Science.gov

Sample records for additional studies show

  1. 19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  2. View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east elevation, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  3. View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition on the left and freestanding structure in the center. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  4. View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and north side. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT LOG WALL OF MAIN HOUSE - Whitcomb Cabin, BZ Corners, Glenwood County Road (Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge), Glenwood, Klickitat County, WA

  7. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  9. Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side elevation of Building 477 showing the shed roof addition and horizontal siding at the ends, view facing northwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 4. WEST SIDE OF CANNERY In addition to showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE OF CANNERY In addition to showing the on-going deterioration of the buildings, this view shows the variety of types of construction used as the numerous additions were being made. The wooden covered conveyor system, which transported empty cans from the can storage area to the canning floor can be seen at the base of the smoke stack to the right. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. 15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. A site map with all existing structures keyed to an identification legend. Also shows proposed new structures. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2. Plan no. 10,528. Scale one inch to 100 feet. November 12, 1943, last revised 1/18/44. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF WINDOWS TO SOUTHEAST SIDE AND RECENT CLADDING IN CONTRAST TO ORIGINAL SHIPLAP SIDING INTACT ON NORTHEAST SIDE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller original structure, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 32. INTERIOR OF STORM PORCH ADDITION SHOWING FLUSH SIDEEXIT DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR OF STORM PORCH ADDITION SHOWING FLUSH SIDEEXIT DOOR AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER AND 1-LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  16. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease, and shows evidence for additional susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Denise; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Hamshere, Marian; Singh Pahwa, Jaspreet; Moskvina, Valentina; Dowzell, Kimberley; Williams, Amy; Jones, Nicola; Thomas, Charlene; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle; Passmore, Peter; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Hardy, John; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison; Kauwe, John S.K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Sleegers, Kristel; Bettens, Karolien; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Tsolaki, Magda; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the APOE locus (most significant SNP: rs2075650, p= 1.8×10−157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two novel loci: rs11136000 in the CLU or APOJ gene (p= 1.4×10−9) and rs3851179, a SNP 5′ to the PICALM gene (p= 1.9×10−8). Both novel associations were supported in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with AD in the combined dataset (rs11136000: p= 8.5×10−10, odds ratio= 0.86; rs3851179: p= 1.3×10−9, odds ratio= 0.86). We also observed more variants associated at p< 1×10−5 than expected by chance (p=7.5×10−6), including polymorphisms at the BIN1, DAB1 and CR1 loci. PMID:19734902

  18. 12. Interior view of the 1930's leant0 addition, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of the 1930's lean-t0 addition, showing the commercial storage and space and the addition's roof framing; looking north - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  19. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  20. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  1. 54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ON LEFT WITH BASE OF EXHAUST STACK, PORTION OF TOPPLED STACK ON LOWER RIGHT IN VIEW, AND UPPER TAILINGS POND BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 3. View of south side of HiattStricklin House showing addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of south side of Hiatt-Stricklin House showing addition and rock wall, facing north. - Hiatt Property, House, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  3. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    processes involved in planet formation," Margot said. To answer the question, the scientists implemented an ingenious, high-precision technique in which they sent a powerful beam of radio waves to bounce off Mercury, then received and analyzed the reflected signal using pairs of ground-based radio telescopes. While similar radar systems have been used in the past to map planetary surfaces, this technique instead measured the rate at which Mercury spins on its axis, and did so with an unprecedented precision of one part in 100,000. By making 21 separate observations, the research team was able to measure minute variations in the planet's spin rate. This was the key to learning whether Mercury's core is solid or molten. Using an understanding of the Sun's gravitational effect on the planet, they realized that the tiny variations in its spin rate would be twice as large if the core is liquid than they would be if Mercury has a solid core. "The variations in Mercury's spin rate that we measured are best explained by a core that is at least partially molten. We have a 95 percent confidence level in this conclusion," Margot said. For most of their observations, carried out from 2002-2006, the scientists transmitted a powerful radar beam from the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna at Goldstone, California, and received the reflected signal with the Green Bank Telescope and the Goldstone antenna. For some observations, they transmitted from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and received at Arecibo and two Goldstone antennas. They used radar signals at frequencies of 8.5 and 2.4 GHz. To make the precision measurements of Mercury's spin rate, the geometry between the planet and the receiving antennas had to match a specific alignment. Such an alignment only occurs for about 20 seconds a day. In addition to measuring Mercury's spin rate, their technique also made the best measurement ever of the alignment of the planet's axis of rotation. "We improved the accuracy of this measurement by

  4. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  5. 50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100TON STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100-TON STEEL UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR, AND DUST COLLECTION BIN IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT. THE ROD MILL CIRCUIT STOOD IN FRONT OF THE BUCKET ELEVATOR AND BEHIND THE BAKER COOLER (LEFT CENTER). MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE IN FRONT OF THE CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN (CENTER), AND THE MILL FLOOR WAS THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (RIGHT). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Seismic Electric Signals: An additional fact showing their physical interconnection with seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    Natural time analysis reveals novel dynamical features hidden behind time series in complex systems. By applying it to the time series of earthquakes, we find that the order parameter of seismicity exhibits a unique change approximately at the date(s) at which Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities have been reported to initiate. In particular, we show that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity in Japan exhibits a clearly detectable minimum approximately at the time of the initiation of the SES activity observed by Uyeda and coworkers almost two months before the onset of the volcanic-seismic swarm activity in 2000 in the Izu Island region, Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that, well before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two independent datasets of different geophysical observables (geoelectrical measurements, seismicity). In addition, we show that these two phenomena are also linked closely in space.

  7. Combined cetuximab and genistein treatment shows additive anti-cancer effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Soung-Min; Park, Ju-Yong; Myoung, Hoon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potency of EGFR pathway inhibition achieved by combining cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, and genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which target extracellular and intracellular domains of the receptor, respectively, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in vivo. Two OSCC cell lines, HSC3 and KB, were treated with cetuximab (C, 0-400mug/ml), genistein (G, 0-80muM), or a combination of both at a range of concentrations. Downstream protein expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis indices were calculated to assess anti-cancer effects in vitro. The in vivo effects of cetuximab and genistein on tumor cell growth were examined using an OSCC xenografted nude mouse model and immunohistochemical analyses of proliferation (PCNA) and microvessel density (CD31). Treatment of cells with dual anti-EGFR agents reduced the expressions of p-EGFR, and p-Akt in HSC3 cell line, but there was no significant difference in downregulation between cetuximab alone and in combination with genistein in KB cells. Both HSC3 and KB cells showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation significantly with single agent treatment and combination (p<0.05). In low concentration, combined cetuximab and genistein therapy resulted in additive growth inhibition and more apoptosis compared to that achieved with single-agent exposure in both cell lines. A combination of cetuximab and genistein significantly inhibited tumor growth and caused a substantial growth delay in in vivo models of both cell lines while each single-agent exposure caused no delay of tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining with PCNA revealed that the group receiving combined cetuximab and genistein exhibited the lowest number of proliferating cells and microvessel density (p<0.05). Combined therapy with genistein and cetuximab can add the potency of EGFR signaling inhibition. Because not all

  8. News Note: Addition of drug to standard chemo for prostate cancer shows no benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients in a phase 3 trial who were non-responsive to hormone therapy and received the investigational agent atrasentan in addition to a standard chemotherapy regimen, did not have longer survival or longer progression-free survival compared to the patients on the same chemotherapy regimen and a placebo. This determination was made by the trial’s Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) based on a planned interim analysis of the trial.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Penis Reconstructions 'Life-Altering' for Men, Studies Show

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158725.html Penis Reconstructions 'Life-Altering' for Men, Studies Show Both transgender patients ... in the studies. But the procedure can be "life-altering," both for transgender men and for those ...

  11. Concussion Study Shows Player-To-Player Hits Most Damaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Study Shows Player-to-Player Hits Most Damaging Running longer before the contact happens also spells more ... the University of Georgia. "We also found that running a long distance before colliding with an opponent ...

  12. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows Brazil, Ecuador have seen ... News) -- Fears over birth defects from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin ...

  13. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  14. For 'Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows Danger of Too Much Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows Danger of Too Much Water Frequent fluid stops entice racers to drink more ... News) -- Long-distance triathletes who drink too much water during competition may end up with dangerously low ...

  15. Laser Unlocks Blood-Brain Barrier for Chemotherapy, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157444.html Laser Unlocks Blood-Brain Barrier for Chemotherapy, Study Shows ... 24, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Laser surgery can open the protective blood-brain barrier, ...

  16. CO2 study shows effects on scrub oak environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00.

  17. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  18. Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Paterson, Brodie; Stewart, Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Manual restraint is used to manage disturbed behaviour by patients. This study aimed to assess the relationship of manual restraint and show of force to conflict behaviours, the use of containment methods, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, staff characteristics, and staff group variables. Data from a multivariate, cross-sectional study of 136 acute psychiatric wards in England were used to conduct this analysis. Manual restraint was used less frequently on English acute psychiatric wards (0.20 incidents per day) than show of force (0.28 incidents per day). Both were strongly associated with the proportion of patients subject to legal detention, aggressive behaviours, and the enforcement of treatment and detention. Medical, nursing, and security guard staff provision were associated in different ways with variations in the use of these coercive interventions. An effective ward structure of rules and routines was associated with less dependence on these control methods. Training for manual restraint should incorporate the scenarios of attempted absconding and enforcement of treatment, as well as violent behaviour. Attempts to lessen usage of these interventions could usefully focus on increasing the availability of medical staff to patients, reducing reliance on security guards and establishing a good ward structure. PMID:21733054

  19. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  20. Mentally Ill Still Gain Illegal Possession of Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 in 3 suicides shouldn't have included firearms To use the sharing features on this page, ... who were already legally prohibited from having a firearm, a new study from Florida reveals. "That's a ...

  1. Debate over Social Studies Shows Little Sign of Abating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas board of education which consists of 15-member elected body drew national attention as a bloc of staunch conservatives largely succeeded in putting its stamp on a revised set of social studies standards. The debate was marked by tussles over such matters as the separation of church and state, the representation of minority figures and…

  2. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  3. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  4. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  5. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  6. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  7. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  8. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  9. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  10. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  11. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  12. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested. PMID:1521837

  13. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  14. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  15. ER Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients about Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients About Guns, Study Shows Finding points to missed chances to ... EDs) are asked if they have access to guns, a new study finds. National guidelines say doctors ...

  16. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  18. Chromosome 2p shows significant linkage to antihypertensive response in the British Genetics of Hypertension Study.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wallace, Chris; Munroe, Patricia B; Dobson, Richard; Brown, Morris; Samani, Nilesh; Clayton, David; Farrall, Martin; Webster, John; Lathrop, Mark; Caulfield, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna F; Connell, John M

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of consistently linked loci influencing blood pressure and hypertension status, and this may be because of genetic or phenotypic heterogeneity. We hypothesize that stratification of subjects by response to antihypertensive drug groups could be used to stringently define subsets that will have reduced genetic and etiologic heterogeneity, by partitioning contrasting mechanisms of hypertension and, thus, enhancing gene finding. We investigated the British Genetics of Hypertension Study population, which is composed of 2142 severely hypertensive white affected sibling pairs. Nonresponse to antihypertensive therapy was defined as an on-treatment blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or a difference between prediagnosis and on-treatment blood pressure of <20 mm Hg. Of the nonresponders, there were 89 sibling pairs (AB) who were both on antihypertensive therapy that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers, or beta-blockers), and 76 sibling pairs (CD) who were both on drugs that do not (calcium channel blockers or diuretics). Nonparametric linkage analysis carried out using markers from a 10-cM genome scan and additional "grid tightening" markers showed significant linkage in the AB group on chromosome 2p (logarithm of odds=4.84 at 90.68 Kosambi cM) and suggestive linkage for the CD group on chromosome 10q (logarithm of odds=2.83 at 125.96 Kosambi cM). The AB linkage locus attained genomewide significance after simulation using 10,000 replicates (P=0.005). This locus may contain a gene for the salt-sensitive form of hypertension and/or a pharmacogenetic locus affecting drug response. We have demonstrated for the first time identification of a significant locus by partitioning different pathways of hypertension using drug response. PMID:16391175

  19. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    PubMed

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. PMID:26749503

  20. Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva

    2003-02-01

    The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with

  1. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  2. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston counties, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mory, Peter C.; Behum, Paul T.; Ross, Robert B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    No mining activities are being conducted in the study area at present.  Previous mining has been limited to small-scale production of limestone and coal.  Two oil and gas test holes have been drilled inside the study area.

  3. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  4. Axl Inhibition Primes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cells to Apoptosis and Show Synergistic/Additive Effects in Combination with BTK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sutapa; Boysen, Justin; Nelson, Michael; Secreto, Charla; Warner, Steven L.; Bearss, David J.; Lesnick, Connie; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Kay, Neil E.; Ghosh, Asish K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable disease despite aggressive therapeutic approaches. We previously found that Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) plays a critical role in CLL B-cell survival. Here, we explored the possibility of using a high-affinity Axl inhibitor as a single agent or in combination with Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors for future clinical trial to treat CLL patients. Experimental Design Expression/activation status of other members of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MER) family of RTKs in CLL B-cells was evaluated. Cells were treated with a high-affinity orally bioavailable Axl inhibitor TP-0903 with or without presence of CLL bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Inhibitory effects of TP-0903 on Axl signaling pathway was also evaluated in CLL B-cells. Finally, cells were exposed to TP-0903 in combination with BTK inhibitors to determine any synergistic/additive effects of the combination. Results CLL B-cells overexpress Tyro3, but not MER. Of interest, Tyro3 remains as constitutively phosphorylated and form a complex with Axl in CLL B-cells. TP-0903 induces massive apoptosis in CLL B-cells with LD50 values of nanomolar ranges. Importantly, CLL BMSCs could not protect the leukemic B-cells from TP-0903 induced apoptosis. A marked reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, XIAP and upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM in CLL B-cells were detected as a result of Axl inhibition. Finally, combination of TP-0903 with BTK inhibitors augments CLL B-cell apoptosis. Conclusion Administration of TP-0903 either as a single agent or in combination with BTK inhibitors may be effective in treating CLL patients. PMID:25673699

  5. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  6. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  7. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  8. Stigmatization of eating disorders: a controlled study of the effects of the television show Starved.

    PubMed

    Katterman, Shawn N; Klump, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    Starved is a situational comedy ("sitcom") that depicted individuals with eating disorders that was feared to increase stigma. Our study directly examined this possibility by randomly assigning participants to watch Starved or The Comeback (a sitcom unrelated to eating disorders) and measuring eating disorder stigma/stereotypes before and after viewing. Participants who viewed Starved did not show increased levels of stigma, suggesting that short-term exposure to an extreme portrayal of eating disorder stereotypes may not increase stigma. Future research should examine prolonged exposure and other potential sources of these negative attitudes. PMID:20390619

  9. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  10. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    PubMed

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (<1 mm particle size) mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction. PMID:24652060

  11. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  12. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  13. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Nicole M; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M; Whitfield, John B

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993-1996 and 2002-2005 and from UK in 1991-1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10(-14) for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  14. Neural Correlates of Empathy with Pain Show Habituation Effects. An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Preis, Mira A.; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Barke, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the actual experience of pain and the perception of another person in pain share common neural substrates, including the bilateral anterior insular cortex and the anterior midcingulate cortex. As many fMRI studies include the exposure of participants to repeated, similar stimuli, we examined whether empathic neural responses were affected by habituation and whether the participants' prior pain experience influenced these habituation effects. Method In 128 trials (four runs), 62 participants (31 women, 23.0 ± 4.2 years) were shown pictures of hands exposed to painful pressure (pain pictures) and unexposed (neutral pictures). After each trial, the participants rated the pain of the model. Prior to the experiment, participants were either exposed to the same pain stimulus (pain exposure group) or not (touch exposure group). In order to assess possible habituation effects, linear changes in the strength of the BOLD response to the pain pictures (relative to the neutral pictures) and in the ratings of the model’s pain were evaluated across the four runs. Results Although the ratings of the model’s pain remained constant over time, we found neural habituation in the bilateral anterior/midinsular cortex, the posterior midcingulate extending to dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cerebellum, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the left superior frontal gyrus, stretching to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. The participant’s prior pain experience did neither affect their ratings of the model’s pain nor their maintenance of BOLD activity in areas associated with empathy. Interestingly, participants with high trait personal distress and fantasy tended to show less habituation in the anterior insula. Conclusion Neural structures showed a decrease of the BOLD signal, indicating habituation over the course of 45 minutes. This can be interpreted as a neuronal mechanism

  15. In vitro studies to show sequestration of matrix metalloproteinases by silver-containing wound care products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Bowler, Philip G; Cochrane, Christine A

    2007-09-01

    Excess or "uncontrolled" proteinase activity in the wound bed has been implicated as one factor that may delay or compromise wound healing. One proteinase group--matrix metalloproteinases--includes collagenases, elastase, and gelatinases and can be endogenous (cell) or exogenous (bacterial) in origin. A study was conducted to assess the ability of five silver-containing wound care products to reduce a known matrix metalloproteinase supernatant concentration in vitro. Four silver-containing wound dressings (a carboxy-methyl cellulose, a nanocrystalline, a hydro-alginate, and a collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose composite dressing), along with a 0.5% aqueous silver nitrate [w/v] solution and controls for matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 sourced from ex vivo dermal tissue and blood monocytes, respectively, were used. Extracts were separated and purified using gelatine-Sepharose column chromatography and dialysis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic zymography was used to analyze specific matrix metalloproteinase activity. All dressings and the solution were shown to sequester both matrix metalloproteinases. The silver-containing carboxy-methyl cellulose dressing showed significantly greater sequestration for matrix metalloproteinase-2 at 6 and 24 hours (P< 0.001) compared to the other treatments. For matrix metalloproteinase-9, both the carboxy-methyl cellulose dressing and the oxidized regenerated cellulose dressing achieved significant sequestration when compared to the other treatments at 24 hours (P <0.001), which was maintained to 48 hours (P < 0.001). Results from this study show that silver-containing dressings are effective in sequestering matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and that this can be achieved without a sacrificial protein (eg, collagen). Although the varying ability of wound dressings to sequester matrix metalloproteinases has been shown in vitro, further in vivo evidence is required to confirm these findings. PMID

  16. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    PubMed

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful. PMID:19827370

  17. Geothermal-retrofit study for the National Orange Show Facilities in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-17

    The cost and feasibility of retrofitting the National Orange Show Facilities to use geothermal heat instead of natural gas for heating are determined. Because of the limited usage of the smaller facilities the study was limited to the conversion of the six major buildings: Domed, Hobby, Citrus, Auditorium, Restaurant and Commercial. A major problem is that most of the buildings are used on a very limited basis. This drastically reduced the amount of savings that could be used to amortize the retrofit cost. Another problem is that the buildings are spread over a large area and so the below grade piping costs were high. Finally, all of the buildings except for the Auditorium have direct gas fired heaters that would require all new terminal heating systems. In order to limit the retrofit cost, the retrofit system was designed to handle less than the peak load. This seemed appropriate because the facility might not even be in operation when a peak load condition occurred. Also, the existing systems could be used to supplement the geothermal system if necessary. The calculated and design peak loads are summarized.

  18. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21%) of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway. PMID:21689400

  19. Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: laboratory studies showing feasibility for glyphosate removal from waste water.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, M A; Adams, W J; Hallas, L E

    1992-09-01

    To evaluate immobilized bacteria technology for the removal of low levels of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) from aqueous industrial effluents, microorganisms with glyphosate-degrading activity obtained from a fill and draw enrichment reactor inoculated with activated sludge were first exposed to glyphosate production wastes containing 500-2000 mg glyphosate/L. The microorganisms were then immobilized by adsorption onto a diatomaceous earth biocarrier contained in upflow Plexiglas columns. The columns were aerated, maintained at pH 7.0-8.0, incubated at 25 degrees C, supplemented with NH4NO3 (50 mg/L), and exposed to glyphosate process wastes pumped upflow through the biocarrier. Glyphosate degradation to aminomethylphosphonic acid was initially > 96% for 21 days of operation at flows yielding hydraulic residence times (HRTs) as short as 42 min. Higher flow rate studies showed > 98% removal of 50 mg glyphosate/L from the waste stream could be achieved at a HRT of 23 min. Glyphosate removal of > 99% at a 37-min HRT was achieved under similar conditions with a column inoculated with a pure culture of Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium known to have high glyphosate-degrading activity. After acid shocking (pH 2.8 for 18 h) of a column of immobilized bacteria, glyphosate-degrading activity was regained within 4 days without reinoculation. Although microbial growth and glyphosate degradation were not maintained under low organic nutrient conditions in the laboratory, the low levels of degradable carbon (45-94 mg/L) in the industrial effluent were sufficient to support prolonged glyphosate-degrading activity. The results demonstrated that immobilized bacteria technology is effective in removing low levels of glyphosate in high-volume liquid waste streams. PMID:1464067

  20. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  1. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  2. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  3. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development. PMID:26410214

  4. Studying the Effect of a Competitive Game Show in a Learning by Teaching Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how competition among tutees in the context of learning by teaching affects tutors' engagement as well as tutor learning. We conducted this investigation by incorporating a competitive Game Show feature into an online learning environment where students learn to solve algebraic equations by teaching a synthetic…

  5. Studies Show High Schools' Shortcomings: Young Adults Surveyed about Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Two national studies paint a portrait of the bumpy road that many students face after high school and suggest that better academic preparation and guidance could have smoothed the way. The studies, each based primarily on separate surveys of 1,300 or more 18- to 25-year-olds, come from Public Agenda, a nonprofit opinion-research group in New York…

  6. State Tests, NAEP Often a Mismatch: Bars Defining "Proficient" Unaligned, Study Shows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Many of the states that claim to have large shares of their students reaching proficiency in reading and mathematics under the No Child Left Behind Act have set less stringent standards for meeting that threshold than lower-performing states, a new federal study finds. The study, "Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales,"…

  7. Performance-Based Curriculum for Social Studies. From Knowing to Showing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burz, Helen L.; Marshall, Kit

    This guide is intended to aid in the development of a performance-based curriculum using social studies standards recommended by the National Council for Social Studies. The performance-based orientation encourages students to be accountable for knowing what they are learning, understanding why it is important, and reporting this knowledge and…

  8. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  9. Studies show liming a direct, economical method to neutralize lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the effects of liming on the environment was missing until the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pulled researchers together to conduct integrated lake liming studies begun about six years ago. What researchers found is that liming is a cost-effective and environmentally sound method to treat acidic lakes so fish and other organisms may thrive. To research the acidification process, EPRI studied three lakes: Woods, Panther, and Sagamore, in the Adirondacks where most of the acidified lakes in the U.S. are located. The study done from 1976-84 and called Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) developed a general theory for understanding the effect of natural and man-made processes on lake chemistry. The theory is incorporated into a computer simulation model that accurately predicts a lake's vulnerability to acidification.

  10. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  11. Structural studies on the authentic mumps virus nucleocapsid showing uncoiling by the phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert; Pickar, Adrian; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Rodenburg, Cynthia; Dokland, Terje; Elson, Andrew; He, Biao; Luo, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly contagious pathogen, and despite extensive vaccination campaigns, outbreaks continue to occur worldwide. The virus has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form the nucleocapsid (NC). NC serves as the template for both transcription and replication. In this paper we solved an 18-Å–resolution structure of the authentic MuV NC using cryo-electron microscopy. We also observed the effects of phosphoprotein (P) binding on the MuV NC structure. The N-terminal domain of P (PNTD) has been shown to bind NC and appeared to induce uncoiling of the helical NC. Additionally, we solved a 25-Å–resolution structure of the authentic MuV NC bound with the C-terminal domain of P (PCTD). The location of the encapsidated viral genomic RNA was defined by modeling crystal structures of homologous negative strand RNA virus Ns in NC. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of MuV P bind NC to participate in access to the genomic RNA by the viral RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase. These results provide critical insights on the structure-function of the MuV NC and the structural alterations that occur through its interactions with P. PMID:25288750

  12. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  13. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the "conflict of…

  14. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  15. NIH-Supported Study Shows Promise for Blood Test for Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... years before symptoms develop. The test measured the levels of several tau and amyloid proteins—the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease—in exosomes, microscopic organelles shed by brain cells. The study by Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Ph.D., and Edward Goetzl, M.D., both of ...

  16. A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

  17. Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

  18. A Case Study Showing Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education: Faculty Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine the faculty members' perspective (age Wise, Gender Wise and Work Experience wise) of parameters affecting the quality of education in an affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research. The data has been collected with the help of 'Questionnaire Based Survey'. The sample…

  19. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  20. Case report: gallium study showing a rare form of multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, E.; Kasner, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    A case study is presented in which a rare form of multiple myeloma with soft tissue involvememt was diagnosed by a gallium scan using 3 mCi of Ga-67 citrate. Subsequent resting cardiac blood pool images suggested pericardial rather than myocardial involvement. (JMT)

  1. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  2. Ecological and toxicological responses in a multistressor scenario: Are monitoring programs showing the stressors or just showing stress? A case study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, Julio C; Meirelles, Sergio Tadeu; Cardoso-Silva, Sheila; Moschini-Carlos, Viviane; Pompêo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is located in the Brazilian State of São Paulo and reservoirs in this region are vital for water supply and energy production. Changes in economic, social, and demographic trends produced pollution of water bodies, decreasing water quality for human uses and affecting freshwater populations. The presence of emerging pollutants, classical priority substances, nutrient excess and the interaction with tropical-climate conditions require periodic reviews of water policies and monitoring programs in order to detect and manage these threats in a global change scenario. The objective of this work is to determine whether the monitoring program of the São Paulo's Environmental Agency, is sufficient to explain the toxicological and biological responses observed in organisms in reservoirs of the MRSP, and whether it can identify the possible agents causing these responses. For that, we used publicly available data on water quality compiled by this agency in their routine monitoring program. A general overview of these data and a chemometric approach to analyze the responses of biotic indexes and toxicological bioassays, as a function of the physical and chemical parameters monitored, were performed. Data compiled showed temporal and geographical information gaps on variables measured. Toxicological responses have been observed in the reservoirs of the MRSP, together with a high incidence of impairments of the zooplankton community. This demonstrates the presence of stressors that affect the viability of organisms and populations. The statistical approach showed that the data compiled by the environmental agency are insufficient to identify and explain the factors causing the observed ecotoxicological responses and impairments in the zooplankton community, and are therefore insufficient to identify clear cause-effect relationships. Stressors different from those analyzed could be responsible for the observed responses. PMID

  3. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline. PMID:26816431

  4. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline. PMID:26816431

  5. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  6. Showing Where To Go by Maps or Pictures: An Empirical Case Study at Subway Exits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    This study empirically examined the effectiveness of different methods of presenting route information on a mobile navigation sysyem, for accurate and effortless orientation at subway exits. Specifically, it compared participants’ spatial orientation performance with pictures and maps, in relation to the levels of their spatial ability. Participants identified the directions toward the goals after coming onto the ground faster when viewing pictures than when viewing maps. Spatial orientation with maps was more difficult than that with pictures at exits where body rotation was necessary, especially for people with low mental-rotation ability. In contrast, pictures were equally effective for people with low and high mental-rotation ability. Reasons for the effectiveness of pictures and possibilities of using other presentation formats are discussed.

  7. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. PMID:27086222

  8. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. PMID:24440555

  9. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. PMID:20105450

  10. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  11. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  12. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  13. Prognostic Role of Ventricular Ectopic Beats in Systemic Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study Shows ECG Indexes Predicting the Worse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Francesca Augusta; Berardi, Giorgia; Parisi, Federico; Rucco, Manuela; Canestrari, Giovanni; Loperfido, Francesco; Galiuto, Leonarda; Crea, Filippo; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Background Arrhythmias are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) and portend a bad prognosis, accounting alone for 6% of total deaths. Many of these patients die suddenly, thus prevention and intensified risk-stratification represent unmet medical needs. The major goal of this study was the definition of ECG indexes of poor prognosis. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to define the role of 24h-ECG-Holter as an additional risk-stratification technique in the identification of SSc-patients at high risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). One-hundred SSc-patients with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of cardiac involvement underwent 24h-ECG-Holter. The primary end-point was a composite of SCD or need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Results Fifty-six patients (56%) had 24h-ECG-Holter abnormalities and 24(24%) presented frequent ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). The number of VEBs correlated with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels and inversely correlated with left-ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) on echocardiography. During a mean follow-up of 23.1±16.0 months, 5 patients died suddenly and two required ICD-implantation. The 7 patients who met the composite end-point had a higher number of VEBs, higher levels of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP and lower LV-EF (p = 0.001 for all correlations). All these 7 patients had frequent VEBs, while LV-EF was not reduced in all and its range was wide. At ROC curve, VEBs>1190/24h showed 100% of sensitivity and 83% of specificity to predict the primary end-point (AUROC = 0.92,p<0.0001). Patients with VEBS>1190/24h had lower LV-EF and higher hs-cTnT levels and, at multivariate analysis, the presence of increased hs-cTnT and of right bundle branch block on ECG emerged as independent predictors of VEBs>1190/24h. None of demographic or disease-related characteristics emerged as predictors of poor outcome. Conclusions VEBS>1190/24h identify patients at high risk of

  14. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  15. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  17. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  18. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies

    PubMed Central

    Vally, H; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose sulfited wine challenge protocol was employed to establish if wine sensitive asthmatics as a group have an increased sensitivity to sulfites.
METHODS—In study 1, 24 asthmatic patients with a strong history of wine induced asthma were screened. Subjects showing positive responses to single blind high sulfite (300 ppm) wine challenge were rechallenged on separate days in a double blind, placebo controlled fashion with wines of varying sulfite levels to characterise their responses to these drinks. In study 2, wine sensitive asthmatic patients (n=12) and control asthmatics (n=6) were challenged cumulatively with wine containing increasing concentrations of sulfite in order to characterise further their sensitivity to sulfites in wine.
RESULTS—Four of the 24 self-reporting wine sensitive asthmatic patients were found to respond to sulfite additives in wine when challenged in a single dose fashion (study 1). In the double blind dose-response study all four had a significant fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (>15% from baseline) following exposure to wine containing 300 ppm sulfite, but did not respond to wines containing 20, 75 or 150 ppm sulfite. Responses were maximal at 5 minutes (mean (SD) maximal decline in FEV1 28.7 (13)%) and took 15-60 minutes to return to baseline levels. In the cumulative dose-response study (study 2) no significant difference was observed in any of the lung function parameters measured (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), mid phase forced expiratory

  19. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  20. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive ...

  1. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  5. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies showed that CBP KIX mutation affects the stability of CBP:c-Myb complex.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Anne; Jindal, Darren; Tamas, Tamara C; Lim, Benjamin W H; Pollard, Drake; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and its paralog p300 (EP300), two conserved multi-domain proteins in eukaryotic organisms, regulate gene expression in part by binding DNA-binding transcription factors. It was previously reported that the CBP/p300 KIX domain mutant (Y650A, A654Q, and Y658A) altered both c-Myb-dependent gene activation and repression, and that mice with these three point mutations had reduced numbers of platelets, B cells, T cells, and red blood cells. Here, our transient transfection assays demonstrated that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells containing the same mutations in the KIX domain and without a wild-type allele of either CBP or p300, showed decreased c-Myb-mediated transcription. Dr. Wright's group solved a 3-D structure of the mouse CBP:c-Myb complex using NMR. To take advantage of the experimental structure and function data and improved theoretical calculation methods, we performed MD simulations of CBP KIX, CBP KIX with the mutations, and c-Myb, as well as binding energy analysis for both the wild-type and mutant complexes. The binding between CBP and c-Myb is mainly mediated by a shallow hydrophobic groove in the center where the side-chain of Leu302 of c-Myb plays an essential role and two salt bridges at the two ends. We found that the KIX mutations slightly decreased stability of the CBP:c-Myb complex as demonstrated by higher binding energy calculated using either MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA methods. More specifically, the KIX mutations affected the two salt bridges between CBP and c-Myb (CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306; CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294). Our studies also revealed differing dynamics of the hydrogen bonds between CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306 and between CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294 caused by the CBP KIX mutations. In the wild-type CBP:c-Myb complex, both of the hydrogen bonds stayed relatively stable. In contrast, in the mutant CBP:c-Myb complex, hydrogen bonds between R646 and E306 showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend, and hydrogen

  6. Serum Potassium and Glucose Regulation in the ADDITION-Leicester Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrice; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Quinn, Lauren M.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous observational studies have shown conflicting results between plasma K+ concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. To help clarify the evidence we aimed to determine whether an association existed between serum K+ and glucose regulation within a UK multiethnic population. Methods. Participants were recruited as part of the ADDITION Leicester study, a population based screening study. Individuals from primary care between the age of 40 and 75 years if White European or 25 and 75 years if South Asian or Afro Caribbean were recruited. Tests for associations between baseline characteristics and K+ quartiles were conducted using linear regression models. Results. Data showed individuals in the lowest K+ quartile had significantly greater 2-hour glucose levels (0.53 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.70, P ≤ 0.001) than those in the highest K+ quartile. This estimation did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. Conversely, participants in the lowest K+ quartile had a 0.14% lower HbA1c (95% CI −0.19 to −0.10: P ≤ 0.001) compared to those in the highest K+ quartile. Conclusion. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrated that lower K+ was associated with greater 2 hr glucose. The data supports the possibility that K+ may influence glucose regulation and further research is warranted. PMID:25883988

  7. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M.; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013–2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001), followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001) and pots (-0.44, p<0.01). Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34–0.70, p<0.001), followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53–0.93, p<0.05) and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54–1.02, p = 0.06). Conclusion As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in

  8. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. Methods A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. Results and conclusion The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and

  9. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region. PMID:18521812

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer. PMID:27152751

  11. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  12. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  13. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  14. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  15. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  16. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  17. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  18. Addition reaction of alkyl radical to C60 fullerene: Density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Functionalized fullerenes are known as a high-performance molecules. In this study, the alkyl-functionalized fullerenes (denoted by R-C60) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method to elucidate the effects of functionalization on the electronic states of fullerene. Also, the reaction mechanism of alkyl radicals with C60 was investigated. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl radicals (denoted by n = 1-4, where n means the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl radical) were examined as alkyl radicals. The DFT calculation showed that the alkyl radical binds to the carbon atom of C60 at the on-top site, and a strong C-C single bond is formed. The binding energies of alkyl radicals to C60 were distributed in the range of 31.8-35.1 kcal mol-1 at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. It was found that the activation barrier exists before alkyl addition, the barrier heights were calculated to be 2.1-2.8 kcal mol-1. The electronic states of R-C60 complexes were discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.

  19. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  20. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  1. Structural study of a bent-core liquid crystal showing the B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition

    SciTech Connect

    Folcia, Cesar Luis; Etxebarria, J.; Ortega, J.; Ros, M. B.

    2006-09-15

    An experimental study of the B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition is carried out in a bent-core liquid crystal. The study is essentially based on x-ray measurements as a function of temperature. The B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition is extremely unusual and implies a deep structural change from a columnar phase to a lamellar phase. We have found that the B{sub 1} phase in our compound is similar to the so-called B{sub 1} reversed phase, with an additional splay of the polarization in the columns. On approaching the B{sub 2} phase the width of the cross section of the columns increases. The transition is clearly first order, with a large hysteresis though the enthalpy content is very small. A possible mechanism for the transition is briefly sketched.

  2. Peep show establishments, police activity, public place, and time: a study of secondary effects in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Linz, Daniel; Paul, Bryant; Yao, Mike

    2006-05-01

    An empirical study was undertaken in San Diego, California, to test assumptions made by the government and by conservative religious policy advocates that there is a greater incidence of crime in the vicinity of peep show establishments. We asked two questions: (a) Is criminal activity in San Diego particularly acute at peep show establishments compared to surrounding control locations? and (b) Is criminal activity in San Diego disproportionately greater at or near peep show establishments between the hours of 2 a.m. and 6 a.m. compared to other times of the day? The levels of crime activity and the expenditure of police resources were examined by measuring the number of calls-for-service (CFSs) to the police within a 1,000-ft. area on either side of the peep show establishments and comparably-sized control areas beyond the immediate 1,000-foot area. A more focused late-night (2 a.m. to 6 a.m.) analysis was also undertaken. The results showed no reliable evidence of differences in crime levels between the control and test areas, nor was there any evidence of disproportionately greater amounts of crime within the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. time period in the areas surrounding the peep show establishments. We concluded that San Diego does not have a problem with crime at the peep show establishments generally, nor is there a heightened problem with crime during the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. period. We discuss the implications of assuming that peep show establishments are associated with negative effects in the community and the possibility of viewpoint discrimination against sex communication. PMID:16817065

  3. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CUCAMONGA WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Cucamonga Wilderness and additions encompass approximately 104 sq mi of the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California. A mineral survey indicates areas of probable and substantiated tungsten and gold resource potential for parts of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and an area of probable tungsten and gold resource potential in the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions. The rugged topography, withdrawal of lands from mineral entry to protect watershed, and restricted entry of lands during periods of high fire danger have contributed to the continuing decline in mineral exploration. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  4. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  5. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  6. Integrated genomic and prospective clinical studies show the importance of modular pleiotropy for disease susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Translational research typically aims to identify and functionally validate individual, disease-specific genes. However, reaching this aim is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes in common diseases, and that many of those genes are pleiotropic, that is, shared by several diseases. Methods We integrated genomic meta-analyses with prospective clinical studies to systematically investigate the pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic roles of pleiotropic genes. In a novel approach, we first used pathway analysis of all published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to find a cell type common to many diseases. Results The analysis showed over-representation of the T helper cell differentiation pathway, which is expressed in T cells. This led us to focus on expression profiling of CD4+ T cells from highly diverse inflammatory and malignant diseases. We found that pleiotropic genes were highly interconnected and formed a pleiotropic module, which was enriched for inflammatory, metabolic and proliferative pathways. The general relevance of this module was supported by highly significant enrichment of genetic variants identified by all GWAS and cancer studies, as well as known diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Prospective clinical studies of multiple sclerosis and allergy showed the importance of both pleiotropic and disease specific modules for clinical stratification. Conclusions In summary, this translational genomics study identified a pleiotropic module, which has key pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic roles. PMID:24571673

  7. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  8. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  10. Experimental study of combustion of decane, dodecane and hexadecane with polymeric and nano-particle additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamari, Mohsen; Ratner, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that adding combustible nano-particles could have promising effects on increasing burning rate of liquid fuels. Combustible nano-particles could enhance the heat conduction and mixing within the droplet. Polymers have also higher burning rate than regular hydrocarbon fuels because of having the flame closer to the droplet surface. Therefore adding polymeric additive could have the potential to increase the burning rate. In this study, combustion of stationary fuel droplets of n-Decane, n-Dodecane and n-Hexadecane doped with different percentages of a long chain polymer and also a very fine nano carbon was examined and compared with the pure hydrocarbon behavior. In contrast with hydrocarbon droplets with no polymer addition, several zones of combustion including a slow and steady burning zone, a strong swelling zone and a final fast and fairly steady combustion zone were also detected. In addition, increasing polymer percentage resulted in a more extended swelling zone and shorter slow burning zone in addition to a shorter total burning time. Addition of nano-particles also resulted in an overall increased burning rate and shortened burning time which is due to enhanced heat conduction within the droplet.

  11. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  12. Microstructural Study Of Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings with Titanium Additions In The Zinc Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is a method for protecting iron and steel against corrosion. Galvanizing with pure Zn or Zn with additions like Ni, Al, Pb and Bi has been extensively studied, but there is a lack of scientific information about other additions. The present work examines the effect of a 0.5 wt% Ti addition in the Zn melt. The samples were exposed to accelerated corrosion in a salt spray chamber (SSC). The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were determined by Optical Microscopy, XRD and SEM associated with an EDS Analyzer. The results indicate that the coatings have a typical morphology, while Zn-Ti phases were also detected.

  13. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  14. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  15. a Study on the Role of Sintering Additives for Fabrication of sic Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han Ki; Lee, Young Ju; Cho, Ho Jun; Kim, Tae Gyu

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials have been extensively studied for high temperature components in advanced energy system and advanced gas turbine. The SiC ceramics have been fabricated by a NITE (Nano Infiltration Transient Eutectic Phase) Process, using Nano-SiC powder. The sintering additives used for forming liquid phase under sintering process, used the sintering additives ratios were an Al2O3-Y2O3 system or add SiO2 contents. A major R&D focus for the SiC ceramics is the production to obtain high purity SiC ceramics. In this study, we investigated roles of the sintering additives(Al2O3:Y2O3) to fabrication of the SiC ceramics. The effects of SiO2 contents and density properties of the SiC ceramics were also investigated. To investigate the effects of SiO2, Al2O3/Y2O3 composition were fixed and then SiO2 ratios were changed as several kinds, and to confirm the effects of sintering additives ratios (Al2O3:Y2O3) they were changed between 4:6 and 6:4 in x wt.%.

  16. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  17. Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition - a transmission X-ray microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Song, Yen-Fang; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-01

    The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In order to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3wt.% of smectite was added to the 10wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation. PMID:20621806

  18. A Pilot Study of Reasons and Risk Factors for "No-Shows" in a Pediatric Neurology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Fadel, William F; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-09-01

    Missed clinic appointments lead to decreased patient access, worse patient outcomes, and increased healthcare costs. The goal of this pilot study was to identify reasons for and risk factors associated with missed pediatric neurology outpatient appointments ("no-shows"). This was a prospective cohort study of patients scheduled for 1 week of clinic. Data on patient clinical and demographic information were collected by record review; data on reasons for missed appointments were collected by phone interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression to assess risk factors for missed appointments. Fifty-nine (25%) of 236 scheduled patients were no-shows. Scheduling conflicts (25.9%) and forgetting (20.4%) were the most common reasons for missed appointments. When controlling for confounding factors in the logistic regression, Medicaid (odds ratio 2.36), distance from clinic, and time since appointment was scheduled were associated with missed appointments. Further work in this area is needed. PMID:25503257

  19. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  20. A Study of Aluminum Combustion in Solids, Powders, Foams, Additively-Manufactured Lattices, and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, James; Trammell, Norman; Batteh, Jad; Curran, Nicholas; Rogers, John; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the fireball characteristics, blast parameters, and combustion efficiency of explosively-shocked aluminum-based materials. The materials included structural and non-structural aluminum forms - such as solid cylinders, foams, additively-manufactured lattices, and powders - and some polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum (PTFE-Al) composites. The materials were explosively dispersed in a small blast chamber, and the blast properties and products were measured with pressure transducers, thermocouples, slow and fast ultraviolet/visible spectrometers, and high-speed video.

  1. Studying the active-site loop movement of the São Paolo metallo-β-lactamase-1† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Procedures for protein expression and purification, 19F-labelling, crystallisation, data collection, and structure determination, table of crystallographic data, table of crystallographic parameters and refinement statistics, figures showing binding mode and distances, procedures for mass spectrometry measurements, differential scanning fluorimetry measurements, stopped-flow measurements and other kinetics measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01752h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, Jürgen; Struwe, Weston B.; Rydzik, Anna M.; Tarhonskaya, Hanna; Pfeffer, Inga; Flashman, Emily; van Berkel, Sander S.; Spencer, James; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; McDonough, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) catalyse the hydrolysis of almost all β-lactam antibiotics. We report biophysical and kinetic studies on the São Paulo MBL (SPM-1), which reveal its Zn(ii) ion usage and mechanism as characteristic of the clinically important di-Zn(ii) dependent B1 MBL subfamily. Biophysical analyses employing crystallography, dynamic 19F NMR and ion mobility mass spectrometry, however, reveal that SPM-1 possesses loop and mobile element regions characteristic of the B2 MBLs. These include a mobile α3 region which is important in catalysis and determining inhibitor selectivity. SPM-1 thus appears to be a hybrid B1/B2 MBL. The results have implications for MBL evolution and inhibitor design. PMID:25717359

  2. Topical application of Katupila (Securinega leucopyrus) in Dushta Vrana (chronic wound) showing excellent healing effect: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Ajmeer, Ahamed Shahan; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2014-01-01

    Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell. is known as Humari in India, Katupila in Sri Lanka and Spinous fluggea in English. It is a desert climatic plant used topically in paste form for healing of chronic and non-healing wounds. Application of Katupila Kalka (paste) is used commonly in the management of acute as well as chronic wounds in Sri Lanka as a folklore medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of herbal paste of Katupila in the treatment of Dushta Vrana (chronic wound). It is a single observational innovative case study. A female aged 40 years presented with a non-healing infected wound on her right buttock with a history of 2 months. On examination, there was a rounded wound having black color necrosed tissue and slough with foul smelling, measuring about 3 inch × 3 inch × 1 inch in diameter caused by pyogenic local infection. The routine laboratory investigations were within normal limit except hemoglobin and the swab culture test of the wound bed was reported infection of Staphylococcus aureus. This case study showed effective wound healing by topical application of Katupila paste and sesame oil. PMID:25558163

  3. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  4. Micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical studies on Dacitic Pumice from the Pinatubo Eruption (1991, Phillipines) Showing self-reversed TRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, V.; Fehr, K. Th.

    Detailed micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical investigations on dacitic pumice from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991, Phillipines) showing reversed NRM/TRM are presented. Two intergrown hemoilmenite-phases in chemically zoned particles were detected as being responsible: a rim-(or covering) phase consisting of a weak-ferromagnetic (disordered) hemoilmenite phase (low saturation magnetization but magnetically hard like hematite, FeTiO3 content 53-57 mol percent) and a core-phase consisting of a ferrimagnetic (ordered) hemoilmenite phase (high saturation magnetization but magnetically softer, constant FeTiO3 content ≈ 58 mol percent). Preliminary studies were carried out in order to elucidate the magnetic interactions (possibly exchange coupling) responsible for the self-reversal of the NRM/TRM. A preliminary and schematic model is presented which summarizes the main points of acquisition of a self-reversed TRM according to our results.

  5. Early Additional Immune-Modulators for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children: An Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is a self-limiting disease, but some patients complain of progressive pneumonia, despite of appropriate antibiotic treatment. We aimed to introduce the role of immune-modulators (corticosteroid and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) treatment for childhood MP pneumonia based on previous our experiences. Materials and Methods A retrospective case series analysis for 183 children with MP pneumonia was performed. MP pneumonia patients were diagnosed by two Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests: the micro-particle agglutination method (≥1:40) and the cold agglutination test (≥1:4), and were examined twice at the initial admission and at discharge. Among 183 MP pneumonia patients, 90 patients with persistent fever for over 48 hours after admission or those with severe respiratory symptoms and signs received additional prednisolone (82 patients, 1 mg/kg/day) or intravenous methylprednisolone (8 patients, 5-10 mg/kg/day) with antibiotics. Four patients with aggravated clinical symptoms and chest radiographic findings after corticosteroid treatment received IVIG (1 g/kg/day, 1-2 doses). Results Mean age of 183 patients was 5.5 ± 3.2 years (6 months-15 years), and the male: female ratio was 1.1:1 (96:87). Fifty-seven patients (31%) were seroconverters and 126 seropositive patients showed increased diagnostic IgM antibody titres during admission (over 4 folds). The majority of the patients who received corticosteroids (86/90 cases) showed rapid defervescence within 48 hours with improved clinical symptoms, regardless of the used antibiotics. Also, 4 patients who received additional IVIG improved both clinically and radiographically within 2 days without adverse reaction. Conclusions In the era of macrolide-resistant MP strains, early additional immune-modulator therapy with antibiotics might prevent from the disease progression and reduce the disease morbidity without adverse reaction. PMID:25566403

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  7. Thermal unfolding studies show the disease causing F508del mutation in CFTR thermodynamically destabilizes nucleotide-binding domain 1

    PubMed Central

    Protasevich, Irina; Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Atwell, Shane; Zhao, Xun; Emtage, Spencer; Wetmore, Diana; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2010-01-01

    Misfolding and degradation of CFTR is the cause of disease in patients with the most prevalent CFTR mutation, an in-frame deletion of phenylalanine (F508del), located in the first nucleotide-binding domain of human CFTR (hNBD1). Studies of (F508del)CFTR cellular folding suggest that both intra- and inter-domain folding is impaired. (F508del)CFTR is a temperature-sensitive mutant, that is, lowering growth temperature, improves both export, and plasma membrane residence times. Yet, paradoxically, F508del does not alter the fold of isolated hNBD1 nor did it seem to perturb its unfolding transition in previous isothermal chemical denaturation studies. We therefore studied the in vitro thermal unfolding of matched hNBD1 constructs ±F508del to shed light on the defective folding mechanism and the basis for the thermal instability of (F508del)CFTR. Using primarily differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism, we show for all hNBD1 pairs studied, that F508del lowers the unfolding transition temperature (Tm) by 6–7°C and that unfolding occurs via a kinetically-controlled, irreversible transition in isolated monomers. A thermal unfolding mechanism is derived from nonlinear least squares fitting of comprehensive DSC data sets. All data are consistent with a simple three-state thermal unfolding mechanism for hNBD1 ± F508del: N(±MgATP) ⇄ IT(±MgATP) → AT → (AT)n. The equilibrium unfolding to intermediate, IT, is followed by the rate-determining, irreversible formation of a partially folded, aggregation-prone, monomeric state, AT, for which aggregation to (AT)n and further unfolding occur with no detectable heat change. Fitted parameters indicate that F508del thermodynamically destabilizes the native state, N, and accelerates the formation of AT. PMID:20687133

  8. Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Present, Julie; Weiss, Roger D.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes. PMID:18463998

  9. Study of NiO cathode modified by ZnO additive for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Fei; Yu, Qing-chun; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Bin-yuan; Hu, Ke-ao

    The preparation and subsequent oxidation of nickel cathodes modified by impregnation with zinc oxide (ZnO) were evaluated by surface and bulk analysis. The electrochemical behaviors of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes was also evaluated in a molten 62 mol% Li 2CO 3 + 38 mol% K 2CO 3 eutectic at 650 °C by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a function of ZnO content and immersion time. The ZnO impregnated nickel cathodes showed the similar porosity, pore size distribution and morphology to the reference nickel cathode. The stability tests of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes showed that the ZnO additive could dramatically reduce the solubility of NiO in a eutectic carbonate mixture under the standard cathode gas condition. The impedance spectra for cathode materials show important variations during the 100 h of immersion. The incorporation of lithium in its structure and the low dissolution of nickel oxide and zinc oxide are responsible of these changes. After that, the structure reaches a stable state. The cathode material having 2 mol% of ZnO showed a very low dissolution and a good catalytic efficiency close to the NiO value. We thought that 2 mol% ZnO/NiO materials would be able to adapt as alternative cathode materials for MCFCs.

  10. Phosphorylation of Ser-180 of rat aquaporin-4 shows marginal affect on regulation of water permeability: molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ruchi; Singh, Balvinder

    2014-04-01

    Water permeation through rat aquaporin-4 (rAQP4), predominantly found in mammalian brain is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser-180. The present study has been carried out to understand the structural mechanism of regulation of water permeability across the channel. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate the structural changes caused due to phosphorylation of Ser-180 in the tetrameric assembly of rAQP4 along with predicted C-terminal region (255-323). The interactions involving opposite charges are observed between cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region during MD simulations. This results in movement of C-terminal region of rAQP4 towards the cytoplasmic mouth of water channel. Despite this movement, there was a gap between C-terminal region and cytoplasmic mouth of the channel through which water molecules were able to gain entry into the channel. The interactions between C-terminus and loop D of neighboring monomers in a tetrameric assembly appear to prevent the complete closure of cytoplasmic mouth of the water channel. Further, the rates of water permeation through phosphorylated and unphosphorylated rAQP4 have also been compared. The simulation studies showed a continuous movement of water in a single file across pore of unphosphorylated as well as phosphorylated rAQP4. PMID:23651078

  11. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  12. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  13. The social well-being of nurses shows a thirst for a holistic support: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Naser; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses’ experience of social well-being. Methods Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. Results The main theme extracted from the data analysis was “thirst for a holistic support” in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support) and external support (society's support and media's support). Conclusions and discussion Nurses’ experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses. PMID:26381217

  14. Dinuclear center of ferritin: studies of iron binding and oxidation show differences in the two iron sites.

    PubMed

    Treffry, A; Zhao, Z; Quail, M A; Guest, J R; Harrison, P M

    1997-01-14

    The ferroxidase activity of human ferritin has previously been associated with a diiron site situated centrally within the four-helix bundle of H-type chains (HuHF). However, direct information about the site of Fe(II) binding has been lacking, and events between Fe(II) binding and its oxidation have not previously been studied. A sequential stopped-flow assay has now been developed to enable the dissection of binding and oxidation. It depends on the ability of 1,10-phenanthroline to complex protein-bound Fe(II) and to distinguish it from the more immediately available free Fe(II). This approach, aided by the use of site-directed variants, indicates that in HuHF and the non-heme ferritin of Escherichia coli the first 48 Fe(II) atoms/molecule added are bound and oxidized at the dinuclear centers. At a constant iron concentration, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was maximal for additions of 2 Fe(II) atoms/subunit, consistent with a two-electron oxidation of the Fe(II) pair. Although, at low Fe(II)/protein ratios, no cooperativity in Fe(II) binding was observed; a preferred order of binding was deduced [Fe(II) binding first at site A and then at site B]. Binding of Fe(II) at both sites was essential for fast oxidation. Modification of site A ligands resulted in slow iron binding and slow oxidation. Modification of site B did not prevent Fe(II) binding at site A but greatly reduced its oxidation rate. These differences may mean that dioxygen is initially bound to Fe(II) at site B. PMID:9003196

  15. Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Premanifest Huntington Disease Show Trial Feasibility: A Decade of the PREDICT-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Hans J.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Ross, Christopher A.; Williams, Janet K.; Nance, Martha A.; Erwin, Cheryl J.; Westervelt, Holly J.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Zhang, Ying; McCusker, Elizabeth A.; Chiu, Edmond M.; Panegyres, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD) should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. Neurobiological predictors of Huntington’s disease is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest HD and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease 7–12 years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease. PMID:24795630

  16. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  17. Isomeric Selective Studies of the Dominant Addition Channel in OH Initiated Oxidation of Isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.; Bugarin, A.; Connell, B.; North, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first isomeric selective study of the dominant isomeric pathway in the OH initiated oxidation of isoprene in the presence of O2 and NO using the Laser Photolysis-Laser Induced Fluorescence (LP-LIF) technique. The photolysis of monodeuterated/non deuterated 2-iodo-2-methyl-but-3-en-1-ol results exclusively in the dominant OH-isoprene addition product, providing important insight into the oxidation mechanism. Based on kinetic analysis of OH cycling experiments we have determined the rate constant for O2 addition to the hydroxy alkyl radical to be (1.0±0.5) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) and we find a value of (8.05±2.3) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) for the overall reaction rate constant of the hydroxy peroxy radical with NO. We also report the first clear experimental evidence of the (E-) form of the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel through isotopic labeling experiments and quantify its branching ratio to be 0.1±0.025. Since it corresponds to missing carbon balance in isoprene oxidation, we have been able to identify some of the missing carbon balance. Since our measured isomeric selective rate constants for the dominant outer channel in OH initiated isoprene chemistry are similar to the overall rate constants derived from non isomeric kinetics, we predict that the remaining outer addition channel will have similar reactivity. We have extended this study to the OH initiated oxidation of 1,3-butadiene. We have obtained isomeric selective rate constants on the dominant channel of the butadiene oxidation chemistry and measured the branching ratio for the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel. These results on butadiene studies will be discussed.

  18. Thermal unfolding studies show the disease causing F508del mutation in CFTR thermodynamically destabilizes nucleotide-binding domain 1.

    PubMed

    Protasevich, Irina; Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Atwell, Shane; Zhao, Xun; Emtage, Spencer; Wetmore, Diana; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2010-10-01

    Misfolding and degradation of CFTR is the cause of disease in patients with the most prevalent CFTR mutation, an in-frame deletion of phenylalanine (F508del), located in the first nucleotide-binding domain of human CFTR (hNBD1). Studies of (F508del)CFTR cellular folding suggest that both intra- and inter-domain folding is impaired. (F508del)CFTR is a temperature-sensitive mutant, that is, lowering growth temperature, improves both export, and plasma membrane residence times. Yet, paradoxically, F508del does not alter the fold of isolated hNBD1 nor did it seem to perturb its unfolding transition in previous isothermal chemical denaturation studies. We therefore studied the in vitro thermal unfolding of matched hNBD1 constructs ±F508del to shed light on the defective folding mechanism and the basis for the thermal instability of (F508del)CFTR. Using primarily differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism, we show for all hNBD1 pairs studied, that F508del lowers the unfolding transition temperature (T(m)) by 6-7°C and that unfolding occurs via a kinetically-controlled, irreversible transition in isolated monomers. A thermal unfolding mechanism is derived from nonlinear least squares fitting of comprehensive DSC data sets. All data are consistent with a simple three-state thermal unfolding mechanism for hNBD1 ± F508del: N(±MgATP) <==> I(T)(±MgATP) → A(T) → (A(T))(n). The equilibrium unfolding to intermediate, I(T), is followed by the rate-determining, irreversible formation of a partially folded, aggregation-prone, monomeric state, A(T), for which aggregation to (A(T))(n) and further unfolding occur with no detectable heat change. Fitted parameters indicate that F508del thermodynamically destabilizes the native state, N, and accelerates the formation of A(T). PMID:20687133

  19. Immunotoxic effects of the color additive caramel color III: immune function studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Vos, J G; Van Loveren, H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the color additive caramel color III (AC) may cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Beside lymphopenia, several other effects in rat have been described. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and occur in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. In the present paper, immune function studies on AC and THI with rats fed a diet low, but not deficient in vitamin B6 are presented and discussed. Rats were exposed to 0.4 or 4% AC or to 5.72 ppm THI in drinking water during and for 28 days prior to the start of immune function assays. Resistance to Trichinella spiralis was examined in an oral infection model and clearance of Listeria monocytogenes upon an intravenous infection was studied. In addition, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity of splenic and nonadherent peritoneal cells and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells were studied. From the results it is concluded that exposure of rats to AC or THI influenced various immune function parameters. Thymus-dependent immunity was suppressed, while parameters of the nonspecific resistance were also affected, as shown by a decreased natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen and an enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:8432426

  20. Improving wound care simulation with the addition of odor: a descriptive, quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Donna W; Neil, Janice A; Bryant, Elizabeth T

    2008-08-01

    Improving problem-solving skills and expertise in complex clinical care provision requires engaging students in the learning process--a challenging goal when clinical practicums and supervisors are limited. High-fidelity simulation has created many new opportunities for educating healthcare professionals. Because addressing malodorous wounds is a common problem that may be difficult to "teach," a descriptive, quasi-experimental simulation study was conducted. Following completion of a wound care simulation and Laerdal's Simulation Experience Evaluation Tool by 137 undergraduate nursing students, 50 control subjects were randomly selected and 49 volunteer students (experimental group) participated in a wound care simulation after one of three cheeses with a strong odor was added to simulate a malodorous wound. Compared to the control group, study group responses were significantly better (P <0.001) for eight of the 12 survey variables tested and indicated the addition of odor was beneficial in enhancing the perceived realism and value of the simulation. Students responded that the addition of odor in the simulation laboratory improved realism and they felt better prepared to handle malodorous wounds in a clinical setting. An unanticipated outcome was the enhanced feeling of involvement associated with paired care teams as opposed to working in larger groups. The results of this study indicate that wound care education outcomes improve when nursing students are able to practice using a multi-sensorial wound care simulation model. PMID:18716340

  1. Nationwide Surveillance Study of Clostridium difficile in Australian Neonatal Pigs Shows High Prevalence and Heterogeneity of PCR Ribotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and the cause of diarrhea and enteritis in neonatal pigs. Outside Australia, prevalence in piglets can be up to 73%, with a single PCR ribotype (RT), 078, predominating. We investigated the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile in Australian pig herds. Rectal swabs (n = 229) were collected from piglets aged <7 days from 21 farms across Australia. Selective culture for C. difficile was performed and isolates characterized by PCR for toxin genes and PCR ribotyping. C. difficile was isolated from 52% of samples by direct culture on chromogenic agar and 67% by enrichment culture (P = 0.001). No association between C. difficile recovery or genotype and diarrheic status of either farm or piglets was found. The majority (87%; 130/154) of isolates were toxigenic. Typing revealed 23 different RTs, several of which are known to cause disease in humans, including RT014, which was isolated most commonly (23%; 36/154). RT078 was not detected. This study shows that colonization of Australian neonatal piglets with C. difficile is widespread in the herds sampled. PMID:25326297

  2. Spermatozoa bound to solid state hyaluronic acid show chromatin structure with high DNA chain integrity: an acridine orange fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Yagci, Artay; Murk, William; Stronk, Jill; Huszar, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    During human spermiogenesis, the elongated spermatids undergo a plasma membrane remodeling step that facilitates formation of the zona pellucida and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding sites. Various biochemical sperm markers indicated that human sperm bound to HA exhibit attributes similar to that of zona pellucida-bound sperm, including minimal DNA fragmentation, normal shape, and low frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that HA-bound sperm would be enhanced in sperm of high DNA chain integrity and green acridine orange fluorescence (AOF) compared with the original sperm in semen. Sperm DNA integrity in semen and in their respective HA-bound sperm fractions was studied in 50 men tested for fertility. In the semen samples, the proportions of sperm with green AOF (high DNA integrity) and red AOF (DNA breaks) were 54.9% ± 2.0% and 45.0% ± 1.9%, whereas in the HA-bound sperm fraction, the respective proportions were 99% and 1.0%, respectively. The data indeed demonstrated that HA shows a high degree of selectivity for sperm with high DNA integrity. These findings are important from the points of view of human sperm DNA integrity, sperm function, and the potential efficacy of HA-mediated sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:20133967

  3. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  4. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  5. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  6. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  7. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV). PMID:25714034

  8. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  9. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  10. The guanidine and maleic acid (1:1) complex. The additional theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marek; Dudzic, Damian

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of experimental literature data the theoretical studies for guanidinium and maleic acid complex with using DFT method are performed. In these studies the experimental X-ray data for two different forms of investigated crystal were used. During the geometry optimization process one equilibrium structure was found, only. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained and graphically illustrated. The energy difference (GAP) between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. Additionally, the nonlinear properties of this molecule were calculated. The α and β (first and second order) hyperpolarizability values are obtained. On the basis of these results the title crystal was classified as new second order NLO generator.

  11. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706. PMID:26712326

  12. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  13. [Study on the spectra of Au/CeO2 catalysts modified by La2O3 additive].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; He, Zhen-Liang; Li, Jin-Wei; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Lin, Xing-Yi; Zheng, Qi

    2008-04-01

    For Au-ceria catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation method, the catalytic performance of water gas shift reaction was studied with different La loadings. In the complete doping range, ceria retains with its cubic fluorite structures. XRD, HRTEM and UV-Vis-DRS, studies showed that La doping can improve the activity of Au-ceria catalyst by stabilizing ceria and modifying its morphology. In addition, the test of catalyst stability evaluation also proved, that a better stability performance of Au-ceria catalyst can be realized by appropriate La doping. The Au/CL5.0 sample with 5 at % La doping showed the best performance in WGS reaction. PMID:18619331

  14. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  15. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Riegel Dam, Trion, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-10

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Riegel Dam near Trion, Georgia for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 17 ft., was built in 1900 for supplying hydroelectric power for a textile mill, and currently provides cooling water to the mill. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site would require new generating equipment and that such retrofitting appears to be economically feasible. (LCL)

  16. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  17. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-01

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements. PMID:26853739

  18. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  19. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  20. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  1. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  2. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  3. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  4. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose. PMID:26344977

  5. Comparative study of dimensional accuracy of different impression techniques using addition silicone impression material.

    PubMed

    Penaflor, C F; Semacio, R C; De Las Alas, L T; Uy, H G

    1998-01-01

    This study compared dimensional accuracy of the single, double with spacer, double with cut-out and double mix impression technique using addition silicone impression material. A typhodont containing Ivorine teeth model with six (6) full-crown tooth preparations were used as the positive control. Two stone replication models for each impression technique were made as test materials. Accuracy of the techniques were assessed by measuring four dimensions on the stone dies poured from the impression of the Ivorine teeth model. Results indicated that most of the measurements for the height, width and diameter slightly decreased and a few increased compared with the Ivorine teeth model. The double with cut-out and double mix technique presents the least difference from the master model as compared to the two latter impression techniques. PMID:10202524

  6. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  7. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  8. Maps showing water geochemistry of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Lake, Park, and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; Ficklin, Walter H.; Dover, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents results of geochemical studies carried out in June and July of 1982 in the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colo. (see index map). Samples of water were collected from 84 streams and 18 springs draining the study area. Tabulations of the analyses and a sample locality map are in Ficklin and others (1984). The geochemistry of stream sediments and panned concentrates of the study area is in Nowlan and Gerstel (1985). The geology of the study area and vicinity is in Hedlund (1985). The mineral resource potential of the study area is described in Hedlund and others (1983). This report (1) assists in the assessment of the mineral resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area; and (2) compares analyses of water samples with analyses of stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples (Nowlan and Gerstel, 1985).

  9. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  10. Numerical study of the effect of water addition on gas explosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuntao; Zeng, Wen

    2010-02-15

    Through amending the SENKIN code of CHEMKIN III chemical kinetics package, a computational model of gas explosion in a constant volume bomb was built, and the detailed reaction mechanism (GRI-Mech 3.0) was adopted. The mole fraction profiles of reactants, some selected free radicals and catastrophic gases in the process of gas explosion were analyzed by this model. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis of the reaction mechanism of gas explosion, the dominant reactions that affect gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were found out. At the same time, the inhibition mechanisms of water on gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were analyzed. The results show that the induced explosion time is prolonged, and the mole fractions of reactant species such as CH(4), O(2) and catastrophic gases such as CO, CO(2) and NO are decreased as water is added to the mixed gas. With the water fraction in the mixed gas increasing, the sensitivities of the dominant reactions contributing to CH(4), CO(2) are decreased and the sensitivity coefficients of CH(4), CO and NO mole fractions are also decreased. The inhibition of gas explosion with water addition can be ascribed to the significant decrease of H, O and OH in the process of gas explosion due to the water presence. PMID:19811873

  11. 46 Pct. of All Undergraduates Received Some Form of Financial Aid in Fall 1986, U.S. Study Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study by the U.S. Department of Education examines the amount and types of aid students receive nationwide. The study covered aid distributed by the federal government, state governments, colleges and universities, and other sources. (MLW)

  12. N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

  13. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Nordmark, Gunnel; Garnier, Sophie; Grundberg, Elin; Kwan, Tony; Nilsson, Olof; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Jönsen, Andreas; Truedsson, Lennart; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Eriksson, Catharina; Alm, Gunnar; Göring, Harald H.H.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 × 10−8) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 × 10−5). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 × 10−5) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene. PMID:18579578

  14. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records. PMID:25390868

  15. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  16. Using laser diagnostics for studying the injection of a dry additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunov, Iu. M.; Zhilin, V. G.; Liuliukin, V. I.; Mostinskii, I. L.; Putin, Iu. A.

    1987-02-01

    In MHD generators using an ionizing additive, the uniform injection of the additive into the combustion chamber and the dispersity of the injected particles are important. Some of the problems associated with the injection of an ionizing additive can be alleviated by using dry additives. In the experiment reported here, an He-Ne laser was used to monitor the injection of potash powder with an average size of 40 microns. It is shown that laser diagnostics can be successfully used to determine the mean particle diameter and variation of the powder flow rate with time.

  17. Evaluation of additional head of biceps brachii: a study with autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, L E; Forero, P L; Buitrago, E R

    2014-05-01

    Additional head of the biceps brachii (AHBB) has been reported in different population groups with a frequency of 1-25%. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and morphologic expression of the AHBB as determined in a sample of the Colombian population. An exploration was conducted with 106 arms corresponding to unclaimed corpses autopsied at Institute of Legal and Forensic Medicine of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Using medial incision involvingskin, subcutaneous tissue, and brachial fascia, the heads of the biceps and their innervating branches were visualised. One AHBB was observed in 21 (19.8%) of the arms evaluated, with non-significant difference (p = 0.568) per side of presentation: 11 (52.4%) cases on the right side and 10 (47.6%) on the left side. All AHBBs were originated in the infero-medial segment of the humerus, with a mean thickness of 17.8 ± 6.8 mm. In 4 (19%) cases the fascicle was thin, less than 10 mm; in 7 (33.3%) cases it was of medium thickness, between 11 and 20 mm, whereas in 47.6% it was longer than 20 mm. The length of the AHBB was 118.3 ± 26.8 mm; its motor point supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was located at 101.3 ± 20.9 mm of the bi-epicondylar line. The incidence of AHBB in this study is located at the upper segment of what has been reportedin the literature and could be a morphologic trait of the Colombian population; in agreement with prior studies, the origin was the infero-medial surface of the humerus. PMID:24902098

  18. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  19. A Case Study Showing How One Young Child Represented Issues Concerned with Attachment and Separation in Her Spontaneous Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a young child, demonstrating evidence of a connection between "enveloping" objects and understanding presence and absence of a temporary and permanent nature. The starting point for the researcher was: an interest in identifying schemas or repeated patterns in order to understand cognitive development and; a…

  20. Study Shows No Difference in Impact between Online and Face-to-Face Professional Learning. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2014-01-01

    Adopting new curricula presents both a need and an opportunity for professional development to advance teacher content knowledge and instructional practices for achieving curriculum-specific student outcomes. This study examines two modalities of professional development: face-to-face in a summer workshop and online that included two days of…

  1. Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…

  2. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  3. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  4. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  5. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  6. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Sudhir K.; Kaushik, Subhash C.; Tiwari, Vivek

    2003-12-01

    An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to nonisentropic compression and expansion processes in the compressor and the turbine respectively and the regenerative heat loss. The ecological function is found to be an increasing function of the isothermal-, sink- and regenerative-side effectiveness, isothermal-side inlet temperature, component efficiencies and sink-side temperature while it is found to be a decreasing function of the isobaric-side temperature and effectiveness and the working fluid heat capacitance rate. The effects of the isobaric-side effectiveness are found to be more than those of the other parameters and the effects of turbine efficiency are found to be more than those of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters of the cycle.

  7. Theoretical study of addition reactions of carbene, silylene, and germylene to carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Ying; Su, Ming-Der

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical study of the mechanism of the reaction of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with carbene (H 2C), silylene (H 2Si), and germylene (H 2Ge) has been carried out using a two-layered ONIOM(B3LYP/6-311G ∗:PM3) approach. The main findings are as follows: (1) The computational results based on the method used in this work are in good agreement with recent theoretical findings [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41 (2002) 1853]. That is, SWCNTs with H 2C, H 2Si, and H 2Ge addends favor opened structures rather than three-membered rings. (2) The greater the atomic number of the carbene center, the larger the activation energy and the less exothermic (or the more endothermic) the cycloaddition reaction becomes. Therefore, addition to the C dbnd C bond of a SWCNT is more difficult the heavier the carbene center. (3) The theoretical observations suggest that the singlet-triplet splitting of a carbene can be used as a guide to its reactivity during the SWCNT cycloaddition process.

  8. Prevalence of HPV infection in head and neck carcinomas shows geographical variability: a comparative study from Brazil and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Franziska; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Dreyer, Johannes H; Perrusi, Victor José Ferreira; Arcuri, Roberto Alfonso; Hassan, Rocio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Rising prevalence rates of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) infection in oropharyngeal carcinoma (up to 80 %) have been reported in North America and Scandinavia. We have analysed 424 German and 163 Brazilian head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) from the oral cavity (OSCC), oropharynx (OPSCC) and hypopharynx (HPSCC) using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA PCR and sequencing, hrHPV DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) and hrHPV E6/E7 RNA ISH. In the German series, 52/424 cases (12.3 %) were p16-positive/hrHPV-positive (OSCC 3.8 % [10/265], OPSCC 34.4 % [42/122], HPSCC 0 % [0/37]). In addition, there were 9 cases that were p16-positive/hrHPV-negative (5 OPSCC and 4 OSCC). In the Brazilian series, the overall hrHPV DNA prevalence by PCR was 11.0 % ([18/163]; OSCC 6 % [5/83], OPSCC 15.5 % [11/71], HPSCC 22.2 % [2/9]). Ten of these cases were hrHPV-positive/p16-positive. The remaining 8 hrHPV-positive/p16-negative cases were also negative in both ISH assays. Furthermore, 5 p16-positive/hrHPV-negative cases (2 OPSCC and 3 OSCC) were identified. In both series, HPV16 was by far the most common HPV type detected. We confirm that regardless of geographical origin, the highest hrHPV prevalence in HNSCC is observed in oropharyngeal carcinomas. The proportion of HPV-associated OPSCC was substantially higher in the German cohort than in the Brazilian series (34.4 vs. 15.5 %), and in both groups, the prevalence of hrHPV in OPSCC was much lower than in recent reports from North America and Scandinavia. We suggest, therefore, that it may be possible to define areas with high (e.g. USA, Canada, Scandinavia), intermediate (e.g. Germany) and low (e.g. Brazil) prevalences of HPV infection in OPSCC. PMID:25820374

  9. A genome-wide study shows a limited contribution of rare copy number variants to Alzheimer's disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jade; Rees, Elliott; Harold, Denise; Ivanov, Dobril; Gerrish, Amy; Sims, Rebecca; Hollingworth, Paul; Stretton, Alexandra; Holmans, Peter; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Williams, Julie; Kirov, George

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the role of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using intensity data from 3260 AD cases and 1290 age-matched controls from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by the Genetic and Environmental Risk for Alzheimer's disease Consortium (GERAD). We did not observe a significant excess of rare CNVs in cases, although we did identify duplications overlapping APP and CR1 which may be pathogenic. We looked for an excess of CNVs in loci which have been highlighted in previous AD CNV studies, but did not replicate previous findings. Through pathway analyses, we observed suggestive evidence for biological overlap between single nucleotide polymorphisms and CNVs in AD susceptibility. We also identified that our sample of elderly controls harbours significantly fewer deletions >1 Mb than younger control sets in previous CNV studies on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (P = 8.9 × 10−4 and 0.024, respectively), raising the possibility that healthy elderly individuals have a reduced rate of large deletions. Thus, in contrast to diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CNVs do not appear to make a significant contribution to the development of AD. PMID:23148125

  10. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  11. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  12. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study.

    PubMed

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  13. Map showing a deep-tow geophysical study of the north end of the San Clemente Fault, California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, George A.; Normark, William R.

    1980-01-01

    A deep-tow geophysical study of a small ridge along the north end of the San Clemente fault, informally termed Kimki Ridge by Arne Junger and J.G. Vedder (unpub. data, 1979), was conducted in April 1976 using the R/V Melville of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The purpose of the survey was to search for evidence of active faulting along the north-ward extension of the San Clemente fault, a major structural feature in the California Borderland (fig. 1). 

  14. Radiolabeled Antibodies in Prostate Cancer: A Case Study Showing the Effect of Host Immunity on Antibody Bio-distribution

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsson-Timmermand, Oskar; Santos, Elmer; Thorek, Daniel LJ; Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Bjartell, Anders; Lilja, Hans; Larson, Steven M; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A.; Ulmert, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Human tumors xenografted in immunodeficient mice are crucial models in nuclear medicine to evaluate the effectiveness of candidate diagnostic and therapeutic compounds. However, little attention has been focused on the biological profile of the host model and its potential effects on the bio-distribution and tumor targeting of the tracer compound under study. We specifically investigated the dissimilarity in bio-distribution of 111In-DTPA-5A10, which targets free Prostate Specific Antigen (fPSA), in two animal models. Methods In vivo bio-distribution studies of 111In-DTPA-5A10 were performed in immunodeficient BALB/c-nu or NMRI-nu mice with subcutaneous (s.c.) LNCaP tumors. Targeting-specificity of the tracer was assessed by quantifying the uptake in (a) mice with s.c. xenografts of PSA-negative DU145 cells as well as (b) BALB/c-nu or NMRI-nu mice co-injected with an excess of non-labeled 5A10. Finally, the effect of neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) inhibition on the bio-distribution of the conjugate was studied by saturating FcRn-binding capacity with nonspecific IgG1. Results The inherent biological attributes of the mouse model substantially influenced the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics of 111In-DTPA-5A10. With LNCaP xenografts in BALB/c-nu mice (with intact B and NK cells but with deficient T cells) versus NMRI-nu mice (with intact B cells, increased NK cells and absent T cells), we observed a significantly higher hepatic accumulation (26±3.9 versus 3.5±0.4 %IA/g respectively), and concomitantly lower tumor uptake (25±11 versus 52±10 %IA/g respectively) in BALB/c-nu mice. Inhibiting FcRn by administration of nonspecific IgG1 just prior to 111In-DTPA-5A10 did not change tumor accumulation significantly. Conclusions We demonstrated that the choice of immunodeficient mouse model importantly influence the bio-distribution of 111In-DTPA-5A10. This study further highlighted important considerations in the evaluation of preclinical tracers, with

  15. NMR-based metabolomics and breath studies show lipid and protein catabolism during low dose chronic T1AM treatment

    PubMed Central

    Haviland, J. A.; Reiland, H.; Butz, D. E.; Tonelli, M.; Porter, W. P.; Zucchi, R.; Scanlan, T. S.; Chiellini, G.; Assadi-Porter, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), an analog of thyroid hormone, is a recently discovered fast-acting endogenous metabolite. High single dose treatments of T1AM have produced rapid short-term effects, including a reduction of body temperature, bradycardia, and hyperglycemia in mice. Design and Methods The present study monitored the effect of daily low doses of T1AM (10mg/Kg) for eight-days on weight loss and metabolism in spontaneously overweight mice. The experiments were repeated twice (n=4). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plasma and real-time analysis of exhaled 13CO2 in breath by cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) were used to detect T1M-induced lipolysis. Results CRDS detected increased lipolysis in breath shortly after T1AM administration that was associated with a significant weight loss but independent of food consumption. NMR spectroscopy revealed alterations in key metabolites in serum: valine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting that the subchronic effects of T1AM include both lipolysis and protein breakdown. After discontinuation of T1AM treatment, mice regained only 1.8% of the lost weight in the following two weeks, indicating lasting effects of T1AM on weight maintenance. Conclusions CRDS in combination with NMR and 13C-metabolic tracing constitute a powerful method of investigation in obesity studies for identifying in vivo biochemical pathway shifts and unanticipated debilitating side effects. PMID:23512955

  16. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  17. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  18. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  19. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  20. In Urban And Rural India, A Standardized Patient Study Showed Low Levels Of Provider Training And Huge Quality Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jishnu; Holla, Alaka; Das, Veena; Mohanan, Manoj; Tabak, Diana; Chan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the quality of care delivered by private and public providers of primary health care services in rural and urban India. To measure quality, the study used standardized patients recruited from the local community and trained to present consistent cases of illness to providers. We found low overall levels of medical training among health care providers; in rural Madhya Pradesh, for example, 67 percent of health care providers who were sampled reported no medical qualifications at all. What’s more, we found only small differences between trained and untrained doctors in such areas as adherence to clinical checklists. Correct diagnoses were rare, incorrect treatments were widely prescribed, and adherence to clinical checklists was higher in private than in public clinics. Our results suggest an urgent need to measure the quality of health care services systematically and to improve the quality of medical education and continuing education programs, among other policy changes. PMID:23213162

  1. Dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids useful as vaginal microbicides also show reverse transcriptase inhibition: design, synthesis, docking and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Jangir, Santosh; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Lal, Nand; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-02-15

    Prophylactic prevention is considered as the most promising strategy to tackle STI/HIV. Twenty-five dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids (14-38) were synthesized as woman controlled topical vaginal microbicides to counter Trichomonas vaginalis and sperm along with RT inhibition potential. The four promising compounds (18, 26, 28 and 33) were tested for safety through cytotoxic assay against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and compatibility with vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking study of most promising vaginal microbicide (33) revealed that it docked in a position and orientation similar to known reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nevirapine. The preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics of compound 33 was performed in NZ-rabbits to evaluate systemic toxicity in comparison to Nonoxynol-9. PMID:25592712

  2. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuji; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Sakai, Soichi; Ochiai, Hidekazu; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose), luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose), placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF) method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF) in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg) nor supratherapeutic (20 mg) doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects. PMID:26444986

  3. Thermoeffector neuronal pathways in fever: a study in rats showing a new role of the locus coeruleus

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria C; Steiner, Alexandre A; Coimbra, Norberto C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2004-01-01

    It is known that brain noradrenaline (norepinephrine) mediates fever, but the neuronal group involved is unknown. We studied the role of the major noradrenergic nucleus, the locus coeruleus (LC), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever. Male Wistar rats had their LC completely ablated electrolytically or their catecholaminergic LC neurones selectively lesioned by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine; the controls were sham-operated. Both lesions resulted in a marked attenuation of LPS (1 or 10 μg kg−1, i.v.) fever at a subneutral (23°C) ambient temperature (Ta). Because electrolytic and chemical lesions produced similar effects, the role of the LC in fever was further investigated using electrolytic lesions only. The levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2, the terminal mediator of fever, were equally raised in the anteroventral third ventricular region of LC-lesioned and sham-operated rats during the course of LPS fever, indicating that LC neurones are not involved in febrigenic signalling to the brain. To investigate the potential involvement of the LC in an efferent thermoregulatory neuronal pathway, the thermoregulatory response to PGE2 (25 ng, i.c.v.) was studied at a subneutral (23°C, when fever is brought about by thermogenesis) or neutral (28°C, when fever is brought about by tail skin vasoconstriction) Ta. The PGE2-induced increases in metabolic rate (an index of thermogenesis) and fever were attenuated in LC-lesioned rats at 23°C, whereas PGE2-induced skin vasoconstriction and fever normally developed in LC-lesioned rats at 28°C. The LC-lesioned rats had attenuated PGE2 thermogenesis despite the fact that they were fully capable of activating thermogenesis in response to noradrenaline and cold exposure. It is concluded that LC neurones are part of a neuronal network that is specifically activated by PGE2 to increase thermogenesis and produce fever. PMID:15146040

  4. Preclinical studies of amixicile, a systemic therapeutic developed for treatment of Clostridium difficile infections that also shows efficacy against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul S; Bruce, Alexandra M; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warren, Cirle A; Burgess, Stacey L; Hontecillas, Raquel; Viladomiu, Monica; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guerrant, Richard L; Macdonald, Timothy L

    2014-08-01

    Amixicile shows efficacy in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in a mouse model, with no recurrence of CDI. Since amixicile selectively inhibits the action of a B vitamin (thiamine pyrophosphate) cofactor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), it may both escape mutation-based drug resistance and spare beneficial probiotic gut bacteria that do not express this enzyme. Amixicile is a water-soluble derivative of nitazoxanide (NTZ), an antiparasitic therapeutic that also shows efficacy against CDI in humans. In comparative studies, amixicile showed no toxicity to hepatocytes at 200 μM (NTZ was toxic above 10 μM); was not metabolized by human, dog, or rat liver microsomes; showed equivalence or superiority to NTZ in cytochrome P450 assays; and did not activate efflux pumps (breast cancer resistance protein, P glycoprotein). A maximum dose (300 mg/kg) of amixicile given by the oral or intraperitoneal route was well tolerated by mice and rats. Plasma exposure (rats) based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 79.3 h · μg/ml (30 mg/kg dose) to 328 h · μg/ml (100 mg/kg dose), the maximum concentration of the drug in serum was 20 μg/ml, the time to the maximum concentration of the drug in serum was 0.5 to 1 h, and the half-life was 5.6 h. Amixicile did not concentrate in mouse feces or adversely affect gut populations of Bacteroides species, Firmicutes, segmented filamentous bacteria, or Lactobacillus species. Systemic bioavailability was demonstrated through eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a mouse infection model. In summary, the efficacy of amixicile in treating CDI and other infections, together with low toxicity, an absence of mutation-based drug resistance, and excellent drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic metrics, suggests a potential for broad application in the treatment of infections caused by PFOR-expressing microbial pathogens in addition to CDI. PMID:24890599

  5. Preclinical Studies of Amixicile, a Systemic Therapeutic Developed for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infections That Also Shows Efficacy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alexandra M.; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warren, Cirle A.; Burgess, Stacey L.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Viladomiu, Monica; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guerrant, Richard L.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Amixicile shows efficacy in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in a mouse model, with no recurrence of CDI. Since amixicile selectively inhibits the action of a B vitamin (thiamine pyrophosphate) cofactor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), it may both escape mutation-based drug resistance and spare beneficial probiotic gut bacteria that do not express this enzyme. Amixicile is a water-soluble derivative of nitazoxanide (NTZ), an antiparasitic therapeutic that also shows efficacy against CDI in humans. In comparative studies, amixicile showed no toxicity to hepatocytes at 200 μM (NTZ was toxic above 10 μM); was not metabolized by human, dog, or rat liver microsomes; showed equivalence or superiority to NTZ in cytochrome P450 assays; and did not activate efflux pumps (breast cancer resistance protein, P glycoprotein). A maximum dose (300 mg/kg) of amixicile given by the oral or intraperitoneal route was well tolerated by mice and rats. Plasma exposure (rats) based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 79.3 h · μg/ml (30 mg/kg dose) to 328 h · μg/ml (100 mg/kg dose), the maximum concentration of the drug in serum was 20 μg/ml, the time to the maximum concentration of the drug in serum was 0.5 to 1 h, and the half-life was 5.6 h. Amixicile did not concentrate in mouse feces or adversely affect gut populations of Bacteroides species, Firmicutes, segmented filamentous bacteria, or Lactobacillus species. Systemic bioavailability was demonstrated through eradication of Helicobacter pylori in a mouse infection model. In summary, the efficacy of amixicile in treating CDI and other infections, together with low toxicity, an absence of mutation-based drug resistance, and excellent drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic metrics, suggests a potential for broad application in the treatment of infections caused by PFOR-expressing microbial pathogens in addition to CDI. PMID:24890599

  6. ALUM ADDITION AND STEP-FEED STUDIES IN OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plug flow, O2-activated sludge process was operated with alum addition to remove phosphorus and with lime addition to prevent the process pH from decreasing below 6.4. The O2 reactor was operated at F/M ratios between 0.18 to 0.24 gm of BOD5/gm of MLVSS/day in a typical co-curr...

  7. Comparative percutaneous permeation study using caffeine-loaded microemulsion showing low reliability of the frozen/thawed skin models.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Amnon C; Greenberg, Igor

    2014-08-25

    The aim of this study was to explore the transdermal delivery potential of a new caffeine-containing microemulsion system. The skin permeability of caffeine (CAF) was measured in vitro using skin excised from three different animal species: rat, rabbit and pig. As shown, microemulsion containing 20% aqueous phase enhanced CAF permeation across fresh rat skin by one order of magnitude (Papp=8.2×10(-3) vs. 0.86×10(-3) cm/h; enhancement ratio=9.6). The permeability coefficient value, the cumulative permeation amount, and the percent of dose permeated after 24 h, decreased with the increase of water content from 60% to 80% in microemulsions due to the apparent increase in the droplet size. Importantly, differences were noted between caffeine transport rates across fresh and frozen/thawed pig skin whereas microemulsions delivered caffeine at similar rates across rat and rabbit skin, either fresh or frozen/thawed. It has been shown that the permeability of caffeine through frozen/thawed pig skin was abnormally high and was independent of its vehicle properties, i.e., its hydrophilic or lipophilic nature. It has been hypothesized that the reason for this abnormality is that porcine stratum corneum has a higher ceramide-to-cholesterol ratio compared to rat and rabbit skin. This unusual phenomenon observed in a non-freshly used porcine skin places a question mark on its suitability to in vitro evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systems. PMID:24866271

  8. A study of the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxide electrodes with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Ke, Jia-Jun; Yu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Deng-Jun

    Nickel composite electrodes (NCE) with various additives are prepared by a chemical impregnation method from nitrate solutions on sintered porous plaques. The electrochemical properties, such as utilization of active material, swelling and the discharge potential of the nickel oxide electrode (NOE) are determined mainly through the composition of the active material and the characteristics of nickel plaques. Most additives (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Co, Li and Al hydroxide) exert effects on the discharge potential and swelling of the NOE. Chemical co-precipitation with the addition of calcium, zinc, magnesium and barium hydroxide increases the discharge potential by more than 20 mV, but that with zinc hydroxide results in an obvious decrease of active-material utilization and that with calcium and magnesium hydroxide produces a larger increase of electrode thickness. The effects of anion additives are also examined. Less than 1% mol of NiS in the active material increases the discharge potential. Cadmium, cobalt and zinc hydroxide are excellent additives for preventing swelling of the NCE. Slow voltammetry (0.2 mV s -1) in 6 M KOH is applied to characterize the oxygen-evolving potential of the NCE. The difference between the oxygen-evolution potential and the potential of the oxidation peak for the NCE with additives of calcium, lithium, barium and aluminium hydroxide is at least + 60 mV.

  9. Characterization of Fibromyalgia Symptoms in Patients 55 to 95 Years Old: a Longitudinal Study Showing Symptom Persistence with Suboptimal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra A.; Simpson, Rachel G.; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Long, Kathy E.; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. AIMS To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. METHODS A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55 to 95 years) and 81 control subjects (58 to 95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. RESULTS Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80% or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. DISCUSSION In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. CONCLUSIONS Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population. PMID:24859821

  10. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...

  11. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  12. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  13. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  14. Study on the performance of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Binbin; Zeng, Zhong; Ren, Qinyu; Chen, Yang; Liang, Mei; Zou, Huawei

    2016-09-01

    A series of block type polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCs) with different molecular architectures were synthesized with macromonomer butenyl alkylene polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene ether (BAPP) and acrylic acid (AA) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were applied to investigate the PCs' molecular structure. The dispersion capacity of the PCs in cement were also measured, and the results showed that the polycarboxylic dispersing agents prepared by this method were suitable for portlant cement. It was found that the PCs could affect the hydration process, which was performed through retarding the generation of ettringite in the hydrated product. Our studies with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compressive strength measurement of hydrated production were all supporting this conclusion.

  15. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  16. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  17. Study on automatic optical element addition or deletion in lens optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Yongtian; Hao, Qun

    2002-09-01

    Two lens form parameters, quantifying the symmetry of the optical system and the optical power distribution among the individual lens elements, are used as the criteria for automatic element addition or deletion in lens optimization. The scheme based on the criteria is described in this paper. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate that the scheme is practicable.

  18. Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Zi-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…

  19. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Gansäuer, Andreas; Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG (‡) and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  20. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  1. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  3. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  4. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr-additions:Systematic feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Specht, Eliot D; Kim, Kyunghoon; Zhang, Yifei; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Goyal, Amit; Christen, David K; Maroni, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  5. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr additions : systematic feasibility studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E. D.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, K.; Zuev, Y. L.; Cantoni, C.; Goyal, A.; Christen, D. K.; Maroni, V. A.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; ORNL; SuperPower, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  6. Indolyne Experimental and Computational Studies: Synthetic Applications and Origins of Selectivities of Nucleophilic Additions

    PubMed Central

    Im, G-Yoon J.; Bronner, Sarah M.; Goetz, Adam E.; Paton, Robert S.; Cheong, Paul H.-Y.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient syntheses of 4,5-, 5,6-, and 6,7-indolyne precursors beginning from commercially available hydroxyindole derivatives are reported. The synthetic routes are versatile and allow access to indolyne precursors that remain unsubstituted on the pyrrole ring. Indolynes can be generated under mild fluoride-mediated conditions, trapped by a variety of nucleophilic reagents, and used to access a number of novel substituted indoles. Nucleophilic addition reactions to indolynes proceed with varying degrees of regioselectivity; distortion energies control regioselectivity and provide a simple model to predict the regioselectivity in the nucleophilic additions to indolynes and other unsymmetrical arynes. This model has led to the design of a substituted 4,5-indolyne that exhibits enhanced nucleophilic regioselectivity. PMID:21114321

  7. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  8. A design study for the addition of higher order parametric discrete elements to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of discrete elements to NASTRAN poses significant interface problems with the level 15.1 assembly modules and geometry modules. Potential problems in designing new modules for higher-order parametric discrete elements are reviewed in both areas. An assembly procedure is suggested that separates grid point degrees of freedom on the basis of admissibility. New geometric input data are described that facilitate the definition of surfaces in parametric space.

  9. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  10. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  11. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  12. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of young field ultracool dwarfs: additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, M. C.

    We present additional analysis of the classification system presented in \\citet{allers13}. We refer the reader to \\citet{allers13} for a detailed discussion of our near-IR spectral type and gravity classification system. Here, we address questions and comments from participants of the Brown Dwarfs Come of Age meeting. In particular, we examine the effects of binarity and metallicity on our classification system. We also present our classification of Pleiades brown dwarfs using published spectra. Lastly, we determine SpTs and calculate gravity-sensitive indices for the BT-Settl atmospheric models and compare them to observations.

  13. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  14. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  15. A study of the effects of an additional sound source on RASS performance

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program continuously operates a nine panel 915 MHz wind profiler with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS), measuring wind profiles for 50 minutes and virtual temperature profiles for the remaining 10 minutes during each hour. It is well recognized that one of the principal limits on RASS performance is high horizontal wind speed that moves the acoustic wave front sufficiently to prevent the microwave energy produced by the radar and scattered from the acoustic wave from being reflected back t the radar antenna. With this limitation in mind, the ARM program purchased an additional, portable acoustic source that could be mounted on a small trailer and placed in strategic locations to enhance the RASS performance (when it was not being used for spare parts). A test of the resulting improvement in RASS performance was performed during the period 1995--1997.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  17. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  18. Sulphur diffusion in β-NiAl and effect of Pt additive: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuiying

    2016-02-01

    Diffusivities of detrimental impurity sulfur (S) in stoichiometric and Pt doped β-NiAl were evaluated using density functional theory calculations. The apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of diffusivity via the next nearest neighbour (NNN) and interstitial jumps were evaluated to identify possible preferred diffusion mechanism(s). By calculating the electron localization function (ELF), the bonding characteristics of S with its surrounding atoms were assessed for the diffusion process. By comparison with the experimental results, the S diffusion through the NNN vacancy-mediated mechanism is found to be favoured. Addition of Pt in β-NiAl was found to significantly reduce the S diffusivity, and an associated electronic effect was explored. The elucidation of the above mechanisms may shed light on the development of new Pt-modified doped β-NiAl bond coats that can extend the life of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  20. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  1. A pilot study showing differences in glycosylation patterns of IgG subclasses induced by pneumococcal, meningococcal, and two types of influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Vestrheim, Anne Cathrine; Moen, Anders; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Reubsaet, Leon; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Bratlie, Diane Bryant; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Michaelsen, Terje Einar

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a carbohydrate moiety on asparagine 297 in the Fc part of an IgG molecule is essential for its effector functions and thus influences its vaccine protective effect. Detailed structural carbohydrate analysis of vaccine induced IgGs is therefore of interest as this knowledge can prove valuable in vaccine research and design and when optimizing vaccine schedules. In order to better understand and exploit the protective potential of IgG antibodies, we carried out a pilot study; collecting serum or plasma from volunteers receiving different vaccines and determining the IgG subclass glycosylation patterns against specific vaccine antigens at different time points using LC-ESI-MS analysis. The four vaccines included a pneumococcal capsule polysaccharide vaccine, a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine, a seasonal influenza vaccine, and a pandemic influenza vaccine. The number of volunteers was limited, but the results following immunization indicated that the IgG subclass which dominated the response showed increased galactose and the level of sialic acid increased with time for most vaccinees. Fucose levels increased for some vaccinees but in general stayed relatively unaltered. The total background IgG glycosylation analyzed in parallel varied little with time and hence the changes seen were likely to be caused by vaccination. The presence of an adjuvant in the pandemic influenza vaccine seemed to produce simpler and less varied glycoforms compared to the adjuvant-free seasonal influenza vaccine. This pilot study demonstrates that detailed IgG glycosylation pattern analysis might be a necessary step in addition to biological testing for optimizing vaccine development and strategies. PMID:25400928

  2. A pilot study showing differences in glycosylation patterns of IgG subclasses induced by pneumococcal, meningococcal, and two types of influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Anne Cathrine; Moen, Anders; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Reubsaet, Leon; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Bratlie, Diane Bryant; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Michaelsen, Terje Einar

    2014-08-01

    The presence of a carbohydrate moiety on asparagine 297 in the Fc part of an IgG molecule is essential for its effector functions and thus influences its vaccine protective effect. Detailed structural carbohydrate analysis of vaccine induced IgGs is therefore of interest as this knowledge can prove valuable in vaccine research and design and when optimizing vaccine schedules. In order to better understand and exploit the protective potential of IgG antibodies, we carried out a pilot study; collecting serum or plasma from volunteers receiving different vaccines and determining the IgG subclass glycosylation patterns against specific vaccine antigens at different time points using LC-ESI-MS analysis. The four vaccines included a pneumococcal capsule polysaccharide vaccine, a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine, a seasonal influenza vaccine, and a pandemic influenza vaccine. The number of volunteers was limited, but the results following immunization indicated that the IgG subclass which dominated the response showed increased galactose and the level of sialic acid increased with time for most vaccinees. Fucose levels increased for some vaccinees but in general stayed relatively unaltered. The total background IgG glycosylation analyzed in parallel varied little with time and hence the changes seen were likely to be caused by vaccination. The presence of an adjuvant in the pandemic influenza vaccine seemed to produce simpler and less varied glycoforms compared to the adjuvant-free seasonal influenza vaccine. This pilot study demonstrates that detailed IgG glycosylation pattern analysis might be a necessary step in addition to biological testing for optimizing vaccine development and strategies. PMID:25400928

  3. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  4. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  5. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  6. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogeton distinctus × Potamogeton nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar. PMID:24891826

  8. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage. PMID:24258816

  9. Development of new genomic microsatellite markers from robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) showing broad cross-species transferability and utility in genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hendre, Prasad Suresh; Phanindranath, Regur; Annapurna, V; Lalremruata, Albert; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2008-01-01

    Background Species-specific microsatellite markers are desirable for genetic studies and to harness the potential of MAS-based breeding for genetic improvement. Limited availability of such markers for coffee, one of the most important beverage tree crops, warrants newer efforts to develop additional microsatellite markers that can be effectively deployed in genetic analysis and coffee improvement programs. The present study aimed to develop new coffee-specific SSR markers and validate their utility in analysis of genetic diversity, individualization, linkage mapping, and transferability for use in other related taxa. Results A small-insert partial genomic library of Coffea canephora, was probed for various SSR motifs following conventional approach of Southern hybridisation. Characterization of repeat positive clones revealed a very high abundance of DNRs (1/15 Kb) over TNRs (1/406 kb). The relative frequencies of different DNRs were found as AT >> AG > AC, whereas among TNRs, AGC was the most abundant repeat. The SSR positive sequences were used to design 58 primer pairs of which 44 pairs could be validated as single locus markers using a panel of arabica and robusta genotypes. The analysis revealed an average of 3.3 and 3.78 alleles and 0.49 and 0.62 PIC per marker for the tested arabicas and robustas, respectively. It also revealed a high cumulative PI over all the markers using both sib-based (10-6 and 10-12 for arabicas and robustas respectively) and unbiased corrected estimates (10-20 and 10-43 for arabicas and robustas respectively). The markers were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage dis-equilibrium, and were successfully used to ascertain generic diversity/affinities in the tested germplasm (cultivated as well as species). Nine markers could be mapped on robusta linkage map. Importantly, the markers showed ~92% transferability across related species/genera of coffee. Conclusion The conventional approach of genomic library was successfully

  10. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  11. Effect of addition of magnesium to local anesthetics for peribulbar block: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, R; Sharma, A; Ray, BR; Chandiran, R; Chandralekha, C; Sinha, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnesium sulphate has been used along with local anesthetics in different regional blocks and found to be effective in decreasing the time of onset of the block and increasing the duration of the block. Objective: To evaluate the effect of addition of magnesium sulfate to standard local anesthetics mixture on the time for onset of the globe and lid akinesia for peribulbar block in ophthalmic surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to III undergoing ophthalmic surgery under peribulbar block were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups. Both the groups received 4.5 ml of 2% lidocaine, 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with150 IU hyaluronidase. Group NS received normal saline 1 ml in the peribulbar block and Group MS, magnesium sulfate 50 mg in 1 ml normal saline. The onset of akinesia, satisfactory block and complications were observed by an independent observer. Results: Demographic data was statistically similar. In the Group NS at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 0, 2, 11 and 28 patients respectively. In the Group MS, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 13, 23, 27 and 28 patients respectively. Patients received magnesium sulfate showed the statistically significant rapid onset of lid and globe akinesia than the control group till 10 min (P < 0.000). None of the patients needed a supplementary block and had complications during the surgery. Conclusion: Addition of 50 mg of magnesium sulfate to the lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture for peribulbar block decreases the onset of akinesia without any obvious side effect. PMID:26955313

  12. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  13. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  14. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  15. A review of approaches to the study of turbulence modification by means of non-Newtonian additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Schowalter, William R.

    1987-12-01

    The addition of small amounts of polymers to Newtonian liquids under conditions of turbulent flow results in substantial reduction of skin friction. This phenomenon has been observed experimentally. It can be attributed to the unusual behavior of dilute polymer solutions in turbulent flows. A condensed review of topics relevent to theoretical study of drag reduction by non-Newtonian additives is presented. In addition, the techniques and results of experimental investigations of this phenomenon are examined. It is proposed that dilute solutions of polymers or surfactants can be rheologically characterized by measuring the secondary flow characteristics that occur in the neighborhood of an oscillating cylinder. Plans for conducting these measurements are presented.

  16. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  18. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  19. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  2. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  3. Additional studies of forest classification accuracy as influenced by multispectral scanner spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, F. E.; Sarno, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    First, an analysis of forest feature signatures was used to help explain the large variation in classification accuracy that can occur among individual forest features for any one case of spatial resolution and the inconsistent changes in classification accuracy that were demonstrated among features as spatial resolution was degraded. Second, the classification rejection threshold was varied in an effort to reduce the large proportion of unclassified resolution elements that previously appeared in the processing of coarse resolution data when a constant rejection threshold was used for all cases of spatial resolution. For the signature analysis, two-channel ellipse plots showing the feature signature distributions for several cases of spatial resolution indicated that the capability of signatures to correctly identify their respective features is dependent on the amount of statistical overlap among signatures. Reductions in signature variance that occur in data of degraded spatial resolution may not necessarily decrease the amount of statistical overlap among signatures having large variance and small mean separations. Features classified by such signatures may thus continue to have similar amounts of misclassified elements in coarser resolution data, and thus, not necessarily improve in classification accuracy.

  4. Ionoluminescence study of Zn- and O- implanted ZnO crystals: An additional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epie, E. N.; Chu, W. K.

    2016-05-01

    An investigation into the role of native point defects on the optical properties of ZnO using ion implantation, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and ionoluminescence (IL) is presented. Low-energy (60 keV) fixed-fluence (8 × 1015 cm-2) Zn- and O- implantation has been used to directly introduce native point defects into ZnO single crystals. It is shown that annealing of implanted samples in Ar at T = 1000 °C for 2 min amplifies the deep band emission (DBE) peak centered around 2.4 eV while at the same time revealing subtle differences not clearly resolved in similar implanted samples treated under prolonged annealing. Particularly, a relative shift in the DBE peak maxima of the O and Zn doped samples subjected to RTA is observed. Gaussian decomposition of the IL spectra show distinct enhancements of the red (1.62 eV) and yellow (2.15 eV) emission bands in the O- implanted sample and the green (2.36 eV) emission band in the Zn- implanted sample. Based on these results, and recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have proposed a possible energy level scheme for some common ZnO native point defects.

  5. Theoretical study of the OH addition to the endocyclic and exocyclic double bonds of the d-limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Ramírez, Víctor M.; Nebot-Gil, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    The initial step of the d-limonene + OH gas-phase reaction mechanism was investigated by means of ab initio calculations. We have considered eight different possibilities for the OH addition, corresponding to the two C-C double bonds, the two C atoms of each double bond, and the syn or anti orientation, with respect to the isopropenyl group (endocyclic attack) or the ring cycle (exocyclic attack). Activation energies calculated at the QCISD(T)/6-31G(d)//UMP2/6-31G(d) level, show that there are preferred orientations for the OH addition under atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure.

  6. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  7. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  9. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues. PMID:23421028

  10. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine. PMID:24742664

  11. Combined ab initio molecular dynamics and experimental studies of carbon atom addition to benzene.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-04-17

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics was used to explore the reactions between triplet and singlet carbon atoms with benzene. The computations reveal that, in the singlet C atom reaction, products are very exothermic where nearly every collision yields a product that is determined by the initial encounter geometry. The singlet C atom reaction does not follow the minimum energy path because the bimolecular reaction is controlled by dynamics (i.e., initial orientation of encounter). On the other hand, in a 10 K solid Ar matrix, ground state C((3)P) atoms do tend to follow RRKM kinetics. Thus, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) results indicate that a significant fraction of C-H insertion occurs to form phenylcarbene whereas, in marked contrast to previous theoretical and experimental conclusions, the Ar matrix isolation studies indicate a large fraction of direct cycloheptatetraene formation, without the intermediacy of phenylcarbene. The AIMD calculations are more consistent with vaporized carbon atom experiments where labeling studies indicate the initial formation of phenylcarbene. This underlines that the availability of thermodynamic sinks can completely alter the observed reaction dynamics. PMID:24661002

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S.

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  13. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  14. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  15. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes. PMID:27429526

  16. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food. PMID:26106068

  17. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of a similar magnitude, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity-dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  18. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters, and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied with experimental methods. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of similar magnitudes, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  19. Let the show begin

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    Major changes should occur in the European polyolefins industry this year. BASF's (Ludwigshafen) polypropylene (PP) deal with ICI is expected to be followed by that of Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Petrofina (Brussels). The two are engaged in feasibility studies for a possible joint venture in PP and are expected to make a decision in the second quarter of this year. Shell and Himont are on track to complete their feasibility study in the first quarter for a polyolefins joint venture. And Huels and PCD are still in talks. But two new possible deals, a polyolefins merger between Nests (Helsinki) and Statoil (Stavanger) and an alliance in PP involving Appryl, the Elf Atochem (51%)/BP Chemicals (49%) joint venture, and Solvay have been denied. The Hoechst/Fina venture would initially encompass only the two companies European plants - Hoechst's 550,000-m.t./year and Fina's 180,000 m.t./year. In addition, Fina would either build or acquire another PP plant. In the second stage, the partners could bring in their overseas plants. Fina has plants in the US, and Hoechst has a combined 100,000 m.t./year in south Africa and Australia. Neste's board member Jukka Viinanen says the only talks between Nests and Statoil center on renegotiations of ethylene supply contract at Stenungsund, Sweden. Nests wants a more flexible deal on quantity and price. It needs 400,000 m.t./year of ethylene for its downstream plants. Viinanen adds that he is worried about the European petrochemical industry and producers need to do everything to improve margins through pricing policies and obtaining a balance between supply and demand. On the possibility of a future link with Statoil he comments, One can never say never. It would take time. We don't feel in a very vulnerable position right now.

  20. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  1. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  2. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  3. Mass analysis addition to the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Jolley, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a technique to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The approach, conducted in conjunction with current MSFC activities, is to extend the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a high throughput mass measurement that does not require either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This will significantly reduce the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware compared to classical mass analyzers. The feasibility of the enhanced DIFP has been verified by using breadboard test models in a controlled plasma environment. The ability to manipulate particles through the instrument regardless of incident angle, energy, or ionic component has been amply demonstrated. The energy analysis mode is differential and leads directly to a time-of-flight mass measurement. With the new design, the DIFP will separate multiple ion streams and analyze each stream independently for ion flux intensity, velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). In particular, such an instrument will be invaluable on follow-on electrodynamic TSS missions and, possibly, for environmental monitoring on the space station.

  4. Additional weight load increases freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Senja H G; Nonnekes, Jorik; van Bon, Geert; Snijders, Anke H; Duysens, Jacques; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait is an episodic gait disorder,characterized by the inability to generate effective forward stepping movements. The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait remains insufficiently understood, and this hampers the development of better treatment strategies.Preliminary evidence suggests that impaired force control during walking may contribute to freezing episodes, with difficulty to unload the swing leg and initiate the swing phase. Here, we used external loading to manipulate force control and to investigate its influence on freezing of gait.Twelve Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait performed three contrasting tasks: (1) loaded gait while wearing a belt fortified with lead weights; (2) weight supported gait using a parachute harness connected to a rigid metal cable running above the gait trajectory; and (3)normal gait. Gait tasks were used to provoke freezing episodes, including rapid 360° turns. Freezing episodes were quantified using blinded, videotaped clinical assessment. Furthermore, ground reaction forces and body kinematics were recorded. Loading significantly increased the mean number of freezing episodes per trial compared to the normal gait condition (P<0.05), but the effect of weight support was not consistent. Loading particularly increased the number of freezing episodes during rapid short steps. Step length was significantly smaller during loaded gait compared to normal gait (P<0.05), but changes in anticipatory postural adjustments were not different.Our results may point to impaired force control playing a key role in freezing of gait. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism, i.e., the contribution of deficient load feedback, and evaluate which forms of weight support might offer treatment opportunities. PMID:24658705

  5. Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Payte, James T; Schoolfield, John; Hopper, David; Stanford, Mathew; Braverman, Eric R

    2004-01-01

    We decided to test the hypothesis that possibly by combining a narcotic antagonist and amino-acid therapy consisting of an enkephalinase inhibitor (D-phenylalanine) and neurotransmitter precursors (L-amino- acids) to promote neuronal dopamine release might enhance compliance in methadone patients rapidly detoxified with the narcotic antagonist Trexan (Dupont, Delaware). In this regard, Thanos et al. [J. Neurochem. 78 (2001) 1094] and associates found increases in the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) via adenoviral vector delivery of the DRD2 gene into the nucleus accumbens, significantly reduced both ethanol preference (43%) and alcohol intake (64%) of ethanol preferring rats, which recovered as the DRD2, returned to baseline levels. This DRD2 overexpression similarly produced significant reductions in ethanol non-preferring rats, in both alcohol preference (16%) and alcohol intake (75%). This work further suggests that high levels of DRD2 may be protective against alcohol abuse [JAMA 263 (1990) 2055; Arch, Gen. Psychiatr. 48 (1991) 648]. The DRD2 A1 allele has also been shown to associate with heroin addicts in a number of studies. In addition, other dopaminergic receptor gene polymorphisms have also associated with opioid dependence. For example, Kotler et al. [Mol. Phychiatr. 3 (1997) 251] showed that the 7 repeat allele of the DRD4 receptor is significantly overpresented in the opioid-dependent cohort and confers a relative risk of 2.46. This has been confirmed by Li et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 2 (1997) 413] for both the 5 and 7 repeat alleles in Han Chinese case control sample of heroin addicts. Similarly Duaux et al. [Mol. Psychiatry 3 (1998) 333] in French Heroin addicts, found a significant association with homozygotes alleles of the DRD3-Bal 1. A study from NIAAA, provided evidence which strongly suggests that DRD2 is a susceptibility gene for substance abusers across multiple populations (2003). Moreover, there are a number of studies utilizing amino-acid and

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  7. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  8. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  9. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  10. A clinical study shows safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy to improve quality of life in muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Badhe, Prerna; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Lohiya, Mamta; Biju, Hema; Jacob, V C

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder with no definite cure. A study was carried out on 150 patients diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. These included Duchenne muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Becker muscular dystrophy variants. They were administered autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells intrathecally and intramuscularly at the motor points of the antigravity weak muscles followed by vigorous rehabilitation therapy. No significant adverse events were noted. Assessment after transplantation showed neurological improvements in trunk muscle strength, limb strength on manual muscle testing, gait improvements, and a favorable shift on assessment scales such as the Functional Independence Measure and the Brooke and Vignos Scales. Furthermore, imaging and electrophysiological studies also showed significant changes in selective cases. On a mean follow-up of 12 ± 1 months, overall 86.67% cases showed symptomatic and functional improvements, with six patients showing changes with respect to muscle regeneration and a decrease in fatty infiltration on musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging and nine showing improved muscle electrical activity on electromyography. Fifty-three percent of the cases showed an increase in trunk muscle strength, 48% showed an increase in upper limb strength, 59% showed an increase in lower limb strength, and approximately 10% showed improved gait. These data were statistically analyzed using Student's paired t test and found to be significant. The results show that this treatment is safe and efficacious and also improves the quality of life of patients having muscular dystrophy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID:24070109

  11. Formation pathways of DMSO(2) in the addition channel of the OH-initiated DMS oxidation: A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anguita, Juan M; González-Lafont, Angels; Lluch, José M

    2009-07-15

    The production of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl sulfone (DMSO(2)) in the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) degradation scheme initiated by the hydroxyl (OH) radical has been shown to be very sensitive to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) levels. In the present work we have explored the potential energy surfaces corresponding to several reaction pathways which yield DMSO(2) from the CH(3)S(O)(OH)CH(3) adduct [including the formation of CH(3)S(O)(OH)CH(3) from the reaction of DMSO with OH] and the reaction channels that yield DMSO or/and DMSO(2) from the CH(3)S(O(2))(OH)CH(3) adduct are also studied. The formation of the CH(3)S(O(2))(OH)CH(3) adduct from CH(3)S(OH)CH(3) (DMS-OH) and O(2) was analyzed in our previous work. All these pathways due to the presence of NO(x) (NO and NO(2)) and also due to the reactions with O(2), OH and HO(2) are compared with the objective of inferring their kinetic relevance in the laboratory experiments that measure DMSO(2) (and DMSO) formation yields. In particular, our theoretical results clearly show the existence of NO(x)-dependent pathways leading to the formation of DMSO(2), which could explain some of these experimental results in comparison with experimental measurements carried out in NO(x)-free conditions. Our results indicate that the relative importance of the addition channel in the DMS oxidation process can be dependent on the NO(x) content of chamber experiments and of atmospheric conditions. PMID:19072765

  12. Column studies on transport of deicing additive benzotriazole in a sandy aquifer and a zerovalent iron barrier.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Breedveld, Gijs D; Aagaard, Per

    2007-11-01

    Benzotriazole (BTA), a chemical with wide industrial applications, is a typical additive in deicer/anti-icer used at airport. To achieve a better understanding of the transport behaviour and environmental fate of BTA, laboratory column studies have been performed on subsoil samples from Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. To explore possibilities for aquifer remediation, BTA behaviour was also studied in a column of granular zerovalent iron (Fe(0)). The subsoil column study demonstrates a very limited retardation of BTA. Consecutive loadings of BTA of the subsoil column showed no change of the break-through curve (BTC) and complete desorption was observed. The sorption behaviour of BTA to metallic iron (Fe(0)) was rather complex. Considerable retardation was observed in the Fe(0) column and repeated BTA loading resulted in an earlier break-through. Between 20% and 50% of the input concentration was retained permanently in the iron (Fe(0)) column. The BTA sorption to metallic iron was found to be enhanced by chloride which lowered the break-through concentration (i.e the C/C(0) plateau). The fraction of BTA remaining in the iron column was found to vary with the flow rate, indicating a time dependant multilayer sorption mechanism. The steady increase in the amount of adsorbed BTA to the iron column during loading corresponds to a rather strong bonding of 4-15 BTA layers to the iron surface. A very slow desorption of BTA was observed; even after flushing with 753 pore volumes of BTA free water, 7.5% of the BTA remained in the column. A geochemical model was developed based on PHREEQC-2 to simulate the sorption and transport of BTA in the tested materials. The BTA sorption was modelled with Freundlich sorption isotherms, as earlier determined in batch experiments. A slight adjustment of the Freundlich parameters was required to fit the observed column break-through. However, our model was not able to simulate the long-term retainment of BTA in the granular iron columns. The

  13. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  14. Pathbreaking CBO Study Shows Dramatic Increases in Income Disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An Analysis of the CBO Data. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert; Primus, Wendell

    A study by the Congressional Budget Office of income and tax trends since 1979 showed dramatic increases in income disparities, especially between the wealthiest one percent of Americans and the rest of society, in the 1980s and 1990s. The percentage of income Americans paid in federal taxes declined for every income group between 1979-97. The…

  15. Studies on the effect of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures in composite propellant formulations.

    PubMed

    Jawalkar, S N; Mehilal; Ramesh, K; Radhakrishnan, K K; Bhattacharya, B

    2009-05-30

    Different composite propellant mixtures have been prepared using ammonium perchlorate, aluminium powder and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene by varying the percentage of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures, and studied their different properties such as viscosity build-up, mechanical and ballistic properties and sensitivity. The data on different plasticiser level indicate that on decreasing the plasticiser content, there is a significant enhancement in end of mix viscosity, tensile strength and modulus while elongation decreases drastically. The data on sensitivity of the studied mixtures reveal that on decreasing the percentage of plasticiser, the sensitivity increases, accordingly. Further, the data on the effect of addition of TDI at different temperatures (35-60 degrees C) infer that on increasing the addition temperature of TDI there is a decrease in end of mix viscosity i.e. 800Pas at 35 degrees C to 448Pas at 60 degrees C. Moreover, there is no effect on mechanical and ballistic properties on higher temperature addition of TDI was observed. PMID:18835097

  16. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  17. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    SciTech Connect

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry . E-mail: thierry.giardina@univ.u-3mrs.fr

    2005-05-06

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure.

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Five-year follow-up of patients with early stage breast cancer after a randomized study comparing additional treatment with viscum album (L.) extract to chemotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Tröger, Wilfried; Zdrale, Zdravko; Stanković, Nikola; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Additional therapy with extracts of Viscum album [L.] (VaL) increases the quality of life of patients suffering from early stage breast cancer during chemotherapy. In the current study patients received chemotherapy, consisting of six cycles of cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, and 5-Fluoro-Uracil (CAF). Two groups also received one of two VaL extracts differing in their preparation as subcutaneous injection three times per week. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Six of 28 patients in one of the VaL groups and eight of 29 patients in the control group developed relapse or metastasis within 5 years. Subgroup analysis for hormone- and radiotherapy also showed no difference between groups. Additional VaL therapy during chemotherapy of early stage breast cancer patients appears not to influence the frequency of relapse or metastasis within 5 years. PMID:23150723

  20. Five-Year Follow-Up of Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer After a Randomized Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Viscum Album (L.) Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Wilfried; Ždrale, Zdravko; Stanković, Nikola; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Additional therapy with extracts of Viscum album [L.] (VaL) increases the quality of life of patients suffering from early stage breast cancer during chemotherapy. In the current study patients received chemotherapy, consisting of six cycles of cyclophosphamide, anthracycline, and 5-Fluoro-Uracil (CAF). Two groups also received one of two VaL extracts differing in their preparation as subcutaneous injection three times per week. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Six of 28 patients in one of the VaL groups and eight of 29 patients in the control group developed relapse or metastasis within 5 years. Subgroup analysis for hormone- and radiotherapy also showed no difference between groups. Additional VaL therapy during chemotherapy of early stage breast cancer patients appears not to influence the frequency of relapse or metastasis within 5 years. PMID:23150723

  1. Using a generalized additive model with autoregressive terms to study the effects of daily temperature on mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Additive Model (GAM) provides a flexible and effective technique for modelling nonlinear time-series in studies of the health effects of environmental factors. However, GAM assumes that errors are mutually independent, while time series can be correlated in adjacent time points. Here, a GAM with Autoregressive terms (GAMAR) is introduced to fill this gap. Methods Parameters in GAMAR are estimated by maximum partial likelihood using modified Newton’s method, and the difference between GAM and GAMAR is demonstrated using two simulation studies and a real data example. GAMM is also compared to GAMAR in simulation study 1. Results In the simulation studies, the bias of the mean estimates from GAM and GAMAR are similar but GAMAR has better coverage and smaller relative error. While the results from GAMM are similar to GAMAR, the estimation procedure of GAMM is much slower than GAMAR. In the case study, the Pearson residuals from the GAM are correlated, while those from GAMAR are quite close to white noise. In addition, the estimates of the temperature effects are different between GAM and GAMAR. Conclusions GAMAR incorporates both explanatory variables and AR terms so it can quantify the nonlinear impact of environmental factors on health outcome as well as the serial correlation between the observations. It can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiological studies. PMID:23110601

  2. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  3. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Effect of One Percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Priya, PR Geetha; Devi, Jagadeesan Gnana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 1% chlorhexidine digluconate solution on the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of glass ionomer and resin based sealant. Materials and methods: Conventional glass ionomer sealant (GIS) (Fuji VII, Japan) and resin sealant (Clinpro 3M ESPE, USA) were used in this study. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) (20%) liquid was added to both the sealants, and the concentration of chlorhexidine in sealants was adjusted to 1%. The sealants were divided into four groups as: group A (GIS), group B (GIS + 1% CHX), group C (resin sealant), group D (resin sealant + 1% CHX). Five cylindrical specimens were prepared in each group. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their mechanical properties (compressive strength and diametrical tensile strength) were assessed. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used appropriately for statistical analysis (SPSS version 19). Result: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of both the sealants. There was a significant difference between groups A and B (p < 0.009), and groups C and D (p < 0.008). There was no significant difference in the mechanical properties of the sealants. Conclusion: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine to the glass ionomer and resin based sealants provided sufficient antibacterial activity, without significantly affecting the mechanical property of the sealants. How to cite this article: Shanmugaavel AK, Asokan S, John JB, Geetha Priya PR, Gnana Devi J. Effect of one percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):196-201. PMID:26628854

  7. A study on the effect of halloysite nanoparticle addition on the strength of glass fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man

    2015-03-01

    Halloysite nanotube, which has been used in the polymer, has been spotlighted as a useful functional materials in the improvement of mechanical properties. In the current study, we established the optimal nanoparticle dispersion and analyzed the mechanical characteristics and the behavior of composites reinforced by HNTs have been synthesized by dispersing HNTs to the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and their mechanical characteristics, especially the tensile strength, interlaminar shear strength have been analyzed. Additionally, the reinforcement effect and its variation according to the amount of HNTs was also studied.

  8. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Wilfried; Jezdić, Svetlana; Ždrale, Zdravko; Tišma, Nevena; Hamre, Harald J.; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS) or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF). A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30) vs. control (n = 31). Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/μl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle. Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02) and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182). Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group. PMID:21556248

  9. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  10. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  11. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  12. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  13. A numerical study of the influence of ammonia addition on the auto-ignition limits of methane/air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Norman, F; Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2009-05-30

    In this study the auto-ignition limit of ammonia/methane/air mixtures is calculated based upon a perfectly stirred reactor model with convective heat transfer. The results of four different reaction mechanisms are compared with existing experimental data at an initial temperature of 723 K with ammonia concentrations of 0-20 mol.% and methane concentrations of 2.5-10 mol.%. It is found that the calculation of the auto-ignition limit pressure at constant temperature leads to larger relative deviations between calculated and experimental results than the calculation of the auto-ignition temperature at constant pressure. In addition to the calculations, a reaction path analysis is performed to explain the observed lowering of the auto-ignition limit of methane/air mixtures by ammonia addition. It is found that this decrease is caused by the formation of NO and NO(2), which enhance the oxidation of methane at low temperatures. PMID:18926632

  14. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  15. Studies on sintering additives for hydroxyapatite, and controlled porosity structures of calcium aluminates and polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate for bone graft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Samar Jyoti

    Tissue engineering has made a significant contribution in developing new biomaterials that can restore the structural features and physiological functions of natural tissues. Various materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites have been developed for their use in hard tissue engineering applications. Part A of this thesis describes my research on HAp ceramics. HAp, a bioactive ceramic, is known for its osteoconductivity, but shows poor mechanical performance. This program aimed at improving mechanical performance of synthetic HAp by introducing small quantities of various sintering additives. A range of oxide-based sintering additives were selected and prepared. Dense compacts were prepared using a uniaxial press with an average green density of 1.6 g/cc. Results showed that some of these sintering additives improved densification, hardness and compression strength of synthetic HAp compared to the pure composition. A maximum bulk density of 3.06 g/cc was achieved for 2.5 wt% addition of MgO. A Microhardness of 4.9 GPa (505 HV) was measured for 2.5 wt% addition of BaO, and the highest compression strength (220MPa) was reported for 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies with a modified human osteoblast (HOB) cell-line (OPC1) proved most of these materials non-toxic and biocompatible. Microscopic observation revealed that bone cells were attached and grew well on most of these ceramic matrices. Part B describes my work on development of controlled porosity polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds via the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Hg-porosimetry was performed to determine pore size and their distribution. Uniaxial compression testing performed on samples with 36 vol% porosity and pore size of 160 mum showed the best compressive strength of 12.7 MPa. Part C includes my research on development of "3-D honeycomb" porous calcium aluminate structures via the indirect FDM process. Samples of 29% and

  16. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Gesine; Gauly, Matthias; Kaufmann, Falko; Erhardt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  17. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  18. Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Liu, Fengshan; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Guelder, OEmer L.

    2006-04-15

    The influence of hydrogen addition to the fuel of an atmosphere pressure coflow laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame on soot formation was studied by numerical simulation. A detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism, which includes aromatic chemistry up to four rings, and complex thermal and transport properties were used. The fully coupled elliptic governing equations were solved. The interactions between soot and gas-phase chemistry were taken into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and soot was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method coupled to a statistical narrow-band-correlated K-based wide-band model. The predicted results were compared with the available experimental data and analyzed. It is indicated that the addition of hydrogen to the fuel in an ethylene-air diffusion flame suppresses soot formation through the effects of dilution and chemistry. This result is in agreement with available experiments. The simulations further suggest that the chemically inhibiting effect of hydrogen addition on soot formation is due to the decrease of hydrogen atom concentration in soot surface growth regions and higher concentration of molecular hydrogen in the lower flame region. (author)

  19. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  20. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  1. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  2. Three new double-headed nucleotides with additional nucleobases connected to C-5 of pyrimidines; synthesis, duplex and triplex studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hansen, Jonas; Jedinak, Lukas; Reslow-Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hornum, Mick; Nielsen, Poul

    2016-02-15

    In the search for double-coding DNA-systems, three new pyrimidine nucleosides, each coded with an additional nucleobase anchored to the major groove face, are synthesized. Two of these building blocks carry a thymine at the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine through a methylene linker and a triazolomethylene linker, respectively. The third building block carries an adenine at the 6-position of pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine through a methylene linker. These double-headed nucleosides are introduced into oligonucleotides and their effects on the thermal stabilities of duplexes are studied. All studied double-headed nucleotide monomers reduce the thermal stability of the modified duplexes, which is partially compensated by using consecutive incorporations of the modified monomers or by flanking the new double-headed analogs with members of our former series containing propyne linkers. Also their potential in triplex-forming oligonucleotides is studied for two of the new double-headed nucleotides as well as the series of analogs with propyne linkers. The most stable triplexes are obtained with single incorporations of additional pyrimidine nucleobases connected via the propyne linker. PMID:26778611

  3. Changes in acral blood flux under local application of ropivacaine and lidocaine with and without an adrenaline additive: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Hans-Martin; Schmid, Ute; Moehrle, Matthias; Strölin, Anke; Breuninger, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Vascular effects of local anesthetics are especially important in dermatological surgery. In particular, adequate perfusion must be ensured in order to offset surgical manipulations during surgical interventions at the acra. However, the use of adrenaline additives appears fraught with problems when anesthesia affects the terminal vascular system, particularly during interventions at the fingers, toes, penis, outer ears, and tip of the nose. We studied skin blood flux at the fingerpads via laser Doppler flowmetry over the course of 24 hours in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with 20 vascularly healthy test persons following Oberst's-method anesthetic blocks. In each case, 6 ml ropivacaine (7.5 mg/ml) (A), lidocaine 1% without an additive (B), and lidocaine 1% with an adrenaline additive (1:200,000) (C) was used respectively as a verum. Isotonic saline solution was injected as a placebo (D). Measurements were carried out with the aid of a computer simultaneously at D II and D IV on both hands. Administration of (A) led to increased blood flux (+155.2%); of (B) initially to a decrease of 27%; of (C) to a reduction of 55% which was reversible after 40 minutes and of (D) to no change.(A) resulted in sustained vasodilatation which was still demonstrable after 24 h. (B) had notably less vasodilative effect, although comparison with (D) clearly showed that (B) is indeed vasodilative. (C) resulted in only a passing decrease in perfusion; this was no longer measurable when checked after 6 and 24 h. This transient inadequacy of blood flux also appeared after administration of (D). These tests show that adrenaline additive in local anesthesia does not decrease blood flow more than 55% for a period of 16 min. Following these results an adrenaline additive can be safely used for anesthetic blocks at the acra in healthy persons. PMID:18334782

  4. A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN FIVE OF THE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS STUDIED BY THE NASA EPOXI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara; Veverka, Joseph F.

    2011-05-01

    We present time series photometry and constraints on additional planets in five of the exoplanetary systems studied by the EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7. We conduct a search of the high-precision time series for photometric transits of additional planets. We find no candidate transits with significance higher than our detection limit. From Monte Carlo tests of the time series using putative periods from 0.5 days to 7 days, we demonstrate the sensitivity to detect Neptune-sized companions around TrES-2, sub-Saturn-sized companions in the HAT-P-4, TrES-3, and WASP-3 systems, and Saturn-sized companions around HAT-P-7. We investigate in particular our sensitivity to additional transits in the dynamically favorable 3:2 and 2:1 exterior resonances with the known exoplanets: if we assume coplanar orbits with the known planets, then companions in these resonances with HAT-P-4b, WASP-3b, and HAT-P-7b would be expected to transit, and we can set lower limits on the radii of companions in these systems. In the nearly grazing exoplanetary systems TrES-3 and TrES-2, additional coplanar planets in these resonances are not expected to transit. However, we place lower limits on the radii of companions that would transit if the orbits were misaligned by 2.{sup 0}0 and 1.{sup 0}4 for TrES-3 and TrES-2, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of effect of addition of 2% chlorhexidine on the sealing ability of Biodentine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Navleen Kaur; Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh; Jaiswal, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of the addition of 2% chlorhexidine on the sealing ability of Biodentine. Materials and Methods: Forty-six extracted human premolar teeth with single canal and apical foramen were selected, cleaned, and decoronated to standardize the length of 17 mm. Canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files till size F4. The samples were divided into 2 experimental groups of 20 samples each on the basis of absence/presence of 2% chlorhexidine in liquid: Group BM = Biodentine mixed with the provided liquid, Group BC = Biodentine mixed with 2% chlorhexidine in provided liquid. Three samples, each were assigned to control groups: Group BP (positive control) = No root end filling was placed, Group BN (negative control) = Root ends were filled as in Group BM, and entire external surface was coated with sticky wax. The samples were then evaluated for the apical sealing using fluid filtration method. Results: Results were analyzed using Student's t-test (P ≤ 0.05). Group BC showed the better sealing ability (3.06) as compared to Group BM (3.85). However, the difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of 2% chlorhexidine to the liquid enhanced the sealing ability of Biodentine. PMID:26752844

  6. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, CO/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development. PMID:26952787

  7. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  9. Structural and rate studies of the 1,2-additions of lithium phenylacetylide to lithiated quinazolinones: influence of mixed aggregates on the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Timothy F; Winemiller, Mark D; Collum, David B; Parsons, Rodney L; Davulcu, Akin H; Harris, Gregory D; Fortunak, Joseph M; Confalone, Pat N

    2004-05-01

    The 1,2-addition of lithium phenylacetylide (PhCCLi) to quinazolinones was investigated using a combination of structural and rate studies. (6)Li, (13)C, and (19)F NMR spectroscopies show that deprotonation of quinazolinones and phenylacetylene in THF/pentane solutions with lithium hexamethyldisilazide affords a mixture of lithium quinazolinide/PhCCLi mixed dimer and mixed tetramer along with PhCCLi dimer. Although the mixed tetramer dominates at high mixed aggregate concentrations and low temperatures used for the structural studies, the mixed dimer is the dominant form at the low total mixed aggregate concentrations, high THF concentrations, and ambient temperatures used to investigate the 1,2-addition. Monitoring the reaction rates using (19)F NMR spectroscopy revealed a first-order dependence on mixed dimer, a zeroth-order dependence on THF, and a half-order dependence on the PhCCLi concentration. The rate law is consistent with the addition of a disolvated PhCCLi monomer to the mixed dimer. Investigation of the 1,2-addition of PhCCLi to an O-protected quinazolinone implicates reaction via trisolvated PhCCLi monomers. PMID:15113214

  10. Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons Show Only Small Excitatory Responses to Optogenetic Olivary Stimulation in Transgenic Mice: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huo; Yang, Bo; Jaeger, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN) we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC) and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO) with a blue laser (single pulse, 10–50 ms duration). Peri-stimulus histograms (PSTHs) were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input to CN neurons is usually overridden by stronger PC inhibition triggered by climbing fiber responses. To further investigate the direct input from the climbing fiber collaterals we also conducted whole cell recordings in brain slices, where we used local stimulation with blue light. Due to the expression of ChR2 in PC axons as well as the IO in our transgenic line, strong inhibitory responses could be readily triggered with optical stimulation (13 of 15 neurons). After blocking this inhibition with GABAzine, only in 5 of 13 CN neurons weak excitatory responses were revealed. Therefore our in vitro results support the in vivo findings that the excitatory input to CN neurons from climbing fiber collaterals in adult mice is masked by the inhibition under normal conditions. PMID:27047344

  11. Anastomosing Hemangiomas Arising in Unusual Locations: A Clinicopathologic Study of 17 Soft Tissue Cases Showing a Predilection for the Paraspinal Region.

    PubMed

    John, Ivy; Folpe, Andrew L

    2016-08-01

    Anastomosing hemangioma, a recently recognized benign vascular neoplasm originally described in the kidney, may be confused with well-differentiated angiosarcoma. Rare cases of anastomosing hemangiomas have been described in the liver and in nonrenal genitourinary sites. We report a series of 17 anastomosing hemangiomas occurring in unusual locations, in particular in the paravertebral soft tissues. The 17 tumors occurred in 10 male and 6 female patients, ranging in age from 2 to 85 years. One patient had bilateral, synchronous tumors involving the right paracaval and left para-aortic soft tissues. Thirteen (76%) cases involved the soft tissues near the vertebral column, including the paravertebral region (n=4), the psoas muscle (n=2), the costovertebral angle (n=2), para-aortic soft tissue (n=2), and the paracaval, parasacral, and retroperitoneal soft tissues (n=1 each). Other locations included the anterior mediastinum, uterine cornu, infundibular pelvic ligament, and upper arm (n=1 each). Imaging studies, available in 13 cases, were not felt to be diagnostic of a hemangioma. The tumors ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 cm (median, 3.6 cm) in size and were grossly well demarcated. All cases showed typical morphologic features of anastomosing hemangiomas, including a nonlobular architecture, an anastomosing proliferation of capillary-sized vessels with mild endothelial cell nuclear variability, scattered hobnailed endothelial cells, and small fibrin thrombi. Mitotic activity was rare or absent. Adipocytic metaplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis were present in subsets of cases. When performed, immunohistochemical studies showed expression of endothelial markers (eg, CD31, CD34). In only 1 case did the submitting pathologist favor a diagnosis of anastomosing hemangioma; 4 cases were submitted specifically to exclude a well-differentiated angiosarcoma. Clinical follow-up available in 13 cases has not revealed any local recurrences or metastases. This series, the first

  12. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  13. A DFT study of addition reaction between fragment ion (CH₂) units and fullerene (C₆₀) molecule.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Irineo Pedro; Vergara, Jaime; Pérez-Manríquez, Liliana; Salcedo, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The theoretical study of the interaction between CH(2) and fullerene (C(60)) suggests the existence of an addition reaction mechanism; this feature is studied by applying an analysis of electronic properties. Several different effects are evident in this interaction as a consequence of the particular electronic transfer which occurs during the procedure. The addition or insertion of the methylene group results in a process, where the inclusion of CH(2) into a fullerene bond produces the formation of several geometric deformations. A simulation of these procedures was carried out, taking advantage of the dynamic semi-classical Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Dynamic aspects were analyzed at different speeds, for the interaction between the CH(2) group and the two bonds: CC (6, 6) and CC (6, 5) respectively on the fullerene (C(60)) rings. All calculations which involved electrons employed DFT as well as exchange and functional correlation. The results indicate a tendency for the CH(2) fragment to attack the CC (6, 5) bond. PMID:20658255

  14. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (p<.05) but had experienced an equal number of traumatic events and showed equally high PTSD symptom severity. Whereas salivary cortisol levels decreased in the course of the interview for the group with no past experience of rape (p<.05), those PTSD patients who had been raped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders. PMID:21723669

  15. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  16. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  17. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  18. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  19. In-situ study of the influence of additives on the growth behavior of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiwen

    Trace organic additives are known to be essential in obtaining desired metal electrodeposits in the microelectronic industry, however, fundamental design principles for their use and a scientific understanding of their interaction during electrodeposition is lacking. In the present study we investigated electrodeposition of copper on the Cu(100) surface in air-saturated or dearated acid-sulfate plating solutions containing several combinations of chloride and additives benzotriazole (BTA) and 3-mercapto propane sulfonic acid (MPSA) under galvanostatic pulse-current conditions. The electrodeposition process was followed using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were quantitatively analyzed by pattern-recognition and scaling procedures. In the absence of additives, copper deposits grew in a layer-by-layer mode from the earliest stage of deposition. The surface consisted of smooth terraces separated by steps. The scaling analysis result was consistent with a process dominated by surface diffusion and step growth. In chloride containing solutions, square-pyramidal mounds were initiated and grew to cover the surface. Mound slope increased with deposition time with no indication of reaching a steady-state value. This growth mode was consistent with a surface diffusion mechanism. The scaling result was similar to the additive-free system, but indicated that surface diffusion was more dominant in the presence of chloride. BTA inhibited the surface and produced nucleation-limited growth at hemispheroidal centers whose height to base radius aspect ratio increased linearly with deposition time. Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional nodules started randomly across the entire surface. The nodules were smaller in size than the mounds observed without BTA. The number and density of nodules were much higher than the mounds density. The deposit growth was dominated by a roughening mechanism that can be described by the random roughening term of a stochastic model

  20. Family-based study shows heterogeneity of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 8q24 for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Susan H.; Burt, Amber; Stal, Samuel; Mulliken, John B.; Garcia, Elizabeth; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common birth defect. While a number of susceptibility loci have been reported, replication has often been lacking. This is likely due, in part, to heterogeneity of datasets and methodologies employed. Two independent genome-wide association studies of individuals of largely western European extraction have identified a possible susceptibility locus on 8q24.21. METHODS In order to determine the overall impact of this locus, we genotyped six of the previously associated SNPs in our Hispanic and nonHispanic white family-based datasets and evaluated them for linkage and association. In addition, we genotyped a large African-American NSCLP family that we had previously mapped to the 8q21.3-24.12 region to test for linkage. RESULTS There was no evidence for linkage to this region in any of the three ethnic groups. Nevertheless, strong evidence for association was noted in the nonHispanic white group, whereas none was detected in the Hispanic dataset. CONCLUSION These results confirm the previously reported association and provide evidence suggesting that there is ethnically-based heterogeneity for this locus. PMID:20196142

  1. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    PubMed

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    2013-06-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  2. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  3. [Study on chromosomes aberration in wheat-rye disomics addition lines induced by the gametocidal chromosome 2C].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Ling; Li, Ji-Lin

    2004-11-01

    In the present study,Chinese Spring-Imperial (1 R-7R) wheat-rye disomic addition lines were hybridized with Chinese Spring-2C (derived from Aegilops cylindrica) disomic addition lines. The F1 hybrids were examined by mitotic and meiotic analysis. There were observed abnormal chromosome configurations. A total of 430 F2 plants were obtained by self-pollination. Chromosomes aberrations, such as translocation, deletions, isobrachial and dicentromere chromosomes, are identified in F2 individual plants by C-banding combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, chromosome spontaneous substitutions such as 2C substituting for wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D were also observed. The rule and frequency of chromosome aberration in F2 are the following: 22 out of 430 F2 plants (5.11%) were found involving aberration rye chromosomes. Among them, 10 plants were identified as wheat-rye chromosome translocation lines comprising 2.3%. Rye chromosome deletions comprised 12 of them (2.79%). 3 isobrachial aberrations were detected (about 0.7%), too. Most of the translocation lines are with wheat centromere, only one of them is with rye centromere. Rye chromosome aberrations occurred unevenly among homoeologous groups. There were 5 in 1R, 3 in 2R, 1 in 3R, 3 in 4R, 6 in 5R and 4 in 6R. The majority of the translocation lines are terminal translocation. 54 out of the total 430 progenies are wheat deletions,and 27 are distributed in the A group, 20 in the B group and 7 in the D group respectively. Finally,we discussed the possible cause for the uneven chromosome aberration among homoeologous groups in wheat and rye as well as the effect characteristics of 2C on wheat and rye chromosome. PMID:15651680

  4. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  5. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders’ success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general. PMID:25567919

  6. Prefrontal cortex activity during motor tasks with additional mental load requiring attentional demand: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mandrick, Kevin; Derosiere, Gérard; Dray, Gérard; Coulon, Denis; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is suitable for investigating cerebral oxygenation changes during motor and/or mental tasks. In the present study, we investigated how an additional mental load during a motor task at two submaximal loadings affects the fNIRS-measured brain activation over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fifteen healthy males performed isometric grasping contractions at 15% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without an additional mental (i.e., arithmetic) task. Mental performance, force variability, fNIRS and subjective perception responses were measured in each condition. The performance of the mental task decreased significantly while the force variability increased significantly at 30% MVC as compared to 15% MVC, suggesting that performance of dual-task required more attentional resources. PFC activity increased significantly as the effort increased from 15% to 30% MVC (p<.001). Although a larger change in the deoxyhemoglobin was observed in dual-task conditions (p=.051), PFC activity did not change significantly as compared to the motor tasks alone. In summary, participants were unable to invest more attention and effort in performing the more difficult levels in order to maintain adequate mental performance. PMID:23665138

  7. A Thrust and Impulse Study of Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate as an Additive for Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J.; Wright, A. M.; Dunn, L.; Alford, B.

    2000-03-01

    A thrust and impulse study of the hybrid rocket fuel additive Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT) was conducted at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility. GAT is an organic salt with a high percentage of nitrogen. GAT was mixed with the standard hybrid rocket fuel, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), in the concentration of 15%, by mass. The fuel grains with the GAT additive were fired for 4 second runs with the oxygen flows of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.12 lbm/sec. For each run average thrust, total impulse, and specific impulse were measured. Average thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse vs. oxygen flow were plotted. Similar data was collected for plain HTPB/PAPI fuels for comparison. GAT was found to increase the thrust output when it was added to the standard hybrid rocket fuel, HTPB. GAT also increased the total impulse during the run. The thrust and total impulse were increased at all flows, but especially at the lower oxygen flow rates. Specific impulse only increased during the lower oxygen flow runs, and decreased slightly for the higher oxygen flow runs.

  8. Influence of CuO and ZnO addition on the multicomponent phosphate glasses: Spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, Magdalena; Wacławska, Irena; Sułowska, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of phosphate-silicate glasses from the P2O5-SiO2-K2O-MgO-CaO system modified with the addition of CuO or ZnO have been studied by means of FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy. All glasses were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching technique and their homogeneous chemical composition was controlled and confirmed. By using the aforementioned research techniques, the presence of structural units with various degrees of polymerization was shown in the structure of analyzed phosphate-silicate glasses: Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0. It was found that an increase in the content of CuO or ZnO in the composition of analyzed glasses, which are introduced at the expense of decreasing amounts of CaO and MgO, has a different influence on the phospho-oxygen network. It was shown that copper ions cause its gradual polymerization, while zinc ions cause its depolymerization. At the same time, polymerization of the silico-oxygen subnetwork was found. Additionally, in the case of glasses containing increasing amounts of ZnO, a change of the role of zinc ions in the vitreous matrix was confirmed (from the modifier to a structure-forming component).

  9. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species. PMID:23398575

  10. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Does a hydrogen bonded complex with dual contacts show synergism? A matrix isolation infrared and ab-initio study of propargyl alcohol-water complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jyoti; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    When hydrogen bonded complexes are formed with more than one contact, the question arises if these multiple contacts operate synergistically. Propargyl alcohol-H2O complex presents a good case study to address this question, which is discussed in this work. Complexes of propargyl alcohol (PA) and H2O were studied experimentally using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy, which was supported by quantum chemical computations performed at the M06-2X and MP2 level of theories, using 6-311++G (d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. A 1:1 PA-H2O complex was identified in the experiments and corroborated by our computations, where the PA was in the gauche conformation. This complex, which was a global minimum, showed dual interactions, one of which was an n-σ interaction between the O-H group of PA and the O of H2O, while the second was a H···​π contact between the O-H group of H2O and the π system of PA. We explored if the two interactions in the 1:1 complex exhibited synergism. We finally argue that the two interactions showed antagonism rather than synergism. Our computations indicated three other local minima for the 1:1 complexes; though these local minima were not identified in our experiments. Atoms-in-molecules and energy decomposition analysis executed through LMO-EDA were also performed to understand the nature of intermolecular interactions in the PA-H2O complexes. We have also revisited the problem of conformations of PA, with a view to understanding the reasons for gauche conformational preferences in PA.

  12. Linearity and additivity in cluster-induced sputtering: A molecular-dynamics study of van der Waals bonded systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2004-10-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study sputtering of a condensed-gas solid induced by the impact of atomic clusters with sizes 1{<=}n{<=}10{sup 4}. Above a nonlinear onset regime, we find a linear increase of the sputter yield Y with the total energy E of the bombarding cluster. The fitting coefficients in the linear regime depend only on the cluster size n such that for fixed bombardment energy, sputtering decreases with increasing cluster size n. We find that to a good approximation the sputter yield in this regime obeys an additivity rule in cluster size n such that doubling the cluster size at the same cluster velocity amounts to doubling the sputter yield. The sputter-limiting energy {epsilon}{sub s} is introduced which separates erosion ({epsilon}>{epsilon}{sub s}) from growth ({epsilon}<{epsilon}{sub s}) under cluster impact.

  13. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Yin, Y. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Wang, W. Y.; Zhao, K. K.

    Nano-copper usually serve for lubricating additives in tribology field. The antiwear and reducing friction performances both basic lubrication oil and basic lubrication oil with nano-copper in different mass were tested by friction wear test machine. The morphologies and the main elements of worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that nano-copper could improve tribology performances of basic lubrication oil. Comparing with base lubrication oil, the mass is 0.15% of nano-copper, the friction coefficient and the worn trace width can be reduced 34% and 32% respectively. Nano-copper can form self-repairing film in lubrication oil which availably separates the friction materials in friction process. Therefore, nano-copper has wonderful antiwear, reducing friction and self-repairing performances. And the function mechanism of Cu nanoparticles is studied in the paper.

  14. A High Resolution Case Study of a Patient with Recurrent Plasmodium vivax Infections Shows That Relapses Were Caused by Meiotic Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Andrew Taylor; Manary, Micah J.; Tewhey, Ryan; Arango, Eliana M.; Wang, Tina; Schork, Nicholas J.; Yanow, Stephanie K.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax infects a hundred million people annually and endangers 40% of the world's population. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax parasites can persist as a dormant stage in the liver, known as the hypnozoite, and these dormant forms can cause malaria relapses months or years after the initial mosquito bite. Here we analyze whole genome sequencing data from parasites in the blood of a patient who experienced consecutive P. vivax relapses over 33 months in a non-endemic country. By analyzing patterns of identity, read coverage, and the presence or absence of minor alleles in the initial polyclonal and subsequent monoclonal infections, we show that the parasites in the three infections are likely meiotic siblings. We infer that these siblings are descended from a single tetrad-like form that developed in the infecting mosquito midgut shortly after fertilization. In this natural cross we find the recombination rate for P. vivax to be 10 kb per centimorgan and we further observe areas of disequilibrium surrounding major drug resistance genes. Our data provide new strategies for studying multiclonal infections, which are common in all types of infectious diseases, and for distinguishing P. vivax relapses from reinfections in malaria endemic regions. This work provides a theoretical foundation for studies that aim to determine if new or existing drugs can provide a radical cure of P. vivax malaria. PMID:24901334

  15. X inactivation in Rett syndrome: A preliminary study showing partial preferential inactivation of paternal X with the M27{beta} probe

    SciTech Connect

    Camus, P.; Abbadi, N.; Gilgenkrantz, S.

    1994-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe progressive neurological disorder occurring exclusively in females. Most cases are sporadic. The few familial cases (less than 1%) cannot be explained by a simple mode of inheritance. Several hypotheses have been proposed: X-linked male lethal mutation, maternal uniparental disomy, fresh mutation on the X chromosome, involvement of mitochondrial DNA and differential inactivation with metabolic interference of X-borne alleles. The authors have examined the pattern of X inactivation in 10 affected girls who were selected according to the clinical criteria previously described and accepted by the French Rett Scientific Committee. The X inactivation pattern was studied by analysis of methylation at the hypervariable locus DXS255 with the M27{beta} probe. The results show a more-or-less skewed inactivation of paternal X in 8 Rett females, and 2 cases of symmetrical inactivation. In control girls, inactivation was symmetrical cases and the maternal X has been preferentially inactivated in the other 2 cases. In no case was a total skewed inactivation observed. Though there was clear evidence for a preferential paternal X inactivation that was statistically significant further studies are necessary to establish a relationship between X inactivation pattern and Rett syndrome.

  16. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Retnakaran, Ravi; Smith, Graeme N.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Walker, Mark C.; Wen, Shi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP). The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women. Methods We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis. Results A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L). Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors. Conclusions Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency. PMID:27182603

  17. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns’ perceptions of stress and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that

  18. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative. PMID:26976281

  19. Self-rated health showed a consistent association with serum HDL-cholesterol in the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomten, Sissel E.; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) and self rated health (SRH) in several age groups of men and women. Study design and setting: The study had a cross-sectional design and included 18,770 men and women of the Oslo Health Study aged 30; 40 and 45; 69-60; 75-76 years. Results: In both sexes and all age groups, SRH (3 categories: poor, good, very good) was positively correlated with HDL-C. Logistic regression analysis on dichotomized values of SRH (i.e. poor vs. good health) in each age group of men and women showed that increasing HDL-C values were associated with increasing odds for reporting good health; the odds ratio (OR) was highest in young men, and was generally lower in women than in men. Odds ratios in the 4 age groups of men were 4.94 (2.63-9.29), 2.25 (1.63-3.09), 2.12 (1.58-2.86), 1.87 (1.37-2.54); and in women: 3.58 (2.46-5.21), 2.81 (2.23-3.53), 2.28 (1.84-2.82), 1.61 (1.31-1.99). In the whole material, 1 mmol/L increase in HDL-C increased the odds for reporting good health by 2.27 (2.06-2.50; p<0.001), when adjusting for sex, age group, time since food intake and use of cholesterol lowering drugs. Chronic diseases, pain, psychological distress, smoking, alcohol, length of education, and dietary items did not have any major influence on the pattern of the HDL-C vs. SRH association. Conclusion: There was a consistent positive association between HDL-C and SRH, in both men and women in four different age groups, with the strongest association in young people. PMID:18071582

  20. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  1. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p < 0.00) as well as according to study site (df = 1; F = 74.48; p < 0.00). Soil water content was significantly lower in the Sahel than in the Sudanian zone. Seedling survival rate varied significantly according to technique used (df = 2; F = 8.91; p = 0.000) and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003). Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died 2 years after establishment. These results suggest that J. curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  2. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-02-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-silvo-pastoral productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p < 0.00) as well as according to study site (df = 1; F = 74.48; p < 0.00). Soil water content was significantly lower in the Sahel than in the Sudanian zone. Seedling survival rate varied significantly according to technique used (df = 2; F = 8.91; p = 0.000) and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003). Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died two years after establishment. These results suggest that Jatropha curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that Jatropha may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  3. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  4. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  5. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  6. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  7. Tactile stimulation associated with nursing care to individuals with dementia showing aggressive or restless tendencies: an intervention study in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Skovdahl, Kirsti; Sörlie, Venke; Kihlgren, Mona

    2007-09-01

    Aim.  This study aimed to describe from documentation both the caregivers' experiences of giving tactile stimulation to five people with moderate-to-severe dementia and who showed aggressive or restless tendencies, and the changes seen in them. Background.  Clinical experiences indicate that tactile stimulation can contribute to a feeling of trust and confirmation as well as to improving communication, promoting relaxation and easing pain. There is, however, very little scientific documentation of the effects of touch massage for people with dementia. Design.  From caregivers' documentation (28 weeks) of experiences, the giving of tactile stimulation to five randomly selected people with dementia showing aggressive or restless tendencies and the subsequent changes noticed. Method.  The documentation was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Results.  All residents displayed signs of positive feelings and relaxation. The caregivers stated that they felt able to interact with the residents in a more positive way and that they felt they had a warmer relationship with them. Conclusion.  Tactile stimulation can be seen as a valuable way to communicating non-verbally, of giving feedback, confirmation, consolation or a feeling of being valuable and taken care of. Relevance to clinical practice.  Tactile stimulation has to be administered with respect and care, and given from a relational ethics perspective. Otherwise, there is a risk that tactile stimulation will be used merely as a technique instead of as a part of an effort to achieve optimal good, warm nursing care. PMID:20925872

  8. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  9. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  10. Safety evaluation studies of SGF gum--a potential food additive from the seed of Sesbania cannabina.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Xu, E Y; Xu, G C; Shang, R M; Wang, Y M; Chen, J; Huang, F C

    1988-01-01

    SGF gum, derived from the plant Sesbania cannabina, has properties very similar to those of guar gum. Because it is much cheaper than guar, SGF gum is of interest as a possible new food additive. It has therefore been tested in rats for acute, short-term and subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity and effects on reproductive performance, and a 1% concentration in the diet has been identified as the no-effect level. The tests complied with the guidelines issued by the Chinese authorities. Mutagenicity studies, Ames tests and a micronucleus test gave negative results, and a dominant lethal test in mice was negative at the 1% dietary level, although at 5 and 10% the results were equivocal. No adverse changes were elicited in 23 human volunteers who consumed a total of 960 mg SGF gum during a 30-day period during which they consumed, daily, 80 g ice-cream containing 0.04% SGF gum instead of the usual thickener. On the basis of applying a 100-fold safety factor to the findings in the animal studies, an acceptable human daily intake of 6 mg/kg is suggested. PMID:3209133

  11. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  12. Record of two species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) new for Madagascar and molecular study showing the paraphylies of the subgenus Oecacta and the Schultzei group.

    PubMed

    Augot, D; Randrianambinintsoa, F J; Gasser, A; Depaquit, J

    2013-08-01

    Culicoides are vectors of diseases of Veterinary Medicine importance (bluetongue, African horse sickness, Schmallenberg virus) all over the world. In the present study, we report two species new for Madagascar: C. nevilli and C. enderleini. They belong to the Schultzei group which is sometimes classified in the subgenus Oecacta and sometimes in the subgenus Remmia, depending on authors. Consequently, we carried out a molecular cladistics of these groups based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit I mtDNA sequences. We processed the Malagasy specimens and some C. furens (the Oecacta type-species) caught in Florida and we analyzed their sequences and those available in Genbank: C. schultzei, C. oxystoma, C. festivipennis, C. brunnicans, C. kibunensis, C. truncorum and C. vexans. C. (Avaritia) imicola have been selected as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony analysis showed the paraphylies of the Schultzei group (=Remmia) and of the subgenus Oecacta if the first group is excluded from the latter. Our results underline the doubtful current classification and need to be validated by other molecular markers in the future. PMID:23893801

  13. Study of antidepressant drugs in GPR39 (zinc receptor⁻/⁻) knockout mice, showing no effect of conventional antidepressants, but effectiveness of NMDA antagonists.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The monoamine-based antidepressants that are currently used generate many side effects, and more than 30% of depressed patients do not respond to this therapy. Glutamate-based antidepressants seem to play an important role in therapy for depression, but there is still an extensive search for safe drugs. An antagonist of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor - namely, zinc - plays a part in maintaining homeostasis between glutamate and GABA via the GPR39 receptor, which has been found to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. In this study we investigated the behavioral response resulting from chronic or acute treatment with monoamine-based antidepressants, such as imipramine, escitalopram or reboxetine, and from glutamate-based MK-801 or ketamine, as measured by the forced swim test (FST) in GPR39 knockout (GPR39 KO, -/-) mice versus wild-type (WT, +/+) controls. All the tested agents reduced the immobility time in the FST in the wild-type animals. However, only chronic or acute administration of MK-801 and ketamine (but not monoamine-based antidepressants) were active in the FST in GPR39 KO mice. Our results show for the first time that GPR39 is required for the antidepressant effect of monoamine-based antidepressants. PMID:25827929

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  15. Photometric Studies of Two Neglected Eclipsing Binaries AX Cassiopeia and V1107 Cassiopeia with Possibly Additional Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuangui; Li, Kai; Li, Qun; Dai, Haifeng

    2016-04-01

    New photometry for two eclipsing binaries, AX Cas and V1107 Cas, was carried out during the 2014-2015 observing season. With an updated version of the W-D program, photometric solutions were simultaneously derived from BV light curves. Results indicate that AX Cas is a semi-detached binary with a mass ratio of q=0.400(+/- 0.003) and a fill-out factor of {f}p=88.1(+/- 0.5)%, while V1107 Cas is a contact one with a mass ratio of q=0.667(+/- 0.003) and a degree of contact of f=11.3%(+/- 0.3%). Based on all collected times of light minimum together with newly observed data, we constructed the (O-C) curves for the two systems. From the period analysis, it is found that orbital period variations may evidently appear that show light-time effect. The modulated period and amplitude are {P}{mod}=17.63(+/- 0.17)\\quad {years} and A=0\\buildrel{{d}}\\over{.} 0133(+/- 0\\buildrel{{d}}\\over{.} 0016) for AX Cas and {P}{mod}=7.23(+/- 0.14)\\quad {years} and A=0\\buildrel{{d}}\\over{.} 0023(+/- 0\\buildrel{{d}}\\over{.} 0002) for V1107 Cas, respectively. From 26 EB/EW binaries with only cyclic variations, we derived the relation between periods and total masses, indicating that mass loss from the system occurs from the semi-detached configuration to the contact case. The cyclic oscillations for 22 sample stars (including AX Cas and V1107 Cas) may be attributed to third bodies. Additional companions could remove angular momentum from the central systems, which may play a key role in the evolutionary process.

  16. Ab Initio QM/MM Study Shows a Highly Dissociated SN2 Hydrolysis Mechanism for the cGMP-Specific Phosphodiesterase-5.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Wu, Yinuo; Feng, Ling-Jun; Wu, Ruibo; Luo, Hai-Bin

    2014-12-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the sole enzymes hydrolyzing the important second messengers cGMP and cAMP and have been identified as therapeutic targets for several diseases. The most successful examples are PDE5 inhibitors (i.e., sildenafil and tadalafil), which have been approved for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. However, the side effects mostly due to nonselective inhibition toward other PDE isoforms, set back the clinical usage of PDE5 inhibitors. Until now, the exact catalytic mechanism of the substrate cGMP by PDE5 is still unclear. Herein, the first computational study on the catalytic hydrolysis mechanism of cGMP for PDE5 (catalytic domain) is performed by employing the state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our simulations show a SN2 type reaction procedure via a highly dissociated transition state with a reaction barrier of 8.88 kcal/mol, which is quite different from the previously suggested hydrolysis mechanism of cAMP for PDE4. Furthermore, the subsequent ligand exchange and the release of the product GMP have also been investigated by binding energy analysis and MD simulations. It is deduced that ligand exchange would be the rate-determining step of the whole reaction, which is consistent with many previous experimental results. The obtained mechanistic insights should be valuable for not only the rational design of more specific inhibitors toward PDE5 but also understanding the general hydrolysis mechanism of cGMP-specific PDEs. PMID:26583228

  17. Did the addition of concomitant chemotherapy to radiotherapy improve outcomes in hypopharyngeal cancer? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S.F.; Griffiths, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background For oncologists and for patients, no site-specific clinical trial evidence has emerged for the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy (ccrt) over radiotherapy (rt) alone for cancer of the hypopharynx (hpc) or for other human papilloma virus–negative head-and-neck cancers. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study using administrative data compared treatments over time (1990–2000 vs. 2000–2010), treatment outcomes, and outcomes over time in 1333 cases of hpc diagnosed in Ontario between January 1990 and December 2010. Results The incidence of hpc is declining; the use of ccrt that began in 2001 is increasing; and the 3-year overall survival for all patients remains poor at 34.6%. No difference in overall survival was observed in a comparison of patients treated in the decade before ccrt and of patients treated in the decade during the uptake of ccrt. Conclusions The addition of ccrt to the armamentarium of treatment options for oncologists treating head-and-neck patients did not improve outcomes for hpc at the population level. PMID:27536177

  18. Characterization and comparative study of coal combustion residues from a primary and additional flue gas secondary desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, S.; Francois, M.; Evrard, O.; Pellissier, C.

    1998-11-01

    An extensive characterization and comparative study was done on two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residues derived from the same coal. LR residues (originated from Loire/Rhone in the south of Lyon, France) are obtained after a primary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is trapped by reaction with CaO at a temperature of about 1100 C), and LM residues (originating from La Maxe, near Metz in the east of France) are obtained after an additional secondary desulfurization process (SO{sub 2} is removed further by reaction with Ca(OH){sub 2} at a temperature of about 120 C). Various and complementary investigation methods were used to determine their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties: x-ray fluorescence and diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis, granulometric distribution, pycnometric density, BET specific surface area and pH, conductivity measurements, and chemical analysis of their insoluble fraction. The FGD residues contain basically two main components: a silico-aluminous fly ash part and calcic FGD phases. In the LR residues the two components can be considered as independent, whereas they are linked in the LM residues because chemical reactions have occurred, leading to the formation of silico-calcic gel CSH, hydrated aluminate AFm, and AFt phases.

  19. Study of stability and thermodynamic properties of water-in-diesel nanoemulsion fuels with nano-Al additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rakhi N.; More, Utkarsh; Malek, Naved; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Parikh, Parimal A.

    2015-11-01

    The present work addresses the formation of water-in-diesel (W/D) nanoemulsion by blending different percentages of water along with nano-Al additive in various propositions to enhance the combustion characteristics. The roles of various surfactants such as Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), Triton X-100, Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and newly synthesized and characterized dicationic surfactants were discussed based upon their ability to stabilize the nanoemulsions. Surface active properties of the surfactants were determined by measuring their interfacial tension and subsequently by measuring the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. Triton X-100 was found to be the most efficient surfactant for the current water-in-diesel nanoemulsion as it stabilized the suspensions for more than 8 h. Particle size analysis proved emulsion size to be in the order of nanometer, and zeta potential values were found to have neutral behavior at water-diesel interface. Experimental studies confirmed that that blends W/D [1 % (vol.) water] and W/DA [1 % (vol.) water, 0.1 % (wt.) nano-Al] were thermodynamically stable.

  20. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  1. A five-year study of the impact of nitrogen addition on methane uptake in alpine grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ping; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Hu, Yukun; Mohammat, Anwar; Christie, Peter; Liu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition affects soil methane (CH4) uptake in semiarid and arid zones. An in situ field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014 to systematically study the effect of various N application rates (0, 10, 30, and 90 kg N ha−1 yr−1) on CH4 flux in alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. No significant influence of N addition on CH4 uptake was found. Initially the CH4 uptake rate increased with increasing N application rate by up to 11.5% in 2011 and then there was gradual inhibition by 2014. However, the between-year variability in CH4 uptake was very highly significant with average uptake ranging from 52.9 to 106.6 μg C m−2 h−1 and the rate depended largely on seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature. CH4 uptake was positively correlated with soil temperature, air temperature and to a lesser extent with precipitation, and was negatively correlated with soil moisture and NO3−-N content. The results indicate that between-year variability in CH4 uptake was impacted by precipitation and temperature and was not sensitive to elevated N deposition in alpine grassland. PMID:27571892

  2. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining to treatment as usual in first episode schizophrenia patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shantala; Rao, Shobini L.; Raguram, Ahalya; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a 2-month-long home-based cognitive retraining program together with treatment as usual (TAU; psychoeducation and drug therapy) on neuropsychological functions, psychopathology, and global functioning in patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) as well as on psychological health and perception of level of family distress in their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Forty-five FES patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group receiving home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU (n=22) or to control group receiving TAU alone (n=23). Patients and caregivers received psychoeducation. Patients and one of their caregivers were assessed for the above parameters at baseline, post-assessment (2 months) and at 6-months follow-up assessment. Results: Of the 45 patients recruited, 12 in the treatment group and 11 in the control group completed post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Addition of home-based cognitive retraining along with TAU led to significant improvement in neuropsychological functions of divided attention, concept formation and set-shifting ability, and planning. Effect sizes were large, although the sample size was small. Conclusions: Home-based cognitive retraining program has shown promise. However, further studies examining this program on a larger cohort with rigorous design involving independent raters are suggested. PMID:22556432

  3. A five-year study of the impact of nitrogen addition on methane uptake in alpine grassland.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ping; Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Hu, Yukun; Mohammat, Anwar; Christie, Peter; Liu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how nitrogen (N) deposition affects soil methane (CH4) uptake in semiarid and arid zones. An in situ field experiment was conducted from 2010 to 2014 to systematically study the effect of various N application rates (0, 10, 30, and 90 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) on CH4 flux in alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. No significant influence of N addition on CH4 uptake was found. Initially the CH4 uptake rate increased with increasing N application rate by up to 11.5% in 2011 and then there was gradual inhibition by 2014. However, the between-year variability in CH4 uptake was very highly significant with average uptake ranging from 52.9 to 106.6 μg C m(-2) h(-1) and the rate depended largely on seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature. CH4 uptake was positively correlated with soil temperature, air temperature and to a lesser extent with precipitation, and was negatively correlated with soil moisture and NO3(-)-N content. The results indicate that between-year variability in CH4 uptake was impacted by precipitation and temperature and was not sensitive to elevated N deposition in alpine grassland. PMID:27571892

  4. A high precision study of the electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate and lithium bis(oxalate)borate in LiCoO2/graphite pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David Yaohui; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Petibon, R.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of three well-known electrolyte additives, used singly or in combination, on LiCoO2/graphite pouch cells has been investigated using the ultra high precision charger (UHPC) at Dalhousie University, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and long term cycling Vinylene carbonate (VC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), and lithium bis(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) were chosen for study. The results show that combinations of electrolyte additives that act synergistically can be more effective than a single electrolyte additive. However, simply using 2% VC yielded cells very competitive in coulombic efficiency (CE), charge endpoint capacity slippage and charge transfer resistance (Rct). For cells with 1% LiBOB and VC (1, 2, 4 or 6%), adding VC above 2% does not increase the CE, but increases the electrode charge transfer impedances. Rct for cells containing 1% LiBOB and VEC (0.5, 1 or 4%) decreased after long term cycling (1800 h), compared to that tested after the UHPC cycling (500 h) indicating that VEC might be useful for the design of power cells. However, the opposite behaviour (increasing Rct with cycle number) was observed for the control cells or cells containing LiBOB and/or VC.

  5. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O'Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  6. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  7. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  8. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than −180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Methods Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g−1 dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s−1 or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s−1. Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s−1) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Key Results Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Conclusions Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following

  9. Additional studies on mixed uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrate alteration products of uraninite from the palermo and ruggles granitic pegmatites, grafton county, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Korzeb, S.L.; Lichte, F.E.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Additional studies on an incompletely characterized secondary uranium "mineral" from the Ruggles and Palermo granitic pegmatites, New Hampshire, referred to as mineral "A" by Frondel (1956), reveal a mixture of schoepite-group minerals and related uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrated compounds. A composite chemical analysis yielded (in wt.%): PbO 4.85 (EMP), UO3 83.5 (EMP), BaO 0.675 (av. of EMP and ICP), CaO 0.167 (av. of EMP and ICP), K2O 2.455 (av. of EMP and ICP), SrO 0.21 (ICP), ThO2 0.85 (ICP), H2O 6.9, ??99.61. Powder-diffraction X-ray studies indicate a close resemblance in patterns between mineral "A" and several uranyl oxide-hydroxide hydrated minerals, including the schoepite family of minerals and UO2(OH)2. The powder-diffraction data for mineral "A" are most similar to those for synthetic UO2.86??1.5H2O and UO2(OH)2, but other phases are likely present as well. TGA analysis of both mineral "A" and metaschoepite show similar weight-loss and first derivative curves. The dominant losses are at 100??C, with secondary events at 400?? and 600??C. IR spectra show the presence of (OH) and H2O. Uraninite from both pegmatites, analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS, shows the presence of Th, Pb, K and Ca.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Addition of straw or sawdust to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from slurry produced by housed cattle: a field incubation study.

    PubMed

    van der Weerden, Tony J; Luo, Jiafa; Dexter, Moira

    2014-07-01

    The use of housed wintering systems (e.g., barns) associated with dairy cattle farming is increasing in southern New Zealand. Typically, these wintering systems use straw or a woodmix as bedding material. Ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (nitrous oxide [NO] and methane [CH]) associated with storage of slurry + bedding material from wintering systems is poorly understood. A field incubation study was conducted to determine such emissions from stored slurry where bedding material (straw and sawdust) was added at two rates and stored for 7 mo. During the first 4 mo of storage, compared with untreated slurry, the addition of sawdust significantly reduced NH and CH emissions from 29 to 3% of the initial slurry nitrogen (N) content and from 0.5 to <0.01% of the initial slurry carbon (C) content. However, sawdust enhanced NO emissions to 0.7% of the initial slurry-N content, compared with <0.01% for untreated slurry. Straw generally had an intermediate effect. Extending the storage period to 7 mo increased emissions from all treatments. Ammonia emissions were inversely related to the slurry C:N ratio and total solid (TS) content, and CH emissions were inversely related to slurry TS content. Mitigation of GHG emissions from stored slurry can be achieved by reducing the storage period as much as possible after winter slurry collection, providing ground conditions allow access for land spreading and nutrient inputs match pasture requirements. Although adding bedding material can reduce GHG emissions during storage, increased manure volumes for carting and spreading need to be considered. PMID:25603082

  13. A prospective, comparative, randomised, double blind study on the efficacy of addition of clonidine to 0.25% bupivacaine in scalp block for supratentorial craniotomies

    PubMed Central

    Wajekar, Anjana Sagar; Oak, Shrikanta P; Shetty, Anita N; Jain, Ruchi A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Scalp blocks combined with general anaesthesia reduce pin and incision response, along with providing stable perioperative haemodynamics and analgesia. Clonidine has proved to be a valuable additive in infiltrative blocks. We studied the efficacy and safety of addition of clonidine 2 μg/kg to scalp block with 0.25% bupivacaine (Group B) versus plain 0.25% bupivacaine (Group A) for supratentorial craniotomies. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive scalp block: Group A (with 0.25% bupivacaine) and Group B (with 0.25% bupivacaine and clonidine (2 μg/kg). Bilateral scalp block was given immediately after induction. All the patients received propofol based general anaesthesia. Intraoperatively, propofol infusion was maintained at 75 to 100 μg/kg/h up to dura closure and reduced to 50-75 μg/kg/h up to skin closure with atracurium infusion stopped at dura closure. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored at pin insertion, at 5 minute intervals from incision till dura opening and again at 5 minute interval from dura closure up to skin closure. Fentanyl 0.5 μg/kg was given if a 20% increase in either HR and/or MAP was observed. Postoperative haemodynamics and verbal rating scores (VRS) were recorded. When the VRS score increased above 3, rescue analgesia was given. Any intraoperative haemodynamic complications were noted. Results: Group A showed a significant increase in haemodynamic variables during the perioperative period as compared to group B (P < 0.05). Addition of clonidine 2 μg/kg in the infiltrative block also provided significantly prolonged postoperative analgesia. Conclusions: Addition of clonidine to scalp block provided better perioperative haemodynamic stability and significantly prolonged analgesia. PMID:26962254

  14. Dexamethasone as An Additive to Bupivacaine in Fascia Lliaca Compartment Block: A Prospective, Randomized and Double Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar N, Suresh; N, Kiran; Sebastian, Don; Gowda RM, Punith

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with fracture femur experience severe pain on movement during positioning for spinal anaesthesia. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been used effectively for providing analgesia during positioning of the patient for spinal anaesthesia. Aim: To test the hypothesis that, adding dexamethasone would significantly prolong the duration of Bupivacaine in FICB. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 18 to 80 years posted for ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) of fracture femur were included to receive FICB. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind study done at tertiary medical college hospital. Thirty patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml saline and another 30 patients received 38ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine with 2ml dexamethasone (8mg). Thirty minutes after FICB, patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anesthesia was recorded. In the post-operative period, duration of analgesia and the total doses of rescue analgesics were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients who received Bupivacaine with dexamethasone had significant prolongation of analgesia and required fewer doses of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone for FICB. However, the onset of analgesia, VAS scores and patient satisfaction during positioning for spinal anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study shows that adding Dexamethasone (8mg) to Bupivacaine for FICB significantly prolonged the duration of block and decreased the requirement of rescue analgesics as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine alone. FICB is relatively easy and safe to perform. In our study we did not encounter any complication while doing the procedures and also by adding dexamethasone. PMID:25302209

  15. Studying the issues in the additive manufacturing of dental implants by Electron Beam MeltingRTM (EBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi

    The ability of additive manufacturing (AM) processes to produce complex geometries is resulting in their rapid acceptance by a number of industries. This unique capability could be used for the optimization of the design of functional components that could find an application in different industries such as aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and implants. However, there are still some challenges confronting this technology such as surface finish, residual stress, dimensional tolerance, processing speed, and anisotropy in microstructure and mechanical properties. Any of the mentioned issues could be influenced by the thermal history of a 3D printed component during the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Therefore, an understanding of the thermal cycling during the AM process is essential. In recent years, significant advances have been achieved in the design, manufacturing, and materials used for dental implants. However, there are still some differences between the natural tooth and a dental implant that might decrease patient satisfaction. One of the differences between the natural tooth and a dental implant is in its modulus of elasticity, which could result in an issue known as bone atrophy. The second important difference between a dental implant and a natural tooth is the fact that a natural tooth is surrounded by a periodontal ligament that allows the tooth to move in three directions. However, the periodontal ligament is destroyed during the extraction of a natural tooth. In the absence of the periodontal ligament, the biting force is directly transferred to the jawbone, resulting in discomfort for the patient. Also, the implant cannot be incorporated with the surrounding natural tooth and form a bridge. In this study, the application of a lattice structure for the manufacturing of a biocompatible dental implant is investigated. Three different lattice structures with different unit cell sizes were experimentally and numerically analyzed. The mechanical

  16. A Study of Dental Graduates of the WICHE Student Exchange Programs Showing the Relation of That Group to the Dental Manpower of the Sending States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    Tables are presented that detail the relation of 422 Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) exchange program dental graduates to the dental manpower of the following sending states: Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Tables show the location of the WICHE graduates, the…

  17. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  18. Do the Images of Neuronal Pathways in the Human Central Nervous System Show Feed-back? A Comparative Study in Fifteen Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Pierre; Mouelhi, Lassaad; Kochkar, Momahed; Valanides, Nicos; Nisiforou, Olia; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Ndiaye, Valdiodio; Jeanbart, Paula; Horvath, Daniel; Ferreira, Claudia; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2010-01-01

    In the human brain, the neuronal pathways are networks which support our learning, memory and thought, and which work with permanent feedback. However, only 19% of illustrations of these neuronal pathways, in the 55 analysed school textbooks coming from 15 countries, were showing feedbacks. The neuronal pathways related to movements were generally…

  19. In vitro and in vivo study of sustained nitric oxide release coating using diazeniumdiolate-oped poly(vinyl chloride) matrix with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) additive.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hitesh; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Major, Terry C; Refahiyat, Lahdan; Amoako, Kagya A; Annich, Gail M; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion and activation that can be released from a NO donor species, such as diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2) within a polymer coating. In this study, various Food and Drug Administration approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) species were evaluated as additives to promote a prolonged NO release from DBHD/N2O2 within a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. When using an ester-capped PLGA additive with a slow hydrolysis time, the resulting coatings continuously release between 7-18×10(-10) mol cm(-2) min(-1) NO for 14 d at 37°C in PBS buffer. The corresponding pH changes within the polymer films were visualized using pH sensitive indicators and are shown to correlate with the extended NO release pattern. The optimal combined diazeniumdiolate/PLGA-doped NO release (NOrel) PVC coating was evaluated in vitro and its effect on the hemodynamics was also studied within a 4 h in vivo extracorporeal circulation (ECC) rabbit model of thrombogenicity. Four out of 7 control circuits clotted within 3 h, whereas all the NOrel coated circuits were patent after 4 h. Platelet counts on the NOrel ECC were preserved (79 ± 11% compared to 54 ± 6% controls). The NOrel coatings showed a significant decrease in the thrombus area as compared to the controls. Results suggest that by using ester-capped PLGAs as additives to a conventional plasticized PVC material containing a lipophilic diazeniumdiolates, the NO release can be prolonged for up to 2 weeks by controlling the pH within the organic phase of the coating. PMID:23914297

  20. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorielli, Nancy

    A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…

  1. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorielli, Nancy

    This document presents an executive summary of a study that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender roles--primarily…

  2. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Kawabata, Yuya; Kataoka, Kota; Kasuyama, Kenta; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4–5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p < 0.05). The HW group also exhibited an increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity at four weeks, compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Drinking HW enhanced the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis. PMID:26783840

  3. Study of Fluorine Addition Influence in the Dielectric Constant of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Film Deposited by Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, S. C.; Mansano, R. D.

    The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) or DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) films are well known for exhibiting high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant, high mechanical hardness, low friction coefficient, low superficial roughness and also for being inert. In this paper, we produced fluorinated DLC films (a-C:F), and studied the effect of adding CF4 on the above-mentioned properties of DLC films. These films were produced by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system using a target of pure carbon in stable graphite allotrope. We performed measurements of electrical characteristic curves of capacitance as a function of applied tension (C-V) and current as a function of the applied tension (I-V). We showed the dielectric constant (k) and the resistivity (ρ) as functions of the CF4 concentration. On films with 65% CF4, we found that k = 2.7, and on films with 70% CF4, ρ = 12.3 × 1011 Ω cm. The value of the electrical breakdown field to films with 70% CF4 is 5.3 × 106 V/cm.

  4. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  5. Cultural Dimensions of Feedback at an Australian University: A Study of International Students with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard; Miller, Julia

    2015-01-01

    International students with English as an additional language face transitional challenges when entering a new academic culture. One such challenge involves optimising feedback to help foster their academic development, bearing in mind that feedback is not a culturally neutral entity (Nazif, A., Biswas, D., & Hilbig, R. (2004-2005). Towards an…

  6. Studying the effect of nano lead compounds additives on the concrete shielding properties for γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, H. E.; Badran, H. M.; Aydarous, A.; Sharshar, T.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work the effect of concrete incorporation with two types of nano-lead compounds on its γ-ray shielding characteristics is investigated. The concrete samples were prepared according to the local standards of building materials and doped by different percentages of PbO and PbTiO3 nano powders which were prepared using co-precipitation and oxalate precursor techniques, respectively. In addition, commercial PbO2 powder additive was used to check the effect of particle size on concrete attenuation properties. The phase composition and particle size of all the lead-oxide additives were confirmed by XRD and TEM imaging. The γ-rays attenuation coefficients were measured as a function of the additive percentage of lead compounds for γ-ray energies of 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using 137Cs and 60Co sources. The microstructure changes occurred in the concrete samples doped with Pb compounds additives were probed using the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were compared with that for normal concrete. The obtained data revealed that the overall defect density of the investigated samples, as seen by the positrons, decreases with increasing the nano-PbO contents which is in agreement with the determined values of the samples apparent densities. It was found that the γ-ray attenuation coefficient of concrete doped by nano-PbO is improved. The results are explained in the view of the fine structure enhanced modification and its impact on the γ-ray interaction probability at different energies.

  7. The structure of the aggregate form of bacteriochlorophyll c showing the Q y absorption above 740 nm: a 1H-NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Matsuura, Katsumi; Shimada, Keizo; Koyama, Yasushi

    1996-09-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll c (3 1S, 8-isobutyl-12-ethyl, farnesyl) was dissolved in a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride (1 : 3), and changes in the 1H-NMR spectrum caused by the titration of methanol were traced. On the basis of the changes in chemical shift due to the ring-current effect of the neighboring macrocycles and in peak intensity (broadening) due to their stacking, the structure of the aggregate form showing the Q y absorption band above 740 nm is proposed: the macrocycles are stacked to form a one-dimensional inclined column, the y axis of each macrocycle being parallel to the long axis of the column.

  8. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  9. Use of High Throughput Sequencing and Light Microscopy Show Contrasting Results in a Study of Phytoplankton Occurrence in a Freshwater Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xi; Sogge, Hanne; Lagesen, Karin; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Rohrlack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Assessing phytoplankton diversity is of primary importance for both basic and applied ecological studies. Following the advances in molecular methods, phytoplankton studies are switching from using classical microscopy to high throughput sequencing approaches. However, methodological comparisons of these approaches have rarely been reported. In this study, we compared the two methods, using a unique dataset of multiple water samples taken from a natural freshwater environment. Environmental DNA was extracted from 300 water samples collected weekly during 20 years, followed by high throughput sequencing of amplicons from the 16S and 18S rRNA hypervariable regions. For each water sample, phytoplankton diversity was also estimated using light microscopy. Our study indicates that species compositions detected by light microscopy and 454 high throughput sequencing do not always match. High throughput sequencing detected more rare species and picoplankton than light microscopy, and thus gave a better assessment of phytoplankton diversity. However, when compared to light microscopy, high throughput sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA amplicons did not adequately identify phytoplankton at the species level. In summary, our study recommends a combined strategy using both morphological and molecular techniques. PMID:25171164

  10. An efficacy study on improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients by balance training with additional motor imagery: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, YoungJun; Ha, HyunGeun; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, WanHee; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The few studies conducted on subacute stroke patients have focused only on gait function improvement. This study therefore aimed to confirm the effect of balance training with additional motor imagery on balance and gait improvement in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were divided into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received balance training for 20 minutes/day with mental imagery for 10 minutes/day, three days/week, for four weeks. The control group received only balance training for 30 minutes. Before and after the 12 sessions, balance and gait ability were assessed by the researcher and a physical therapist. [Results] After completion of the 4-week intervention, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Functional Reach Test, and Four Square Step test scores significantly increased in the experimental group. In the control group, Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test scores significantly improved. Changes in the Timed Up and Go test, Functional Reach Test, and Four Square Step Test scores after intervention were significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group. [Conclusion] Specific balance training with additional motor imagery may result in better rehabilitation outcomes of gait and balance ability than balance training alone. PMID:26644684

  11. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  12. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment. PMID:23039063

  13. A Study of Medical Graduates of the WICHE Student Exchange Programs Showing the Relation of That Group to the Medical Manpower of the Sending States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    The medical graduates from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) Student Exchange Programs (SEP) are studied in their relation to the medical manpower of the sending states. Participating schools were: University of California (Los Angeles, Irvine, and San Francisco branches); Loma Linda University; Stanford University;…

  14. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular ice formed in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and was not necessarily lethal when ice crystals were small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic a...

  15. Bevacizumab impairs oxidative energy metabolism and shows antitumoral effects in recurrent glioblastomas: a 31P/1H MRSI and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Jurcoane, Alina; Bähr, Oliver; Rieger, Johannes; Magerkurth, Jörg; Anti, Sandra; Steinbach, Joachim P; Pilatus, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Bevacizumab shows unprecedented rates of response in recurrent glioblastomas (GBM), but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. We employed in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether bevacizumab alters oxygen and energy metabolism and whether this effect has antitumoral activity in recurrent GBM. (31)P and (1)H MRSI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and high-resolution T2 and T2' mapping (indirect marker of oxygen extraction) were investigated in 16 patients with recurrent GBM at 3 Tesla before and 1.5-2 months after initiation of therapy with bevacizumab. Changes of metabolite concentrations and of the quantitative values in the tumor and normal appearing brain tissue were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to evaluate differences for tumor/edema versus control as well as changes before versus after commencement of therapy. Survival analyses were performed for significant parameters. Tumor T2', pH, ADC, and T2 decreased significantly in patients responding to bevacizumab therapy (n = 10). Patients with at least 25% T2' decrease during treatment showed longer progression-free and overall survival durations. Levels of high-energy metabolites were lower at baseline; these persisted under therapy. Glycerophosphoethanolamine as catabolic phospholipid metabolite increased in responders. The MRSI data support the hypothesis that bevacizumab induces relative tumor hypoxia (T2' decrease) and affects energy homeostasis in recurrent GBM, suggesting that bevacizumab impairs vascular function. The antiangiogenic effect of bevacizumab is predictive of better outcome and seems to induce antitumoral activity in the responding GBMs. PMID:21890539

  16. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  17. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  18. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. PMID:25463859

  19. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  20. Additional Routes to Staphylococcus aureus Daptomycin Resistance as Revealed by Comparative Genome Sequencing, Transcriptional Profiling, and Phenotypic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Rubio, Aileen; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Silverman, Jared A.; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Daptomycin is an extensively used anti-staphylococcal agent due to the rise in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but the mechanism(s) of resistance is poorly understood. Comparative genome sequencing, transcriptomics, ultrastructure, and cell envelope studies were carried out on two relatively higher level (4 and 8 µg/ml−1) laboratory-derived daptomycin-resistant strains (strains CB1541 and CB1540 respectively) compared to their parent strain (CB1118; MW2). Several mutations were found in the strains. Both strains had the same mutations in the two-component system genes walK and agrA. In strain CB1540 mutations were also detected in the ribose phosphate pyrophosphokinase (prs) and polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase genes (pnpA), a hypothetical protein gene, and in an intergenic region. In strain CB1541 there were mutations in clpP, an ATP-dependent protease, and two different hypothetical protein genes. The strain CB1540 transcriptome was characterized by upregulation of cap (capsule) operon genes, genes involved in the accumulation of the compatible solute glycine betaine, ure genes of the urease operon, and mscL encoding a mechanosensitive chanel. Downregulated genes included smpB, femAB and femH involved in the formation of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge, genes involved in protein synthesis and fermentation, and spa encoding protein A. Genes altered in their expression common to both transcriptomes included some involved in glycine betaine accumulation, mscL, ure genes, femH, spa and smpB. However, the CB1541 transcriptome was further characterized by upregulation of various heat shock chaperone and protease genes, consistent with a mutation in clpP, and lytM and sceD. Both strains showed slow growth, and strongly decreased autolytic activity that appeared to be mainly due to decreased autolysin production. In contrast to previous common findings, we did not find any mutations in phospholipid biosynthesis genes, and it appears there

  1. Initiation of insulin aspart to Indian subjects on OADs show significant improvement in glycaemic outcomes: the A1chieve observational study.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Bhattacharyya, A; Sahay, R K

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and India stands second next only to china. The management of diabetes in real life settings needs to be evaluated for deriving better management practices. A1chieve observational study evaluated the use of modern insulin in real life settings. This was a 24-week, international, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, observational study of people with type 2 diabetes. India recruited with 20,554 subjects and a total of 1815 patients were enrolled to receive insulin aspart as bolus insulin therapy of whom 1450 (79.9%) were insulin naïve and 365 (20.1%) were insulin users. At the end of 24 weeks, only one SAE was reported in this study and overall hypoglycemia events per patient year decreased from 2.49 (348 episodes) to 0.17 (20 episodes). There were no major hypoglycemic episodes reported in either insulin naive or insulin treated subjects. There was a significant improvement in the HbA(1c) values from the baseline in both insulin naive and insulin users. The mean HbA(1c) value was reduced from 9.5 to 7.4 (p < 0.001) for insulin naïve subjects and from 9.2 to 7.7 (p < 0.001) in insulin experienced subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased by 70 mg/dL and 50 mg/dL in insulin naive and insulin experienced, respectively and the difference from baseline was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The post prandial glucose value was also significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 105 mg/dL for insulin naïve subjects and 55 mg/dL for insulin experienced subjects. The composite end point was achieved by 46.6% of insulin naive and 38.1% of insulin-experienced subjects. The study concluded with good HbA(1c) reduction along with lower incidence of hypoglycemia and better health related quality of life outcomes in both in insulin naive and insulin experienced subjects who used insulin aspart as bolus insulin treatment. PMID:24482983

  2. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word) and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features) while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs) were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development. PMID:25078405

  3. Fast and Slow Readers of the Hebrew Language Show Divergence in Brain Response ∼200 ms Post Stimulus: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word) and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features) while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs) were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development. PMID:25078405

  4. The aging brain shows less flexible reallocation of cognitive resources during dual-task walking: A mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Brenda R; Foxe, John J; Butler, John S; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo

    2015-08-15

    Aging is associated with reduced abilities to selectively allocate attention across multiple domains. This may be particularly problematic during everyday multitasking situations when cognitively demanding tasks are performed while walking. Due to previous limitations in neuroimaging technology, much remains unknown about the cortical mechanisms underlying resource allocation during locomotion. Here, we utilized an EEG-based mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) technique that integrates high-density event-related potential (ERP) recordings with simultaneously acquired foot-force sensor data to monitor gait patterns and brain activity concurrently. To assess effects of motor load on cognition we evaluated young (N=17; mean age=27.2) and older adults (N=16; mean age=63.9) and compared behavioral and ERP measures associated with performing a Go/No-Go response inhibition task as participants sat stationary or walked on a treadmill. Stride time and variability were also measured during task performance and compared to stride parameters obtained without task performance, thereby assessing effects of cognitive load on gait. Results showed that older, but not young adults' accuracy dropped significantly when performing the inhibitory task while walking. Young adults revealed ERP modulations at relatively early (N2 amplitude reduction) and later (earlier P3 latency) stages within the processing stream as motor load increased while walking. In contrast, older adults' ERP modulations were limited to later processing stages (increased P3 amplitude) of the inhibitory network. The relative delay and attenuation of ERP modulations accompanied by behavioral costs in older participants might indicate an age-associated loss in flexible resource allocation across multiple tasks. Better understanding of the neural underpinnings of these age-related changes may lead to improved strategies to reduce fall risk and enhance mobility in aging. PMID:25988225

  5. Hanford waste-form release and sediment interaction: A status report with rationale and recommendations for additional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J. ); Wood, M.I. )

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the currently available geochemical data base for release and retardation for actual Hanford Site materials (wastes and/or sediments). The report also recommends specific laboratory tests and presents the rationale for the recommendations. The purpose of this document is threefold: to summarize currently available information, to provide a strategy for generating additional data, and to provide recommendations on specific data collection methods and tests matrices. This report outlines a data collection approach that relies on feedback from performance analyses to ascertain when adequate data have been collected. The data collection scheme emphasizes laboratory testing based on empiricism. 196 refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. A theoretical study of the ozonolysis of C60: primary ozonide formation, dissociation, and multiple ozone additions.

    PubMed

    Chapleski, Robert C; Morris, John R; Troya, Diego

    2014-04-01

    We present an investigation of the reaction of ozone with C60 fullerene using electronic structure methods. Motivated by recent experiments of ozone exposure to a C60 film, we have characterized stationary points in the potential energy surface for the reactions of O3 with C60 that include both the formation of primary ozonide and subsequent dissociation reactions of this intermediate that lead to C-C bond cleavage. We have also investigated the addition of multiple O3 molecules to the C60 cage to explore potential reaction pathways under the high ozone flux conditions used in recent experiments. The lowest-energy product of the reaction of a single ozone molecule with C60 that results in C-C bond breakage corresponds to an open-cage C60O3 structure that contains ester and ketone moieties at the seam. This open-cage product is of much lower energy than the C60O + O2 products identified in prior work, and it is consistent with IR experimental spectra. Subsequent reaction of the open-cage C60O3 product with a second ozone molecule opens a low-energy reaction pathway that results in cage degradation via the loss of a CO2 molecule. Our calculations also reveal that, while full ozonation of all bonds between hexagons in C60 is unlikely even under high ozone concentration, the addition of a few ozone molecules to the C60 cage is favorable at room temperature. PMID:24549406

  7. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  8. Green algal over cyanobacterial dominance promoted with nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a mesocosm study at Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianrong; Qin, Boqiang; Paerl, Hans W; Brookes, Justin D; Wu, Pan; Zhou, Jian; Deng, Jianming; Guo, Jinsong; Li, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    Enrichment of waterways with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has accelerated eutrophication and promoted cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. An understanding of whether cyanobacteria maintain their dominance under accelerated eutrophication will help predict trends and provide rational control measures. A mesocosm experiment was conducted under natural light and temperature conditions in Lake Taihu, China. It revealed that only N added to lake water promoted growth of colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Pseudoanabaena and Planktothrix) and single-cell green algae (Cosmarium, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus). Adding P alone promoted neither cyanobacteria nor green algae significantly. N plus P additions promoted cyanobacteria and green algae growth greatly. The higher growth rates of green algae vs. cyanobacteria in N plus P additions resulted in the biomass of green algae exceeding that of cyanobacteria. This indicates that further enrichment with N plus P in eutrophic water will enhance green algae over cyanobacterial dominance. However, it does not mean that eutrophication problems will cease. On the contrary, the risk will increase due to increasing total phytoplankton biomass. PMID:25516247

  9. A pilot study showing associations between frequency of CD4(+) memory cell subsets at diagnosis and duration of partial remission in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moya, Rosita; Robertson, Hannah Kathryn; Payne, Dawson; Narsale, Aditi; Koziol, Jim; Davies, Joanna Davida

    2016-05-01

    In some patients with type 1 diabetes the dose of insulin required to achieve euglycemia is substantially reduced soon after diagnosis. This partial remission is associated with β-cell function and good glucose control. The purpose of this study was to assess whether frequencies of CD4(+) T cell subsets in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are associated with length of partial remission. We found that the frequency of CD4(+) memory cells, activated Treg cells and CD25(+) cells that express a high density of the IL-7 receptor, CD127 (CD127(hi)) are strongly associated with length of partial remission. Prediction of length of remission via Cox regression is significantly enhanced when CD25(+) CD127(hi) cell frequency is combined with either Insulin Dependent Adjusted A1c (IDAA1c), or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), or C-peptide levels at diagnosis. CD25(+) CD127(hi) cells do not express Foxp3, LAG-3 and CD49b, indicating that they are neither Treg nor Tr1 cells. PMID:27114212

  10. Can jumping capacity of adult show jumping horses be predicted on the basis of submaximal free jumps at foal age? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Santamaría, Susana; van Weeren, P René; Back, Wim; Barneveld, Albert

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify performance characteristics of good jumping horses, and to determine whether these were already detectable at foal age. Kinematic data were collected of horses performing free jumps over a 0.60 m high fence at six months of age and of these same horses jumping with a rider over a 1.15 m high fence at five years of age. At five years of age the horses were divided into three groups on the basis of a puissance competition: a group of seven best jumpers that made no errors and in the end cleared a 1.50 m high fence, a group of nine worst jumpers that were unable to clear a 1.40 m high fence, and an intermediate group of 13 horses. Longitudinal kinematic data was available for all seven best jumpers and for six of the nine worst jumpers. Average values of variables for the best jumpers were compared with those of the worst jumpers for the jumps over 1.15 m. In the group of best jumpers, the forelimbs were shorter at forelimb clearance due to increased elbow flexion, and the hind limbs were further retroflexed at hind limb clearance. The same superior technique in clearing fences with the limbs was also found in this group at six months of age. Nevertheless, for individual horses it turned out to be too far-fetched to predict adult jumping capacity on the basis of kinematic variables collected during submaximal jumps at foal age. PMID:16129341

  11. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C.; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN. PMID:25775161

  12. Failure of an Additive-Free Diet to Control Hyperactivity: A Case Study. Technical Report 77-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosek, Robert J.

    Measured were the effects of a diet climinating natural salicylates, preservatives, artificial coloring and artificial flavoring on the hyperactive behavior of a 4-year-old boy. Two of four behavioral measures showed a statistically significant reduction in hyperactivity when the diet was introduced. However, when the diet was terminated, the S…

  13. Study of the effects of potassium addition to supported iron catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.; Moskovits, M.

    1988-10-20

    The Fischer-Tropsch activity of supported iron catalysts prepared via electrochemical techniques has been evaluated as a function of potassium addition. Catalyst pretreatment in 0.09, 0.18, and 0.27 M K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solutions generated potassium levels of 1.7, 2.8, and 3.9 wt %, respectively. Pretreatment in 0.18 M KOH provided a catalyst with 2.3 wt% potassium and facilitated comparison of the effects of the basicity of the pretreatment solution upon catalyst activity. A maximum in catalyst activity and CO conversion was noted upon increasing K content, followed by a sharp decline in activity at potassium levels in excess of the maximum. The hydrogenation ability of the catalyst decreased, and a shift to higher molecular weight products was observed, with increasing potassium content. The type of pretreatment solution had little effect on the catalyst activity or the product selectivity.

  14. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies implies ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J. Y.

    2014-12-11

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the climate. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the aboveground and belowground responses to warming and nitrogen addition in high-latitude ecosystems, and identified absent or poorly parameterized mechanisms in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar soil carbon stock trajectories following both warming and nitrogen addition, other predicted variables (e.g., belowgroundmore » respiration) differed from observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating that CLM4.5 has inadequate underlying mechanisms for representing high-latitude ecosystems. On the basis of observational synthesis, we attribute the model–observation differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, aboveground and belowground coupling, and nutrient cycling, and we use the observational meta-analysis to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models. However, we also urge caution concerning the selection of data sets and experiments for meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average = 72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which precludes a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to likely nitrogen perturbations. Overall, we demonstrate that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  15. Tandem β-elimination/hetero-michael addition rearrangement of an N-alkylated pyridinium oxime to an O-alkylated pyridine oxime ether: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Picek, Igor; Vianello, Robert; Šket, Primož; Plavec, Janez; Foretić, Blaženka

    2015-02-20

    A novel OH(-)-promoted tandem reaction involving C(β)-N(+)(pyridinium) cleavage and ether C(β)-O(oxime) bond formation in aqueous media has been presented. The study fully elucidates the fascinating reaction behavior of N-benzoylethylpyridinium-4-oxime chloride in aqueous media under mild reaction conditions. The reaction journey begins with the exclusive β-elimination and formation of pyridine-4-oxime and phenyl vinyl ketone and ends with the formation of O-alkylated pyridine oxime ether. A combination of experimental and computational studies enabled the introduction of a new type of rearrangement process that involves a unique tandem reaction sequence. We showed that (E)-O-benzoylethylpyridine-4-oxime is formed in aqueous solution by a base-induced tandem β-elimination/hetero-Michael addition rearrangement of (E)-N-benzoylethylpyridinium-4-oximate, the novel synthetic route to this engaging target class of compounds. The complete mechanistic picture of this rearrangement process was presented and discussed in terms of the E1cb reaction scheme within the rate-limiting β-elimination step. PMID:25562471

  16. Studies Show Curricular Efficiency Can Be Attained.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the nine factors contributing to educational productivity, the effectiveness of instructional techniques (mastery learning ranks high and Skinnerian reinforcement has the largest overall effect), and the effects of psychological enviroments on learning. Includes references and a table. (MD)

  17. Sleep standard compliance low, new study shows.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    "All-or-nothing" penalties cited as one of the main reasons for low rate of compliance. Maximum shift allowed under new standards still much longer than in industries such as airlines, trucking. The same organization should not be both the data collector and the enforcer, according to researchers. PMID:17153051

  18. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  19. Meta-analysis of high-latitude nitrogen-addition and warming studies imply ecological mechanisms overlooked by land models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouskill, N. J.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.

    2014-08-18

    Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differedmore » from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above and belowground functional processes, and nutrient competition. We use the observational meta-analyses to discuss potential approaches to improving the current models (e.g., the inclusion of dynamic vegetation or different microbial functional guilds), however, we also raise a cautionary note on the selection of data sets and experiments to be included in a meta-analysis. For example, the concentrations of nitrogen applied in the synthesized field experiments (average =72 kg ha-1 yr-1) are many times higher than projected soil nitrogen concentrations (from nitrogen deposition and release during mineralization), which preclude a rigorous evaluation of the model responses to nitrogen perturbation. Overall, we demonstrate here that elucidating ecological mechanisms via meta-analysis can identify deficiencies in both ecosystem models and empirical experiments.« less

  20. Multiple Stressors in Agricultural Streams: A Mesocosm Study of Interactions among Raised Water Temperature, Sediment Addition and Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Jeremy J.; Lange, Katharina; Townsend, Colin R.; Matthaei, Christoph D.

    2012-01-01

    Changes to land use affect streams through nutrient enrichment, increased inputs of sediment and, where riparian vegetation has been removed, raised water temperature. We manipulated all three stressors in experimental streamside channels for 30 days and determined the individual and pair-wise combined effects on benthic invertebrate and algal communities and on leaf decay, a measure of ecosystem functioning. We added nutrients (phosphorus+nitrogen; high, intermediate, natural) and/or sediment (grain size 0.2 mm; high, intermediate, natural) to 18 channels supplied with water from a nearby stream. Temperature was increased by 1.4°C in half the channels, simulating the loss of upstream and adjacent riparian shade. Sediment affected 93% of all biological response variables (either as an individual effect or via an interaction with another stressor) generally in a negative manner, while nutrient enrichment affected 59% (mostly positive) and raised temperature 59% (mostly positive). More of the algal components of the community responded to stressors acting individually than did invertebrate components, whereas pair-wise stressor interactions were more common in the invertebrate community. Stressors interacted often and in a complex manner, with interactions between sediment and temperature most common. Thus, the negative impact of high sediment on taxon richness of both algae and invertebrates was stronger at raised temperature, further reducing biodiversity. In addition, the decay rate of leaf material (strength loss) accelerated with nutrient enrichment at ambient but not at raised temperature. A key implication of our findings for resource managers is that the removal of riparian shading from streams already subjected to high sediment inputs, or land-use changes that increase erosion or nutrient runoff in a landscape without riparian buffers, may have unexpected effects on stream health. We highlight the likely importance of intact or restored buffer strips, both

  1. Additive contributions of childhood adversity and recent stressors to inflammation at midlife: Findings from the MIDUS study.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Lachman, Margie E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Seeman, Teresa E; Miller, Gregory E

    2015-11-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation. Participants were 1,180 middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Biomarker Project (M age = 57.3 years, SD = 11.5; 56% female). A composite measure of inflammation was derived from 5 biomarkers: serum levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, E-selectin, and ICAM-1. Participants provided self-report data regarding ACEs, RLEs, current lifestyle indices (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, waist circumference), current depressive symptoms, and demographic/biomedical characteristics. We also used indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical outflow (12-hr urinary cortisol) and sympathetic nervous system output (12-hr urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine). Analyses indicated that ACEs and RLEs were independently associated with higher levels of inflammation, controlling for each other's effects. Their interaction was not significant. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that associations between ACEs and inflammation were mediated through higher urinary norepinephrine output, greater waist circumference, smoking, and lower levels of exercise, whereas higher waist circumference and more smoking partially mediated the association between RLEs and inflammation. In support of the stress accumulation model, ACEs and RLEs had unique and additive contributions to inflammation at midlife, with no evidence of synergistic effects. Results also suggested that norepinephrine output and lifestyle indices may help explain how prior stressors foster inflammation at midlife. PMID:26389605

  2. Were There "Additional Foreseeable Risks" in the SUPPORT Study? Lessons Not Learned from the ARDSnet Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry J; Dreyfuss, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Even though the interventions were adapted from standard clinical practice, the way they were provided meant that the care given infants in the study was distinctly different from standard care, with different risk profiles. Parents should have been informed about those differences. PMID:25530226

  3. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  4. Study of Two Graphic Symbol-Teaching Methods for Individuals with Physical Disabilities and Additional Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emms, Laila; Gardner, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether contrasting teaching methods had an effect on performance accuracy in the recall of graphic symbols. The secondary purpose was to establish whether the iconicity of symbols had an effect on performance accuracy. A direct symbol-teaching method and a contextual symbol-teaching method were…

  5. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson’s disease: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Methods Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=−0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=−0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=−0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). Conclusion ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity. PMID:25609935

  6. [A Study of the Efficacy of the Additional Administration of Tadalafil in Japanese Men with α1-Blocker-Resistant LUTS/BPH].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keiichiro; Fukagai, Takashi; Sasaki, Haruaki; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Atsushi; Koshikiya, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Alpha 1-blockers are widely used at present for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, some patients experience little improvement of symptoms, and it is difficult to provide additional treatment. We have additionally administered tadalafil to patients with inadequate symptom improvement, despite treatment with alpha-1 blockers. The subjects were 57 patients with a diagnosis of LUTS/BPH who showed a poor response to treatment with alpha-1 blockers for 1 month or more (international prostate symptom score [IPSS] ≥8 and/or quality of life [QOL] index ≥3). Tadalafil 5 mg was administered on consecutive days to patients orally receiving alpha-1 blockers. We determined IPSS, the QOL index, overactive bladder symptom scores (OABSS), maximum urine flow, residual urine volume, and the sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) before, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after administration, and then evaluated improvement effects. IPSS, the QOL index, OABSS, and SHIM showed significant improvement (P <0.05) at 4 weeks after the start of treatment and onward. IPSS and the QOL index showed greater improvement effects at 8 and 12 weeks. Residual urinary volume was significantly improved only at 8 weeks. However, the maximum urine flow showed no improvement at any time point. Our results demonstrated the additional administration of tadalafil to patients with LUTS showing poor responses to alpha-1 blockers to improve LUTS/BPH symptoms as well as sexual function. PMID:27133883

  7. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  8. A study of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) as a flame retardant additive for Li-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Dmitry G.; Shieh, D. T.

    2014-02-01

    Electrochemical behavior and flammability of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA)-mixed electrolyte solutions are investigated using 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC:EMC (1:2 vol.%) with 0 wt.% (reference electrolyte) and 1-3 wt.% of TBBA. The cycling performance (at room and elevated temperature) and rate capability of the 18650 cell (LiMn2O4:Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 (8:2)/Li4Ti5O12) cell containing TBBA-mixed electrolyte is similar to that of cell containing the reference electrolyte. A detailed analysis of the surface on both the anode and the cathode electrodes via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the cathode electrode contains more Br components than the anode electrode. Within the first few cycles, on the positive electrode, we observe competing redox processes between the cathode material containing Mn and TBBA, which generate hydroxy radicals and other by-products. This process and the electrochemical reductive decomposition of TBBA to HBr, Br2 and bisphenole A are responsible for the increased flame retardant properties of the electrolyte containing TBBA. Safety tests were performed using an 18650 cell showed that even 1 wt.% of TBBA in the electrolyte significantly reduces cell flammability.

  9. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  10. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 3: Case study, knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A case study of knowledge contributions from the crew life support aspect of the manned space program is reported. The new information needed to be learned, the solutions developed, and the relation of new knowledge gained to earthly problems were investigated. Illustrations are given in the following categories: supplying atmosphere for spacecraft; providing carbon dioxide removal and recycling; providing contaminant control and removal; maintaining the body's thermal balance; protecting against the space hazards of decompression, radiation, and meteorites; minimizing fire and blast hazards; providing adequate light and conditions for adequate visual performance; providing mobility and work physiology; and providing adequate habitability.

  11. Biosensor studies of collagen and laminin binding with immobilized Escherichia coli O157:H7 and inhibition with naturally occurring food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Marjorie B.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks were mostly due to consumption of undercooked contaminated beef which resulted in severe illness and several fatalities. Recalls of contaminated meat are costly for the meat industry. Our research attempts to understand the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion on animal carcass in order to eliminate or reduce pathogens in foods. We have reported the interactions of immobilized E. coli O157:H7 cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor (BIAcore). These studies showed that immobilized bacterial cells allowed the study of real-time binding interactions of bacterial surface with the ECM compounds, collagen I, laminin and fibronectin. Collagen I and laminin bound to the E. coli sensor surface with dissociation and association rates ranging from 106 to 109. Binding of collagen I and laminin mixture resulted in synergistic binding signals. An inhibition model was derived using collagen-laminin as the ligand which binds with E. coli sensor. A select group of naturally occurring food additives was evaluated by determining their effectivity in inhibiting the collagen-laminin binding to the bacterial sensor. Bound collagen-laminin was detached from the E. coli sensor surface with the aid of an organic acid. The biosensor results were verified with cell aggregation assays which were observed with optical and electron microscopes. These biosensor studies provided understanding of bacterial adhesion to connective tissue macromolecules. It also provided a model system for the rapid assessment of potential inhibitors that can be used in carcass treatment to inhibit or reduce bacterial contamination.

  12. Multi-site study of additive genetic effects on fractional anisotropy of cerebral white matter: comparing meta and mega analytical approaches for data pooling

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Jahanshad, Neda; Sprooten, Emma; Nichols, Thomas E.; Mandl, René C.; Almasy, Laura; Booth, Tom; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dimitrova, Rali; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T.; Hong, L. Elliot; Landman, Bennett A.; Lemaitre, Hervé; Lopez, Lorna; Martin, Nicholas G.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Olvera, Rene L.; Peterson, Charles P.; Starr, John M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wright, Susan N.; Bastin, Mark E.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, René S.; den Braber, Anouk; de Geus, Eco JC; Deary, Ian J.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Blangero, John; van ’t Ent, Dennis; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate methods for joint-analytical analyses of rich datasets collected in imaging genetics studies. The ENIGMA-DTI consortium is developing and evaluating approaches for obtaining pooled estimates of heritability through meta-and mega-genetic analytical approaches, to estimate the general additive genetic contributions to the intersubject variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) measured from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the ENIGMA-DTI data harmonization protocol for uniform processing of DTI data from multiple sites. We evaluated this protocol in five family-based cohorts providing data from a total of 2248 children and adults (ages: 9–85) collected with various imaging protocols. We used the imaging genetics analysis tool, SOLAR-Eclipse, to combine twin and family data from Dutch, Australian and Mexican-American cohorts into one large “mega-family”. We showed that heritability estimates may vary from one cohort to another. We used two meta-analytical (the sample-size and standard-error weighted) approaches and a mega-genetic analysis to calculate heritability estimates across-population. We performed leave-one-out analysis of the joint estimates of heritability, removing a different cohort each time to understand the estimate variability. Overall, meta- and mega-genetic analyses of heritability produced robust estimates of heritability. PMID:24657781

  13. Multi-site study of additive genetic effects on fractional anisotropy of cerebral white matter: Comparing meta and megaanalytical approaches for data pooling.

    PubMed

    Kochunov, Peter; Jahanshad, Neda; Sprooten, Emma; Nichols, Thomas E; Mandl, René C; Almasy, Laura; Booth, Tom; Brouwer, Rachel M; Curran, Joanne E; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dimitrova, Rali; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Hong, L Elliot; Landman, Bennett A; Lemaitre, Hervé; Lopez, Lorna M; Martin, Nicholas G; McMahon, Katie L; Mitchell, Braxton D; Olvera, Rene L; Peterson, Charles P; Starr, John M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Toga, Arthur W; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wright, Margaret J; Wright, Susan N; Bastin, Mark E; McIntosh, Andrew M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; den Braber, Anouk; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Williamson, Douglas E; Blangero, John; van 't Ent, Dennis; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C

    2014-07-15

    Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate methods for joint-analytical analyses of rich datasets collected in imaging genetics studies. The ENIGMA-DTI consortium is developing and evaluating approaches for obtaining pooled estimates of heritability through meta-and mega-genetic analytical approaches, to estimate the general additive genetic contributions to the intersubject variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) measured from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used the ENIGMA-DTI data harmonization protocol for uniform processing of DTI data from multiple sites. We evaluated this protocol in five family-based cohorts providing data from a total of 2248 children and adults (ages: 9-85) collected with various imaging protocols. We used the imaging genetics analysis tool, SOLAR-Eclipse, to combine twin and family data from Dutch, Australian and Mexican-American cohorts into one large "mega-family". We showed that heritability estimates may vary from one cohort to another. We used two meta-analytical (the sample-size and standard-error weighted) approaches and a mega-genetic analysis to calculate heritability estimates across-population. We performed leave-one-out analysis of the joint estimates of heritability, removing a different cohort each time to understand the estimate variability. Overall, meta- and mega-genetic analyses of heritability produced robust estimates of heritability. PMID:24657781

  14. Studies on the enhancement of solid electrolyte interphase formation on graphitized anodes in LiX-carbonate based electrolytes using Lewis acid additives for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. F.; Xie, B.; Lee, H. S.; Li, H.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Huang, X. J.

    The new electrolyte systems utilizing one type of Lewis acids, the boron based anion receptors (BBARs) with LiF, Li 2O, or Li 2O 2 in carbonate solutions have been developed and reported by us. These systems open up a new approach in developing non-aqueous electrolytes with higher operating voltage and less moisture sensitivity for lithium-ion batteries. However, the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the graphitized anodes is a serious problem needs to be solved for these new electrolyte systems, especially when propylene carbonate (PC) is used as a co-solvent. Using lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) as an additives, the SEI layer formation on mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB) anode is significantly enhanced in these new electrolytes containing boron-based anion receptors, such as tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane, and lithium salt such as LiF, or lithium oxides such as Li 2O or Li 2O 2 in PC and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents. The cells using these electrolytes and MCMB anodes cycled very well and the PC co-intercalation was suppressed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show that one of the electrochemical decomposition products of LiBOB, lithium carbonate (Li 2CO 3), plays a quite important role in the stablizing SEI layer formation.

  15. Study Design and Percent Recoveries of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds With and Without the Addition of Ascorbic Acid to Preserve Water Samples Containing Free Chlorine, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  16. Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma: a clinicopathological study of seven additional cases supporting a distinctive variant with aggressive biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Lao, I Weng; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We present our experience with seven cases of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) to further characterise its clinicopathological features. There were five males and two females with ages ranging from 19 to 84 years (mean 56 years). Four tumours occurred in the somatic soft tissue, two in organs and one in the bone. The mean tumour size was 10.7 cm (range 3.5-15 cm). Histologically, six tumours were characterised by sheet-like growth of uniform epithelioid cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, high mitotic activity and moderate to abundant amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. One tumour was composed of dyscohesive cells with rhabdoid appearance embedded in a myxoid matrix. Features suggestive of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation were absent. However, immunohistochemical study revealed skeletal muscle differentiation in all cases. Of note, focal expression of epithelial markers with co-expression of neuroendocrine markers was noted in five and three cases, respectively. Of six patients with follow-up, one experienced local recurrence and three developed metastases. To date, three patients have died of disease within 14 months. This study further demonstrates that epithelioid RMS represents a distinct variant of RMS with an aggressive behaviour. It may be misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma due to co-expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers. PMID:26517641

  17. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies. PMID:22500691

  18. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide.

    PubMed

    Hase, Y

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr(3) molecule belongs to C(3v) point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 A and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105 degrees. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 (nu(5)), 150 (nu(9)) and 105 cm(-1) (nu(10)) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm(-1), respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm(-1) proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN-(10)BBr(3), HCN-(11)BBr(3), DCN-(10)BBr(3) and DCN-(11)BBr(3). PMID:19955013

  19. Theoretical study of the molecular force field and vibration analysis of the hydrogen cyanide addition compound with boron tribromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Y.

    2010-01-01

    An extensive HF, MP2, B3LYP and CCSD study of the molecular structure, force field and normal vibrations has been carried out for the hydrogen cyanide compound with boron tribromide. Most of the calculations agree that the HCN-BBr 3 molecule belongs to C3v point group and has a N-B length of 1.55-1.70 Å and a N-B-Br angle of 103-105°. These calculations also have estimated the missing low-wavenumber fundamentals in the 190 ( ν5), 150 ( ν9) and 105 cm -1 ( ν10) regions, instead of the supposed fundamentals at 207, 188 and 150 cm -1, respectively, based on the combination bands. The quantum chemical force constants, by the B3LYP/6-31G and CCSD/3-21G calculations, have been adjusted by the scaling factors to reproduce the fundamentals in the literature [3] to include the bands below 200 cm -1 proposed in this study. Normal coordinate analysis using the scaled force constants has been performed to interpret the molecular vibrations of four isotopic molecules, HCN- 10BBr 3, HCN- 11BBr 3, DCN- 10BBr 3 and DCN- 11BBr 3.

  20. Effect of Ag addition on the thermal characteristics and structural evolution of Ag-Cu-Ni ternary alloy nanoclusters: Atomistic simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2011-08-01

    Atomic-scale compositional variation in Ag contents across Ag-Cu-Ni alloy upon being subjected to repeated annealing cycles is shown to result in significant differences in the structure and the thermal stability of ternary alloy nanoclusters. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing quantum Sutton-Chen potentials were used to investigate the effect of Ag addition on the thermal characteristics of Ag-Cu-Ni ternary alloy nanoclusters of 4-nm diameter. The initial configurations were generated using Monte Carlo simulations and comprise surface-segregated structures with the lowest surface energy component, Ag, occupying low coordination sites such as corners, edges, and faces. A compositional oscillation between the Cu and Ni atoms was observed for layers beneath the surface which transitions into a bulk alloy composition at the core. We find that the Cu-Ni binary alloys on being subjected to annealing schedules demonstrated an increase in thermal stability, as indicated by the increase in melting points. The annealed configurations of the Ag-Cu-Ni ternary alloy, on the other hand, showed a nonmonotonic behavior. For Ag compositions less than 20%, we observe an initial increase in melting point followed by a decrease in the third cycle. For higher Ag compositions (>20%), we observe a decrease in melting point with annealing; the rate of decrease is strongly correlated to the Ag composition in the alloy. Cu-Ni nanoclusters having 50% Cu showed a transition from an initial icosahedral to a cuboctahedron-like structure whereas Ag-rich Ag-Cu-Ni ternary alloys showed a transition from icosahedral to an amorphous structure. Compositional analysis based on radial distribution functions and density profiles indicate that these transitions were dependent on the distribution of the alloying elements in the nanocluster. Calculated root-mean-square displacements and diffusion coefficients indicate that the rate of mixing of Ag increases with Ag content in the Ag