisation. Residential instability is additionally associated with social disorganisation for women. For women it was found that neighbourhood characteristics interact with individual social class in accounting for variations in social capital, the effects of neighbourhood characteristics being larger for those in professional and managerial and skilled non-manual occupations. The results show that neighbourhood structural characteristics influence social organisation processes. This helps establish a link between the structural characteristics of neighbourhoods and individual health outcomes.

  5. An examination of cancer epidemiology studies among populations living close to toxic waste sites

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Mark B; Borak, Jonathan B; Cullen, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Background Toxic waste sites contain a broad range of suspected or confirmed human carcinogens, and remain a source of concern to many people, particularly those living in the vicinity of a site. Despite years of study, a consensus has not emerged regarding the cancer risk associated with such sites. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing cancer incidence or mortality in the vicinity of toxic waste sites between 1980 and 2006, and catalogued the methods employed by such studies. Results Nineteen studies are described with respect to eight methodological criteria. Most were ecological, with minimal utilization of hydrogeological or air pathway modeling. Many did not catalogue whether a potable water supply was contaminated, and very few included contaminant measurements at waste sites or in subjects' homes. Most studies did not appear to be responses to a recognized cancer mortality cluster. Studies were highly variable with respect to handling of competing risk factors and multiple comparisons. Conclusion We conclude that studies to date have generated hypotheses, but have been of limited utility in determining whether populations living near toxic waste sites are at increased cancer risk. PMID:18578889

  6. A Feasibility Study on a Parallel Mechanism for Examining the Space Shuttle Orbiter Payload Bay Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Rodney G.; LopezdelCastillo, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop the necessary analysis tools for a feasibility study of a cable suspended robot system for examining the space shuttle orbiter payload bay radiators These tools were developed to address design issues such as workspace size, tension requirements on the cable, the necessary accuracy and resolution requirements and the stiffness and movement requirements of the system. This report describes the mathematical models for studying the inverse kinematics, statics, and stiffness of the robot. Each model is described by a matrix. The manipulator Jacobian was also related to the stiffness matrix, which characterized the stiffness of the system. Analysis tools were then developed based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the corresponding matrices. It was demonstrated how the SVD can be used to quantify the robot's performance and to provide insight into different design issues.

  7. In-situ study of the influence of additives on the growth behavior of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiwen

    Trace organic additives are known to be essential in obtaining desired metal electrodeposits in the microelectronic industry, however, fundamental design principles for their use and a scientific understanding of their interaction during electrodeposition is lacking. In the present study we investigated electrodeposition of copper on the Cu(100) surface in air-saturated or dearated acid-sulfate plating solutions containing several combinations of chloride and additives benzotriazole (BTA) and 3-mercapto propane sulfonic acid (MPSA) under galvanostatic pulse-current conditions. The electrodeposition process was followed using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were quantitatively analyzed by pattern-recognition and scaling procedures. In the absence of additives, copper deposits grew in a layer-by-layer mode from the earliest stage of deposition. The surface consisted of smooth terraces separated by steps. The scaling analysis result was consistent with a process dominated by surface diffusion and step growth. In chloride containing solutions, square-pyramidal mounds were initiated and grew to cover the surface. Mound slope increased with deposition time with no indication of reaching a steady-state value. This growth mode was consistent with a surface diffusion mechanism. The scaling result was similar to the additive-free system, but indicated that surface diffusion was more dominant in the presence of chloride. BTA inhibited the surface and produced nucleation-limited growth at hemispheroidal centers whose height to base radius aspect ratio increased linearly with deposition time. Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional nodules started randomly across the entire surface. The nodules were smaller in size than the mounds observed without BTA. The number and density of nodules were much higher than the mounds density. The deposit growth was dominated by a roughening mechanism that can be described by the random roughening term of a stochastic model

  8. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  9. A Pilot Study to Examine Maturation of Body Temperature Control in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Robin B.; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low birth weight (EBLW) infants. Design A case study design. Setting The study took place in a level four neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Participants Four ELBW infants, less than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Methods Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results/Conclusion Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. PMID:24004312

  10. Does Addition of Propolis to Glass Ionomer Cement Alter its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Girish Babu, K L; Neeraja, G; Pillai, S

    Propolis is a natural resinous substance produced by honey bees. The antimicrobial effects of glass ionomer cement have been shown to improve with the addition of propolis; however its effect on the physicomechanical properties of the cement is not known.

  11. Comparative Studies of Cathodically-Promoted and Base-Catalyzed Michael Addition Reactions of Levoglucosenone.

    PubMed

    Samet, Alexander V.; Niyazymbetov, Murat E.; Semenov, Victor V.; Laikhter, Andrei L.; Evans, Dennis H.

    1996-12-13

    Regioselective Michael addition of nitro and heterocyclic compounds to levoglucosenone, 1, is effectively catalyzed by amines and also by cathodic electrolysis. In comparison to the base-catalyzed reaction, it was found that under electrochemical conditions the reaction proceeds under milder conditions and with higher yields. Cathodically-initiated Michael addition of thiols to levoglucosenone using small currents produces the previously unknown threo addition product in several instances. The normal erythro isomer, identified as the kinetic product, tends to be formed when large currents are used. In contrast, slow, low current electrolyses promote equilibration of the two forms so that erythro can be converted to threo by the retro reaction and readdition. Addition of 2-naphthalenethiol to (R)-(+)-apoverbenone is also reported.

  12. Study of metal whiskers growth and mitigation technique using additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Vikranth

    For years, the alloy of choice for electroplating electronic components has been tin-lead (Sn-Pb) alloy. However, the legislation established in Europe on July 1, 2006, required significant lead (Pb) content reductions from electronic hardware due to its toxic nature. A popular alternative for coating electronic components is pure tin (Sn). However, pure tin has the tendency to spontaneously grow electrically conductive Sn whisker during storage. Sn whisker is usually a pure single crystal tin with filament or hair-like structures grown directly from the electroplated surfaces. Sn whisker is highly conductive, and can cause short circuits in electronic components, which is a very significant reliability problem. The damages caused by Sn whisker growth are reported in very critical applications such as aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and military weapons systems. They are also naturally very strong and are believed to grow from compressive stresses developed in the Sn coating during deposition or over time. The new directive, even though environmentally friendly, has placed all lead-free electronic devices at risk because of whisker growth in pure tin. Additionally, interest has occurred about studying the nature of other metal whiskers such as zinc (Zn) whiskers and comparing their behavior to that of Sn whiskers. Zn whiskers can be found in flooring of data centers which can get inside electronic systems during equipment reorganization and movement and can also cause systems failure. Even though the topic of metal whiskers as reliability failure has been around for several decades to date, there is no successful method that can eliminate their growth. This thesis will give further insights towards the nature and behavior of Sn and Zn whiskers growth, and recommend a novel manufacturing technique that has potential to mitigate metal whiskers growth and extend life of many electronic devices.

  13. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  14. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min A; Shim, Woo Seok; Kim, Myung Hee; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Chung Su; Choi, Yoon Ho; Park, Jeong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2006-12-01

    Many factors are associated with the development of low back pain. Among them, exercise, obesity, smoking, age, educational level and stress are the most common. This study examined the association of these factors with low back pain. An additional aim was to determine a procedure for preventing low back pain. This study analyzed the responses to a questionnaire sent to 772 individuals who had undergone a medical examination at this hospital in 2003 and excluded the individuals who had shown symptoms or their test results indicated a particular disease. Assuming that there were no variables, individuals who exercised regularly 3-4 times per week would have a lower chance of having low back pain than those who did not exercise regularly. The analysis revealed that individuals with a college degree or higher education have a lower chance of experiencing low back pain than those with only a high school education or even college drop-outs. When the other variables were constant, age, extent of obesity (body mass index), smoking and level of stress were not found to affect the development of low back pain. The level of education was associated with the development of low back pain. However, regular exercise 3-4 times per week or more would be most effective in reducing the incidence and duration of low back pain.

  15. Self-examination for breast and testicular cancers: a community-based intervention study.

    PubMed

    Shallwani, Khairunnisa; Ramji, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Khuwaja, Ali Khan

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of cancers is growing rapidly in all parts of the word and Pakistan is no exception. Prevention is the best option to tackle this rising epidemic and screening, early detection and health awareness programs are cornerstones in this regard. A community-based interventional study was therefore her conducted to assess the effect of health education intervention about knowledge and practice of self-breast examination (SBE) among women and self-testicular examination (STE) among men. A total of 127 (70 females and 57 males) adults (>or=18 years) from an urban community of Karachi, Pakistan were included after giving informed consent. Interventions were in the local language (Urdu) and included educational and awareness sessions by symposia, lectures and hand-on practice demonstrations about SBE and STE. Informative leaflets and brochure were also employed. Pre-intervention assessment revealed that 57% women had knowledge of SBE and 4% men knew about STE and this proportion increased significantly (p<0.001) after intervention both in women and in men by 83% and 72%, respectively. Similarly, significant post-intervention improvements were reported for SBE and STE practices (p<0.001). Our results suggest that educational interventions at the community level increase the knowledge and practices of women and men for the SBE and STE.

  16. Examining the efficiency of models using tangent coordinates or principal component scores in allometry studies.

    PubMed

    Sigirli, Deniz; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-16

    Most of the studies in medical and biological sciences are related with the examination of geometrical properties of an organ or organism. Growth and allometry studies are important in the way of investigating the effects of diseases and the environmental factors effects on the structure of the organ or organism. Thus statistical shape analysis has recently become more important in the medical and biological sciences. Shape is all geometrical information that remains when location, scale and rotational effects are removed from an object. Allometry, which is a relationship between size and shape, plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The aim of the present study was to compare two different models for allometry which includes tangent coordinates and principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The results of the simulation study showed that, the model constructed by taking tangent coordinates as dependent variables is more appropriate than the model constructed by taking principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables, for all sample sizes.

  17. Examining the Efficiency of Models Using Tangent Coordinates or Principal Component Scores in Allometry Studies.

    PubMed

    Sigirli, Deniz; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-09-01

    Most of the studies in medical and biological sciences are related to the examination of geometrical properties of an organ or organism. Growth and allometry studies are important in the way of investigating the effects of diseases and the environmental factors effects on the structure of the organ or organism. Thus, statistical shape analysis has recently become more important in the medical and biological sciences. Shape is all geometrical information that remains when location, scale and rotational effects are removed from an object. Allometry, which is a relationship between size and shape, plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The aim of the present study was to compare two different models for allometry which includes tangent coordinates and principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The results of the simulation study showed that the model constructed by taking tangent coordinates as dependent variables is more appropriate than the model constructed by taking principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables, for all sample sizes.

  18. Validation Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu Language for Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population Objective: This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani’s and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Methods: Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. Results: There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. Conclusions: These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population. PMID:26191094

  19. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  20. Conducting Examinations in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde, Martha O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that the conduct of examinations in any educational institution can make or mar the institution, Kwara State Polytechnic inclusive. This is because examinations constitute the hub of any institution. First, the place of polytechnic education in the growth and development of the country is examined. Next, is a consideration of…

  1. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  2. Can ligand addition to soil enhance Cd phytoextraction? A mechanistic model study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongbing; Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is a potential method for cleaning Cd-polluted soils. Ligand addition to soil is expected to enhance Cd phytoextraction. However, experimental results show that this addition has contradictory effects on plant Cd uptake. A mechanistic model simulating the reaction kinetics (adsorption on solid phase, complexation in solution), transport (convection, diffusion) and root absorption (symplastic, apoplastic) of Cd and its complexes in soil was developed. This was used to calculate plant Cd uptake with and without ligand addition in a great number of combinations of soil, ligand and plant characteristics, varying the parameters within defined domains. Ligand addition generally strongly reduced hydrated Cd (Cd(2+)) concentration in soil solution through Cd complexation. Dissociation of Cd complex ([Formula: see text]) could not compensate for this reduction, which greatly lowered Cd(2+) symplastic uptake by roots. The apoplastic uptake of [Formula: see text] was not sufficient to compensate for the decrease in symplastic uptake. This explained why in the majority of the cases, ligand addition resulted in the reduction of the simulated Cd phytoextraction. A few results showed an enhanced phytoextraction in very particular conditions (strong plant transpiration with high apoplastic Cd uptake capacity), but this enhancement was very limited, making chelant-enhanced phytoextraction poorly efficient for Cd.

  3. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students’ motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants’ test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. Results A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants’ test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants’ test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p < 0.01, respectively, and weak negative associations with their patient-centeredness (r = -0.21, p < 0.05) and with their perceived values of the OSCE (r = -0.21, p < 0.05). Conclusions This study found some non-cognitive factors related to medical students’ test anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs. PMID:28035056

  4. HESI admission assessment (A(2)) examination scores, program progression, and NCLEX-RN success in baccalaureate nursing: an exploratory study of dependable academic indicators of success.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making.

  5. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  6. Study of Heterogeneous Nucleation of Eutectic Si in High-Purity Al-Si Alloys with Sr Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarif, Muhammad; McKay, Brian; Schumacher, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Al-5 wt pct Si master-alloys with controlled Sr and/or P addition/s were produced using super purity Al 99.99 wt pct and Si 99.999 wt pct materials in an arc melter. The master-alloy was melt-spun resulting in the production of thin ribbons. The Al matrix of the ribbons contained entrained Al-Si eutectic droplets that were subsequently investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamic calculations, and transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed to examine the effect of the Sr and P additions on eutectic undercoolings and nucleation phenomenon. Results indicate that, unlike P, Sr does not promote nucleation. Increasing Sr additions depressed the eutectic nucleation temperature. This may be a result of the formation of a Sr phase that could consume or detrimentally affect potent AlP nucleation sites.

  7. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities. PMID:20618986

  8. Examination of time series through randomly broken windows. [solar oscillations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Shoub, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    The study of many astronomical problems involves a consideration of time series. The present investigation was prompted by a problem related to the determination of normal modes of oscillation of the sun. It is desirable to have an approach for obtaining an estimate of the accuracy with which oscillation modes may be determined when it appears possible to observe the sun over a long interval of time losing some blocks of time because of cloud cover. The present investigation has the objective to develop a model for addressing problems of this type. After presentation of a few general formulae, the problem is considerably simplified by supposing that observations are made over a large number N of equal time intervals, each of length t, so that the total time interval T is given by T = Nt. With certain additional simplifying assumptions, attention is given to the statistical properties of two functions which are representative of 'randomly broken' window functions.

  9. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  10. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  11. How much structuring is beneficial with regard to examination scores? A prospective study of three forms of active learning.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Rosen, Evelyne N

    2012-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a collaborative learning group. The active lecture group received lectures with questions to resolve at the end of the lecture. At the same time, the cooperative group and the collaborative group had to work on a problem and prepare presentations for their answers. The collaborative group worked in a mostly self-directed manner; the cooperative group had to follow a time schedule. For the additional work of preparing the poster presentation, the collaborative and cooperative groups were allowed 50% more working time. In part 1, all groups worked on the citric acid cycle, and in part 2, all groups worked on molecular genetics. Collaborative groups had to work on tasks and prepare presentations for their answers. At the end of each part, all three groups were subjected to the same exam. Additionally, in the collaborative and cooperative groups, the presentations were marked. All evaluations were performed by two independent examiners. Exam results of the active lecture groups were highest. Results of the cooperative group were nonsignificantly lower than the active lecture group and significantly higher than the collaborative group. The presentation quality was nonsignificantly higher in the collaborative group compared with the cooperative group. This study shows that active lecturing produced the highest exam results, which significantly differed from collaborative learning results. The additional elaboration in the cooperative and collaborative learning setting yielded the high presentation quality but apparently could not contribute further to exam scores. Cooperative learning seems to be a good compromise if high exam and

  12. Feasibility study for an additional HEPA filter leaching system in NWCF

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.D.

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the feasibility of installing a second high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter leaching system in the New Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). A large spent filter backlog already exists at the ICPP, and it has been uncertain whether the existing HEPA filter leaching system will have a throughput rate sufficient to work off the existing backlog in a timely manner. Three areas within the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) have been identified as possible locations for a second filter leaching system. This report examines the suitability of each location, identifies modifications that would be necessary-to install a filter leaching system at each location, examines the impact of modifying each location, and discusses recent efforts to estimate filter throughput using the existing filter leaching system. Based on all available information, installation of a second filter leaching system is not recommended at the present time.

  13. Ground penetrating radar examination of thin tsunami beds - A case study from Phra Thong Island, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam D.; Polivka, Peter M.; Bristow, Charles S.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dat, Pham T.; Pile, Jeremy; Rubin, Charles M.; Yingsin, Lee; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon R.; Jol, Harry M.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal overwash deposits from tsunamis and storms have been identified and characterised from many coastal environments. To date, these investigations have utilised ad-hoc time, energy and cost intensive invasive techniques, such as, pits and trenches or taking core samples. Here, we present the application of high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to identify and characterise the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) and palaeotsunami deposits from Phra Thong Island, Thailand. This site is one of the most intensively studied palaeotsunami sites globally and preserves a series of late-Holocene stacked sandy tsunami deposits within an organic, muddy low-energy backbeach environment. Using 100, 500 and 1000 MHz GPR antennas, 29 reflection profiles were collected from two swales (X and Y) inland of the modern beach, and two common mid-point (CMP) profiles using the 200 MHz antennas were collected from Swale Y. Detailed examination of the CMPs allowed accurate velocity estimates to be applied to each profile. The reflection profiles included across-swale profiles and a high-resolution grid in Swale X, and were collected to investigate the feasibility of GPR to image the palaeotsunami deposits, and two profiles from Swale Y where the tsunami deposits are poorly known. The 500 MHz antennas provided the best stratigraphic resolution which was independently validated from the stratigraphy and sedimentology recovered from 17 auger cores collected along the profiles. It is clear from the augers and GPR data, that the different dielectric properties of the individual layers allow the identification of the IOT and earlier tsunami deposits on Phra Thong Island. Although applied in a coastal setting here, this technique can be applied to other environments where thin sand beds are preserved, in order to prioritise sites for detailed examination.

  14. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    PubMed

    Jin, E Q

    1991-02-01

    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  15. Quantitative Study of the Effects of Chemical Additives in Propellant Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-02

    sensitive test of details of the kinetic model . The dependence on equivalence ratio of the characteristic reaction paths in DME flames is examined within... kinetic model for DME combustion [Zhao et al., Int. J. Chem. Kinetics , 2008, 40, 1-18] that has been extensively tested against laminar flame speed...Westmoreland, "Composition of reaction intermediates for stoichiometric and fuel-rich dimethyl ether flames: Flame-sampling mass spectrometry and modeling

  16. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments.

  17. Examining naltrexone and alcohol effects in a minority population: results from an initial human laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Plebani, Jennifer G; Oslin, David W; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Prior clinical findings have indicated a potential lack of naltrexone efficacy among African Americans with alcohol dependence. However, no definitive conclusions have been drawn due to the relatively small numbers of African Americans in most alcohol treatment trials. The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol and naltrexone effects on healthy African-American individuals in a laboratory environment. Nonalcohol-dependent social drinking adults of African descent (n = 43) were recruited for participation. After consenting and completing the baseline assessment, they participated in four separate alcohol challenge sessions each separated by at least 10 days. During each of the sessions, subjects were administered alcohol or sham drinks, after pretreatment with either naltrexone (50 mg/day) or placebo in a double-blind fashion. The order of the four sessions was randomly assigned. During each session, breath alcohol levels and subjective responses were measured. Results indicate an alcohol effect among these subjects for subjective responses, but no naltrexone effect. Similar to the apparent lack of clinical efficacy findings, naltrexone does not appear to impact alcohol effects in African-American social drinkers. Future studies should investigate African-American populations with heavy drinking as well as alcohol-dependent subjects in order to strengthen the parallels to clinical findings.

  18. A Study of Reverse Causation: Examining the Associations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Serum Levels with Two Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations.Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations. Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations.Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations. Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005–2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause.Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29

  19. Examining the relative effects of fire weather, suppression and fuel treatment on fire behaviour--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Penman, T D; Collins, L; Price, O F; Bradstock, R A; Metcalf, S; Chong, D M O

    2013-12-15

    Large budgets are spent on both suppression and fuel treatments in order to reduce the risk of wildfires. There is little evidence regarding the relative contribution of fire weather, suppression and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfires. Here we undertake a simulation study in the Sydney Basin, Australia, to examine this question using a fire behaviour model (Phoenix Rapidfire). Results of the study indicate that fire behaviour is most strongly influenced by fire weather. Suppression has a greater influence on whether a fire reaches 5 ha in size compared to fuel treatments. In contrast, fuel treatments have a stronger effect on the fire size and maximum distance the fire travels. The study suggests that fire management agencies will receive additional benefits from fuel treatment if they are located in areas which suppression resources can respond rapidly and attempt to contain the fires. No combination of treatments contained all fires, and the proportion of uncontained fires increased under more severe fire weather when the greatest number of properties are lost. Our study highlights the importance of alternative management strategies to reduce the risk of property loss.

  20. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  1. A Search for Additional Planets in the Exoplanetary Systems Studied by the NASA EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sarah; Christiansen, J. L.; Charbonneau, D.; Holman, M. J.; Deming, D.; Wellnitz, D. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; EPOXI Team

    2010-01-01

    The EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission used the HRI camera aboard the Deep Impact spacecraft to observe transiting exoplanet systems from January through August 2008. The majority of these targets were each observed nearly continuously for several weeks at a time. We searched these high-precision time series for additional planets in these systems, which could be revealed either directly through their photometric transits, or indirectly through the variations these second planets induce on the times of transit of the previously known planet. We present upper limits on putative additional planets in six of the systems observed by EPOXI: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, GJ 436, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7.

  2. Thiopeptin, a New Feed-Additive Antibiotic: Biological Studies and Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mine, K.; Miyairi, N.; Takano, N.; Mori, S.; Watanabe, N.

    1972-01-01

    Thiopeptin is a new antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces tateyamensis and developed solely for animal use as a feed additive. The antibiotic content in animal tissue and feed was assayed in terms of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma laidlawii A. This antibiotic was found to be relatively nontoxic in rats and mice. In chickens, this antibiotic is excreted into feces within 48 hr of administration and is not absorbed in tissue. It is well tolerated in both broilers and swine and is highly stable in animal feed. Thiopeptin-supplemented feed contributes to the improvement of weight gain, feed efficiency in chickens and swine, and the egg performance in layers. Thus, thiopeptin, when used as a feed additive, is quite suitable for supplementing animal nutrition. PMID:4680812

  3. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  4. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    This simple process is the basis for most consumer-grade desktop AM machines, commonly known as 3D printers (Pham & Gault, 1998:1270). Material...as a single purchase to decrease initial capital costs. Once the 3D printers are purchased and delivered, the selected bases can begin training...for several Questions if you would liKe to explain or elaborate on your answers. Additional information •out 3D printers and UTCs is provided as an

  5. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  6. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  7. Examining the Quality of Life of Farmers with Disabilities: The Ohio AgrAbility Study.

    PubMed

    Windon, S R; Jepsen, S D; Scheer, S D

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is a broad concept that presents a challenge to measure as a scientific category. Quality of life encompasses a broad range of variables based on an individual's expression of life satisfaction, perceptions, values, feelings of subjective well-being, and happiness. This study identified and examined factors that influenced the quality of life of Ohio farmers with disabilities who were enrolled in the Ohio AgrAbility Program (OAP) (n = 55) and participated in this study (60% response rate). A 34-item questionnaire was created. The sample of OAP farmers reported stress many days a week, had a negative outlook on life, and were less satisfied with their overall quality of life because of their health. The OAP participants reported external factors, such as cost of equipment, financial pressures, and input costs, as having a negative effect on their quality of life. The participants also reported that they were not satisfied with the amount of vacation time (60.6%), managing farm work and family life (54.6%), overall health (55%), and quality of life (27%). The results showed a significant difference between the OAP participants' overall quality of life and the following variables: gender, net cash income, outlook on life, health, stress, farm work, managing farm and family, social activities, and emotional support for farmers with disabilities. The findings of this exploratory study allowed farmers to identify factors that they perceived as important to their quality of life. Moreover, the results may be helpful for stakeholders to better understand the needs of farmers with disabilities and provide appropriate educational and other services to enhance their quality of life.

  8. Class attendance and cardiology examination performance: a study in problem-based medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bamuhair, Samira S; Al Farhan, Ali I; Althubaiti, Alaa; ur Rahman, Saeed; Al-Kadri, Hanan M

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Information on the effect of students’ class attendance on examination performance in a problem-based learning medical curriculum is limited. This study investigates the impact of different educational activities on students’ academic performance in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on the cardiology block at the College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All students who undertook the cardiology block during the academic year 2011–2012 were included. The students’ attendance was measured using their overall attendance percentage. This percentage is a product of their attendance of many activities throughout the block. The students’ performance was assessed by the final mark obtained, which is a product of many assessment elements. Statistical correlation between students’ attendance and performance was established. Results A total of 127 students were included. The average lecture attendance rate for the medical students in this study was found to be 86%. A significant positive correlation was noted between the overall attendance and the accumulated students’ block mark (r=0.52; P<0.001). Students’ attendance to different education activities was correlated to their final mark. Lecture attendance was the most significant predictor (P<0.001), that is, 1.0% increase in lecture attendance has predicted a 0.27 increase in students’ final block mark. Conclusion Class attendance has a positive effect on students’ academic performance with stronger effect for lecture attendance compared to attendance in other teaching modalities. This suggests that lecture attendance is critical for learning even when a problem-based learning medical curriculum is applied. PMID:26929658

  9. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation.

  10. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  11. Study of the structure of steel 12Kh12M1BFP modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. A.; Bakulina, A. S.; Efremov, I. V.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Yagodkin, Yu. D.; Glezer, A. M.; Rashkovskii, A. Yu.; Vainshtein, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy are used to study the structure of compacted specimens of steel 12Kh12M1BFP, modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. The effect of additions on the microhardness of compacted specimens is established.

  12. Progeny Review: An Alternative Approach for Examining the Replication of Intervention Studies in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Mathews, Hannah M.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Solis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of replication for building an evidence base, there has been no formal examination to date of replication research in special education. In this review, we examined the extent and nature of replication of intervention research in special education using an "article progeny" approach and a three-pronged definition…

  13. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of Effective Rural Superintendents: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the leadership practices of rural superintendents who have led their districts to significant improvement in student academic achievement. The overall research goal was to examine how Waters' and Marzano's six correlates of effective superintendent leadership practice have been applied by school leaders who have successfully…

  14. A study to examine the feasibility of using surface penetrators for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. S.; Anderson, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using penetrators in earth applications is examined. Penetrator applications in exploration for mineral resources only is summarized. Instrumentation for future penetrators is described. Portions of this report are incorporated into a more extensive report examining other penetrator applications in exploration for fossil fuels, geothermal resources, and in environmental and engineering problems, which is to be published as a NASA technical publication.

  15. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  16. An Examination of Teachers' Integration of Web 2.0 Technologies in Secondary Classrooms: A Phenomenological Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boksz, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the process teachers used to change their pedagogy to deliver effective instruction using Web 2.0 tools. A phenomenological approach examined the "lived experiences" of seven secondary teachers through in-depth interviews giving this study an in-depth qualitative analysis of teachers and technology. The widening…

  17. An Examination of Police Officers' Perceptions of Effective School Responses to Active Shooter Scenarios: A Phenomenological Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Florence E.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…

  18. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  20. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey: Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Short, Vanessa L; Ivory-Walls, Tameka; Smith, Larry; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in subnational areas is limited. A model for regional CVD surveillance is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations underrepresented in current monitoring systems. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (CHES) is a population-based, cross-sectional study on a representative sample of adults living in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, a rural, impoverished area with high rates of poor health outcomes and marked health disparities. The primary objectives of Delta CHES are to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of CVD and CVD risk factors using self-reported and directly measured health metrics and (2) to assess environmental perceptions and existing policies that support or deter healthy choices. An address-based sampling frame is used for household enumeration and participant recruitment and an in-home data collection model is used to collect survey data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples from participants. Data from all sources will be merged into one analytic dataset and sample weights developed to ensure data are representative of the Mississippi Delta region adult population. Information gathered will be used to assess the burden of CVD and guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of cardiovascular health promotion and risk factor control strategies.

  1. Examination of assumptions for local cerebral blood flow studies in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppe, R.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Rothley, J.M.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    Two common assumptions made in most positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow techniques have been examined in detail. These are (1) that the blood-borne radioactivity component in the measured PET data is negligible, and (2) that differences in arrival time of the arterial bolus across the brain cause insignificant biases in the estimated cerebral blood flow (CBF) values. Biases in CBF values due to partial failure of these assumptions have been predicted by computer simulation studies and also quantitated for both dynamic and single scan PET methods using H/sub 2/ /sup 15/O. Both computer simulations and measured PET data indicate that these assumptions can sometimes cause significant errors in the estimated flow values. The magnitude of these errors depends on the PET technique used (dynamic or static) and on the interval of data included in the flow calculations. The bias caused when these assumptions fail can be considerably reduced by omitting approximately 40 sec of data immediately following tracer administration from the CBF calculations.

  2. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Güroğlu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  3. Examining metacognition in hearing and deaf/hard of hearing students: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    al-Hilawani, Y A

    2001-03-01

    The metacognitive performance of 87 hearing and 20 deaf/hard of hearing students was examined. The hearing students consisted of 42 males (mean age 15.6 years) and 45 females (mean age 15.4 years). The deaf/hard of hearing students consisted of 13 males (mean age 16.9 years) and 7 females (mean age 15.9 years). Metacognition was conceptualized in terms of choosing the best response to problematic situations drawing upon problem-solving and logical reasoning skills. In the test, pictures represented various daily life interactions. There was no significant difference between hearing and deaf/hard of hearing students in metacognitive performance, nor was there a gender-based significant difference among the deaf/hard of hearing students. However, hearing female students scored significantly higher on the metacognitive test than hearing male students. Further analysis of the study findings possibly would show students' overall performance on the metacognitive test to be independent of grade point average. Analysis did show, however, a significant negative correlation between test performance and grades in Arabic among deaf/hard of hearing students.

  4. Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; He, Xin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns on resource depletion and environmental pollution have largely obliged electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) should be tackled in an environmentally sound manner. Recycling process development is regarded as the most effective and fundamental to solve the e-waste problem. Based on global achievements related to e-waste recycling in the past 15 years, we first propose a theory to design an e-waste recycling process, including measuring e-waste recyclability and selection of recycling process. And we summarize the indicators and tools in terms of resource dimension, environmental dimension, and economic dimension, to examine the e-waste recycling process. Using the sophisticated experience and adequate information of e-waste management, spent lithium-ion batteries and waste printed circuit boards are chosen as case studies to implement and verify the proposed method. All the potential theory and obtained results in this work can contribute to future e-waste management toward best available techniques and best environmental practices.

  5. Parent Training for Children Born Premature: A Pilot Study Examining the Moderating Role of Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Gabriela M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of emotion regulation on treatment efficacy following a parent-training intervention, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), for young children born preterm. Method In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children who were born preterm (i.e., < 37 weeks gestation) and presented with elevated levels of externalizing behavior problems were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. Observers masked to treatment condition coded an index of emotion regulation (i.e., global regulation) during a videotaped 10-min parent-child interaction at the initial baseline assessment. Treatment efficacy was assessed using a parent-report questionnaire of child disruptive behavior. Results Results demonstrated that global regulation significantly interacted with treatment condition in predicting change in child disruptive behavior. Specifically, higher levels of distress at baseline were associated with greater improvements in child disruptive behavior following the intervention. Conclusion These findings are discussed in the context of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and highlight the importance of considering children’s emotion regulation skills in the course of psychosocial treatment for young children born premature. PMID:23681677

  6. Examining temporal effects on cancer risk in the international nuclear workers' study.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Robert D; Bertke, Stephen J; Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K

    2017-03-15

    The paper continues the series of publications from the International Nuclear Workers Study cohort that comprises 308,297 workers from France, the United Kingdom and the United States, providing 8.2 million person-years of observation from a combined follow-up period (at earliest 1944 to at latest 2005). These workers' external radiation exposures were primarily to photons, resulting in an estimated average career absorbed dose to the colon of 17.4 milligray. The association between cumulative ionizing radiation dose and cancer mortality was evaluated in general relative risk models that describe modification of the excess relative risk (ERR) per gray (Gy) by time since exposure and age at exposure. Methods analogous to a nested-case control study using conditional logistic regression of sampled risks sets were used. Outcomes included: all solid cancers, lung cancer, leukemias excluding chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Significant risk heterogeneity was evident in chronic myeloid leukemia with time since exposure, where we observed increased ERR per Gy estimates shortly after exposure (2-10 year) and again later (20-30 years). We observed delayed effects for acute myeloid leukemia although estimates were not statistically significant. Solid cancer excess risk was restricted to exposure at age 35+ years and also diminished for exposure 30 years prior to attained age. Persistent or late effects suggest additional follow-up may inform on lifetime risks. However, cautious interpretation of results is needed due to analytical limitations and a lack of confirmatory results from other studies.

  7. Magneto-rheological fluids redispersibility - a factorial design study of phosphate shell on carbonyl iron powder with dispersing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombard, Antonio J. F.; Antunes, Laís S.; Balestrassi, Pedro P.; Paiva, Anderson P.

    2009-02-01

    We showed, in a previous paper, that Magneto-Rheological Fluids (MRFs) have different rheology when prepared with Carbonyl Iron Powders (CIP) phosphate (coated or uncoated). This was especially so when done without a magnetic field. This paper employs factorial design to examine the redispersibility and rheology of some MRF formulations; we use the same CIPs but with different dispersing additives. The factors are: CIP A (uncoated) or B (phosphate shell); additives with carboxylic acid or primary amine as the polar group; and n-octyl (C8H17) or n-dodecyl (C12H25) as the alkyl hydrocarbon chain (R-). CIP B was much more redispersible than CIP A, especially with amine additives; typical work values were > 5mJ @ 20 mm depth. In terms of viscosity, CIP A generated lower values, at shear rates above 100 s-1. It also realized higher yield stress values (Ho = 300 kA/m) than CIP B (50% and beyond).

  8. Quantitative examination of a perfusion microscope for the study of osmotic response of cells.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Komori, Yuichi; Zawlodzka, Sylwia; Fujii, Motoo

    2004-08-01

    The perfusion microscope was developed for the study of the osmotic response of cells. In this microscope, the cells are immobilized in a transparent chamber mounted on the stage and exposed to a variety of milieus by perfusing the chamber with solutions of different concentrations. The concentration of the supplied solution is controlled using two variable-speed syringe pumps, which supply an isotonic solution and a hypertonic solution. Before using this system to characterize the osmotic response of cells, the change in the concentration of NaCl solution flowing through the chamber is examined quantitatively using a laser interferometer and an image processing technique. The NaCl concentration is increased from an isotonic condition to a hypertonic condition abruptly or gradually at a given constant rate, and decreased from a hypertonic condition to an isotonic condition. It is confirmed that the concentration is nearly uniform in the cross direction at the middle of the chamber, and the change in the NaCl concentration is reproducible. The average rate of increase or decrease in the measured concentration agrees fairly well with the given rate when the concentration is changed gradually at a constant rate. The rate of the abrupt change is also determined to be the highest limit achieved by the present method. As the first application of using the perfusion microscope for biological studies, the volume change of cells after exposure to a hypertonic solution is measured. Then, the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membrane is determinedfrom the comparison of the volume change between the experiment and the theoretical estimation for the measured change in the NaCl concentration of the perfused solution.

  9. Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects.

    PubMed

    Lanzetta-Valdo, Bianca Pinheiro; Oliveira, Giselle Alves de; Ferreira, Jane Tagarro Correa; Palacios, Ester Miyuki Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD (p < 0.01), and less correct responses in the PPS (p < 0.0001) and in the SN (p < 0.05) tests when compared with non-ADHD children. The treatment with MPH, especially along 6 months, significantly decreased the mean errors in the DD (p < 0.01) and increased the correct response in the PPS (p < 0.001) and SN (p < 0.01) tests when compared with the performance before MPH treatment. Conclusions ADHD children show inefficient AP in selected behavioral auditory battery suggesting impaired in auditory closure, binaural integration, and temporal ordering. Treatment with MPH gradually improved these deficiencies and completely reversed them by reaching a performance similar to non-ADHD children at 6 months of treatment.

  10. Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lanzetta-Valdo, Bianca Pinheiro; Oliveira, Giselle Alves de; Ferreira, Jane Tagarro Correa; Palacios, Ester Miyuki Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD (p < 0.01), and less correct responses in the PPS (p < 0.0001) and in the SN (p < 0.05) tests when compared with non-ADHD children. The treatment with MPH, especially along 6 months, significantly decreased the mean errors in the DD (p < 0.01) and increased the correct response in the PPS (p < 0.001) and SN (p < 0.01) tests when compared with the performance before MPH treatment. Conclusions ADHD children show inefficient AP in selected behavioral auditory battery suggesting impaired in auditory closure, binaural integration, and temporal ordering. Treatment with MPH gradually improved these deficiencies and completely reversed them by reaching a performance similar to non-ADHD children at 6 months of treatment. PMID:28050211

  11. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  12. Study examines cancer overdiagnosis in National Lung Screening Trial | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Screening for lung cancer has the potential to reduce mortality, but in addition to detecting aggressive tumors, screening will also detect indolent tumors that otherwise may not cause clinical symptoms. These overdiagnosis cases represent an important potential harm of screening because they incur additional cost, anxiety, and morbidity associated with cancer treatment... |

  13. A Review of Approaches to the Study of Turbulence Modification by Means of Non-Newtonian Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    interesting class of polymers for drag reduction studies. These polymers ( xanthomonas campestris , guar gum) were found to show long term stability...and their superiority to "typical" drag reducing polymers like polyethylene oxide, was evident. His degradation studies showed that the xanthomonas ... campestris is a better and more durable additive than guar gum. One of the most important biological additives is the DNA. It is actually a random

  14. A pilot-scale study of selective desulfurization via urea addition in iron ore sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hong-ming; Wu, Xue-jian; Chun, Tie-jun; Di, Zhan-xia; Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min

    2016-11-01

    The iron ore sintering process is the main source of SO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. In our previous research, we proposed a novel technology for reducing SO2 emissions in the flue gas in the iron ore sintering process by adding urea at a given distance from the sintering grate bar. In this paper, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out in a commercial sintering plant. The results showed that, compared to the SO2 concentration in flue gas without urea addition, the SO2 concentration decreased substantially from 694.2 to 108.0 mg/m3 when 0.10wt% urea was added. NH3 decomposed by urea reacted with SO2 to produce (NH4)2SO4, decreasing the SO2 concentration in the flue gas.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  17. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-27

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  20. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  1. Examination and sensitivity study of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.C.; Glenn, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have checked the consistency of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium with experimental data, by examining work hardening, the temperature dependence of the yield strength, strain-rate effects, and the Hugoniot (U/sub s/-U/sub p/) relations. We have examined the sensitivity of simulations of uniaxial strain plate impact experiments, in which beryllium was used, to changes in the beryllium constitutive model. We also discuss the nonuniqueness of constitutive models. 17 figures.

  2. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  3. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  4. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  5. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  6. A Cross Sectional Study Examining Shoulder Pain and Disability in Division I Female Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Corinne; Tate, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of shoulder pain in the competitive swimming population has been reported as high as 91%. Female collegiate swimmers have a reported shoulder injury rate 3× greater than their male counterparts. There has been little information on how to best prevent shoulder pain in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine if differences exist in shoulder range of motion, upper extremity strength, core endurance, and pectoralis minor length in NCAA Division I female swimmers with and without shoulder pain and disability. Methods NCAA Division I females (n=37) currently swimming completed a brief survey that included the pain subscale of the Penn Shoulder Score (PSS) and the Sports/Performing Arts Module of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Outcome Measure. Passive range of motion for shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) at 90° abduction was measured using a digital inclinometer. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer for scapular depression and adduction, scapular adduction, IR, and ER. Core endurance was assessed using the side bridge and prone bridge tests. Pectoralis minor muscle length was assessed in both a resting and stretched position using the PALM palpation meter. All measures were taken on the dominant and nondominant arms. Results Participants were classified as positive for pain and disability if the following 2 criteria were met: 1) the DASH sports module score was greater than 6/20 points and 2) the PSS strenuous pain score was ≥4/10. If these criteria were not met, participants were classified as negative for pain and disability. Significant differences were found between the two groups on the dominant side for pectoralis muscle length at rest (p=0.003) and stretch (p=0.029). Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence regarding an association between a decrease in pectoralis minor length and shoulder pain and disability in Division I female swimmers

  7. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  8. Examination of electronic structure differences between CIGSSe and CZTSSe by photoluminescence study

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Kong Fai; Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred; Gershon, Talia; Gunawan, Oki

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, we elaborate on the interpretation and use of photoluminescence (PL) measurements as they relate to the “donor/acceptor” and “electrostatic potential fluctuations” models for compensated semiconductors. Low-temperature (7 K) PL measurements were performed on high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} and two Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} solar cells with high- and low-S/(S + Se) ratio, all fabricated by a hydrazine solution-processing method. From excitation-dependent PL, the total defect density (which include radiative and non-radiative defects) within the band gap (E{sub g}) was estimated for each material and the consequent depth of the electrostatic potential fluctuation (γ) was calculated. The quasi-donor-acceptor pair (QDAP) density was estimated from the blue-shift magnitude of the QDAP PL peak position in power-dependent PL spectra. As a further verification, we show that the slope of the lifetime as a function of photon energies (dτ/dE) is consistent with our estimate for the magnitude of γ. Lastly, the energetic depth of the QDAP defects is examined by studying the spectral evolution of the PL as a function of temperature. The shallow defect levels in CIGSSe resulted in a significant blue-shift of the PL peak with temperature, whereas no obvious shift was observed for either CZTSSe sample, indicating an increase in the depth of the defects. Further improvement on Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} solar cell should focus on reducing the sub-E{sub g} defect density and avoiding the formation of deep defects.

  9. Effectiveness of a diode laser in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy: study of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. PMID:26161248

  10. The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the Prospective Adoption Design to Examine Genotype–Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2009-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption design consisting of 360 linked sets of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children followed from 3 months postpartum through child age 7 years, and an additional 200 linked sets for whom recruitment is underway. The EGDS brings together the study of genotype–environment correlation (rGE) and Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction to inform intervention development by examining mechanisms whereby family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences. Participants in the EGDS are recruited through domestic adoption agencies located throughout the United States of America. The assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 4-½ years and at ages 6 and 7, when the children are in their 1st and 2nd years of formal schooling (kindergarten and first grade). The data collection includes measures of child characteristics, birth and adoptive parent characteristics, adoptive parenting, prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress, birth parent and adopted child salivary cortisol reactivity, and DNA from all participants. The preliminary analyses suggest evidence for GxE interaction beginning in infancy. An intervention perspective on future developments in the field of behavioral genetics is described. PMID:19458782

  11. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  12. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-09

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  13. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  15. Examining the Amine Functionalization in Dicarboxylates: Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Aspartate and Glutamate

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Hou, Gao-Lei; Kong, Xiangyu; Valiev, Marat; Wang, Xue B.

    2014-06-30

    Aspartate (Asp2-) and Glutamate (Glu2-), two doubly charged conjugate bases of the corresponding amino acids were investigated using low temperature negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab-initio calculations. The effect of amine functionalization was studied by a direct comparison to the parent dicarboxylate species (-CO2–(CH2)n–CO2-, DCn2-) -- succinate (DC22-) and propionate (DC32-). Experimentally the addition of amine group for n = 2 case (DC22-, Asp2-) significantly improves the stability of the resultant Asp2- dianionic species, albeit that NIPES shows only a small increase in adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) (+0.05eV). In contrast, for n = 3 (DC32-, Glu2-), much larger ADE increase is observed (+0.15eV). Similar results are obtained through ab-initio calculations. The latter indicates that increased stability of Asp2- can be attributed to the lowering of the energy of singlet dianion state due to hydrogen bonding effects. The effect of the amino group on the doublet monoanion state is more complicated, and results in the weakening of the binding of the adjacent carboxylate group due to electronic structure resonance effects. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of NIPES results that show enhanced production of near zero kinetic energy electrons observed experimentally for amine-functionalized species.

  16. Who attends a UK diabetes screening programme? Findings from the ADDITION-Cambridge study

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, LA; Simmons, RK; Barling, RS; Butler, R; Williams, KM; Prevost, AT; Kinmonth, AL; Wareham, NJ; Griffin, SJ

    2012-01-01

    Aims One of the factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of population screening for type 2 diabetes may be uptake. We examined attendance and practice- and individual-level factors influencing uptake at each stage of a diabetes screening programme in general practice. Methods A stepwise screening programme was undertaken among 135,825 people aged 40-69 years without known diabetes in 49 general practices in East England. The programme included a score based on routinely available data (age, sex, BMI and prescribed medication) to identify those at high risk who were offered random capillary blood glucose (RBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin tests. Those screening positive were offered fasting capillary blood glucose (FBG) and confirmatory oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Results 33,539 high risk individuals were invited for a RBG screening test; 24,654 (74%) attended. 94% attended the follow-up FBG test and 82% the diagnostic OGTT. 70% of individuals completed the screening programme. Practices with higher GP staff complements and those located in more deprived areas had lower uptake for RBG and FBG tests. Male sex and a higher BMI were associated with lower attendance for RBG testing. Older age, prescription of antihypertensive medication and a higher risk score were associated with higher attendance for FBG and RBG tests. Conclusions High attendance rates can be achieved by targeted stepwise screening of individuals assessed as high risk by data routinely available in general practice. Different strategies may be required to increase initial attendance, ensure completion of the screening programme, and reduce the risk that screening increases health inequalities. PMID:20722672

  17. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Lesion removal and lesion addition algorithms in lung volumetric data sets for perception studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Mark T.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Ellingson, Andrew; Thompson, Brad H.; Mullan, Brian F.

    2006-03-01

    Image perception studies of medical images provide important information about how radiologists interpret images and insights for reducing reading errors. In the past, perception studies have been difficult to perform using clinical imaging studies because of the problems associated with obtaining images demonstrating proven abnormalities and appropriate normal control images. We developed and evaluated interactive software that allows the seamless removal of abnormal areas from CT lung image sets. We have also developed interactive software for capturing lung lesions in a database where they can be added to lung CT studies. The efficacy of the software to remove abnormal areas of lung CT studies was evaluated psychophysically by having radiologists select the one altered image from a display of four. The software for adding lesions was evaluated by having radiologists classify displayed CT slices with lesions as real or artificial scaled to 3 levels of confidence. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the radiologist had difficulty in distinguishing the raw clinical images from those that had been altered. We conclude that this software can be used to create experimental normal control and "proven" lesion data sets for volumetric CT of the lung fields. We also note that this software can be easily adapted to work with other tissue besides lung and that it can be adapted to other digital imaging modalities.

  20. Media Studies: An Investigation and Examination of Selected Media Studies on What Constitutes a Media Studies Program in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partovi, Parvis Paul

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century is rapidly becoming the age of new and oftentimes confusing innovations in media, so much so that it is frequently referred to as the "new media" (Beach, 2007). It has become evident that we live in an era with extremely complex, and rapidly changing media scenes. Media studies now appears in major institutions of higher education…

  1. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  2. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  3. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  4. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  5. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  6. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  7. A Micro-Developmental Approach to Studying Young Children's Problem Solving Behavior in Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study that investigated the process of change in 5-6-year-old children's successful problem-solving approaches when tackling a multiple-step task in elementary arithmetic. Micro-developmental changes in children's successful problem-solving behavior were analyzed using Karmiloff-Smith's model of representational redescription…

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  9. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  10. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  11. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  12. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  13. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  14. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  15. Study Guide for the Therapeutic Recreation Specialist Certification Examination. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbo, Norma J.; Folkerth, Jean E.

    2005-01-01

    This long-awaited third edition has been expanded to 90 warm-up items and two complete practice tests. Also included are 240 diagnostic and review items to assist candidates in preparing for the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification's national certification examination for therapeutic recreation specialists. The "Study…

  16. Attitude Scale towards Web-Based Examination System (MOODLE)--Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulent, Basaran; Murat, Yalman; Selahattin, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Today, the spread of Internet use has accelerated the development of educational technologies and increased the quality of education by encouraging teachers' cooperation and participation. As a result, examinations executed via the Internet have become common, and a number of universities have started using distant education management system.…

  17. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  18. Examining Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Mathematics Teaching Cycle: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…

  19. Physics Examinations for University Entrance. An International Study. Science and Technology Education Document Series 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Paul, Ed.

    This document is intended for anyone having the responsibility for the policy or the practice of examination and selection systems in physics, whether at the completion stages of secondary education, or the entrance stages of higher education. The book contains 13 chapters written by authors from 11 different countries. Each chapter was written…

  20. Examining Differences between Light and Heavier Smoking Vocational Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Vanessa A.; Loukas, Alexandra; Gottlieb, Nell H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences between light and heavier smoking vocational/technical students in tobacco use, related behaviors, and cessation. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Methods: Two hundred and four smokers attending two vocational/technical colleges in east Texas, USA, completed an anonymous survey during a regularly scheduled…

  1. A National Study Examining the Impact of SEVIS on International Student and Scholar Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Vicki J.; Hermsen, Jill M.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Wood, Melinda S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact that Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) is having on the professional worklives of international student and scholar advisors (ISSAs) on U.S. college and university campuses. ISSAs are clearly satisfied with their work and hold their institutions in high regard. However,…

  2. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  3. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  4. Examining Boyer's Scholarship of Engagement: A Case Study of a Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Miriam F.

    2009-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the global economic, social, and cultural context over the past decade, the teaching, research, and public service missions of public universities and colleges are being reshaped significantly. Faculty professional development programs are a vital but under-examined resource for institutional and academic…

  5. Examining Metacognition in Hearing and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2001-01-01

    The metacognitive performance of 87 Arab typically developing adolescents and 20 Arab adolescents with deafness was examined. There was no significant difference between the students in metacognitive performance, nor were there gender-based differences among students with deafness. However, hearing female students scored significantly higher on…

  6. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  7. A Validity Study of the Multiple-Choice Component of the Advanced Placement Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modu, Christopher C.; Taft, Hessy L.

    1982-01-01

    Compares performance of first-year general chemistry college students from 32 institutions with performance of Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Candidates in 1978 to provide a concurrent validity measure of the multiple-choice section of the AP chemistry examination. Average AP candidates scored significantly higher than average college students.…

  8. Dispositional Flow as a Mediator of the Relationships between Attentional Control and Approaches to Studying during Academic Examination Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cermakova, Lucie; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Spada, Marcantonio M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how attentional control and study-related dispositional flow influence students' approaches to studying when preparing for academic examinations. Based on information-processing theories, it was hypothesised that attentional control would be positively associated with deep and strategic approaches to studying, and…

  9. Examining Geothermal Potential Utilizing a Non-traditional Approach: Case Studies from the New England Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteas, C.; Rhodes, J. M.; Mabee, S. B.; Adams, S.; Goodhue, N.; Gagnon, T.; Thomas, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating geothermal potential in regions without extensive borehole heat flow data or traditional geophysical studies remains challenging. However, estimates can be generated by combining regional mapping of areas containing high concentrations of granitoids with geochemical analysis (see Rhodes et al., this session). This approach allows for relatively inexpensive reconnaissance studies over large areas that can be used to produce temperature-depth profile models, which can be easily tested against existing borehole-based data sets. Additionally, site-specific heat production calculations can be correlated with regional tectonic maps and terrane models that can further inform estimates of geothermal potential. Over three hundred granitoid localities in Massachusetts (MA) and Connecticut (CT) have been sampled and analyzed to date. For simplification, the study area can be subdivided into four major litho-tectonic zones: the Taconic-Berkshire zone of western MA and northwestern CT, The Bronson Hill zone associated with the Connecticut River Valley, the Nashoba zone of central MA and eastern CT, and the Milford-Dedham zone of eastern MA and eastern CT. In southeastern MA and eastern CT, average heat production of granitoid samples is approximately 2.7 μW/m3. Isolated samples in eastern CT are up to ~6 μW/m3 and greater than 4 μW/m3 in southeastern MA. The Fall River granite within this region of eastern MA has been modeled with a 2 km thick sediment package overlying the granite. These models, which account for the insulating effects of sediments within the Narragansett Basin, suggest temperatures may reach 107°C at depths of 4 km and 132°C at 6 km. The Andover granite, which is within the Nashoba zone of central MA, has been altered by upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies metamorphism and is in a much more structurally complex configuration than granitoids to the south or east. Nevertheless, models suggest that the average temperature at 4 km depth

  10. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records.

  11. [Anatomical and radiological studies on additional mandible teeth anesthesia considering innervation variability].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, S V; Dydykin, S S; Kuzin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents studies on nutritional foramina of the mandible. Some nutritional foramina located in the frontal mandibular region on the lingual surface and containing significant blood vessels and nerves are found to be more typical for teeth-bearing mandible. In retromolar area in case of third molars presence intraosseous canals were revealed leading to inferior alveolar nerve canal. One should consider intraligamental and lingual anesthesia by lower incisors extraction. Intraosseous anesthesia and retromolar area infiltration significantly increase anesthesia efficiency by third molar extraction.

  12. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  13. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  14. Renaissance of morphological studies: the examination of functional structures in living animal organs using the in vivo cryotechnique.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shinichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques. Over the past two decades, we have performed immunohistochemical and morphological studies of the cells and tissues in living animal organs using a novel in vivo cryotechnique. The use of a specially designed liquid cryogen system with or without a cryoknife during this cryotechnique solved the technical problems that inevitably arise during the conventional preparation methods employed prior to light or electron microscopic examinations. Our in vivo cryotechnique has been found to be extremely useful for arresting transient physiological processes in cells and tissues and for maintaining their functional components-such as rapidly changing signaling molecules, membrane channels, or receptors-in situ. The purpose of the present review is to describe the basic mechanism underlying cryotechniques and the significance of our in vivo cryotechnique. In addition, it describes various morphological or immunohistochemical findings, observations made using quantum dots, and a Raman cryomicroscopy-based method for assessing oxygen saturation in the erythrocytes flowing through intestinal tissues.

  15. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  16. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  17. "The Second We Stop Growing We Are Dead": Examining a Middle Grades Social Studies Professional Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradwell, Jill M.; DiCamillo, Lorrei

    2013-01-01

    Teacher collaboration is an important part of professional growth (Coburn, 2001; DuFour, 2004b; Grossman, Wineburg, & Woolworth, 2001; Little, 2002) and has been found to be a key element in highly successful schools (McEwin & Greene, 2010). Additionally, the Association for Middle Level Education (AMLE), formerly National Middle School…

  18. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  19. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  1. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food.

  2. Introducing structured viva voce examination in medical undergraduate pharmacology: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dhasmana, D. C.; Bala, Suman; Sharma, Rajendra; Sharma, Taruna; Kohli, Saurabh; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Viva voce examination is an important tool of evaluation in medical examinations marred by high subjectivity. Gross subjectivity in viva voce assessment can be reduced by structuring it. Materials and Methods: The marks obtained in theory and viva voce (traditional viva voce examination [TVVE]) of I sessional, II MBBS students were compared and a huge disparity was identified. A structured viva voce examination (SVVE) was then proposed and experimented as an objective and standardized alternative. Sets of equitable question cards for SVVE were prepared, each having eight questions with two parts each, arranged successively with increasing difficulty, domains of learning, and appropriate marks. The percentage variation in scoring in viva versus theory marks was calculated for both TVVE and SVVE, and students were grouped as Group I (+100 to +51%); Group II (+50 to −50%); Group III (−51 to −100%); Group IV (−101 to −150%); Group V (−151 to −200%); and Group VI (< −200%) variation, as? inappropriate, appropriate, inappropriate, erroneous, more erroneous and most erroneous respectively. Student’s feedback on the SVVE was also obtained. Results: In TVVE (n = 128), the students distributed were:none,17.2%, 23.4%, 22.7%, 11.7% and 25% in Group I, II, III, IV, V, and VI in contrast to SVVE (n = 107) as 7.5%, 57.9%, 19.6%, 6.5%, 5.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. Marked disparity of TVVE was annulled with SVVE. Student’s feedback was quite encouraging with 83% overall acceptability and almost 66% preferred SVVE. Conclusion: SVVE was more realistic as compared to TVVE. Most of the students favored this approach. PMID:28031609

  3. [The role of tympanometric examination in the orthodontic study of mouth breathers].

    PubMed

    Staffolani, N; Guerra, M; Pugliese, M; Cervini, M

    1990-10-01

    The mouth breathing is a multidisciplinary problem; in fact, when the orthodontist finds a patient with altered dento-skeletal growth due to this abnormal mode of breathing, to establish a correct treatment planning, he needs to be supported [correction of comforted] by ear, nose and throat examinations. Among these, the tympanogram, because of its simple execution and of the interesting data obtained, has a very important role in the orthodontic approach of the oral breather.

  4. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  5. A Comparative Kirkwood-Buff Study of Aqueous Methanol Solutions Modeled by the CHARMM Additive and Drude Polarizable Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study on aqueous methanol solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields was carried out by employing Kirkwood-Buff analysis. It was shown that both models reproduced the experimental Kirkwood-Buff integrals and excess coordination numbers adequately well over the entire concentration range. The Drude model showed significant improvement over the additive model in solution densities, partial molar volumes, excess molar volumes, concentration-dependent diffusion constants, and dielectric constants. However, the additive model performed somewhat better than the Drude model in reproducing the activity derivative, excess molar Gibbs energy and excess molar enthalpy of mixing. This is due to the additive achieving a better balance among solute-solute, solute-solvent, and solvent-solvent interactions, indicating the potential for improvements in the Drude polarizable alcohol model. PMID:23947568

  6. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  7. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  8. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  9. Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P < 0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P < 0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P < 0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion

  10. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  11. Questioning as a Civic Act: An Examination of How Social Studies Teachers Define, Develop, and Cultivate Questions for Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Rebecca Glasgow Williams

    2016-01-01

    The present qualitative study used socio-cultural theory (Wertsch, 1998), pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987), and reflective practice (Schon, 1983) to examine how social studies teachers define and develop inquiry questions. Existing literature reflects a long tradition of equating inquiry with high quality social studies instruction…

  12. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Undergraduate Studying: Examining Students' Reports from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Elizabeth A.; Hadwin, Allyson F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate students' reports of emotions and emotion regulation during studying from a self-regulated learning (SRL) perspective. Participants were 111 university students enrolled in a first-year course designed to teach skills in SRL. Students reflected on their emotional experiences during goal-directed studying episodes…

  13. Radiologic examination requisition procedures: a study of their effectiveness in a community hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, J.

    1983-02-01

    One hundred consecutive radiologic examinations were reviewed with particular attention to the clinical information included. The referring physician originated this clinical information in only 33% of cases. Other personnel, including nurses and aides, added information on the requisitions 57% of the time. When nonphysician personnel completed the requisitions, 46% of the cases were completed with either inappropriate or misleading clinical information. In 9% of the cases, there was no clinical information. This falls short of the requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. Because all of the cases originated by physicians were appropriately completed, a strong plea is made for requiring physicians to originate radiologic requisitions.

  14. Preliminary Examination of Sahara 99555: Mineralogy and Experimental Studies of a New Angrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.; Le, L.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    A 2710 g meteorite, Sahara 99555 (Sah99), was recently recovered from the Sahara and reported to be the 5th angrite. It is the largest angrite ever found and may offer useful information to better understand the unusual petrogeneses of this rare achondrite group. It may also allow us to examine the chronological record of igneous activity in the very early solar system. We obtained a 2.6 g chip of Sah99 and here present a preliminary report of its petrology and mineralogy in conjunction with a crystallization experiment on an analogue composition.

  15. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  16. Examining Social Studies and Science and Technology Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs Regarding Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers who attend social studies and science and technology teaching programs; and to investigate how these beliefs varies regarding grade level, gender and departments. The sample of the study is composed of 300 social studies, 260 science and technology…

  17. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  18. Comparative study of rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses and examination of the effects of salt accumulation under different cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Son, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-03-01

    This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods. In addition, all culturable bacteria isolated from each soil sample were tested for traits related to plant growth promotion. The EC of rhizospheric soils was 5.32-5.54 dS/m for the RCS and 2.05-2.19 dS/m for the PURS. The culture-based method indicated that the bacterial communities and bacterial characteristics were significantly more diverse in the PURS soil than in the RCS soil. The pyrosequencing data also indicated that the richness and diversity of bacterial communities were greater in the PURS soil. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in soil samples under both cropping systems. However, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were more prevalent in the RCS soil, while the PURS soil contained a greater number of Chloroflexi. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that soil EC was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes and negatively correlated with the abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Deltaproteobacteria. This is the first study on the rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under two different cropping systems using both culture- and pyrosequencing-based methods.

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  20. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  1. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  2. Incidental healed postinfectious glomerulonephritis: a study of 1012 renal biopsy specimens examined by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haas, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) characterized by immune complex deposits typical of postinfectious GN but with a paucity or absence of overt clinical symptoms and/or urinary abnormalities may occur after a group A streptococcus infection. The overall incidence of this type of subclinical GN is not known. To address this question, electron microscopy findings in 1012 consecutive renal biopsy specimens (952 native kidney, 60 transplant) examined by a single renal pathologist from August 1999 to April 2002 were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of distinct subepithelial and intramembranous deposits indicative of postinfectious GN. Such deposits were noted in 83 biopsy specimens, including 26 with a primary diagnosis of postinfectious GN (acute, persistent, or latent) and 57 in which these deposits were an incidental finding. In each of the latter 57 cases, some or all of the deposits showed partial or extensive loss of electron density typical of partially or largely resorbed deposits. A diagnosis of incidental postinfectious GN was not made in any biopsy specimen exhibiting another immune complex-related glomerular disease that could possibly account for the deposits, composing 443 of the 1012 biopsy specimens examined. Thirty of the 57 biopsy specimens with incidental postinfectious GN showed mesangial hypercellularity, although this was focal and segmental in all but 3 cases and was not accompanied by the endocapillary hypercellularity typical of acute postinfectious lesions. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular deposits of C3 in >90% of these biopsy specimens and IgM deposits in 66%, but only rare IgG, IgA, and Cq deposits. Twenty-three (40%) of these 57 biopsy specimens exhibited diabetic nephropathy, either alone or in combination with another lesion; for perspective, only 128 (13%) of the 1012 biopsy specimens examined showed evidence of diabetic nephropathy. In summary, incidental evidence of resolving or largely healed postinfectious GN was noted

  3. Social Studies Teachers Who Teach toward Social Justice: An Examination of Life Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a qualitative investigation of two research questions: What experiences lead secondary social studies teachers to become passionate and committed to teaching toward social justice? How do these teachers conceptualize and practice teaching toward social justice in the social studies? The study, which employed a life…

  4. Moving beyond Mentoring: A Collective Case Study Examining the Perceived Characteristics of Positive Transformational Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Brent W.; Kroth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective-case study was to explore the characteristics of transformational figures. This study revealed that interpersonal encounters were seen as a catalyst that assisted study participants through the process of transformation. Ten themes emerged from the cross-case analysis: Imposed and Intentional Influence; Metaphors of…

  5. Cross-cultural examination of the tripartite model with children: data from the Barretstown studies.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, G; Laurent, J; Joiner, T E; Catanzaro, S J; MacLachlan, M

    2001-10-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) were administered to a group of 240 children from European countries to determine their utility in examining the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in a cross-cultural sample. Most of the children (n = 196) had been diagnosed with a medical illness; the remainder were siblings of these youngsters (n = 44). Only slight variations were noted in items between this sample and samples from the United States. Despite these minor differences, 3 distinct scales measuring the positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal constructs of the tripartite model were identified. These findings illustrate that the PH-PANAS-C provides a useful measure of the tripartite model in a cross-cultural sample of youth. The findings also demonstrate that the tripartite model is generalizable to a cross-cultural milieu.

  6. [Instrumental studies in laboratories dedicated to the examination of disk overload in health workers].

    PubMed

    Frigo, C

    1999-01-01

    The main factors to be considered when applying movement analysis techniques to complex situations are analysed. In particular, when the mechanical interactions of the operator with an object to be handled are not easily measurable, as in the case of lifting a patient in a nursery, an approach in which the ground reaction forces are measured through a force platform is more convenient. In these situations the posture and the movement of the subject, that are also difficult to track, do not need to be analysed. The only information needed is the position and orientation of the intervertebral disk and some estimation of the anthropometric parameters of the part of the body which is below the vertebral level of interest. This can be achieved by a relatively simple approach and a few reasonable assumptions. In addition, the method can enable us to analyse forces and moments in 3-D. The results presented refer to several kinds of operations that are usually performed with hospital patients. They include bed to wheelchair transfer, assistance with standing up from a chair, repositioning the patient in bed. It is shown that the compression loads (1810 N to 5110 N) are comparable to those already reported in the literature. In addition, the transversal components (anterior (260 N-707 N) and lateral (5 N-200 N) shear) are of considerable interest. It is also shown how the use of appropriate ergonomical devices to help patient lifting and handling can considerably reduce the loads on the spine: in fact the compression loads are between 991 N and 1644 N.

  7. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  8. For the Record: The Lived Experience of Parents with a Learning Disability--A Pilot Study Examining the Scottish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Gillian; Stewart, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of parents with a learning disability living in the community although the exact numbers are unknown. Existing research suggests that this group of parents faces disadvantage and discrimination on a number of levels. This study reports on the findings of a small pilot study that examined the lived experience of five…

  9. Connecting Observations of Student and Teacher Learning: An Examination of Dialogic Processes in Lesson Study Discussions in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Paul; Vrikki, Maria; Vermunt, Jan D.; Mercer, Neil; van Halem, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Study is rapidly becoming one of the most adopted models of teacher professional development worldwide. In this paper, we examine the teachers' discussions that are an integral part of the Lesson Study research cycle. In particular, we investigate the "dialogic mechanisms" that enable teachers' pedagogical intentions to be…

  10. Multiculturalism or Assimilation? An Examination of a University International House through a Cultural Studies-as-Praxis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Williams, J. Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines issues of social difference and justice in a university international student center through a "cultural studies as praxis" model, which had been developed in the field of cultural studies and/in education by Handel Wright at the University of Tennessee (Wright 2001, 2001/2002). The model blends and hybridizes three…

  11. An Evaluation Study of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) Degree: Examining the Transfer of Knowledge and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hye Lim

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree program in terms of transfer of knowledge and leadership practices. As EMBA programs have recently revamped their curriculum toward offering more practical skills, this study provided insight into the effectiveness of their curricula and…

  12. A Case Study of a Kindergarten Teacher: Examining Practices and Beliefs That Support the Social-Emotional Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This 5-month qualitative case study investigated the social-emotional climate of one half-day kindergarten classroom by examining the role of the teacher in establishing and sustaining a classroom climate that nurtured the social-emotional lives of students. This case study asks: How and why did the teacher establish and sustain a classroom…

  13. A Case Study of a Turnaround High School: An Examination of the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Claudia; Stein, Kathleen; Schaffer, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center (BTC) engagement in a Baltimore City turnaround high school. Utilizing a case-study design and mixed-methods research, data were collected through interviews, informal observations, and review of administrative and achievement documents. Beginning in the 2011-2012…

  14. An Examination of Diversity within Three Southeastern Academic Libraries: A Mixed-Methods, Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which three academic libraries in the Southeastern United States could be considered diverse. This was a multi-site, mixed methods study. It examined the climate and culture of the libraries, which was assessed through two methods; the first, through survey responses from full-time faculty…

  15. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies of bovine serum albumin interaction with sodium acetate food additive.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Dehghan, Parvin; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-08-01

    Sodium acetate (SA) has been used as a highly effective protectant in food industry and the possible effect of this additive on the binding to albumin should be taken into consideration. Therefore, for the first time, the mechanism of SA interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods under physiological conditions. Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching analysis showed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of BSA upon increasing the amounts of SA. The high affinity of SA to BSA was demonstrated by a binding constant value (1.09×10(3) at 310°K). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic binding plays a main role in the binding of SA to Albumin. Furthermore, the results of UV-vis spectra confirmed the interaction of this additive to BSA. In addition, molecular modeling study demonstrated that A binding sites of BSA play the main role in the interaction with acetate.

  16. A mechanistic study of manganese(iii) acetate-mediated phosphonyl group additions to [60]- and [70]-fullerenes: the oxidative-ion-transfer mechanism vs. free radical addition.

    PubMed

    Tumanskii, Boris L; Sabirov, Denis S; Lyakhovetsky, Yury I

    2016-11-14

    The phosphonylation of C60 with HP(O)(OAlk)2 and Mn(OAc)3·2H2O has been considered to occur via a free radical (FR) path involving intermediate radicals ˙P(O)(OAlk)2. The present study provides evidence in support of another mechanism for the reactions, oxidative-ion-transfer (OIT). The mechanism involves the change of an acetate group in Mn(OAc)3 for the phosphonate group and oxidation of C60 by the Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 formed to a pair: (C60˙(+), Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2˙(-)) followed by the transfer of the phosphonate anion to give the monophposphonylfullerenyl radical. It undergoes reversible dimerization. The polyaddition occurs analogously. Moreover, the compounds Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 (Alk = Et and i-Pr) obtained make novel reagents for phosphonylation of fullerenes working by the OIT mechanism. The reactions of C60 in benzene with equimolar amounts of Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OPr-i)2 or Hg[P(O)(OPr-i)2]2 which is known as working by the FR mechanism since it produces radical ˙P(O)(OPr-i)2 under UV-irradiation, furnished the same radical ˙C60P(O)(OPr-i)2. However, at a 20-fold molar excess of the reagent toward C60, a single derivative C60[P(O)(OPr-i)2]4 and a mixture of derivatives bearing between two and eight phosphonyls were obtained in the former and latter cases, respectively. With C70, the change of the mechanism produced a change in the regioselectivity: 5 and 3 isomers of ˙C70P(O)(OPr-i)2 were obtained, respectively. DFT-calculations provided the hyperfine coupling (hfc) constants of the isomers and explained the regioselectivity change.

  17. The reliability and validity of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board examinations: a nine year longitudinal study (1987-1995) of their psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    Violato, Claudio; Marini, Anthony; Lawson, Douglas; McEwen, Murray

    1996-01-01

    Data derived from the administration of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board (CCEB) examinations for a nine year period, 1987-1995, were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the subject tests: anatomy, chemistry, chiropractic practice, diagnosis and symptomatology, microbiology and public health, neurology, pathology, physiology, and x-ray interpretation and physics. Nearly two-thousand candidates from more than eighteen chiropractic colleges have written the CCEB exams over this nine year period. The results indicate that the exams have adequate alpha reliabilities (.69 to .80) and theoretically appropriate statistical properties and item characteristics. There is also substantial evidence of content validity. Results from stepwise multiple regression and factor analyses provided evidence for the criterion-related and construct validity of the exams. The implication of these results for the continued refinement and development of the CCEB exams, together with suggestions for on-going research of their reliability and validity, are discussed.

  18. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-02-14

    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  19. Enantioselective conjugate addition of nitro compounds to α,β-unsaturated ketones: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Rubén; Andrés, José M; Álvarez, Rosana; Muruzábal, María D; de Lera, Ángel R; Pedrosa, Rafael

    2011-05-16

    A series of chiral thioureas derived from easily available diamines, prepared from α-amino acids, have been tested as catalysts in the enantioselective Michael additions of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated ketones. The best results are obtained with the bifunctional catalyst prepared from L-valine. This thiourea promotes the reaction with high enantioselectivities and chemical yields for aryl/vinyl ketones, but the enantiomeric ratio for alkyl/vinyl derivatives is very modest. The addition of substituted nitromethanes led to the corresponding adducts with excellent enantioselectivity but very poor diastereoselectivity. Evidence for the isomerization of the addition products has been obtained from the reaction of chalcone with [D(3)]nitromethane, which shows that the final addition products epimerize under the reaction conditions. The epimerization explains the low diastereoselectivity observed in the formation of adducts with two adjacent tertiary stereocenters. Density functional studies of the transition structures corresponding to two alternative activation modes of the nitroalkanes and α,β-unsaturated ketones by the bifunctional organocatalyst have been carried out at the B3LYP/3-21G* level. The computations are consistent with a reaction model involving the Michael addition of the thiourea-activated nitronate to the ketone activated by the protonated amine of the organocatalyst. The enantioselectivities predicted by the computations are consistent with the experimental values obtained for aryl- and alkyl-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  20. How to Teach Critical-Thinking in Social Studies Education: An Examination of Three NCSS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabulut, Ülkü S.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teaching a student critical-thinking skills has always been an important mission of social studies education. Over the years, literature and scholarly interest in critical-thinking in social studies have grown sporadically. Nevertheless, growing interest in the literature and commitment among the scholars did not ensure…

  1. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  2. Who Plans (Not) to Study Abroad? An Examination of U.S. Student Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, April H.

    2010-01-01

    With the number of American students studying abroad increasing each year and the expected passage of a federal law that would increase and diversify study abroad participation and locations, U.S. colleges and universities likely will have to make changes related to curriculum, faculty involvement, institutional leadership, programming, and…

  3. "I'm Present, 'A' Please": A Case Study Examining Grading Issues in a Recreation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, H. Joey

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive research, grading and the potential for grade inflation remain areas of concern within higher education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to obtain collective understandings regarding grading and pressures to inflate grades from faculty and instructors within a research-intensive university. The study focused on a…

  4. Metacognitive and Motivational Predictors of Surface Approach to Studying and Academic Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Marcantonio M.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the structure of a model of how surface approach to studying is influenced by the trait variables of motivation and metacognition and the state variables of avoidance coping and evaluation anxiety. We extended the model to include: (1) the investigation of the relative contribution of the five…

  5. An Examination of Second Graders' Construction and Interpretation of Questions Used during Social Studies Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Lynn Allyson

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the level of social studies interview questions second graders formulate and use can be increased with questioning instruction in terms of quality, which is defined as depth of response, and in terms of quantity. This was a quantitative study using both qualitative and quantitative data in which…

  6. A Survey Study Examining Teachers' Perceptions in Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurbegovic, Dajana

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research around best practices in working with refugee and immigrant students. Since teachers spend the majority of the school day with students, their insights about how best to serve these populations of children and adolescents is critical. This dissertation study conducted an online survey study with 139 elementary school…

  7. Study Guide To Prepare for New Written Citizenship Examination: A Guide for Beginner Level ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Annabelle; And Others

    The study guide is designed for limited-English-proficient immigrants preparing to take the United States history portion of new citizenship test. An introductory section describes the development of the guide and its field testing. The study guide itself is in large type and simplified English, and consists of five chapters, each focusing on a…

  8. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  9. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  10. What Teachers Want: A Differentiated Technology Integration Coaching Model Examined through a Self-Study Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatten, Stephanie Hinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this a narrative self-study is to explore the actions taken by a Technology Instructional Specialist to determine which actions are most beneficial for teachers integrating technology in the elementary classroom. The study uses interviews, observations, and journaling of events occurring with six teachers at three different…

  11. Examination of Urban High School Dropouts with High Self-Efficacy: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayles, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of urban students in Central Alabama with high self-efficacy who have dropped out of school to pursue a GED. This study: (a) provided a platform that gave voice to students to share their lived experience as they made the decision to drop out of high school, (b) identified the character…

  12. An examination of some safety issues among commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arosanyin, Godwin Tunde; Olowosulu, Adekunle Taiwo; Oyeyemi, Gafar Matanmi

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of road crashes and injuries among motorcyclists in Nigeria requires a system inquiry into some safety issues at pre-crash, crash and post-crash stages to guide action plans. This paper examines safety issues such as age restriction, motorcycle engine capacity, highway code awareness, licence holding, helmet usage, crash involvement, rescue and payment for treatment among commercial motorcyclists. The primary data derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 334 commercial motorcyclists in Samaru, Zaria were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression technique. There was total compliance with age restriction and motorcycle engine capacity. About 41.8% of the operators were not aware of the existence of the highway code. The odds of licence holding increased with highway code awareness, education with above senior secondary as the reference category and earnings. The odds of crash involvement decreased with highway code awareness, earnings and mode of operation. About 84% of the motorcyclists did not use crash helmet, in spite of being aware of the benefit, and 65.4% of motorcycle crashes was found to be with other road users. The promotion of safety among motorcyclists therefore requires strict traffic law enforcement and modification of road design to segregate traffic and protect pedestrians.

  13. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  14. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    PubMed

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  16. Adolescent obesity in contextual settings: a scoping study of multilevel and hierarchical examinations.

    PubMed

    Utley, J M; Affuso, O; Rucks, A C

    2016-10-01

    Multilevel/hierarchical obesity studies analyze adolescent and family, neighbourhood and social settings' characteristics to generate data needed to design prevention interventions. This scoping study summarizes such studies' characteristics and key findings to provide information to decision makers, which allows them to quickly grasp the state of the evidence and potential policy implications for adolescent obesity prevention. PubMed, CINAHLplus, PsychINFO and Sociological Abstracts were searched for peer-reviewed studies spanning 1 January 2000-31 August 2014. Inclusion criteria included (i) outcome weight status, physical activity and weight status, or physical activity alone if the aim was obesity prevention; (ii) 12- to 19-year-old participants in a cross-sectional study, a separate analysis in a cross-sectional study or a longitudinal follow-up. Nineteen studies were published in the United States of America; four in Canada; two in Spain, China and Vietnam, respectively; and one in Germany. Self-efficacy, parental physical activity support, perceived neighbourhood support, social cohesion and access to recreational facilities were associated with increased activity levels; neighbourhood physical disorder and perceived lack of safety associated with reduced physical activity levels. Overweight or obesity was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and household availability thereof; reduced odds were reported with fruit and vegetable intake and household availability of these, daily breakfast and family meal frequency. Potential adolescent obesity risk regulators may be found at the individual, family or social contextual levels.

  17. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  18. A randomised pilot and feasibility study examining body weight tracking frequency and psychosocial health indicators.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Daily weight tracking may enhance weight loss, but experimental data are scarce. This study tested feasibility of delivering varying weight tracking instructions, assessed adherence, and monitored psychosocial changes. Thirty adults were enrolled and randomised to daily or weekly tracking for 6 months. Study retention was 100%. Adherence averaged 97.5% with no group differences (p=.15). There were no group differences and minimal changes for depression, anxiety, and body image (p=.41-.82). Daily trackers reported fewer barriers (p<.01) at 3 months. The study was highly successful at delivering weight tracking instructions without adverse effects or diminished adherence.

  19. Integrating a Study Skills Workshop and Pre-Examination To Improve Students' Chemistry Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Trautmann, Marcella; Nicoll, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies to motivate at-risk students to take advantage of campus remediation resources. Strategies include identifying and responding to these students through a study skills remediation program and improvements in the general chemistry course. (DDR)

  20. A Simple Model of the Pulmonary Circulation for Hemodynamic Study and Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaar, Kermit A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program allowing students to study such circulatory variables as venus return, cardiac output, mean circulatory filling pressure, resistance to venous return, and equilibrium point. Documentation for this Applesoft program (or diskette) is available from author. (JM)

  1. A cohort study of duplex Doppler examinations of the carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmion, Vincent J; Aldoori, Munther I; Woodcock, John P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility of pathological change in the common carotid artery at the bifurcation and in the internal carotid artery beyond the bifurcation which could contribute to a reduced diastolic pressure as observed in primary open angle glaucoma. Design Duplex ultrasonic examinations of carotid bifurcations were conducted on 80 patients. Carotid artery defects were allocated into three types: no demonstrable flow defects, internal carotid artery abnormalities and disease in the carotid bulb. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary Vascular Laboratory. Participants Eighty patients (mean age 69.6 years) providing a total of 160 sides to the analysis. Main outcome measures An estimated central retinal artery pressure, intraocular pressure and field loss were recorded for each side measured. Results Doppler investigations revealed significant levels of pathological change in the internal carotid distinct from changes at the carotid bulb. The disease revealed in the internal carotid artery was significantly associated with intraocular pressure (p = 0.032), with an effect small to medium in magnitude. The Q2 measure, derived from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure, was also substantively associated with disease in the internal carotid artery. Both intraocular pressure and the Q2 measure effectively discriminated between groups, with field loss providing rather less discriminating capability. There was a strong trend towards a higher intraocular pressures and a greater visual field loss with internal carotid artery disease. Conclusions Pathological changes in the extra cranial carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma exceed those in the arteries classified as normal. The presence of disease specifically in the internal carotid artery emphasised the need for a mechanism for the evaluation of the internal carotid apart from the carotid bulb. A basis for clarifying the presence of an ischaemic zone is proposed. PMID:25289141

  2. Examining the architecture of cellular computing through a comparative study with a computer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degeng; Gribskov, Michael

    2005-06-22

    The computer and the cell both use information embedded in simple coding, the binary software code and the quadruple genomic code, respectively, to support system operations. A comparative examination of their system architecture as well as their information storage and utilization schemes is performed. On top of the code, both systems display a modular, multi-layered architecture, which, in the case of a computer, arises from human engineering efforts through a combination of hardware implementation and software abstraction. Using the computer as a reference system, a simplistic mapping of the architectural components between the two is easily detected. This comparison also reveals that a cell abolishes the software-hardware barrier through genomic encoding for the constituents of the biochemical network, a cell's "hardware" equivalent to the computer central processing unit (CPU). The information loading (gene expression) process acts as a major determinant of the encoded constituent's abundance, which, in turn, often determines the "bandwidth" of a biochemical pathway. Cellular processes are implemented in biochemical pathways in parallel manners. In a computer, on the other hand, the software provides only instructions and data for the CPU. A process represents just sequentially ordered actions by the CPU and only virtual parallelism can be implemented through CPU time-sharing. Whereas process management in a computer may simply mean job scheduling, coordinating pathway bandwidth through the gene expression machinery represents a major process management scheme in a cell. In summary, a cell can be viewed as a super-parallel computer, which computes through controlled hardware composition. While we have, at best, a very fragmented understanding of cellular operation, we have a thorough understanding of the computer throughout the engineering process. The potential utilization of this knowledge to the benefit of systems biology is discussed.

  3. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Study of Mental Health: Examining Recruitment and Attrition Bias

    PubMed Central

    Tambs, Kristian; Rønning, Torbjørn; Prescott, C. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Torgersen, Svenn; Harris, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    All Norwegian twin pairs born 1967–1974 and still living in Norway in 1992 were invited to a health questionnaire study (Q1). 2,570 pairs (65%) participated. These cohorts and the twin cohorts born 1967–1979 were invited to a new questionnaire study (Q2) in 1998. This time 3,334 pairs (53%) participated. Almost all pairs having participated in the 1998 study were invited to an interview study of mental health (MHS), taking place 1999–2004. 1,391 complete pairs (44%) participated. The questionnaire studies included extensive data on somatic health with fewer items on mental health and demography. Health-related and demographic information available from the Medical Birth Registry on all invited twins was applied to predict participation to the first study. A few registry variables indicating poor health predicted nonparticipation in Q1. Health information and demography from Q1 were tested as predictors of participation in the follow-up study (Q2). Monozygosity, female sex, being unmarried, having no children, and high education predicted participation, whereas few indicators of poor mental and somatic health and unhealthy lifestyle moderately predicted nonparticipation in Q2. No health indicators reported in Q2 predicted further participation. Standard genetic twin analyses of indicators of various mental disorders from Q2, validated by diagnostic data from the MHS, did not indicate differences in genetic/environmental covariance structures between participants and nonparticipants in MHS. In general the results show a moderate selection towards good mental and somatic health. Attrition from Q2 to the MHS does not appear to affect twin analyses of mental health related variables. PMID:19335186

  4. Study of polymeric additive effect on calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal growth using real-time atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Taesung; Kim, Jong-Nam; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kyun Choi, Chang

    2011-07-01

    Microscopic events associated with crystal growth and characterization of the growth hillocks on the (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD were examined by atomic force microscopy. The (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD developed elliptical and triangular hillocks and pits, respectively. Each face exhibited hillocks with step sites that can be assigned to specific crystal planes, enabling direct determination of the growth rates along specific crystallographic directions. The addition of macromolecules with anionic side chains, poly- L-aspartate, poly- L-glutamate, and polyacrylate resulted in inhibition of growth on the hillock step planes. The magnitude of their effect depended on the macromolecule structures and identity of the step site. The isotropic shape of the COD hillocks mimicked the shape of the resulting macroscopic COD crystals based on step-specific binding of the macromolecules to the COD crystal, with stronger step pinning along the [0 1 0] direction than in the [0 0 1] direction. Electrostatic matching between the crystal faces and additives according to the ionic array of calcium oxalate in the COD structure was found to be responsible for the preferential binding of the macromolecules to terraces.

  5. Preclinical examination of clofarabine in pediatric ependymoma: intratumoral concentrations insufficient to warrant further study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Boulos, Nidal; Dapper, Jason D; Davis, Abigail D; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Throm, Stacy L; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2015-05-01

    Clofarabine, a deoxyadenosine analog, was an active anticancer drug in our in vitro high-throughput screening against mouse ependymoma neurospheres. To characterize the clofarabine disposition in mice for further preclinical efficacy studies, we evaluated the plasma and central nervous system disposition in a mouse model of ependymoma. A plasma pharmacokinetic study of clofarabine (45 mg/kg, IP) was performed in CD1 nude mice bearing ependymoma to obtain initial plasma pharmacokinetic parameters. These estimates were used to derive D-optimal plasma sampling time points for cerebral microdialysis studies. A simulation of clofarabine pharmacokinetics in mice and pediatric patients suggested that a dosage of 30 mg/kg IP in mice would give exposures comparable to that in children at a dosage of 148 mg/m(2). Cerebral microdialysis was performed to study the tumor extracellular fluid (ECF) disposition of clofarabine (30 mg/kg, IP) in the ependymoma cortical allografts. Plasma and tumor ECF concentration-time data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. The median unbound fraction of clofarabine in mouse plasma was 0.79. The unbound tumor to plasma partition coefficient (K pt,uu: ratio of tumor to plasma AUCu,0-inf) of clofarabine was 0.12 ± 0.05. The model-predicted mean tumor ECF clofarabine concentrations were below the in vitro 1-h IC50 (407 ng/mL) for ependymoma neurospheres. Thus, our results show the clofarabine exposure reached in the tumor ECF was below that associated with an antitumor effect in our in vitro washout study. Therefore, clofarabine was de-prioritized as an agent to treat ependymoma, and further preclinical studies were not pursued.

  6. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Study to Examine Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior (STEPPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    achievable within this timeframe and assumes a similar uptake rate to that which we achieved in two recent studies (O’Connor, Fraser et al., 2008; O’Connor...Reynaud’s Syndrome , chronic pain conditions and recent injury of a serious nature will be excluded. Due to the use of the cold pressor test (CPT), people...alternative options. Any participants who were found not eligible for study 5 largely due to factors specific to the MAST (e.g. Reynaud’s syndrome

  8. Challenging medical students with an interim assessment: a positive effect on formal examination score in a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Olde Bekkink, Marleen; Donders, Rogier; van Muijen, Goos N P; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2012-03-01

    Until now, positive effects of assessment at a medical curriculum level have not been demonstrated. This study was performed to determine whether an interim assessment, taken during a small group work session of an ongoing biomedical course, results in students' increased performance at the formal course examination. A randomized controlled trial was set up, with an interim assessment without explicit feedback as intervention. It was performed during a regular biomedical Bachelor course of 4 weeks on General Pathology at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants were 326 medical and 91 biomedical science students divided into three study arms: arm Intervention-1 (I-1) receiving one interim assessment; arm I-2 receiving two interim assessments, and control arm C, receiving no interim assessment. The study arms were stratified for gender and study discipline. The interim assessment consisted of seven multiple-choice questions on tumour pathology. Main outcome measures were overall score of the formal examination (scale 1-10), and the subscore of the questions on tumour pathology (scale 1-10). We found that students who underwent an interim assessment (arm I) had a 0.29-point (scale 1-10) higher score on the formal examination than the control group (p = 0.037). For the questions in the formal examination on tumour pathology the score amounted to 0.47 points higher (p = 0.007), whereas it was 0.17 points higher for the questions on topics related to the previous 3 weeks. No differences in formal examination score were found between arms I-1 and I-2 (p = 0.817). These findings suggest that an interim assessment during a small group work session in a randomized study setting stimulates students to increase their formal examination score.

  9. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Examining the Usage of Paraprofessionals at Parma Schaaf Jr. High School: An Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Marvin; And Others

    This paper describes an evaluation study of the use of paraprofessional personnel in school districts in general, and at Parma (Ohio) Schaaf Junior High School in particular. The members of the evaluation team included representative teachers from the school system led by a university coordinator. They describe problems and promising practices in…

  11. An Empirical Study Examining the Impact of Gambling Advertisements on Adolescent Gambling Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey; Sklar, Alissa; Gupta, Rina; Messerlian, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Based upon a previous qualitative study a questionnaire ascertaining adolescents' awareness of gambling advertisements and their impact upon their behavior was developed and administered to 1,147 youth between the ages of 12 and 19. The findings suggest that almost all youth report being exposed to advertising with many individuals indicating…

  12. Examining Global Interdependence through Study Abroad in China and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Dee K.

    2006-01-01

    Given the international nature of the textile, apparel, and retail industries, success for some companies, at least in part, may depend upon hiring "people whose minds are open to the world" (Goodman, 2005). Study abroad is one way of developing students' world perspectives and cultural understanding. An interdisciplinary approach to…

  13. Examining the Pattern of Middle Grade Mathematics Teachers' Performance: A Concurrent Embedded Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Sunyoung; Cetin, Sevket Ceyhun; Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the pattern in a structure of teachers' instructional performance. Specifically,seven teachers' performances (Standards and Objectives, Presenting Instructional Content, Lesson Structure and Pacing, Activities and Materials,Academic Feedback, Grouping Students, and Teacher Content Knowledge) were…

  14. An Examination of the Building Blocks Math Curriculum: Results of a Longitudinal Scale-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Farran, Dale; Lipsey, Mark; Hofer, Kerry G.; Bilbrey, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the mathematics test-score gap is evident at every level of schooling and can be linked to students' earlier performance. For example, a mathematics performance gap was found in children as young as three years of age (Case & Griffin, 1990; Jordan, Huttenlocher, & Levine, 1992). Addressing the mathematics performance gap…

  15. Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

  16. Examining College Developmental Learners' Reasons for Persisting in College: A Longitudinal Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeri-Gold, Maria; Kearse, Wendy; Deming, Mary P.; Errico, Maryann; Callahan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a longitudinal study of 23 college developmental students, who were surveyed regarding their educational needs and objectives. Recommends that colleges: (1) create a student advisement center with academic counselors; (2) require that all incoming freshmen enroll in learning experience courses; and (3) schedule a monthly…

  17. Examination of Social Studies Textbooks in Terms of Approaches of Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Feride; Sahin, Taner

    2012-01-01

    In the program of primary education in Turkey, comprehensive modifications were made by the Ministry of Education and The Chairman of the Board of Education (TTKB) in 2004. In this new Social Study and Instruction program some values like assiduity, scientificity, responsibility and respect to variety are defined as "the value given…

  18. Student Perspectives on International Education: An Examination into the Decline of Japanese Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassegard, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The number of students going abroad for study purposes continues to grow exponentially, even despite the global economic downturns of recent years. One exception is Japan, where the number of students going overseas has continued to decline since the mid-2000s. This paper first explores various explanations for the persistent decline in Japanese…

  19. "What's Disability Got to Do with It?" Examining Ability Privilege in a Disability Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialka, Christa S.; Morro, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Although much research addresses prejudice toward and discrimination of individuals with disabilities, few studies engage with the concept of "ability privilege," or the benefits that typically abled individuals are afforded in relation to their position within the hegemony. Given the fledgling nature of research on ability privilege, it…

  20. Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

  1. Seeing Chemistry through the Eyes of the Blind: A Case Study Examining Multiple Gas Law Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshman, Jordan; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Adequately accommodating students who are blind or low-vision (BLV) in the sciences has been a focus of recent inquiry, but much of the research to date has addressed broad accommodations rather than devising and testing specific teaching strategies that respond to the unique challenges of BLV students learning chemistry. This case study seeks to…

  2. A Study to Examine the Problem of Teacher Shortage and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper asserts that the shortage of special education teachers has been a national problem since the 1970s. This study sought to identify the factors that contribute to a high attrition rate of teachers and the positives of the teaching profession and to develop recommendations to attract more candidates to preservice teacher education…

  3. A randomized study examining the effect of 3 SSRI on premature ejaculation using a validated questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Arafa, Mohamed; Shamloul, Rany

    2007-01-01

    Aim This study reports the results of a large prospective single-blinded clinical trial of 3 SSRI (paroxetine, fluoxetine and escitalopram) in PE using a validated questionnaire. Methods A total of 100 normally potent men suffering from PE were enrolled in a randomized single-blinded comparative study of fluoxetine, paroxetine and escitalopram Patients were randomized into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 comprised 33 men who received fluoxetine 20 mg daily, group 2 comprised 37 men who received escitalopram 10 mg and group 3 comprised 30 men who received paroxetine 20 mg daily. All drug regimens were given in early morning dose and continued for 4 weeks. Results All 100 (100%) patients experienced a significant increase in their AIPE total score after drug treatment. There was no significant difference regarding any of the 7 items of the AIPE between the 3 treatment groups. All 3 drugs were generally well tolerated. Conclusions Our relatively large study, using a validated questionnaire confirmed similar useful effect of paroxetine, fluoxetine and escitalopram on ejaculation time. Further large cohort studies with long-term follow up are needed to evaluate the sustained effects of these drugs on ejaculation latency. PMID:18472973

  4. A Correlational Study Examining Demonstrated Emotional Intelligence and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Chris James

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…

  5. The Arts and Prosocial Impact Study: An Examination of Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Ann; McArthur, David; Law, Sally Ann; Moini, Joy

    Perhaps the only way to maintain consistent support for the arts will be to demonstrate decisively that fine arts programs can contribute in quantifiable and positive ways to solving important social problems such as crime and violence. The broad goal of this impact study is to provide such evidence. This report discusses the results of the second…

  6. A Case Study Examining the Career Academy Model at a Large Urban Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Howard

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on how career academies were implemented at a large, urban, public high school. Research shows that the career academy model should consist of 3 core components: (a) a small learning community (SLC), (b) a theme-based curriculum, and (c) business partnerships (Stern, Dayton, & Raby, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative…

  7. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  8. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  9. The 150 Credit-Hour Requirement and CPA Examination Pass Rates--A Four Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Gary P.; He, Lerong

    2012-01-01

    Debate concerning the minimum educational requirements of certified public accountant (CPA) candidates in the USA has been taking place for decades. This paper compares the sectional pass rates of CPA candidates from jurisdictions requiring 150 credit hours of college study with the pass rates of candidates from jurisdictions not requiring 150…

  10. The Random Forests Statistical Technique: An Examination of Its Value for the Study of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating individual differences in reading ability often involve data sets containing a large number of collinear predictors and a small number of observations. In this article, we discuss the method of Random Forests and demonstrate its suitability for addressing the statistical concerns raised by such data sets. The method is…

  11. New Direction for CCBD? Three Studies Examining the Future of the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Alec; Albrecht, Susan Fread; George, Cheryl L.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Paget, Mike; Ryan, Joseph B.; White, Richard B.; Baker, Diana

    2011-01-01

    To determine if its current mission and purpose are in line with contemporary issues in the field, the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) commissioned a 3-year project that included three separate but related studies. This mixed-methods research, carried out over a 20-month period during 2008-2010, was conducted as three…

  12. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs through Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory…

  13. Examining the Role of Reflection in ePortfolios: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Cynthia M.; Scott, Susan B.; Kahn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Extended institutional experience with ePortfolios grounded and framed this qualitative case study guided by the research question: Why, how, and with what success is reflection, as a teaching/learning process, employed among ePortfolio projects at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)? Thirty-two representatives of 16 varied…

  14. Examining Antecedents of Knowledge-Sharing Factors on Research Supervision: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosravi, Arash; Ahmad, Mohammad Nazir

    2016-01-01

    The use of an effective supervision mechanism is crucial between a student and supervisor. The essential knowledge shared and transferred between these two parties must be observed and understood very well in order to ensure that students are produced at good level of quality for future professional knowledge workers. The aim of this study was to…

  15. Examining the Response Process of Fifth Grade Students during Social Studies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on high-stakes standardized tests in reading and math. Social studies has been devalued in the classroom as many teachers and administrators focus their attention on reading and math instruction to avoid the punitive consequences of the No Child Left Behind Act. (2001). Based on this…

  16. Examining Students' Perceptions of Globalization and Study Abroad Programs at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Stevon; Bukenya, James O.; Thomas, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of globalization and the study abroad programs at HBCUs (historically black colleges and universities). Recent statistics reveal that in spite of the current growth in the number of US students receiving academic credit for their overseas academic experience, less than one percent of…

  17. Recovering from Loss: A Qualitative Study Examining Student Loss While in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokota, Mitsue

    2011-01-01

    Recovering from the loss of a loved one can be difficult for anyone, but it can be especially trying for individuals already dealing with elevated levels of stress. Various studies have looked at the causes of stress in medical school students, but little has been done to understand the adjustments these students undergo after experiencing the…

  18. Copeptin as a stress marker prior and after a written examination--the CoEXAM study.

    PubMed

    Urwyler, Sandrine A; Schuetz, Philipp; Sailer, Clara; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    The stress hormone copeptin, which is co-secreted with arginine vasopressin, increases in seriously ill patients and can predict outcome in several organic diseases. Information about the influence of psychological stress on copeptin levels is lacking, but is important for interpretation of copeptin levels in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychological stress on copeptin levels. We measured copeptin levels in 25 healthy medical students before and after a written examination. The primary endpoint was change in copeptin levels from immediately prior to examination compared with after the examination. Median copeptin levels prior to the examination were significantly higher than those after its conclusion. Similar results were found for serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Serum cortisol prior to examination was significantly higher in students with a superior examination result, compared to those with a lower score. In conclusion, psychological stress leads to a subtle increase in copeptin level and might therefore be taken into account as a confounding factor in disorders with small diagnostic copeptin range. Higher cortisol levels, but not copeptin, correlated with a better academic performance in this cohort of students.

  19. A Comparative Study of the College Entrance Examination Board Validity Study Service and Freshmen Cumulative Point Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The success with which freshmen cumulative point averages may be predicted from a combination of a student's high school rank, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (Verbal) and SAT score (Mathematics) was investigated. A multiple regression formula developed by the College Entrance Examination Board was used to combine the three predictors into a…

  20. Evaluation of epidemiologic studies examining the lung-cancer mortality of underground miners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-09

    An evaluation was conducted of 15 epidemiological studies which had reported excess lung cancer deaths among underground miners who worked in mines where radon progeny were present. Several studies showed a dose response relationship between progeny exposure and lung cancer mortality. The exposures to arsenic (7440382), diesel exhaust, smoking, chromium (7440473), nickel (7440020), and radiation in the mining environment can affect the risks of lung cancer due to radon progeny exposure. X-Ray surveillance and sputum cytology are ineffective in preventing radon progeny induced lung cancers in individual miners. It is felt that at present it is possible for the United States mining industry to meet a standard lower than the current annual exposure limit of 4 working level months (WLM). Current technology should be able to reach a limit of 1WLM. NIOSH recommends that the standard be accordingly lowered.