Science.gov

Sample records for additional studies utilizing

  1. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... revising the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  2. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  3. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  4. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  5. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  6. An Additive-Utility Model of Delay Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Goods remote in temporal, spatial, or social distance, or in likelihood, exert less control over our behavior than those more proximate. The decay of influence with distance, of perennial interest to behavioral economists, has had a renaissance in the study of delay discounting. By developing discount functions from marginal utilities, this…

  7. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  8. Fabrication of Flex Joint Utilizing Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) manufacturing technique has been utilized in the manufacture of a flex joint typical of those found in rocket engine and main propulsion system ducting. The SLM process allowed for the combination of parts that are typically machined separately and welded together. This resulted in roughly a 65% reduction of the total number of parts, roughly 70% reduction in the total number of welds, and an estimated 60% reduction in the number of machining operations. The majority of the new design was in three SLM pieces. These pieces, as well as a few traditionally fabricated parts, were assembled into a complete unit, which has been pressure tested. The design and planned cryogenic testing of the unit will be presented.

  9. Space platform utilities distribution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1980-01-01

    Generic concepts for the installation of power data and thermal fluid distribution lines on large space platforms were discussed. Connections with central utility subsystem modules and pallet interfaces were also considered. Three system concept study platforms were used as basepoints for the detail development. The tradeoff of high voltage low voltage power distribution and the impact of fiber optics as a data distribution mechanism were analyzed. Thermal expansion and temperature control of utility lines and ducts were considered. Technology developments required for implementation of the generic distribution concepts were identified.

  10. Administrative Utility Analysis: Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    This document summarizes the recommendations made as a result of a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for Puerto Rico. The major recommendation was that the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education be restructured at the central organizational level, for…

  11. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S.

  12. Carbon source utilization profiles suggest additional metabolic interactions in a synergistic linuron-degrading bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Benjamin; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    A bacterial triple-species consortium that synergistically metabolizes the phenylurea herbicide linuron was studied to determine whether synergy is extended toward the metabolism of other C-sources. The metabolic performance and range of the individual consortium members were compared with those of paired and three-species combinations in Biolog GN2 MicroPlate assays. The strain combinations showed an increase in the rate and extent of utilization of 80% of the C-sources that were utilized by either one or more of the individual consortium members and the additional utilization of eight C-sources for which oxidation was not observed for the individual strains. When one of the three strains was replaced by bacterial strains 'foreign' to the consortium, either belonging to the same genus or to other genera, mainly antagonistic effects occurred. The data suggest that the consortium members cooperate in the metabolism of C-sources in addition to linuron. This feature can contribute in consolidating consortium composition when linuron is absent or present at low concentrations.

  13. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  14. Utility robotic planning: case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.; Travato, S.A.; Irving, T.L.; Patnaude, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Currently, the utility use of robotic devices is most appropriate in nuclear power plants. Four utilities are currently approaching the task of robotic applications. The planning program of each of the utilities is discussed. The following similarities of approach are noted: Plant operating personnel are surveyed for application ideas, and a company task force is established involving these personnel to determine specific application needs and cost-benefit. The state-of-the-art of various robotic devices is evaluated and selected equipment is tested in existing plants. The robotic experience gained from nuclear plant applications is extended to other non-nuclear areas. 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    The conjugate addition reaction has been a useful tool in the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. The utility of this reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of many natural products, materials, and pharmacological agents. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in the development of asymmetric variants of this reaction. Unfortunately, conjugate addition reactions using α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams remain underdeveloped due to their inherently low reactivity. This review highlights the work that has been done on both diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams.

  16. Diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The conjugate addition reaction has been a useful tool in the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The utility of this reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of many natural products, materials, and pharmacological agents. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in the development of asymmetric variants of this reaction. Unfortunately, conjugate addition reactions using α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams remain underdeveloped due to their inherently low reactivity. This review highlights the work that has been done on both diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams. PMID:25977728

  17. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN < 0.5 mg/L, NO2(-) < 0.1 mg/L), which demonstrated that both the NA and FG could provide non-toxic water environment for fish culture. Nitrous oxide conversion ratio of the control, NA, and FG were 0.8, 1.2, and 1.7%, respectively, indicating that media-based aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics.

  18. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite's tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  19. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  20. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  2. Iron utilization studies in Citrobacter species.

    PubMed

    Khashe, S; Janda, J M

    1996-04-01

    Seventy-one strains of Citrobacter were screened for iron scavenging mechanisms by biologic and chemical assays. Essentially all citrobacteria (70/71) were found to elaborate enterobactin-like siderophores by both biologic and chemical assays, however only c. koseri (C. diversus) was found to produce aerobactin. The concentration of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDA) required to inhibit the growth of individual Citrobacter strains by depleting free iron ranged from 250 micrograms/ml to 100 micrograms/ml. Iron utilization studies of selected citrobacter isolates indicated that hemin and hematin could reverse the effects of iron limitation on growth under iron-stressed conditions (1000 micrograms/ml of EDDA). Two C. koseri strains grown under iron-restricted conditions showed similar changes in their whole cell protein profiles including induction of high molecular mass proteins (72-83 kDa) which may play a role in iron acquisition under iron-stressed conditions. The collective results support an additional virulence-associated mechanism for C. koseri strains which may help explain the greater pathogenic potential this group has for causing serious extraintestinal disease in humans.

  3. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  4. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  5. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  6. Utility of AIRS Retrievals for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Guyla I.; Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Satellites provide an ideal platform to study the Earth-atmosphere system on practically all spatial and temporal scales. Thus, one may expect that their rapidly growing datasets could provide crucial insights not only for short-term weather processes/predictions but into ongoing and future climate change processes as well. Though Earth-observing satellites have been around for decades, extracting climatically reliable information from their widely varying datasets faces rather formidable challenges. AIRS/AMSU is a state of the art infrared/microwave sounding system that was launched on the EOS Aqua platform on May 4, 2002, and has been providing operational quality measurements since September 2002. In addition to temperature and atmospheric constituent profiles, outgoing longwave radiation and basic cloud parameters are also derived from the AIRS/AMSU observations. However, so far the AIRS products have not been rigorously evaluated and/or validated on a large scale. Here we present preliminary assessments of monthly and 8-day mean AIRS "Version 4.0" retrieved products (available to the public through the DAAC at NASA/GSFC) to assess their utility for climate studies. First we present "consistency checks" by evaluating the time series of means, and "anomalies" (relative to the first 4 full years' worth of AIRS "climate statistics") of several climatically important retrieved parameters. Finally, we also present preliminary results regarding interrelationships of some of these geophysical variables, to assess to what extent they are consistent with the known physics of climate variability/change. In particular, we find at least one observed relationship which contradicts current general circulation climate (GCM) model results: the global water vapor climate feedback which is expected to be strongly positive is deduced to be slightly negative (shades of the "Lindzen effect"?). Though the current AIRS climatology covers only -4.5 years, it will hopefully extend much

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Modeling the impact of paste additives and pellet geometry on paste utilization within lead acid batteries during low rate discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargonen, Muhammed M.

    2015-01-01

    When designing a lead acid battery, there are many factors to consider in order to obtain the best compromise of cost, performance, and ease of manufacturability. We use a modeling approach to study some of the key factors which affect the amount of active material which can be utilized during a low rate discharge. We investigate the effects of pellet size, pellet geometry, disconnected grid mesh borders, and inert paste additives. Furthermore, we look at how the internal path length resistance within a pellet is dependent on those features. Our findings correlate well with earlier works, and help to explain some of the previously observed phenomenon. It is observed that utilization is indeed affected by pellet size, but small grid mesh sizes on the order of ∼4 mm edge lengths are necessary in order to realize a significant benefit. Utilization is presented as a function of pellet size, aspect ratio of the pellets, and the loading level of the inert additives in the pellets up to ten percent by volume.

  9. Utilizing a Collaborative Cross Number Puzzle Game to Develop the Computing Ability of Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Looi, Chee-Kit; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Shao, Yin-Juan; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    While addition and subtraction is a key mathematical skill for young children, a typical activity for them in classrooms involves doing repetitive arithmetic calculation exercises. In this study, we explore a collaborative way for students to learn these skills in a technology-enabled way with wireless computers. Two classes, comprising a total of…

  10. Learning and Recovering Additive and Multiplicative Value Functions: A Criterion Validation of Multiattribute Utility Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    multiattribute value functions. Operations Research, 1979, 27, 810-822. Fishburn, P. Utility theory for decision making. New York: Wiley, 1970...Psychology, 1980, 21, 66-82. v. Winterfeldt, D. and Fischer, G.W. Multiattribute utility theory : models and assessment procedres. In D. Wendt and...plicative value functions: A criterion _____________ validation of multiattribute utility 6. 7EPPORMING ONG. RgPeR? NUgMBER techn iclues 82-1 AijWOR*JS

  11. Defining personal utility in genomics: A Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Kohler, J; Turbitt, E; Lewis, K L; Wilfond, B S; Jamal, L; Peay, H L; Biesecker, L G; Biesecker, B B

    2017-02-20

    Individual genome sequencing results are valued by patients in ways distinct from clinical utility. Such outcomes have been described as components of "personal utility," a concept that broadly encompasses patient-endorsed benefits, that is operationally defined as non-clinical outcomes. No empirical delineation of these outcomes has been reported. To address this gap, we administered a Delphi survey to adult participants in a NIH clinical exome study to extract the most highly endorsed outcomes constituting personal utility. Forty research participants responded to a Delphi survey to rate 35 items identified by a systematic literature review of personal utility. Two rounds of ranking resulted in 24 items that represented 14 distinct elements of personal utility. Elements most highly endorsed by participants were: increased self-knowledge, knowledge of "the condition," altruism, and anticipated coping. Our findings represent the first systematic effort to delineate elements of personal utility that may be used to anticipate participant expectation and inform genetic counseling prior to sequencing. The 24 items reported need to be studied further in additional clinical genome sequencing studies to assess generalizability in other populations. Further research will help to understand motivations and to predict the meaning and use of results.

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  13. On the asymptotic improvement of supervised learning by utilizing additional unlabeled samples - Normal mixture density case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.

  14. Counterobstacle Vehicle (COV) Utility Study. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    COUNTEROBSTACLE VEHICLE (COY) UTILITY STUDY (’V) FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT CD NRC Report Number 136 ’Va- , . 6 00 McLEAN rESEARCH CENTER, INC...- 1483 Chain...BELVOIR RESEARCH , DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING CENTER I " 4 . p N) By .........- -- R. Carpenter, N. Romstedt, et al. " -McLean Research Center 1483 Chain...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable)McLean Research Center, Inc. N/A 6C. ADDRESS (Cty. State, and ZIP

  15. Utility of enzymes from Fibrobacter succinogenes and Prevotella ruminicola as detergent additives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Yuan; Wang, Han-Tsung

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the application of cellulase and protease purified from rumen bacteria as detergent additives. Cellulase and protease were purified from the rumen cellulytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, and Prevotella ruminicola 23, respectively. An inhibitor test indicated that the purified protease belongs to the category of serine proteases and metalloproteases. Both the enzymes were effective at a high temperature (50 degrees C) and neutral pH (pH 7-8), but the protease activity increased with the increase in temperature and pH. The purified protease was treated with ten types of surfactants/detergents; it was found to retain over 60% of its activity in the presence of anionic and nonionic detergents. The cellulose plus protease combination was still effective after treatment with Triton X-100 and Tween 80, but the residual activity was low after treatment with Tween 20 than that after treatment with other nonionic detergents. Washing tests indicated that enzyme addition produced no significant improvement in the removal of grass stains, but individual enzyme addition in surfactants/detergents, especially in nonionic detergents, could improve the washing performance of the detergents by improving its ability to remove blood stains. This suggested that the surfactant/detergent class, enzyme properties, and the mixing ratio of ingredients should be considered simultaneously to enhance the washing performance.

  16. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  17. Case studies in electric utility competition litigation

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

  18. Capacity Utilization Study for Aviation Security Cargo Inspection Queuing System

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E; Brumback, Daryl L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct performance evaluation study for an aviation security cargo inspection queuing system for material flow and accountability. The queuing model employed in our study is based on discrete-event simulation and processes various types of cargo simultaneously. Onsite measurements are collected in an airport facility to validate the queuing model. The overall performance of the aviation security cargo inspection system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, throughput, capacity utilization, subscribed capacity utilization, resources capacity utilization, subscribed resources capacity utilization, and number of cargo pieces (or pallets) in the different queues. These metrics are performance indicators of the system s ability to service current needs and response capacity to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as number of pieces per pallet, number of TSA inspectors and ATS personnel, number of forklifts, number of explosives trace detection (ETD) and explosives detection system (EDS) inspection machines, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures should reduce the overall cost and shipping delays associated with new inspection requirements.

  19. Capacity utilization study for aviation security cargo inspection queuing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Olama, Mohammed M.; Lake, Joe E.; Brumback, Daryl

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we conduct performance evaluation study for an aviation security cargo inspection queuing system for material flow and accountability. The queuing model employed in our study is based on discrete-event simulation and processes various types of cargo simultaneously. Onsite measurements are collected in an airport facility to validate the queuing model. The overall performance of the aviation security cargo inspection system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, throughput, capacity utilization, subscribed capacity utilization, resources capacity utilization, subscribed resources capacity utilization, and number of cargo pieces (or pallets) in the different queues. These metrics are performance indicators of the system's ability to service current needs and response capacity to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as number of pieces per pallet, number of TSA inspectors and ATS personnel, number of forklifts, number of explosives trace detection (ETD) and explosives detection system (EDS) inspection machines, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures should reduce the overall cost and shipping delays associated with new inspection requirements.

  20. One-step, low-temperature deposited perovskite solar cell utilizing small molecule additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Hong, Zirou; Li, Gang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the perovskite absorber (CH3NH3PbI3) is processed via one-step deposition employing the small molecule additive, BmPyPhB, which can be dissolved in dimethylformamide along with precursors. Here, 1,3-Bis[3,5-di(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl]benzene (BmPyPhB) functions as the morphology controller to introduce an intermediate phase during perovskite film growth, which allows well-defined and precrystallized domains formed before the annealing treatment. Furthermore, a chloroform solvent wash procedure is applied afterward to remove BmPyPhB from perovskite without damaging the predetermined morphology. Thus, postannealing as low as 100°C for 5 min can achieve the optimal power conversion efficiency of 8% in a planar-structured inverted solar cell.

  1. [Effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer additive on rice yield and rice plant nitrogen uptake, translocation, and utilization].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Yong-qiu; Yang, Xiao-yun; Guo, Miao; Yan, Xiao-yuan

    2011-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of southern Jiangsu to study the effects of applying nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilizer additive on the rice yield and the rice plant N uptake, translocation, and utilization. Applying N fertilizer had significant positive effects on the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N at all growth stages and at each growth stage, and N translocation rate after anthesis (P < 0.01). However, when the N application rate exceeded 200 kg x hm(-2), its yield-increasing effect was not significant (P > 0.05). The N translocation rate after anthesis and the N fertilizer use efficiency decreased with increasing N application rate. Applying fertilizer additive further improved the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N, N translocation rate after anthesis, and N fertilizer use efficiency, and this effect was more evident when the N application rate was equal to or greater than 200 kg x hm(-2). Relatively high rice yield and N use efficiency were achieved when applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N fertilizer without the application of fertilizer additive.

  2. Utilization of purified cellulose in fiber studies.

    PubMed

    Penner, M H; Liaw, E T

    1990-01-01

    Purified cellulose-type fiber products are widely used in experimental nutrition. Their use in a broad spectrum of studies may potentially lead to the acceptance of the misconception that the various commercially available cellulose products are equivalent. In this paper we have attempted to show that this is not the case. The comparative structural data of Table 2 and the compositional data of Olsen et al provide examples which indicate that purified cellulose preparations should not necessarily be considered equivalent. Unfortunately, our current lack of understanding of how fibers are metabolized and how they may affect specific physiological parameters makes it difficult to determine which, if any, of the measurable structural and chemical properties will be of relevance for a given in vivo study. At present, it appears that researchers utilizing/evaluating the consequences of consuming a purified cellulose-type fiber would be prudent to provide at least a limited amount of data on the properties of the cellulose preparation used in their studies. The characterization of the cellulose product may be done by a variety of methods depending on the expertise of the laboratory. The methods and results discussed in this paper provide an example of the type of information which may be obtained from an in vitro characterization of cellulose products.

  3. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  4. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  5. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  6. Space Station RT and E Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, P. K.; Anderson, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Descriptive information on a set of 241 mission concepts was reviewed to establish preliminary Space Station outfitting needs for technology development missions. The missions studied covered the full range of in-space technology development activities envisioned for early Space Station operations and included both pressurized volume and attached payload requirements. Equipment needs were compared with outfitting plans for the life sciences and microgravity user communities, and a number of potential outfitting additions were identified. Outfitting implementation was addressed by selecting a strawman mission complement for each of seven technical themes, by organizing the missions into flight scenarios, and by assessing the associated outfitting buildup for planning impacts.

  7. Study of Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, T. E.; Huber, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an engineering study of potential energy saving utility system modifications for the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are presented. The objective of the study was to define and analyze utility options that would provide facility energy savings in addition to the approximately 25 percent already achieved through an energy loads reduction program. A systems engineering approach was used to determine total system energy and cost savings resulting from each of the ten major options investigated. The results reported include detailed cost analyses and cost comparisons of various options. Cost are projected to the year 2000. Also included are a brief description of a mathematical model used for the analysis and the rationale used for a site survey to select buildings suitable for analysis.

  8. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  9. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into

  10. Sinabung Volcanic Ash Utilization As The Additive for Paving Block Quality A and B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembiring, I. S.; Hastuty, I. P.

    2017-03-01

    Paving block is one of the building materials used as the top layer of the road structure besides asphalt and concrete. Paving block is made of mixed materials such as portland cement or other adhesive materials, water and aggregate. In this research, the material used as the additive of cement and concrete is volcanic ash from Mount Sinabung, it is based on the results of the material testing, Sinabung ash contains 74.3% silica (SiO2). The purpose of this research aims to analyze the behavior of the paving blocks quality A and B with and without a mixture of Sinabung ash, to analyze the workability of fresh concrete using Sinabung ash as an additive in concrete, and to compare the test results of paving blocks with and without using Sinabung ash. The samples that we made consist of four variations of the concrete mix to experiment a mixture of normal sample without additive, samples which are mixed with the addition of Sinabung ash 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the volume of concrete/m3. Each variation consists of 10 samples of the concrete with 28 days curing time period. We will do the compressive strength and water absorption test to the samples to determine whether the samples are in accordance with the type needed. According to the test result, paving blocks with Sinabung ash and curing time reach quality A at 0%, 5% and 10% mixture with the compressive strength of each 50.14 MPa, 46.20 MPa and 1.49Mpa, and reach quality B at 15%, 20 %,25% mixture with curing time and 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% mixture without curing time. According to the absorption values we got from the test which are 6.66%, 6.73%, 6.88%, 7.03%, 7.09% and 7.16%, the entire sample have average absorption exceeding SNI standardization which is above 6% and reach quality C. Based on compressive strength and absorption data obtained Sinabung ash can’t fully replace cement as the binder because of the low CaO content.

  11. Nonthermal plasma processor utilizing additive-gas injection and/or gas extraction

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2006-06-20

    A device for processing gases includes a cylindrical housing in which an electrically grounded, metal injection/extraction gas supply tube is disposed. A dielectric tube surrounds the injection/extraction gas supply tube to establish a gas modification passage therearound. Additionally, a metal high voltage electrode circumscribes the dielectric tube. The high voltage electrode is energizable to create nonthermal electrical microdischarges between the high voltage electrode and the injection/extraction gas supply tube across the dielectric tube within the gas modification passage. An injection/extraction gas and a process gas flow through the nonthermal electrical microdischarges within the gas modification passage and a modified process gas results. Using the device contaminants that are entrained in the process gas can be destroyed to yield a cleaner, modified process gas.

  12. Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guozhi; Zhang, Ting-An; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanxiu; Guo, Fangfang; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zheng, Chaozhen

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a calcification-carbonation method is proposed to change the equilibrium structure of red mud produced from the Bayer process. The thermodynamics of both calcification and carbonation processes has been elucidated. In addition, the non-isothermal kinetics involved in the calcification process and the effects of different parameters on the hydrogarnet synthesis and carbonation decomposition are experimentally investigated using pure reagents. The results indicate that through a two-step carbonation treatment of calcified slag by the new method, the mass ratio of alumina to silica ( A/S) of the modified red mud has decreased to 0.44 and the Na2O content drops to 0.12 wt.% at the carbonation temperature of 120°C under the CO2 pressure of 1.2 MPa. The newly modified red mud could be directly used in the cement industry.

  13. Utilization of municipal sewage sludge as additives for the production of eco-cement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiming; Zhou, Shaoqi; Li, Fuzhen; Lin, Yixiao

    2012-04-30

    The effects of using dried sewage sludge as additive on cement property in the process of clinker burning were investigated in this paper. The eco-cement samples were prepared by adding 0.50-15.0% of dried sewage sludge to unit raw meal, and then the mixtures were burned at 1450 °C for 2 h. The results indicated that the major components in the eco-cement clinkers were similar to those in ordinary Portland cement. Although the C(2)S phase formation increased with the increase of sewage sludge content, it was also found that the microstructure of the mixture containing 15.0% sewage sludge in raw meal was significantly different and that a larger amount of pores were distributed in the clinker. Moreover, all the eco-cement pastes had a longer initial setting time and final setting time than those of plain cement paste, which increased as the sewage sludge content in the raw meal increased. All the eco-cement pastes had lower early flexural strengths, which increased as the sewage sludge content increased, while the compressive strengths decreased slightly. However, this had no significant effect on all the strengths at later stages. Furthermore, the leaching concentrations of all the types of eco-cement clinkers met the standard of Chinese current regulatory thresholds.

  14. Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Niti; Rai, A.K.; Kumari, Ratna; Bhat, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value. PMID:25125886

  15. Optimal utilization of non-additive quantitative trait locus in animal breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Van der Werf, J H J; Kinghorn, B P

    2008-10-01

    Optimal selection on a single identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) with four modes of inheritance: normal autosomal, sex-limited, imprinting and X-linked, was evaluated in four breeding structures: single line selection (SLS), two-way crossing (2WC), three-way crossing (3WC) and reciprocal crossing (RC) by comparing extra benefit from mate selection over index selection to demonstrate effectiveness of mate selection in exploiting non-additive QTL. The results showed that the superiority varied at different QTL inheritance modes, initial favourable allele frequencies and breeding structures. The superiority tended to decrease with the increase of the favourable allele frequency except for over-dominant QTL and imprinted QTL in all breeding structures. Less superiority (below 9%) was observed for a recessive and a fully dominant QTL than for an over-dominant QTL (up to 27.11%). Normal autosomal and sex-linked QTL led to a similar trend of superiority from mate selection but the magnitude of the superiority with the latter was slightly higher than with the former for most combinations of the parameters. A high superiority (6.41-41.54%) was observed from mate selection over index selection for an imprinted QTL. A maternally imprinted QTL tended to lead to higher superiority from mate selection than a paternally imprinted QTL. X-linked QTL led to less superiority from mate selection than the other modes of QTL. A larger superiority from mate selection was observed for a recessive and a fully dominant QTL in structures 3WC and 2WC than structures RC and SLS. The superiority from autosomal QTL and X-linked QTL was lower in the structure RC than in other structures examined.

  16. The DoD Laboratory Utilization Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-28

    0 04) t C &4 0j w.0 m~i 0 4) 4) in - 4-. ~ I I-. u~ *1 0 1 0 0 S. 4 0 - V; 0)0 0. 4) ’U U C)I~ U : ’U’U ’ EUQ en 0 "U I0 0U 0 U - 0 u-0 00 a .4 0 10...COVERED 6 The DoD Laboratory’ Utilization" td in],tet C)John L./A.Uen., Rodney E nhmDonald B W’chols / 9. PERFORMING, ’NRGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10

  17. Fundamental Study of Low NOx Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    E. M. Suubert; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R.H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

    1997-05-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  18. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  19. Role of UCG in maximizing coal utilization: site specific study

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, J. K.; Love, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to develop a planning scheme for improving the utilization of coal deposits. This prototype study, called Total Economic Coal Utilization (TECU), is being applied to specific coal reserves within the Centralia-Chehalis District of Washington State. A significant aspect of the study is to determine the potential role for in situ gasification in maximizing the energy recovery and use. The results obtained indicate that UCG could be used to realize a sizeable increase in the amount of energy that can be economically recovered from the District. Since UCG technology has not reached the commercialization stage, some significant assumptions had to be made for this study. These are that the in situ process will work reliably and that product gas cleanup will proceed without major problems. However, if these conditions are met, this assessment indicates that in situ coal gasification could increase the extractable energy from Washington's Centralia-Chehalis coal deposits by a substantial amount and that this additional energy could be accessed at reasonable cost.

  20. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  1. Market feasibility study of utility battery applications: Penetration of battery energy storage into regulated electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Kraft, S.; Symons, P.C.

    1997-12-01

    Although recent studies indicate there could be significant opportunities for battery systems in electric utility applications, markets for this and other dispersed energy storage technologies have been slow to develop. Prior analyses had suggested that the slow market development has resulted from reluctance to make the necessary investments on the part of both suppliers and customers. In order to confirm this and other concerns over the utility energy storage market, an assessment has been performed to estimate the potential penetration of batteries into regulated electric utilities. The estimates thus obtained confirm that the possible market for batteries on the utility side of the meter, approximately $280 million annually in 2010, is indeed smaller than indicated by the assessment of potential opportunities had suggested it might be. On the other hand, the estimates for possible market penetration on the customer side of the meter are greater than on the utility-side, particularly in the nearer-term. Of more importance than the numeric results, however, are the comments given by potential customers of utility battery energy storage, and the conclusions regarding ways to increase the attractiveness of utility battery energy storage that result from analyses of these comments.

  2. A study of critical thinking and research utilization among nurses.

    PubMed

    Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Hesketh, Kathryn L; Lang, Sarah; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that critical thinking influences research utilization; however, empirical support for the link between critical thinking dispositions and research utilization is nonexistent. In this article, critical thinking dispositions and research utilization habits are detailed, and the relationship of critical thinking dispositions to research utilization in a sample of 141 nurses working on two acute surgical units and five pediatric units in four tertiary care hospitals are examined. Results indicate a significant positive correlation between the total critical thinking disposition score and overall research utilization. Overall critical thinking disposition correlates significantly with all forms of research utilization, with the exception of symbolic research utilization. These findings indicate a need to foster critical thinking in both nursing education and the work environment.

  3. Paralegal Studies Program. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Doris D.

    A program developed a paralegal studies program for Delaware County Community College in the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) metropolitan area. Activities included gathering of information on paralegal studies as it related to curriculum content; advisory group establishment; curriculum development; training/educational material development; and…

  4. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  5. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  6. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. )

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  7. Utilization of deep eutectic solvents as novel mobile phase additives for improving the separation of bioactive quaternary alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Zhang, Mingliang; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as novel mobile phase additives to improve chromatographic separation of four quaternary alkaloids including coptisine chloride, sanguinarine, berberine chloride and chelerythrine on a C18 column. DESs as a new class of ionic liquids are renewably sourced, environmentally benign, low cost and easy to prepare. Seven DESs were obtained by mixing different hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. The effects of organic solvents, the concentration of DESs, the types of DESs and the pH values of the buffer solution on the separation of the analytes were investigated. The composition of acetonitrile and 1.0% deep eutectic solvents aqueous solution (pH 3.3, adjusted with hydrochloric acid) in a 32:68 (v/v) ratio was used as optimized mobile phase, with which four quaternary alkaloids were well separated. When a small amount of DESs was added in the mobile phase for the separation of alkaloids on the C18 column, noticeable improvements were distinctly observed such as decreasing peak tailing and improving resolution. The separation mechanism mediated by DESs as mobile phase additives can be attributed to combined effect of both hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. For example, choline chloride can effectively cover the residual silanols on silica surface and ethylene glycol can reduce the retention time of analytes. The proposed method has been applied to determine BerbC in Lanqin Chinese herbal oral solution and BerbC tablet. Utilization of DESs in mobile phase can efficiently improve separation and selectivity of analytes from complex samples.

  8. Community-Based Health Education Programs Designed to Improve Clinical Measures Are Unlikely to Reduce Short-Term Costs or Utilization Without Additional Features Targeting These Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burton, Joe; Eggleston, Barry; Brenner, Jeffrey; Truchil, Aaron; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-07

    Stakeholders often expect programs for persons with chronic conditions to "bend the cost curve." This study assessed whether a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program offered as part of a multicomponent initiative could affect emergency department (ED) visits, hospital stays, and the associated costs for an underserved population in addition to the clinical indicators that DSME programs attempt to improve. The program was implemented in Camden, New Jersey, by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers to address disparities in diabetes care. Data used are from medical records and from patient-level information about hospital services from Camden's hospitals. Using multivariate regression models to control for individual characteristics, changes in utilization over time and changes relative to 2 comparison groups were assessed. No reductions in ED visits, inpatient stays, or costs for participants were found over time or relative to the comparison groups. High utilization rates and costs for diabetes are associated with longer term disease progression and its sequelae; thus, DSME or peer support may not affect these in the near term. Some clinical indicators improved among participants, and these might lead to fewer costly adverse health events in the future. DSME deployed at the community level, without explicit segmentation and targeting of high health care utilizers or without components designed to affect costs and utilization, should not be expected to reduce short-term medical needs for participating individuals or care-seeking behaviors such that utilization is reduced. Stakeholders must include financial outcomes in a program's design if those outcomes are to improve. (Population Health Management 20XX;XX:XXX-XXX).

  9. Feasibility Study for a Hopi Utility-Scale Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick Lomayestewa

    2011-05-31

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility for the generation of energy from wind and to parallel this work with the development of a tribal utility organization capable of undertaking potential joint ventures in utility businesses and projects on the Hopi reservation. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility for the generation of energy from wind and to parallel this work with the development of a tribal utility organization capable of undertaking potential joint ventures in utility businesses and projects on the Hopi reservation. Wind resource assessments were conducted at two study sites on Hopi fee simple lands located south of the city of Winslow. Reports from the study were recently completed and have not been compared to any existing historical wind data nor have they been processed under any wind assessment models to determine the output performance and the project economics of turbines at the wind study sites. Ongoing analysis of the wind data and project modeling will determine the feasibility of a tribal utility-scale wind energy generation.

  10. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  11. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  12. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  13. Studies on effective utilization of precipitates from neutralized mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Taneomi

    1995-12-31

    Mine drainage has high acidity and sometimes contains more than the allowable concentration of ionized iron. In such a case, mine drainage is neutralized with calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide to separate precipitates, such as the iron hydroxide and gypsum generated. Currently, most of these precipitates are not utilized and are accumulated in tailing dams. As a result, the service life of the tailing dams is reduced. This becomes a matter of concern, since securing sites for such dams is difficult. A most effective means of solving this problem would be to promote utilization of these neutralized precipitates. This paper reports on the results of studies on neutralized precipitates produced at the old Matsuo Mine (Iwate Prefecture), which has the largest neutralization treatment facility in Japan. As a result of the studies, the following was proposed regarding application of neutralized precipitates. Utilization as ferrite: mix ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide in water to synthesize magnetite-like ferrite, to be used in the manufacture of magnetic markers for a mobility support system for blind pedestrians, or in producing magnetic fluids for sink-and-float separation of nonmagnetic metals and nonmetals. Utilization as hematite: bake ferric hydroxide to produce hematite, thereby extracting metallic iron for paint pigment as well as for the manufacture of ironware by local industry. Production of aluminum sulfate: precipitate aluminum ions from water and add sulfuric acid to produce aluminum sulfate.

  14. Socioeconomic factors, morbidity and drug utilization--an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Henricson, K; Stenberg, P; Rametsteiner, G; Ranstam, J; Hanson, B S; Melander, A

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relations between demographic and socioeconomic factors, morbidity and the utilization of major drug groups in an urban Swedish population. The study was performed as an ecological analysis during November 1991 in the 17 different districts of Malmö, the third largest Swedish city (235,000 inhabitants). The material comprised 86,228 ACT-coded drug items which corresponded to 76% of all prescriptions dispensed during the study month. Of these, 43,032, dispensed to patients aged 15-64 years, were analysed in the present work. Age standardized drug utilization was expressed as the number of dispensed Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day. Morbidity was measured in terms of reimbursed days on sick leave. The sociodemographic parameters used were socioeconomic status (SES), employment rate, median income per family, households on social allowance, and ethnicity. For four of the five major pharmacological groups (ATC-groups A, C, J, N and R, i.e. alimentation, circulation, infectious diseases, nervous system and respiration), most pronouncedly group N and least so group R, utilization correlated positively with not only the extent of morbidity but also with an unfavourable socioeconomic situation, high proportion of immigrants, and households on social allowance or with low income and/or with a low employment rate. The utilization of antibiotics (group J), however, instead correlated negatively with these parameters. For all five drug groups, these trends were similar among men and women, albeit with varying strength. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors may have a profound influence on the utilization of several major drug groups. At least in the case of antibiotics, the consequence of this influence is irrational drug use.

  15. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U; Slotwinski, John

    2016-03-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST's experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed.

  16. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  17. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested.

  18. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  20. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  1. Patterns of healthcare utilization by COPD severity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Joo, Min J; Lee, Todd A; Bartle, Brian; van de Graaff, William B; Weiss, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines recently removed stage 0, a group with symptoms but without airways obstruction, from their severity staging. However, in practice this group may still be diagnosed and medically managed. The aim of this study was to characterize healthcare utilization patterns of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients by disease severity, focusing on the possible unique attributes of patients who would have been classified as GOLD stage 0. This is a prospective cohort pilot study performed at the Hines Veterans Administration Hospital. One hundred twenty patients with a diagnosis of COPD were enrolled. The participants completed quality-of-life questionnaires and a pulmonary function test. Healthcare utilization data were obtained 1 year prior and 2 years after the enrollment date. Three disease severity groups were defined based on GOLD criteria for comparison [GOLD stage 1-2 (GS 1-2), GOLD stage 3-4 (GS 3-4), and formerly GOLD stage 0 ("at risk")]. The "at risk" group had an average of 14.4 (SD = 30.5) outpatient visits/year and 0.3 (SD = 0.8) hospitalizations/year, which were higher than the other groups, but this was not statistically significant. Respiratory medications were used by 6 (26%), 30 (59%), and 40 (91%) patients from "at risk" to GS 3-4, respectively. Patients in the "at risk" group had a decrement in health status, significant utilization of healthcare services, and were often receiving medications not consistent with guidelines.

  2. Technology Utilization House Study Report. [For Energy Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of Project TECH are: (1) to construct a single family detached dwelling for demonstrating the application of advanced technology and minimizing the requirement for energy and utility services, and (2) to help influence future development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water management systems with building configuration and construction materials. Components and methods expected to be cost effective over a 20 year span were studied. Emphasis was placed on the utilization of natural heating and cooling characteristics. Orientation and location of windows, landscaping, natural ventilation, and characteristics of the local climate and microclimate were intended to be used to best advantage. Energy conserving homes are most efficient when design for specific sites, therefore project TECH should not be considered a prototype design suitable for all locations. However, it does provide ideas and analytical methods which can be applied to some degree in all housing.

  3. Utilization of Bacillus sp. strain TAT105 as a biological additive to reduce ammonia emissions during composting of swine feces.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Waki, Miyoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Akihiro; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain TAT105 is a thermophilic, ammonium-tolerant bacterium that grows assimilating ammonium nitrogen and reduces ammonia emission during composting of swine feces. To develop a practical use of TAT105, a dried solid culture of TAT105 (5.3 × 10(9) CFU/g of dry matter) was prepared as an additive. It could be stored for one year without significant reduction of TAT105. Laboratory-scale composting of swine feces was conducted by mixing the additive. When the additive, mixed with an equal weight of water one day before use, was added to obtain a TAT105 concentration of above 10(7) CFU/g of dry matter in the initial material, the ammonia concentration emitted was lower and nitrogen loss was approximately 22% lower in the treatment with the additive than in the control treatment without the additive. The colony formation on an agar medium containing high ammonium could be used for enumeration of TAT105 in the composted materials.

  4. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, R G; Hegedus, S S; Podraza, N J

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both CSi and Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  5. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  6. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  7. Guidelines for Planning in Colleges and Universities. Volume 5: Physical Plant Planning, Utilities Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Charles; Wacholder, Michael

    The fifth and final volume of a series concerned with higher educational facilities planning expands the discussion of the utilities planning process initiated in the overview of volume one. Three major classes of utilities--energy utilities, service utilities, and communications utilities are studied. Their influences on the overall physical…

  8. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  9. Mechanistic and inhibition studies of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kerbarh, O; Bulloch, E M M; Payne, R J; Sahr, T; Rébeillé, F; Abell, C

    2005-08-01

    The shikimate biosynthetic pathway is utilized in algae, higher plants, bacteria, fungi and apicomplexan parasites; it involves seven enzymatic steps in which phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate are converted into chorismate. In Escherichia coli, five chorismate-utilizing enzymes catalyse the synthesis of aromatic compounds such as L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, folate, ubiquinone and siderophores such as yersiniabactin and enterobactin. As mammals do not possess such a biosynthetic system, the enzymes involved in the pathway have aroused considerable interest as potential targets for the development of antimicrobial drugs and herbicides. As an initiative to investigate the mechanism of some of these enzymes, we showed that the antimicrobial effect of (6S)-6-fluoroshikimate is the result of irreversible inhibition of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase by 2-fluorochorismate. Based on this study, a catalytic mechanism for this enzyme was proposed, in which the residue Lys-274 is involved in the formation of a covalent intermediate. In another study, Yersinia enterocolitica Irp9, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin, was for the first time biochemically characterized and shown to catalyse the formation of salicylate from chorismate via isochorismate as a reaction intermediate. A three-dimensional model for this enzyme was constructed that will guide the search for potent inhibitors of salicylate formation, and hence of bacterial iron uptake.

  10. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  11. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  12. Alternative approach for cavitation damage study utilizing repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation is a common phenomenon in fluid systems that can lead to dramatic degradation of solid materials surface in contact with the cavitating media. Study of cavitation damage has great significance in many engineering fields. Current techniques for cavitation damage study either require large scale equipments or tend to introduce damages from other mechanisms. In this project, we utilized the cavitation phenomenon induced by laser optical breakdown and developed a prototype apparatus for cavitation damage study. In our approach, cavitation was generated by the repetitive pressure waves induced by high-power laser pulses. As proof of principal study, stainless steel and aluminum samples were tested using the novel apparatus. Surface characterization via scanning electron microscopy revealed damages such as indentation and surface pitting, which were similar to those reported in literature using other state-of-the-art techniques. These preliminary results demonstrated the new device was capable of generating cavitation damages and could be used as an alternative method for cavitation damage study.

  13. Age and School Experience as Factors in Rule Utilization: Use of a Simple Addition Rule. Final Report, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, L. R.

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of school experience on performance on visual perception tests involving line figures and forms. The subjects were 120 first grade students selected from two public schools in the same community. The experiment involved an Experimental Treatments X Age X Time of Testing factorial design. All subjects…

  14. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  15. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  16. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  17. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  18. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng; Yin, Fang; Zhang, Caihong

    2010-02-15

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

  19. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  20. An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

  1. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  2. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  3. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  4. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  5. Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Carolyn Stewart, Red Mountain Tribal Energy

    2008-03-31

    The project, “Renewable Energy Feasibility Study” was designed to expand upon previous work done by the Tribe in evaluating utility formation, generation development opportunities, examining options for creating self-sufficiency in energy matters, and integrating energy management with the Tribe’s economic development goals. The evaluation of project locations and economic analysis, led to a focus primarily on solar projects.

  6. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  7. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  8. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  9. Drug Utilization on Neonatal Wards: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Rosliana; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Abdullah, Amir Heberd; Ming, Long Chiau; Manan, Mohamed Mansor

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited evidence on safety and efficacy of drug use in neonates, drugs are extensively used in this age group. However, the availability of information on drug consumption in neonates, especially inpatient neonates, is limited. This paper systematically reviews published studies on drug utilization in hospitalized neonates. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify observational studies published from inception of databases used till August 2016. Four search engines, namely Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PubMed, were used. Publications written in English that described drug utilization in neonatal wards were selected. Assessment of the data was based on the category of the study design, the objective of study and the method used in reporting drug consumption. A total of 20 drug utilization studies were identified, 12 of which focused on all drug classes, while the other eight evaluated antimicrobials. Studies were reported in Europe (n = 7), the United States (n = 6), India (n = 5), Brazil (n = 1), and Iran (n = 1). Substantial variance with regard to study types (study design and methods), data source, and sample size were found among the selected studies. Of the studies included, 45% were cross-sectional or retrospective, 40% were prospective studies, and the remaining 15% were point prevalence surveys. More than 70% of the studies were descriptive studies, describing drug consumption patterns. Fifteen per cent of the descriptive studies evaluated changes in drug utilization patterns in neonates. Volume of units was the most prevalent method used for reporting all drug categories. The ATC/DDD system for reporting drug use was only seen in studies evaluating antimicrobials. The most commonly reported drugs across all studies are anti-infectives for systemic use, followed by drugs for the cardiovascular system, the nervous system and the respiratory system. Ampicillin and gentamicin were the most prescribed antimicrobials in hospitalized

  10. Drug Utilization on Neonatal Wards: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Rosliana; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Abdullah, Amir Heberd; Ming, Long Chiau; Manan, Mohamed Mansor

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited evidence on safety and efficacy of drug use in neonates, drugs are extensively used in this age group. However, the availability of information on drug consumption in neonates, especially inpatient neonates, is limited. This paper systematically reviews published studies on drug utilization in hospitalized neonates. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify observational studies published from inception of databases used till August 2016. Four search engines, namely Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PubMed, were used. Publications written in English that described drug utilization in neonatal wards were selected. Assessment of the data was based on the category of the study design, the objective of study and the method used in reporting drug consumption. A total of 20 drug utilization studies were identified, 12 of which focused on all drug classes, while the other eight evaluated antimicrobials. Studies were reported in Europe (n = 7), the United States (n = 6), India (n = 5), Brazil (n = 1), and Iran (n = 1). Substantial variance with regard to study types (study design and methods), data source, and sample size were found among the selected studies. Of the studies included, 45% were cross-sectional or retrospective, 40% were prospective studies, and the remaining 15% were point prevalence surveys. More than 70% of the studies were descriptive studies, describing drug consumption patterns. Fifteen per cent of the descriptive studies evaluated changes in drug utilization patterns in neonates. Volume of units was the most prevalent method used for reporting all drug categories. The ATC/DDD system for reporting drug use was only seen in studies evaluating antimicrobials. The most commonly reported drugs across all studies are anti-infectives for systemic use, followed by drugs for the cardiovascular system, the nervous system and the respiratory system. Ampicillin and gentamicin were the most prescribed antimicrobials in hospitalized

  11. Amino acid utilization by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: specific study of histidine.

    PubMed

    Hellio, Claire; Veron, Benoit; Le Gal, Yves

    2004-03-01

    Phytoplankton live in fluctuating environments where many factors such as grazing pressure, sinking, light availability, nutrient uptake and turnover influence the distribution of phytoplankton in time and space. The purpose of this study was to investigate if under conditions of depletion of inorganic nitrogen, as recorded in summer in naturals waters, phytoplanktonic species have the capability of using organic nitrogen sources, including free or combined amino acids, in addition to inorganic nitrogen. The study has focussed on histidine, the degradation of which yielding potentially three nitrogen atoms for each molecule of histidine. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CCAP 11/32A) was cultivated axenically with two different sources of nitrogen (histidine and/or ammonium). In the presence of histidine as sole source of nitrogen, cell growth was comparable to that observed with the same concentration of nitrogen in ammonium form. In the presence of both histidine and ammonium, histidine degradation was observed only when the concentration of ammonium was depleted. Under these conditions, the first two enzymes of histidine degradation pathway, histidase (EC 4.3.1.3) and urocanase (EC 4.2.1.49) were produced and were co-ordinately regulated. Histidase activity was also controlled by succinate and glutamate as carbon sources. Histidase was purified 1018-fold and partially characterized. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to 152.4 kDa corresponding to four subunits of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme did not exhibit classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics but showed a relationship between the rate of catalysis (V) and the concentration of substrate (S), characteristic of negative allosteric behavior. A Hill coefficient of 4 was measured for histidine concentrations higher than 20.5 mM.

  12. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  13. Artificial lightweight aggregates as utilization for future ashes - A case study.

    PubMed

    Sarabèr, Angelo; Overhof, Robert; Green, Terry; Pels, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the future, more electricity in the Netherlands will be produced using coal with co-combustion. Due to this, the generated annual ash volume will increase and the chemical composition will be influenced. One of the options for utilization if present markets are saturated and for use of fly ashes with different compositions, is as raw material for lightweight aggregates. This was selected as one of the best utilizations options regarding potential ash volume to be applied, environmental aspects and status of technology. Because of this, a study has been performed to assess the potential utilization of fly ash for the production of lightweight aggregate. Lightweight aggregate has been produced in a laboratory scale rotary kiln. The raw material consisted of class F fly ash with high free lime content. An addition of 8% clay was necessary to get green pellets with sufficient green strength. The basic properties of the produced lightweight aggregate and its behaviour in concrete have been investigated. The concrete has a good compressive strength and its leaching behaviour meets the most stringent requirements of Dutch environmental regulations. The carbon foot print of concrete will be negatively influenced if only the concrete itself is taken into account, but the reduction of the volume weight has advantages regarding design, transport emissions and isolation properties which may counteract this. In the Dutch situation the operational costs are higher than expected potential selling price for the LWA, which implies that the gate fee for the fly ash is negative.

  14. Actionable Science in Practice: Co-Producing Climate Change Information for Water Utility Vulnerability Assessments. Four Case Studies from the Water Utility Climate Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.; Behar, D. H.; Fleming, P.; Asefa, T.; Heyn, K.; Brooks, K.; Cohn, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project featured four water utilities - New York, Tampa Bay, Seattle, and Portland - from the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) who worked in collaboration with local climate science consortiums to hand-pick or develop locally appropriate tools, projections, and approaches to understand the impact of climate change on drinking water supplies. These utilities pursued customized approaches based on specific utility needs and learned important lessons in conducting assessments that may be of interest to the wider adaptation community. In addition, these projects are examples of succesfull environments in which utility managers worked collaboratively and iteratively with climate scientists to understand both utility concerns and the ability or limitations of today's climate science to respond to those concerns. Broader lessons that cut across the pilots are presented in a closing chapter.

  15. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  16. A study of the potential impacts of space utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheston, T. S.; Chafer, C. M.; Chafer, S. B.; Webb, D. C.; Stadd, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Because the demand for comprehensive impact analysis of space technologies will increase with the use of space shuttles, the academic social sciences/humanities community was surveyed in order to determine their interests in space utilization, to develop a list of current and planned courses, and to generate a preliminary matrix of relevant social sciences. The academic scope/focus of a proposed social science space-related journal was identified including the disciplines which should be represented in the editorial board/reviewer system. The time and funding necessary to develop a self-sustaining journal were assessed. Cost income, general organizational structure, marking/distribution and funding sources were analyzed. Recommendations based on the survey are included.

  17. Oxygen utilization rate (OUR) underestimates ocean respiration: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeve, W.; Kähler, P.

    2016-08-01

    We use a simple 1-D model representing an isolated density surface in the ocean and 3-D global ocean biogeochemical models to evaluate the concept of computing the subsurface oceanic oxygen utilization rate (OUR) from the changes of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and water age. The distribution of AOU in the ocean is not only the imprint of respiration in the ocean's interior but is strongly influenced by transport processes and eventually loss at the ocean surface. Since AOU and water age are subject to advection and diffusive mixing, it is only when they are affected both in the same way that OUR represents the correct rate of oxygen consumption. This is the case only when advection prevails or with uniform respiration rates, when the proportions of AOU and age are not changed by transport. In experiments with the 1-D tube model, OUR underestimates respiration when maximum respiration rates occur near the outcrops of isopycnals and overestimates when maxima occur far from the outcrops. Given the distribution of respiration in the ocean, i.e., elevated rates near high-latitude outcrops of isopycnals and low rates below the oligotrophic gyres, underestimates are the rule. Integrating these effects globally in three coupled ocean biogeochemical and circulation models, we find that AOU-over-age based calculations underestimate true model respiration by a factor of 3. Most of this difference is observed in the upper 1000 m of the ocean with the discrepancies increasing toward the surface where OUR underestimates respiration by as much as factor of 4.

  18. The addition of decision support into computerized physician order entry reduces red blood cell transfusion resource utilization in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, Evans R; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-07-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has the potential for cost containment in critically ill patients through practice standardization and elimination of unnecessary interventions. Previous study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of adding a decision support for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion into the hospital CPOE. We evaluated the effect of such intervention on RBC resource utilization during the two-year study period. From the institutional APACHE III database we identified 2,200 patients with anemia, but no active bleeding on admission: 1,100 during a year before and 1,100 during a year after the intervention. The mean number of RBC transfusions per patient decreased from 1.5 +/- 1.9 units to 1.3 +/- 1.8 units after the intervention (P = 0.045). RBC transfusion cost decreased from $616,442 to $556,226 after the intervention. Hospital length of stay and adjusted hospital mortality did not differ before and after protocol implementation. In conclusion, the implementation of an evidenced-based decision support system through a CPOE can decrease RBC transfusion resource utilization in critically ill patients.

  19. Phosphorus utilization and characterization of ileal digesta and excreta from broiler chickens fed diets varying in cereal grain, phosphorus level, and phytase addition.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Widyaratne, G P; Thacker, P A

    2008-12-01

    Both intrinsic and exogenous phytase in poultry feeds can alter phytate utilization and the solubility of P excreted. This experiment determined the effects of feeding diets varying in cereal grain, P concentration and phytase addition on phytate and P utilization and P characterization of ileal digesta and excreta. Twelve treatments, consisting of diets based on corn, wheat, barley, or high fat-low lignin oat and 3 P treatments (low P with 0.30% nonphytate P; low P + 1,000 phytase units of phytase; high P with 0.45% nonphytate P), were fed to 300 broilers using a factorial design. Fresh excreta were collected at 20 and 21 d and ileal digesta was collected at 21 d. Ileal digesta and excreta were analyzed for total P, phytate P and Ca, with P composition determined by solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Excreta samples were also analyzed for water soluble P (WSP). Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for phytate P and total P ranged from 0.03 to 0.42 and 0.56 to 0.71, respectively. Diets supplemented with phytase had greater phytate P hydrolysis than unsupplemented diets. Apparent total tract digestibility coefficients for phytate P and total P ranged from 0.10 to 0.73 and 0.43 to 0.61, respectively. Across cereal grains, there was almost a 3-fold increase in total tract phytate P hydrolysis with phytase supplementation. The P composition of ileal digesta was predominantly phytate P (70 to 88% of total P), whereas excreta phytate P ranged from 26 to 76% of total P. Excreta WSP ranged from 3.2 to 7.5 g kg(-1) and was least for the barley diets. There was a 25% reduction in excreta WSP from the high P to the low P + phytase diets and a 37% reduction from the high P to the low P diets. As cereal grain had little influence on phytate digestibility, it is unlikely that intrinsic phytase in grain has much influence on phytate utilization by poultry. Both total P and WSP in excreta were reduced by the low P diet and the low P + phytase diet

  20. A Parametric Geometry Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Study Utilizing Design of Experiments (DOE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques were applied to the Launch Abort System (LAS) of the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) parametric geometry Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to efficiently identify and rank the primary contributors to the integrated drag over the vehicles ascent trajectory. Typical approaches to these types of activities involve developing all possible combinations of geometries changing one variable at a time, analyzing them with CFD, and predicting the main effects on an aerodynamic parameter, which in this application is integrated drag. The original plan for the LAS study team was to generate and analyze more than1000 geometry configurations to study 7 geometric parameters. By utilizing DOE techniques the number of geometries was strategically reduced to 84. In addition, critical information on interaction effects among the geometric factors were identified that would not have been possible with the traditional technique. Therefore, the study was performed in less time and provided more information on the geometric main effects and interactions impacting drag generated by the LAS. This paper discusses the methods utilized to develop the experimental design, execution, and data analysis.

  1. Regulatory politics and electric utilities: a case study in political economy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Anderson's stated purpose in writing this book was to take a fresh look at regulatory behavior by focusing on the state regulation of electric utilities from 1968 to 1978. To this end, the first chapter is a conceptional framework that is structured to include both external constraints placed on the regulatory agency and the internal dynamics of regulatory bureaucracy. The idea is that regulators are constrained by both the political interest of external groups, utilties, and electricity customers, and the level of staff cooperation. Where a point decision is involved, the necessity of staff cooperation is lessened due to the yes-no nature of the decision. However, when faced with a planning task the regulator must be aware of the level of staff cooperation due to the requirements of continued staff participation. Additionally, the regulator faced varying stringency of external constraints. The analysis is concerned with the relationship between the internal and external constraints and the resulting regulatory decision. Chapters 2 and 3 are historical review chapters. The first deals with the origins of state utility regulation. The second is an investigation of recent structural changes in the regulation of electric utilities. Chapters 4 and 5 consist of two case studies of state regulation of public utilities in New York and California. The final chapter draws a summary and general conclusions. The reviewer feels that, in summary, although Anderson's analysis is sound it fails to build upon the existing literature; and, in fact, denies the applicability of these models to the approach employed. This, he notes, led the author to restructure these arguments - albeit not as formally as the original authors.

  2. Effects of geodemographic profiles on healthcare service utilization: a case study on cardiac care in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although literature has associated geodemographic factors with healthcare service utilization, little is known about how these factors — such as population size, age profile, service accessibility, and educational profile — interact to influence service utilization. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining both the direct and the moderating effects of geodemographic profiles on the utilization of cardiac surgery services. Methods We aggregated secondary data obtained from Statistics Canada and Cardiac Care Network of Ontario to derive the geodemographic profiles of Ontario and the corresponding cardiac surgery service utilization in the years between 2004 and 2007. We conducted a two-step test using Partial Least Squares-based structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between geodemographic profiles and healthcare service utilization. Results Population size and age profile have direct positive effects on service utilization (β=0.737, p<0.01; β=0.284, p<0.01, respectively), whereas service accessibility is negatively associated with service utilization (β=−0.210, p<0.01). Service accessibility decreases the effect of population size on service utilization (β=−0.606, p<0.01), and educational profile weakens the effects of population size and age profile on service utilization (β=−0.595, p<0.01; β=−0.286, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In this study, we found that (1) service accessibility has a moderating effect on the relationship between population size and service utilization, and (2) educational profile has moderating effects on both the relationship between population size and service utilization, and the relationship between age profile and service utilization. Our findings suggest that reducing regional disparities in healthcare service utilization should take into account the interaction of geodemographic factors such as service accessibility and education. In addition, the allocation of

  3. Genetic Assessment of Additional Endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Calkins, Monica E.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  4. Object utilization and object usage: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; Aubin, Ghislaine; Allain, Philippe; Jarry, Christophe; Richard, Isabelle; Le Gall, Didier

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that both conceptual knowledge and the ability to infer function from structure can support object use. By contrast, we propose that object use requires solely the ability to reason about technical ends. Technical ends (e.g., cutting) are not purposes (e.g., eating), but the technical way to achieve them. This perspective suggests that there is no mutual relationship between technical ends and purposes since the same purpose (e.g., writing) can be achieved thanks to distinct technical ends (graving, tracing), and, inversely, the same technical end (e.g., tracing) can achieve different purposes (making up, writing). Thus, conceptual knowledge might determine which technical end is usually associated with a given purpose. To contribute to the discussion, we described the behaviour of a female patient with left temporal lobe lesions and bilateral frontal lobe lesions following a closed-head injury. Conceptual knowledge was impaired. She encountered difficulties in demonstrating the use of objects in isolation (e.g., using a screwdriver without the screw). The presence of a recipient (e.g., using a screwdriver with the screw) improved her performance. The performance was also normal when asked to perform unusual applications of objects to achieve a goal for which the usually applied object was not provided (e.g., screwing a screw with a knife). Consistent with the theoretical framework supported here, her performance profile suggests an intact ability to reason about technical ends (i.e., utilization), in the presence of a defective ability to determine the usual relationship between technical ends and purposes (i.e., usage).

  5. Comparison of continuous air monitor utilization: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.; Whicker, J.J.; Voss, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Metallurgy Research (CMR) building has been upgrading to different continuous air monitors (CAMs) over the past several years. During the transition, both the newer and older CAMs were positioned in the rooms for field testing and comparison. On December 19, 1996, an accidental release of plutonium aerosol occurred into a laboratory in the CMR building. The event occurred while the room was unoccupied, and no personnel were exposed from this incident. There were two fixed air samplers (FASs) and three CAMs operating in the room at the time the release occurred, including two of the recently installed Canberra Alpha Sentry CAMs and one older Eberline CAM. The apparent cause of the release was a procedure carried out in the basement involving the replacement of the HEPA filter in the ventilation exhaust of a slot-box in the laboratory. For a short period, the ventilation was disconnected from the slot-box in this room, but not from the chemical hood exhaust on the opposite side of the laboratory. Therefore, a condition was created where backflow could occur out of the slot-box and into the room. Eventually all three CAMs in the room alarmed, and the situation was successfully monitored and brought under control by health physics personnel. Data on CAM performance were logged, and Pu activity collected on CAM and FAS filters were measured. A comparison of the new and old continuous air monitoring programs was performed and many interesting lessons on CAM performance and CAM utilization were learned. Overall, this comparison showed the advantages of remote monitoring, timely spectral information, and concentration measurements resolved in time and space.

  6. Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Two distinct sources of information are available from a [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar step-heating experiment: the age spectrum and Arrhenius plot. Model ages are calculated from the flux of radiogenic argon ([sup 40]Ar*) (assuming trapped argon of atmospheric composition) relative to the reactor produced [sup 39]Ar evolved during discrete laboratory heating steps. With the additional assumption that the [sup 39]Ar is uniformly distributed within the sample, we can infer the spatial distribution of the daughter product. ne associated Arrhenius plot, derived by plotting the diffusion coefficient (obtained from the inversion of the 39[sup Ar] release function assuming a single domain) against the inverse temperature of laboratory heating, are a convolution of the parameters which characterize the individual diffusion domains (whether these be dictated by varying length scale, energetics, etc.). However, many and perhaps Most [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra for slowly cooled alkali feldspars are significantly different from model age spectra calculated assuming a single diffusion-domain size. In addition, Arrhenius plots calculated from the measured loss of [sup 39]Ar during the step heating experiment show departures from linearity that are inconsistent with diffusion from domains of equal size. By extending the single diffusion-domain closure model (Dodsontype) to apply to minerals with a discrete distribution of domain sizes, we obtained an internally consistent explanation for the commonly observed features of alkali feldspar age spectra and their associated Arrhenius plots.

  7. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.

  8. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  9. Case Studies in Bringing Behavioral Science into Use. Studies in the Utilization of Behavioral Science, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Charles Y.; And Others

    A collection of articles by behavioral scientists and users of behavioral science covering the problem of utilization is presented in this volume. Articles include "Applied Social Research: Some Conditions Affecting Its Utilization" by Charles Y. Glock; "Two Case Studies of Utilization of the Behavioral Sciences" by Ronald Lippitt; "Case Studies…

  10. Design Issues in Qualitative Research: The Case of Knowledge Utilization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Gwaltney, Margaret K.

    The purpose of this review was to examine research designs in studying knowledge utilization. The results are based on 32 studies of knowledge utilization, and the report describes the various types of research designs and their strengths and weaknesses. Survey research methods are appropriate for dealing with either of two aspects of a…

  11. Clinical utility of corpus callosum measurements in head sonograms of preterm infants: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Perenyi, Agnes; Amodio, John; Katz, Joanne S; Stefanov, Dimitre G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical usefulness of measurement of corpus callosum (CC) size in head ultrasound (HUS) to predict short-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in preterm infants. We hypothesised that including CC measurements in routine HUS will be an additional tool for early identification of infants at risk of adverse short-term ND outcome, over and above the predictive power of perinatal morbidities. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and outpatient NICU follow-up clinic of an academic medical centre in New York City. Participants 929 HUS of 502 infants with gestational age of 23–36 weeks in African-American infants were initially studied. Exclusion criteria included those who died, had gross abnormalities in HUS, infants with race other than African-American, infants with suboptimal quality of HUS, late preterm infants and infants who did not participate in ND follow-up. A total of 173 infants completed the study. Interventions CC size (length and thickness) was measured in a subset of 87 infants who had routine HUS between 23 and 29 weeks (0–6 postnatal weeks). Relevant clinical variables were collected from chart reviews. ND assessments were completed in outpatient follow-up clinics. A statistical model was developed to assess the clinical utility and possible predictive value of CC measurements for adverse short-term ND outcome, while adjusting for perinatal morbidities. Primary and secondary outcome measures CC size and ND status. Results Measurements of CC size did not add substantial predictive power to predict short-term ND outcome beyond the information provided by the presence of morbidities related to prematurity. Conclusions No association was found between morbidities related to prematurity and short-term ND outcome and CC size in preterm infants. CC measurements in HUS early in life did not have an additional value in predicting short-term ND outcome, therefore did not seem to

  12. STUDY OF DOSHIC INVOLVEMENT IN APASMARA (EPILEPSY) AND ITS UTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, S.; Rajagopalan, V.; Srinivasan, Kanchana

    1987-01-01

    68 cases of epilepsy are studied here for assessing the doshic dominance to understand prognosis with a view to supplement the treatment with some doshahara compounds or drugs. Most of the cases studied or vata or pitta dominant cases, thereby, requiring vatahara or pittahara treatment. PMID:22557563

  13. Utilization of the human louse genome to study insecticide resistance and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Since sequencing the human body louse genome, substantial advances have occurred in the utilization of the information gathered from louse genomes and transcriptomes. Comparatively, the body louse genome contains far fewer genes involved in environmental response, such as xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. Additionally, the body louse maintains a primary bacterial endosymbiont, Candidatus Riesia pediculicola, and a number of bacterial pathogens that it vectors, which have genomes that are also reduced in size. Thus, human louse genomes offer unique information and tools for use in advancing our understanding of coevolution among vectors, endosymbionts and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the extent of pediculicide resistance, the availability of new pediculicides and information establishing this organism as an efficient model to study how xenobiotic metabolism, which is involved in insecticide resistance, is induced and how insects modify their innate immune response upon bacterial challenge resulting in enhanced vector competence. PMID:25987230

  14. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  15. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (χ2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  16. A Study of Research Utilization Processes in British Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, R.L.

    This study, done in England and Wales, was a first step in developing a model or set of models for describing processes by which agricultural research findings are put into practice. It was decided that the model should be based on actual instances of transmission and use of research. Models by the author and by others were used in developing…

  17. Laboratory, Field, and Modeling Studies of Aerobic Cometabolism of CAHs by Butane-Utilizing Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, M.; Semprini, L.; Dolan, M. E.; McCarty, P. L.; Hopkins, G. D.

    2002-12-01

    The ability of butane-utilizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize a mixture of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in laboratory microcosms and in an in-situ field demonstration was modeled using parameter values measured in laboratory experiments. The butane grown culture was inoculated into soil and groundwater microcosms and exposed to butane with several repeated additions of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) at aqueous concentrations of 200 μg/L, 100 μg/L, and 200 μg/L, respectively. The utilization of butane and the transformation of the CAH mixture in the batch microcosms were simulated using differential equations accounting for Michaelis-Menten kinetics with cell growth and decay, substrate utilization, transformation product toxicity, and substrate inhibition of CAH transformation. Both competitive inhibition kinetics and mixed inhibition kinetics, determined in prior laboratory studies, were included in the model construct. The equations were solved simultaneously using fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration. The batch microcosm experimental results were simulated well with parameter values determined independently in culture kinetic studies, with some minor adjustments. Having adequately defined the parameter values from laboratory studies, the biotransformation model was combined with 1-D advective-dispersive transport to simulate the results of in-situ bioremediation tests conducted at the Moffett Field Test Facility in CA. The butane-utilizing culture was injected into a 7 m subsurface test site and exposed to alternating pulses of oxygen and butane, along with TCA (150 μg/L), 1,1-DCE (50 μg/L) and 1,1-DCA (150 μg/L). The model simulated well the transient transformation of the CAHs in response to different butane and oxygen pulse cycles and injection concentrations. Model simulations correlated well with field results and indicated that better remediation

  18. Corrosion and degradation studies utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Holly Gwyndolen

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation involves studies of corrosion behavior at the surface of various metal samples, as well as the degradation of wool fibers obtained from the Star-Spangled Banner. Molybdenum metal and iron-zinc alloys were examined under corrosive conditions, and the degradation of the wool fibers was studied. The behavior of a polished molybdenum metal surface upon exposure to both aerated and deaerated water and 1.0 M NaCl solution was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Exposure to deaerated water and NaCl failed to produce oxidation of the metal surfaces, but exposing the polished metal surface to aerated water produced significant oxidation. Metal surfaces cleaned by argon-ion etching were found to be inert to oxidation by aerated water. The etching process also appears to passivate the metal surface. The behavior of molybdenum metal in 0.5 M Hsb2SOsb4 treated at various potentials has been studied using core and valence band XPS. The study indicates that Mosp{IV} and Mosp{VI} (including possibly Mosp{V} in some cases) were formed as the potential of the system was increased within the active range of molybdenum. The corrosive behavior of iron-zinc alloys that have been electroplated on plain steel in both aerated and deaerated quadruply-distilled water has been studied using XPS. Several different iron-zinc alloys were electroplated for comparative purposes: an iron-rich alloy, a zinc-rich alloy, and an alloy of similar iron and zinc composition. Treatment in aerated water produces oxidation for the iron-rich and similar composition alloys, but the oxide is reduced for the zinc-rich alloy. Degradation of the fibers in the original Star-Spangled Banner has been monitored using XPS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Comparison of white and red wool fibers and linen fibers from the flag with new, mechanically-abraded, and chemically-treated white, red, and linen fibers, respectively, was performed in an attempt to determine the fibers' levels

  19. Smarter candidate selection--utilizing microdosing in exploratory clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Buchan, P

    2007-01-01

    Microdosing offers a faster and potentially less expensive approach to obtaining human in vivo PK data in early clinical drug development. It encompasses the use of pharmacologically inactive doses of test drug in the low microgram range along with ultrasensitive assay methods (PET, AMS) to assess human exposure in order to extrapolate the PK of higher, clinically more relevant doses, assuming linear PK. This strategy allows early evaluation of systemic clearance, oral bioavailability as well as sources of intersubject variability and questions of specific metabolite formation. It does take advantage of reduced regulatory requirements of preclinical safety studies, bulk drug synthesis (CMC requirements) and easier formulation options, e.g., as part of an exploratory IND; however, this is counterbalanced by a need to synthesize radiolabeled test compound and the development of a sophisticated analytical method. Ongoing studies will determine the predictability of human PK using Microdosing methods.

  20. Utilization of remote sensing in Alaska permafrost studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Permafrost related features such as: aufeis, tundra, thaw lakes and subsurface ice features were studied. LANDSAT imagery was used to measure the extent and distribution of aufeis in Arctic Slope rivers over a period of 7 years. Interannual extent of large aufeis fields was found to vary significantly. Digital LANDSAT data were used to study the short term effects of a tundra fire which burned a 48 sq km area in northwestern Alaska. Vegetation regrowth was inferred from Landsat spectral reflectance increases and compared to in-situ measurements. Aircraft SAR (Synethic Aperture Radar) imagery was used in conjunction with LANDSAT imagery used in conjunction with LANDSAT imagery to qualitatively determine depth categories for thaw lakes in northern Alaska.

  1. The utilization of Computer Mediated Communication for case study collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gwozdek, Anne E; Klausner, Christine P; Kerschbaum, Wendy E

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) can be used as an effective tool for student communication and collaboration. First-year, first-semester dental hygiene students self-selected groups to develop dental hygiene process of care treatment plans, written reports, and oral case presentations based on assigned clinical cases. In consultation with the University of Michigan (UM) Digital Media Commons Collaborative Technologies Teams, CMC options were identified. Two chat rooms were established within the UM's Course Management System (CTools) to provide opportunities for synchronous (simultaneous, real-time) communication. One course blog site and 8 case blog sites were developed to provide students and instructors with electronic asynchronous (nonsimultaneous) communication formats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies during group case study projects. CMC has the potential to provide an effective means of collaboration and communication when the technologies align with the purpose of the project and compliment the dynamics of student groups.

  2. Methods for measuring utilization of mental health services in two epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; CROY, CALVIN; MANSON, SPERO M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of Study Psychiatric epidemiologic studies often include two or more sets of questions regarding service utilization, but the agreement across these different questions and the factors associated with their endorsement have not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the agreement of different sets of mental health service utilization questions that were included in the American Indian Service Utilization Psychiatric Epidemiology Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP), and compare the results to similar questions included in the baseline National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Methods Responses to service utilization questions by 2878 AI-SUPERPFP and 5877 NCS participants were examined by calculating estimates of service use and agreement (κ) across the different sets of questions. Logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with endorsement of specific sets of questions. Results In both studies, estimates of mental health service utilization varied across the different sets of questions. Agreement across the different question sets was marginal to good (κ = 0.27–0.69). Characteristics of identified service users varied across the question sets. Limitations Neither survey included data to examine the validity of participant responses to service utilization questions. Recommendations for Further Research Question wording and placement appear to impact estimates of service utilization in psychiatric epidemiologic studies. Given the importance of these estimates for policy-making, further research into the validity of survey responses as well as impacts of question wording and context on rates of service utilization is warranted. PMID:18767205

  3. Comparing Utility Scores in Common Spinal Radiculopathies: Results of a Prospective Valuation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R.; Stephen, James H.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Stein, Sherman C.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1. We compared utility scores obtained for each level of radiculopathy with analysis of variance and t test. Multivariable regression was used to test the effects of the covariates age, sex, and years of education. We also reviewed the literature for publications reporting EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for patients with radiculopathy. Results Two hundred participants were included in the study. Average utility for the four spinal levels fell within a narrow range (0.748 to 0.796). There were no statistically significant differences between lumbar and cervical radiculopathies, nor were there significant differences among the different spinal levels (F = 0.0850, p = 0.086). Age and sex had no significant effect on utility scores. There was a significant correlation between years of education and utility values for S1 radiculopathy (p = 0.037). On review of the literature, no study separated utility values by specific spinal level. EQ-5D utilities for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy were considerably lower than the results of our study. Conclusions Utility values associated with the most common levels of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy do not significantly differ from each other, validating the current practice of grouping utility by spinal segment rather than by specific root levels. The discrepancy in average utility values between our study and the EQ-5D highlights the need to be mindful of the underlying instruments used when assessing outcomes studies from different sources. PMID:27099818

  4. Microbiologic Methods Utilized in the MAL-ED Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

  5. Microbiologic methods utilized in the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K M; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals.

  6. A study of the threshold method utilizing raingage data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Atlas, David

    1993-01-01

    The threshold method for estimation of area-average rain rate relies on determination of the fractional area where rain rate exceeds a preset level of intensity. Previous studies have shown that the optimal threshold level depends on the climatological rain-rate distribution (RRD). It has also been noted, however, that the climatological RRD may be composed of an aggregate of distributions, one for each of several distinctly different synoptic conditions, each having its own optimal threshold. In this study, the impact of RRD variations on the threshold method is shown in an analysis of 1-min rainrate data from a network of tipping-bucket gauges in Darwin, Australia. Data are analyzed for two distinct regimes: the premonsoon environment, having isolated intense thunderstorms, and the active monsoon rains, having organized convective cell clusters that generate large areas of stratiform rain. It is found that a threshold of 10 mm/h results in the same threshold coefficient for both regimes, suggesting an alternative definition of optimal threshold as that which is least sensitive to distribution variations. The observed behavior of the threshold coefficient is well simulated by assumption of lognormal distributions with different scale parameters and same shape parameters.

  7. [Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2011-03-01

    Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine published "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2002. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan established "Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Studies" in 2003, and amended the document in 2008. According to the guidelines, Ethical Committee in Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine revised the "Opinions of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine about utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for laboratory work, education and clinical studies" in 2010. Ethical problems in utilization of specimens after laboratory examinations for clinical studies are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  9. Case Studies of Water Utility Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment [External Review Draft Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a series of case studies describing the approaches taken by four water utilities in the United States to assess their vulnerability to climate change. The report is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of assessment approaches or utilities conducting v...

  10. (Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In our second year of current funding cycle, we have investigated the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars and the application of domain theory to natural K-feldspars. We completed a combined TEM and argon diffusion study of the effect of laboratory heat treatment on the microstructure and kinetic properties of K-feldspar. We conclude in companion papers that, with one minor exception, no observable change in the diffusion behavior occurs during laboratory extraction procedures until significant fusion occurs at about 1100{degrees}C. The effect that is observed involves a correlation between the homogenization of cryptoperthite lamelle and the apparent increase in retentivity of about 5% of the argon in the K-feldspar under study. We can explain this effect of both as an artifact of the experiment or the loss of a diffusion boundary. Experiments are being considered to resolve this question. Refinements have been made to our experimental protocol that appears that greatly enhance the retrieval of multi-activation energies from K-feldspars. We have applied the multi-domain model to a variety of natural environments (Valles Caldera, Red River fault, Appalachian basin) with some surprising results. Detailed {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39} Ar coverage of the Red River shear zone, thought to be responsible for the accommodation of a significant fraction of the Indo-Asian convergence, strongly suggests that our technique can precisely date both the termination of ductile strike-slip motion and the initiation of normal faulting. Work has continued on improving our numerical codes for calculating thermal histories and the development of computer based graphing tools has significantly increased our productivity.

  11. Factors influencing the mammography utilization among Taiwanese women with intellectual disabilities, a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsien-Tang; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Women with intellectual disabilities (ID) have cognitive impairment and communication difficulties; for both caregivers and clinical personnel, discovering the early symptoms of breast cancer among women with ID is challenging. The mammography utilization rate of women with ID was significantly lower than that of women in the general population. This study employed a 2008 database of people with disabilities in Taiwan as a research target and analyzed the mammography utilization rate of women with ID aged 50–69 years. In addition, relevant factors influencing mammography utilization among women with ID were also investigated. A total of 4370 participants were recruited and the majority were illiterate or had elementary-level educations (82.27%). The majority of the participants had ID that was more severe than mild (83.80%). The mammography utilization rate of women with ID was 4.32%, which was significantly lower than that of women in the general population (12%). The mammography utilization rate among women with ID who were married, had higher education levels, and had been diagnosed with cancer, diabetes, or mild ID was significantly higher. However, the mammography utilization rate among women with ID, who had elementary-level educations or were illiterate, was only 4.03%. The utilization rate among women with profound ID was only 2.65%. Women with ID who had undergone pap smears or had utilized adult preventive health services demonstrated a significantly higher mammography utilization rate. This study identified that education level, a diagnosis of diabetes, and the application of pap smears or adult preventive health services were primary factors that influenced the mammography utilization rate among women with ID. This study also observed that in Taiwan, the mammography utilization rate of women with ID was lower than that of pap smears and adult preventive health services, and was only half of that of people with disabilities. An unequal situation

  12. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  13. Climate@Home: Utilizing Citizen Science for Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Yang, C.; Li, Z.; Sun, M.; Li, J.; Xu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has become a serious and urgent issue in the past decades (Stern N. 2007). It will influence many domains such as agriculture, economy, ecosystem, and others. To help scientists to simulate the climate change, NASA conducted a project, Climate@Home, to develop a cyberinfrastructure for running the modelE climate model. ModelE contains over 500 variables and needs many days to finish a 10 year analysis task. If scientists need to run 300 tasks, it may need about 3 years to complete the task using a single machine. As an exploratory study, an infrastructure was constructed to recruit citizen volunteers for harvesting computing resources from citizens based on the citizen science mechanism. However, there are challenges in order to build the infrastructure: 1) modelE is a Linux based model but volunteers may have different operating system platforms such as Windows, Apple OSX etc (Anderson et al. 2006); 2) modelE has big downloading file and generates big results file, how to download and upload files efficiently? 3) currently the task schedule uses first-come-fist-get mechanism, how to schedule task efficiently? We address these challenges with several designs: 1) virtual machines are used to package the modelE, an operating system and configured running environments; 2) Building FTPS based on users' spatiotemporal information for data downloading and uploading; 3) crafting the schedule system to grant tasks based on the volunteers spatiotemporal information and computing conditions such as CPU, memory and bandwidth. Key words: Volunteer Computing, Climate Change, Spatiotemporal, References: 1. Anderson, D. P., Christensen, C., & Allen, B. (2006, November). Designing a runtime system for volunteer computing. In SC 2006 Conference, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE (pp. 33-33). IEEE. 2. Stern, N. N. H. (Ed.). (2007). The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University Press.

  14. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  15. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  16. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M.

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  17. Drug utilization study in ophthalmology outpatients at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Pradeep R; Moghe, Vijay V; Deshmukh, Yeshwant A

    2013-12-22

    In view of the advancement in drug development and availability of new ocular therapeutics in the discipline of ophthalmology, we attempted to study the drug utilization and describe the prescribing practices of ophthalmologists in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients attending Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology for curative complaints. Prescriptions of 600 patients treated were analyzed by the WHO prescribing indicators and additional indices. Results. Analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.49. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 2.35%. Percentage of encounters with antibiotics was 44.83%. Percentage of drugs prescribed from National Essential drug list (NEDL)/National Formulary of India (NFI) was 19.48%. Patient's knowledge of correct dosage was 93.83%. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by antiallergy drugs and ocular lubricants. Fluoroquinolones accounted for 60% of the total antimicrobial drugs, of which gatifloxacin was the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone. Conclusion. The study indicated an awareness of polypharmacy, but showed ample scope for improvement in encouraging the ophthalmologists to prescribe by generic name and selection of essential drugs from NEDL/NFI.

  18. Phosphorus utilization and characterization of ileal digesta and excreta from broiler chickens fed diets varying in cereal grain, phosphorus level, and phytase addition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both endogenous and exogenous phytase present in poultry feeds can alter phytate utilization as well as the solubility of phosphorus (P) excreted, which can be a concern from an environmental perspective. To address the effects of endogenous phytase present in cereal grains and exogenous phytase ad...

  19. Sensitivity of Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market and Performance Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Eurek, K.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2013-04-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The ReEDS model was used to simulate utility PV and CSP deployment for this present study, based on several market and performance assumptions - electricity demand, natural gas prices, coal retirements, cost and performance of non-solar renewable technologies, PV resource variability, distributed PV deployment, and solar market supply growth - in addition to the SunShot solar price projections. This study finds that utility-scale solar deployment is highly sensitive to solar prices. Other factors can have significant impacts, particularly electricity demand and natural gas prices.

  20. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  1. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male

  2. Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C

    2014-03-01

    Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  6. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  8. Part-whole bias in intertemporal choice: An empirical study of additive assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-12-01

    Additive assumption means the overall value of multiple-dated outcomes is based on a simple aggregation of the values of each individual outcome. This assumption is generally accepted in the field of intertemporal choices. However, recent studies show additive assumption is questionable. In this paper, we experimentally tested the additive property of multiple-dated monetary rewards. Our results show: (1) additive assumption does not hold regardless of gain or loss; (2) the sum of subjective values of individual rewards is consistently larger than the valuation placed on the same rewards as a whole. This finding suggests that part-whole bias exists in the context of valuation of intertemporal monetary rewards.

  9. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  10. Pig models of neurodegenerative disorders: Utilization in cell replacement-based preclinical safety and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Dolezalova, Dasa; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Cunningham, Miles; Weingarten, David; Ciacci, Joseph D; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Hefferan, Michael P; Hazel, Tom; Johe, Karl; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson; Bui, Jack; Strnadel, Jan; Marsala, Martin

    2014-08-15

    An important component for successful translation of cell replacement-based therapies into clinical practice is the utilization of large animal models to conduct efficacy and/or safety cell dosing studies. Over the past few decades, several large animal models (dog, cat, nonhuman primate) were developed and employed in cell replacement studies; however, none of these models appears to provide a readily available platform to conduct effective and large-scale preclinical studies. In recent years, numerous pig models of neurodegenerative disorders were developed using both a transgenic approach as well as invasive surgical techniques. The pig model (naïve noninjured animals) was recently used successfully to define the safety and optimal dosing of human spinal stem cells after grafting into the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed animals. The data from these studies were used in the design of a human clinical protocol used in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in a Phase I clinical trial. In addition, a highly inbred (complete major histocompatibility complex [MHC] match) strain of miniature pigs is available which permits the design of comparable MHC combinations between the donor cells and the graft recipient as used in human patients. Jointly, these studies show that the pig model can represent an effective large animal model to be used in preclinical cell replacement modeling. This review summarizes the available pig models of neurodegenerative disorders and the use of some of these models in cell replacement studies. The challenges and potential future directions in more effective use of the pig neurodegenerative models are also discussed.

  11. A Study of Thermal Analyses and Fundamental Combustion Characteristics for Thermal Utility with Biomass Volatile Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tamio; Namba, Kunihiko; Sano, Hiroshi

    Based on un-use biomass utilities, Carbonized technology is noticed as material utilities and solid fuel. Therefore, this technology is tackling by national project as large-scale utilities. But, this technology is dehydrated volatiles matter during carbonized from biomass. Especially, Woody tar into one of volatile matter has vicious handling to get into trouble in carbonized equipment. In this study, we propose to get fundamental knowledge for effective thermal utility through thermal decompositions and fundamental combustion properties on experimental results. Woody tar has high caloric value (approximately 30MJ/kg) and high carbon ration. On the other hand, a woody vinegar liquid has thermal decomposition property close to water property with heat absorption as evaporation latent heat of water. In fundamental combustion experimental result, a woody tar has fl ammable combustion and surface combustion. Especially, a total combustion and ignition time properties has hyperbola relation to environment temperatures in furnace.

  12. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilges, B.; Bastos, R. C.; Mateus, G. P.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency.

  13. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  14. Self-Reported Utilization of Eye Care among Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Leo S.; Varma, Rohit; Paz, Sylvia H.; Lai, Mei Ying; Mazhar, Kashif; Andersen, Ronald M.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the prevalence and determinants of self-reported eye care utilization in Latinos. Design Population-based ocular epidemiological study in Latinos age 40+ living in La Puente, California. Participants 5,455 participants. Methods Univariate, multivariable and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, enabling and need variables associated with self-reported eye care utilization. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of self-reported utilization: eye care visit, having had a dilated examination in the past 12 months, ever having had a dilated examination, and odds ratios for factors associated with self-reported utilization. Results Overall, 36% of participants reported an eye care visit and 19% reported having a dilated examination in the past year. Fifty-seven percent reported ever having had a dilated eye examination. Greater eye care utilization was associated with older age, female gender, bilingual language proficiency (English and Spanish), more education, having health insurance, having a usual place for care, having a regular provider of care, greater number of co-morbidities, visual impairment, and lower vision-specific quality of life scores. Conclusions Increasing utilization and access to eye care for Latinos should be a priority because visual impairment has significant impacts on well-being and mortality. PMID:20018380

  15. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  16. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  17. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  18. [A preliminary study on data mining techniques for utilizing the breast ultrasound database].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yulan; Zhang, Heqing; Jing, Jigang; Ma, Buyun; Lu, Xiao; Tang, Chong; Nie, Shan; Liu, Ying; Qin, Yuzhou; Luo, Yan

    2010-08-01

    Based on the breast ultrasound database of West China Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007, a study of data mining techniques for utilizing the diagnostic information of breast ultrasound and breast pathology was carried out. An innovative computerized retrieval system was invented. With the visual user interface of the system, the data of benignancy or malignancy diagnosed by ultrasound and pathologic examination, and the data on the diagnostic correlation of ultrasound and pathology were obtained, respectively. The qualities of data mining were 99. 98%-100%. By means of the retrieval system, the users can secure numerous data from the breast ultrasound database rapidly and accurately; so it contributes to the rational utilization of information from medical database for serving various medical studies. This method may also be helpful for doctors to utilize ultrasound database in other fields.

  19. Potential impact of the President's economic recovery plan on the electric-utility industry - with Commonwealth Edison Company serving as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the President's economic recovery program (ERP) will result in a set of economic conditions which: restores the industry to its former financial health, thus allowing utilities to make investment decisions which are both cost-effective to customers, and beneficial to existing and prospective investors, or leaves the electric utility industry in a financially constrained condition. Thus requiring additional remedies if necessary investments are to be made. These additional remedies might include a restructuring of the rate regulatory process, further reductions in inflation, or a relaxation of environmental, facility licensing and other regulatory proceedings which have significantly increased utility costs. The principal conclusion to be drawn from this study is that the President's economic recovery program (ERP) will not significantly improve the electric utility industry's financial health. Thus the construction of needed generating capacity will continue to be jeopardized. The primary cause for this result is that even under the improved economic conditions associated with the ERP, costs will increase, utilities will be forced to seek increases in their electricity rates, but regulatory commissions-based on historical experience-will not grant increases of sufficient size which both: allow utilities to fully recover cost increased. Result in a significant improvement in the key measures of utility financial health.

  20. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  1. Study raises questions about measurement of 'additionality,'or maintaining domestic health spending amid foreign donations.

    PubMed

    Garg, Charu C; Evans, David B; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Izazola-Licea, José-Antonio; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Ejeder, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2012-02-01

    Donor nations and philanthropic organizations increasingly require that funds provided for a specific health priority such as HIV should supplement domestic spending on that priority-a concept known as "additionality." We investigated the "additionality" concept using data from Honduras, Rwanda, and Thailand, and we found that the three countries increased funding for HIV in response to increased donor funding. In contrast, the study revealed that donors, faced with increased Global Fund resources for HIV in certain countries, tended to decrease their funding for HIV or shift funds for use in non-HIV health areas. More broadly, we found many problems in the measurement and interpretation of additionality. These findings suggest that it would be preferable for donors and countries to agree on how best to use available domestic and external funds to improve population health, and to develop better means of tracking outcomes, than to try to develop more sophisticated methods to track additionality.

  2. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  3. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  4. [Bootstrap method-based estimation on the confidence interval for additive interaction in cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-ren; Chen, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Interaction assessment is an important step in epidemiological analysis. When etiological study is carried out, the logarithmic models such as logistic model or Cox proportional hazard model are commonly used to estimate the independent effects of the risk factors. However, estimating interaction between risk factors by the regression coefficient of the product term is on multiplicative scale, and for public-health purposes, it is supposed to be on additive scale or departure from additivity. This paper illustrates with a example of cohort study by fitting Cox proportional hazard model to estimate three measures for additive interaction which presented by Rothman. Adopting the S-Plus application with a built-in Bootstrap function, it is convenient to estimate the confidence interval for additive interaction. Furthermore, this method can avoid the exaggerated estimation by using ORs in a cohort study to gain better precision. When using the complex combination models between additive interaction and multiplicative interaction, it is reasonable to choose the former one when the result is inconsistent.

  5. Summary of Utility Studies: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Todd, Annika; Goldamn, Charles A.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects to assess the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort provides an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior. In addition, DOE is attempting to apply a consistent study design and analysis framework for the SGIG Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS). The aim is to collect information across the studies on variables and impacts that have been defined in a consistent manner. This will enable Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), as DOE’s principal investigator for these Consumer Behavior Studies, to leverage the data from the individual studies and conduct comparative analysis of the impacts of AMI, time-based rate programs and enabling technologies that facilitate customer control, automation and information/feedback on customer energy usage.

  6. Biomarker Utility Analysis Using an Exposure-PBPK/PD Model: A Carbaryl Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are two common biomarkers: markers of exposure and markers of health effects. The strength of the correlation between exposure or effect and a biomarker measurement determines the utility of a biomarker for assessing exposures or risks. In the current study, a linked expo...

  7. Creating Critical Conversations: Investigating the Utility of Socratic Dialogues in Elementary Social Studies Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the utility of Socratic dialogues in the elementary social studies methods course. Findings include preservice teachers' behaviors during dialogues, perceived strengths and challenges of using Socratic dialogues in teacher education, and the impact on student learning. Challenges and apprehensions encountered by the teacher…

  8. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  9. Sea truth and environmental characterization studies of Mobile Bay, Alabama, utilizing ERTS-1, data collection platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports on the scientific results obtained during a feasibility study that evaluated the potential of using ERTS data collection platforms (DCPs) in the coastal environment of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The utility of instrumented buoys operated in a coastal marine environment as ERTS DCPs is demonstrated. It is shown that these platforms are capable of providing both sea-truth data for ERTS imagery studies and time-series data for event monitoring and/or environmental characterization studies.

  10. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  11. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  12. Comparative study of electrolyte additives using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Aiken, C. P.; Ye, Hui; VanElzen, Collette M.; Jain, Gaurav; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of various electrolyte additives and additive combinations added to a 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte on the positive and negative electrodes surface of 1 year old wound LiCoO2/graphite cells and Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2])O2/graphite cells was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetric cells. The additives tested were: vinylene carbonate (VC), trimethoxyboroxine (TMOBX), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and H2O alone or in combination. In general, compared to control electrolyte, the additives tested reduced the impedance of the positive electrode and increased the impedance of the negative electrode with the exception of LiTFSI in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite wound cells. Higher charge voltage led to higher positive electrode impedance, with the exception of 2%VC + 2% FEC, and 2% LiTFSI. In some cases, some additives when mixed with another controlled the formation of the SEI at one electrode, and shared the formation of the SEI at one electrode when mixed with a different additive.

  13. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  14. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  15. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  16. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.

    PubMed

    Keithly, Lois; Ferris Wayne, Geoffrey; Cullen, Doris M; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-10-01

    Public health officials and tobacco researchers have raised concerns about the possible contributions of additives to the toxicity of cigarettes. However, little attention has been given to the process whereby additives promote initiation and addiction. Levulinic acid is a known cigarette additive. Review of internal tobacco industry documents indicates that levulinic acid was used to increase nicotine yields while enhancing perceptions of smoothness and mildness. Levulinic acid reduces the pH of cigarette smoke and desensitizes the upper respiratory tract, increasing the potential for cigarette smoke to be inhaled deeper into the lungs. Levulinic acid also may enhance the binding of nicotine to neurons that ordinarily would be unresponsive to nicotine. These findings held particular interest in the internal development of ultralight and so-called reduced-exposure cigarette prototypes. Industry studies found significantly increased peak plasma nicotine levels in smokers of ultralight cigarettes following addition of levulinic acid. Further, internal studies observed changes in mainstream and sidestream smoke composition that may present increased health risks. The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products.

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, E.; Savitz, D.; Kleckner, R.; Cai, J.; Loomis, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This nested case-control study examines mortality from suicide in relation to estimated exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a cohort of 138 905 male electric utility workers.
METHODS—Case-control sampling included 536 deaths from suicide and 5348 eligible controls. Exposure was classified based on work in the most common jobs with increased exposure to magnetic fields and indices of cumulative exposure to magnetic fields based on a measurement survey.
RESULTS—Suicide mortality was increased relative to work in exposed jobs and with indices of exposure to magnetic fields. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for years of employment as an electrician (OR 2.18; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25 to 3.80) or lineman (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.14), whereas a decreased OR was found for power plant operators (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33 to 1.40). A dose response gradient with exposure to magnetic fields was found for exposure in the previous year, with a mortality OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.90) in the highest exposure category. Stronger associations, with ORs in the range of 2.12-3.62, were found for men <50 years of age.
CONCLUSION—These data provide evidence for an association between occupational electromagnetic fields and suicide that warrants further evaluation. A plausible mechanism related to melatonin and depression provides a direction for additional laboratory research as well as epidemiological evaluation.


Keywords: electromagnetic fields; suicide; nested case-control PMID:10810112

  18. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  19. Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

  20. Oxidative addition of methane and benzene C--H bonds to rhodium center: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhu, Shufen

    2006-11-01

    A density functional theory study on mechanisms of the oxidative addition of methane and benzene C-H bonds to the rhodium center containing Cp and PMe 3 ligands has been performed. Our calculated results confirm that the C-H bond cleavage from a sigma complex to a hydride alkyl complex is the rate-determining step. Compared with the case of methane C-H bond, the oxidative addition of benzene C-H bond is more favorable kinetically and thermodynamically. Stronger backdonation from metal center to the σ ∗ antibonding orbital of benzene C-H bond is responsible for the observations.

  1. The additional utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma for predicting metastasis during clinical staging

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizako, Takeshi; Hisatoshi, Araki; Mori, Hiroshi; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Background The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value is known to be an indicator of tumor activity. The ADC value of high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is significantly lower than that of low-grade clear-cell RCC. Purpose To investigate the utility of ADC values of clear-cell RCC by comparing ADC values between groups with T1a RCC (tumor size ≤ 4 cm) without metastasis and the group with metastasis. Material and Methods A retrospective review was performed on 51 patients with 51 RCCs who underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating a renal mass confirmed pathologically to be clear-cell RCC between January 2010 and August 2014. We compared ADC values between group A (T1a RCC without metastasis, T1aN0M0) and group B (RCC with metastasis) using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results The patients were divided into group A (n = 30; tumor size: median, 24.5 mm; range, 8–40 mm; ADC value [×10−3 mm2/s]: median, 1.71; range, 1.23–2.24) and group B (n = 21; tumor size: median, 87.5 mm; range, 18–150 mm; ADC value [×10−3 mm2/s]: median, 1.35; range, 0.91–1.94). The ADC value differed significantly between the two groups. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.869. Using the optimum cutoff value (1.552 × 10−3 mm2/s), ADC had a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 81.0%. Conclusion There was a statistically significant difference in the ADC between group A (T1a clear-cell RCC without distant metastasis) and group B (advanced clear-cell RCC with lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis). PMID:28210496

  2. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  3. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  4. Potential utility of precision medicine for older adults with polypharmacy: a case series study

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Cabrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has been increasingly used to optimize drug regimens; however, its potential in older adults with polypharmacy has not been systematically studied. In this hypothesis-generating study, we employed a case series design to explore potential utility of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy and to highlight barriers in implementing this methodology in routine clinical practice. Three patients with concurrent chronic heart and lung disease aged 74, 78, and 83 years and whose medication regimen comprised 26, 17, and 18 drugs, correspondingly, served as cases for this study. PGx testing identified major genetic polymorphisms in the first two cases. The first case was identified as “CYP3A4/CYP3A5 poor metabolizer”, which affected metabolism of eleven prescribed drugs. The second case had “CYP2D6 rapid metabolizer” status affecting three prescribed medications, two of which were key drugs for managing this patient’s chronic conditions. Both these patients also had VKORC1 allele *A, resulting in higher sensitivity to warfarin. All cases demonstrated a significant number of potential drug–drug interactions. Both patients with significant drug–gene interactions had a history of frequent hospitalizations (six and 23, respectively), whereas the person without impaired cytochrome P450 enzyme activity had only two acute episodes in the last 5 years, although he was older and had multiple comorbidities. Since all patients received guideline-concordant therapy from the same providers and were adherent to their drug regimen, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor for higher hospitalization rates in older adults with polypharmacy. However, evidence to support or reject this hypothesis is yet to be established. Studies evaluating clinical impact of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy are warranted. For practical implementation of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical care, besides

  5. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  6. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  7. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  8. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  9. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  10. Utility of genome-wide association study findings: prostate cancer as a translational research paradigm.

    PubMed

    Turner, A R; Kader, A K; Xu, J

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of consistently replicated associations between genetic markers and complex disease risk, including cancers. Alone, these markers have limited utility in risk prediction; however, when several of these markers are used in combination, the predictive performance appears to be similar to that of many currently available clinical predictors. Despite this, there are divergent views regarding the clinical validity and utility of these genetic markers in risk prediction. There are valid concerns, thus providing a direction for new lines of research. Herein, we outline the debate and use the example of prostate cancer to highlight emerging evidence from studies that aim to address potential concerns. We also describe a translational framework that could be used to guide the development of a new generation of comprehensive research studies aimed at capitalizing on these exciting new discoveries.

  11. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  12. A kinetic study of struvite precipitation recycling technology with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongtai; Ren, Hongqiang; Wang, Yanru; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jingji; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Struvite precipitation recycling technology is received wide attention in removal ammonium and phosphate out of wastewater. While past study focused on process efficiency, and less on kinetics. The kinetic study is essential for the design and optimization in the application of struvite precipitation recycling technology. The kinetics of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition were studied by thermogravimetry analysis with three rates (5, 10, 20 °C/min), using Friedman method and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method, respectively. Degradation process of struvite with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was three steps. The stripping of ammonia from struvite was mainly occurred at the first step. In the first step, the activation energy was about 70 kJ/mol, which has gradually declined as the reaction progress. By model fitting studies, the proper mechanism function for struvite decomposition process with NaOH/Mg(OH)2 addition was revealed. The mechanism function was f(α)=α(α)-(1-α)(n), a Prout-Tompkins nth order (Bna) model.

  13. A4-3: Utilization-based Proxy Enrollment Versus Standard HMORN VDW Enrollment: A Pilot Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Irina; Johnson, Brian; Riedlinger, Karen; Barua, Pinky; DeFor, Terese; Hitz, Paul; Pardee, Roy; Tabano, David

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Most HMORN members offer both insurance coverage and health care. Health plan enrollment provides a well-defined population denominator for HMORN-based research. The HMORN common data model combines electronic data, routinely collected in health care delivery or claims processing, into the Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW). Sites with health plans capture insurance enrollment in the VDW enrollment file. Recently HMORN included sites that deliver health care without offering insurance. Since health plan membership is unknown, population denominators must be determined using alternate methods. This study validated a utilization-based proxy enrollment (PE) using standard VDW enrollment (SE) in 5 HMORN sites with Epic EHR and SE files. Methods The utilization-based algorithm defines PE start at first of two non-ancillary health care visits (at least one being a primary care visit) separated by at least 90 days. PE ends at death or at the last qualifying visit if there is no utilization in the following 3-year period. PE files were built at each site by applying utilization-based algorithm to base tables created from Clarity. The PE and SE extracts included study ID, age, gender and the start/end of enrollment periods between 2000 and 2012, based on availability of Clarity data at the sites. The agreement between PE and SE was evaluated using differences in start/end of the first enrollment periods (days). Results The differences between PE and SE starts varied by site with greater variation in children (<20 years) and older adults (64+ years). The differences varied by gender, but the differences between the genders were smaller in the young and the old. The differences were larger for males between ages of ~16 and 64, indicating less utilization by males than by females. The differences between PE and SE ends were generally negative across ages, indicating that PE extended beyond SE. Gender differences between PE and SE starts were similar to differences

  14. Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

  15. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  16. Haemophilia utilization group study - Part Va (HUGS Va): design, methods and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z-Y; Wu, J; Baker, J; Curtis, R; Forsberg, A; Huszti, H; Koerper, M; Lou, M; Miller, R; Parish, K; Riske, B; Shapiro, A; Ullman, M; Johnson, K

    2011-09-01

    To describe the study design, procedures and baseline characteristics of the Haemophilia Utilization Group Study - Part Va (HUGS Va), a US multi-center observational study evaluating the cost of care and burden of illness in persons with factor VIII deficiency. Patients with factor VIII level ≤ 30%, age 2-64 years, receiving treatment at one of six federally supported haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) were enrolled in the study. Participants completed an initial interview including questions on socio-demographical characteristics, health insurance status, co-morbidities, access to care, haemophilia treatment regimen, factor utilization, self-reported joint pain and motion limitation and health-related quality of life. A periodic follow-up survey collected data regarding time lost from usual activities, disability days, health care utilization and outcomes of care. HTC clinicians documented participants' baseline clinical characteristics and pharmacy dispensing records for 2 years. Between July 2005 and July 2007, 329 participants were enrolled. Average age was 9.7 years for children and 33.5 years for adults; two-thirds had severe haemophilia. The distributions of age, marital status, education level and barriers to haemophilia care were relatively consistent across haemophilic severity categories. Differences were found in participants' employment status, insurance status and income. Overall, children with haemophilia had quality of life scores comparable to healthy counterparts. Adults had significantly lower physical functioning than the general US population. As one of the largest economic studies of haemophilia care, HUGS Va will provide detailed information regarding the burden of illness and health care utilization in the US haemophilia A population.

  17. Voltage Support Study of Smart PV Inverters on a High-Photovoltaic Penetration Utility Distribution Feeder

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Pratt, Annabelle; Bialek, Tom; Bell, Frances; McCarty, Michael; Atef, Kahveh; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-21

    This paper reports on tools and methodologies developed to study the impact of adding rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems, with and without the ability to provide voltage support, on the voltage profile of distribution feeders. Simulation results are provided from a study of a specific utility feeder. The simulation model of the utility distribution feeder was built in OpenDSS and verified by comparing the simulated voltages to field measurements. First, we set all PV systems to operate at unity power factor and analyzed the impact on feeder voltages. Then we conducted multiple simulations with voltage support activated for all the smart PV inverters. These included different constant power factor settings and volt/VAR controls.

  18. A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks.

    PubMed

    Kaplan Ince, Olcay; Ince, Muharrem; Yonten, Vahap; Goksu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study about removal of lead (Pb(II)) from energy drinks. In this paper, food waste, namely eggshell (hydroxyapatite) utilization, was used to remove Pb(II) from mineral water and energy drinks. Mineral water and energy drinks were chosen for removal of lead since the latter is severely hazardous to human health even in small amounts. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the application process by practice of the quadratic model united with the Central Composite Design (CCD) and quadratic combined program was utilized to study the most effective parameters on aforementioned liquids. Through the application of variance analysis (ANOVA) factors critical to removing of lead were identified for each experimental design response. Maximum adsorption capacity of eggshell was achieved as 923mgg(-1) for Pb(II). The obtained optimum conditions were applied to drinks. Results showed that used adsorbent was quite effective in removing Pb(II) from drinks.

  19. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  20. TEM and HRTEM studies of ball milled 6061 aluminium alloy powder with Zr addition.

    PubMed

    Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L; Dutkiewicz, J; Maziarz, W; Rogal, Ł

    2010-03-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying on the microstructure of atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with a zirconium addition was studied in the work. The atomized 6061 aluminium alloy powder and 6061 powder with addition of 2 wt.% Zr were milled in a planetary ball mill and investigated using X-ray diffraction measurements, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. An increase of stresses was observed in milled powders after the refinement of crystallites beyond 100 nm. In the powder with zirconium addition, some part of the Zr atoms diffused in aluminium forming a solid solution containing up to 0.5 wt.% Zr. The remaining was found to form Zr-rich particles containing up to 88 wt.% Zr and were identified as face centred cubic (fcc) phase with lattice constant a= 0.48 nm. That fcc phase partially transformed into the L1(2) ordered phase. Eighty-hour milling brought an increase of microhardness (measured with Vickers method) from about 50 HV (168 MPa) for the initial 6061 powder to about 170 HV (552 MPa). The addition of zirconium had no influence on the microhardness.

  1. Hallux valgus: comparative study between two surgical techniques of proximal addition osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro; de Araujo, Bruno Vierno; Franco, Nelson; Hita, Roberto Minoru

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clinically and radiographically compare the results of treatment of hallux valgus, by two addition osteotomy techniques: one using resected exostosis, and the other using a plate fixation for addition wedge. METHODS: We evaluated 24 feet of 19 patients, mean age 51.3 years, affected by hallux valgus, with a mean follow-up of 50.1 months. 13 feet underwent addition osteotomy with resected exostosis (AORE) and 11 patients (11 feet) underwent addition osteotomy with plate (AOP). The AOFAS score, intermetatarsal 1 and 2 angles, and hallux valgus angle were evaluated before and after surgery. RESULTS: In the AORE technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 46.6, with IMA 14o and HVA 32o, while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 81.3, with IMA 9o and HVA 25o, and 92.3% satisfactory results. In the AOP technique, the mean preoperative AOFAS was 42.1, with IMA 15o and HVA 29o while in the postoperative AOFAS it was 77.4, with IMA 11o and HVA 23o and 81.8% of satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques proved to be effective in the treatment of hallux valgus, both clinically and radiografically, with no statistical difference between them. Level of evidence III, Retrospective comparative study. PMID:24453631

  2. A review of health utilities using the EQ-5D in studies of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D has been extensively used to assess patient utility in trials of new treatments within the cardiovascular field. The aims of this study were to review evidence of the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D, and to summarise utility scores based on the use of the EQ-5D in clinical trials and in studies of patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods A structured literature search was conducted using keywords related to cardiovascular disease and EQ-5D. Original research studies of patients with cardiovascular disease that reported EQ-5D results and its measurement properties were included. Results Of 147 identified papers, 66 met the selection criteria, with 10 studies reporting evidence on validity or reliability and 60 reporting EQ-5D responses (VAS or self-classification). Mean EQ-5D index-based scores ranged from 0.24 (SD 0.39) to 0.90 (SD 0.16), while VAS scores ranged from 37 (SD 21) to 89 (no SD reported). Stratification of EQ-5D index scores by disease severity revealed that scores decreased from a mean of 0.78 (SD 0.18) to 0.51 (SD 0.21) for mild to severe disease in heart failure patients and from 0.80 (SD 0.05) to 0.45 (SD 0.22) for mild to severe disease in angina patients. Conclusions The published evidence generally supports the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D as an outcome measure within the cardiovascular area. This review provides utility estimates across a range of cardiovascular subgroups and treatments that may be useful for future modelling of utilities and QALYs in economic evaluations within the cardiovascular area. PMID:20109189

  3. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  4. Nipple-areolar Complex Reconstruction following Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Utility Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Sinno, Hani H.; Izadpanah, Ali; Vorstenbosch, Joshua; Dionisopoulos, Tassos; Mureau, Marc A. M.; Tobias, Adam M.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction occurs toward the final stage of breast reconstruction; however, not all women follow through with these procedures. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the health state burden of living with a reconstructed breast before NAC reconstruction. Methods: A sample of the population and medical students at McGill University were recruited to establish the utility scores [visual analog scale (VAS), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG)] of living with an NAC deformity. Utility scores for monocular and binocular blindness were determined for validation and comparison. Linear regression and Student’s t test were used for statistical analysis, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There were 103 prospective volunteers included. Utility scores (VAS, TTO, and SG) for NAC deformity were 0.84 ± 0.18, 0.92 ± 0.11, and 0.92 ± 0.11, respectively. Age, gender, and ethnicity were not statistically significant independent predictors of utility scores. Income thresholds of <$10,000 and >$10,000 revealed a statistically significant difference for VAS (P = 0.049) and SG (P = 0.015). Linear regression analysis showed that medical education was directly proportional to the SG and TTO scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The absence of NAC in a reconstructed breast can be objectively assessed using utility scores (VAS, 0.84 ± 0.18; TTO, 0.92 ± 0.11; SG, 0.92 ± 0.11). In comparison to prior reported conditions, the quality of life in patients choosing to undergo NAC reconstruction is similar to that of persons living with a nasal deformity or an aging neck requiring rejuvenation. PMID:25973358

  5. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  6. Toledo Public Schools School Utilization Study, 1980-81 School Year. 2nd Year Study. Elementary School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    In response to declining student enrollment, the Toledo, Ohio public school system conducted a school utilization study involving the evaluation of eight categories of achievement. These categories were: (1) educational adequacy as determined by the ability of the facility to meet the requirements of a good instructional program; (2) an overview…

  7. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation.

  8. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  9. Utilization of capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (CE/MSn) for the study of anthocyanin dyes.

    PubMed

    Bednár, Petr; Papousková, Barbora; Müller, Lukás; Barták, Petr; Stávek, Jan; Pavlousek, Pavel; Lemr, Karel

    2005-08-01

    Hyphenation of capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was utilized for the monitoring of anthocyanins in wine and wine musts. CE/MS was performed in two electrolytes: 1) an acidic one (chloroacetate-ammonium, pH 2) and 2) a basic one with high selectivity towards derivatives containing vicinal hydroxy groups (borate-ammonium, pH 9). The setup of MS was optimized and the fragmentation of common anthocyanins was studied in detail. Attention was also focused on the fragmentation of anthocyanidin skeleton. The anthocyanidins substituted with hydroxy groups fragment via a cascade of neutral losses of water and carbon monoxide. Fragmentation of anthocyanidins containing a methoxy group on their B-ring starts with the cleavage of methane and/or methyl radical. The optimized method was utilized for the monitoring of changes in anthocyanin profile in red wines as well as the process of release of anthocyanins to wine must.

  10. The Utility of Neuroimaging Studies for Informing Educational Practice and Policy in Reading Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica M.; Myers, Chelsea A.; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers from neuroscience, psychology, and education to explore the neurocognitive processes underlying educational practice and theory. In this brief article, we take reading disorder (RD, also known as developmental dyslexia) as an example, and explore trends in neuroimaging research, which may have future implications for educational practice and policy. Specifically, we present two examples that have been central to research efforts in our laboratory: (a) utilizing multimodal neuroimaging to optimize criteria to diagnose RD, and (b) identifying neuroimaging markers that predict future academic outcomes. Such research is faced with important challenges, and rigorous validation is necessary before any claims of the widespread practical utility of neuroimaging can be made. Nevertheless, we contend that neuroimaging studies offer opportunities for providing critical information that could lead to advancing theory of reading and RD. This could in turn lead to better diagnostic criteria and more accurate and earlier identification of RD. PMID:25732015

  11. Understanding the health care utilization of children who require medical technology: A descriptive study of children who require tracheostomies.

    PubMed

    Spratling, Regena

    2017-04-01

    Children who require medical technology have complex chronic illnesses. This medical technology, including ventilators, oximeters, tracheostomy tubes, and feeding tubes, allows children and their families to live at home; however, the management of the children's care by informal caregivers is complex with the need for intensive, specialized care. The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics that affect health care utilization in a population of children who require medical technology. A retrospective electronic health record (EHR) review was completed on the EHR records on 171 children who require medical technology, specifically tracheostomies, at an outpatient technology dependent pulmonary clinic over a three year period (January 2010-December 2012). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including medical diagnoses, and emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Of the 171 children requiring medical technology studied, there were numerous medical diagnoses (n=791), 99% had chronic illnesses affecting two or more body systems, and 88% required two or more technologies, including a tracheostomy and a feeding tube. In addition, 91% of the children had at least one ED visit or hospitalization and were treated in the ED approximately three times over the three year period. The findings from this study noted an increased utilization of health care by these children, and identified common symptoms and medical technologies for which caregivers may need interventions, focusing on education in managing symptoms and medical technology prior to presentation to the ED or hospital.

  12. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  13. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; ...

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  14. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  15. Couples Counseling in Alzheimer’s Disease: Additional Clinical Findings from a Novel Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    AUCLAIR, URSULA; EPSTEIN, CYNTHIA; MITTELMAN, MARY

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the clinical findings of a study designed to assess the benefit of counseling for couples, one of whom is in the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported our findings based on the first 12 couples that enrolled in the study. Based on the treatment of 30 additional couples, we have refined our treatment strategy to include concepts of Gestalt Therapy and Transactional Analysis and identified prevalent issues of concern to this cohort. The study design has remained as described in the earlier article (Epstein et al., 2006), and has proven to be appropriate to meet the goals of this intervention as indicated by our clinical experience and feedback from the participating couples. Case vignettes demonstrate how to conduct the sessions so that the experience of each member of the dyad is validated, while acknowledging the differential impact of the disease on them. PMID:19865591

  16. Empirical study of the relationships between financial leverage and capital costs for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gapenski, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    A major element in utility regulation is the setting of just and reasonable allowed rates of return. This rate is a weighted average of the costs of the types of capital employed by the firm, and the weights should reflect the firm's target capital structure. The information required to set the target, or optimal, capital structure includes the relationships between the component costs of capital and the amount of financial leverage used. The primary objective of this study is to empirically estimate the relationships between financial leverage and the costs of common equity and debt for electric utilities. Two different approaches were used to estimate the relationships. First, an econometric model was developed with the component cost as the dependent variable and leverage as the independent variable. Other factors were included as independent variables to account for nonconstant business risk. Second, a model was developed using the bond-rating guidelines and bond yields reported by Standard and Poor's Corporation. The data set consisted of about 73 electric utilities for 1983 and 1984. The results indicated a strong positive relationship between financial leverage and the costs of debt and equity.

  17. A study of blood utilization in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ambroise, M. Moses; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Ramdas, Anita; Sekhar, Ganthimathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring blood utilization helps in effective management of blood stock to meet present and future demands in a hospital. Hence, we analyzed the age, gender and frequency distribution of each blood product used in different diseases conditions. Materials and Methods: We included all blood products utilized from January 2008 to December 2012 in our tertiary care hospital in South India. The primary and secondary discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases [ICD-10]) were matched with clinical information provided in the request forms. The most relevant indication requiring blood transfusion was selected for each recipient and grouped into broad diagnostic categories according to the headings of ICD-10. The utilization of stored whole blood, packed red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets was stratified according to age, gender and diagnosis. Results: Our results indicated decline in usage of whole blood and an increase in use of FFP and platelets over the years. While packed RBCs were frequently used for treating injury and poisoning conditions, platelets and FFP were preferred for infectious and parasitic diseases. Various blood products were used less frequently in patients aged over 60 years and the overall usage of blood products was higher in males. Conclusion: The patterns of blood products utilization is in contrast to the Western nations, which may be due to difference in age structure among Indian population and higher prevalence of infectious diseases such as Dengue in our region. Nevertheless, this study highlights the importance of understanding the epidemiology of blood transfusion locally to improve usage of blood and blood products. PMID:25810645

  18. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV).

  19. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  20. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706.

  1. Cancer incidence among population utilizing geothermal hot water: a census-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to assess whether utilization of geothermal hot-water is associated with risk of cancer. The cohort from census was followed from 1981 to 2010 in nation-wide death and cancer registries. The moving apart of American-Eurasian tectonic plates, observed in Iceland, results in high volcanic activity. The definition of the study populations was based on geological information. The target population was inhabitants of communities located on bedrock younger than 3.3 million years, utilizing hot-water supply generated from geothermal wells since 1972. The two reference populations were inhabitants of communities without this hot-water supply located on areas with less volcanic/geothermal activity, and bedrock older than 3.3 million years. Hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age, gender, education, housing, reproductive factors and smoking. HR in the geothermal hot-water supply areas for all cancer was 1.15 (95% CI 1.05-1.25) as compared with nongeothermal areas. The HR for breast cancer was 1.40 (1.12-1.75), prostate cancer 1.61 (1.29-2.00), kidney cancer 1.64 (1.11-2.41), lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue cancers 1.45 (1.08-1.95), and for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin 1.46 (1.16-1.82). Positive exposure-response relations were observed between the risk of these cancers and the degree of volcanic/geothermal activity in the reference areas. Increased incidence of all cancers, breast, prostate, kidney cancer and BCC of the skin was found among the population utilizing geothermal hot-water for decades. More precise information on exposure is needed in future studies.

  2. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  3. Study of Utilization of Automotive Diesel Glow Plug as AN IR Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.

    2013-06-01

    Glow plugs are used in commercially available Diesel engines to assist in cold weather starting. These devices are an Infrared source that are consistent in their function and inexpensive. The operational temperature of a glow plug is in the lower range of globar operational temperatures (1100 C) but is still potentially spectroscopically useful. This study seeks to characterize these devices with respect to their utility as an infrared emission source. The spectral response of the glow plug to input current variation was measured as was the temporal stability of the emission spectrum. Finally, comparisions are made between the emission spectra of glow plugs and globars.

  4. Rate Constants of Hydroperoxyl Radical Addition to Cyclic Nitrones: A DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Villamena, Frederick A.; Merle, John K.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Zweier*, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones are potential synthetic antioxidants against the reduction of radical-mediated oxidative damage in cells, and as analytical reagent for the identification of HO2• and other such transient species. In this work, the PCM/B3LYP/6−31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6−31G(d) and PCM/mPW1K/6−31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) methods were employed to predict the reactivity of HO2• with various functionalized nitrones as spin traps. The calculated second-order rate constants and free energies of reaction at both levels of theory were in the range of 100−103 M−1 s−1 and 1 to −12 kcal mol−1, respectively, and the rate constants for some nitrones are on the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally. The trend in HO2• reactivity to nitrones could not be explained solely on the basis of the relationship of the theoretical positive charge densities on the nitronyl-C, with their respective ionization potentials, electron affinities, rate constants, or free energies of reaction. However, various modes of intramolecular H-bonding interaction were observed at the transition state (TS) structures of HO2• addition to nitrones. The presence of intramolecular H-bonding interactions in the transition states were predicted and may play a significant role towards a facile addition of HO2• to nitrones. In general, HO2• addition to ethoxycarbonyl- and spirolactam- substituted nitrones, as well as those nitrones without electron-withdrawing substituents, such as 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and 5-spirocyclopentyl-pyrroline N-oxide (CPPO), are most preferred compared to the methylcarbamoyl-substituted nitrones. This study suggests that the use of specific spin traps for efficient trapping of HO2• could pave the way toward improved radical detection and antioxidant protection. PMID:17845014

  5. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  6. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  7. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-02

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements.

  8. A Study On the Drug Utilization Trends in the Cardiovascular Emergencies in A Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pendhari, Shabbir Rafiq; Chaudhari, Devendra Ramesh; Burute, Shreyas Ramchandra; Bite, Bapurao Motiram

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the cardiovascular emergencies which were most frequently treated and to quantify the drug utilization trends in the cardiovascular emergencies, in terms of the Defined Daily Doses [DDD] and the prescribing prevalence in the cardiovascular emergencies. Methods: This prescription based study was undertaken in the Medicine ICU of the government medical hospital. The age, sex, diagnosis (only cardiovascular) and the drugs which were prescribed, were recorded for each patient. Also, the brand names and the generic names of the prescribed drugs were noted. The collected data was analyzed to study the drug utilization trends. Results: It was observed that the most commonly treated cardiovascular disease was IHD. The IHD was more in males than in females who were below 50 years of age and it was nearly equal in the age groups which were above 50 years. The use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors was higher than that of the beta blockers and the calcium channel blockers. The patients with cardiovascular emergencies also had preceding associated diseases like diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Conclusions: The protocol of the management which was followed by the college in the treatment of cardiovascular emergencies was competent enough, as the clinical outcomes of the patients were favourable. But there was a guideline incongruent prescribing behaviour which was statistically significant, for which there is a need to undertake large scale studies. PMID:23730642

  9. Calculus detection calibration among dental hygiene faculty members utilizing dental endoscopy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time.

  10. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.

  11. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  12. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  13. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  14. Ribotyping as an additional molecular marker for studying Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Tondella, M L; Sacchi, C T; Neves, B C

    1994-01-01

    The molecular method of ribotyping was used as an additional epidemiological marker to study the epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, referred to as the ET-5 complex, responsible for the epidemic which occurred in greater São Paulo, Brazil. Ribotyping analysis of these strains showed only a single rRNA gene restriction pattern (Rb1), obtained with ClaI restriction enzyme. This method, as well as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, provided useful information about the clonal characteristics of the N. meningitidis serogroup B strains isolated during this epidemic. The N. meningitidis serogroup B isolates obtained from epidemics which occurred in Norway, Chile, and Cuba also demonstrated the same pattern (Rb1). Ribotyping was a procedure which could be applied to a large number of isolates and was felt to be appropriate for routine use in laboratories, especially because of the convenience of using nonradioactive probes. Images PMID:7852566

  15. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  16. Modular system for studying tonal sound excitation in resonators with heat addition and mean flow.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Konstantin I; Hernandez, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    An educational experimental system has been developed for studying tonal sound generation in acoustic resonators. Tones are excited by either heat addition or vortex shedding in the presence of mean flow. The system construction is straightforward and inexpensive. Several test arrangements and experimental data are described in this paper. The experimental setups include a modified Rijke tube, a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine, a baffled tube with mean flow, and an acoustic energy harvester with a piezoelement. Simplified mathematical models for interpreting data are discussed, and references are provided to literature with more advanced analyses. The developed system can assist both graduate and undergraduate students in understanding acoustic instabilities via conducting and analyzing interesting experiments.

  17. Mössbauer spectroscopy: an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, R. E.; Hus, J. J.; de Grave, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery a half century ago of the resonant gamma absorption, known as the Mössbauer effect, the derived spectroscopic method (MS) has proven to be a very suitable tool for the characterization of soil and rock minerals. From the conventional absorption spectra of iron containing compounds, so-called hyperfine parameters are derived which are more or less typical for each kind of mineral. So, MS has a certain analytical power for the characterization of iron-bearing minerals. This is especially true for magnetic minerals for which the spectrum contains an additional hyperfine parameter. Moreover, MS also allows retrieving information about the magnetic structure and behavior. Because the relative area of the spectra is to some extent proportional to the amount of iron atoms in their environment, MS yields not only quantitative information about the various minerals present but also about the iron in the different crystallographic sites. The power of MS as an excellent additional tool for the study of magnetic soils and sediments could be well demonstrated in the joint research with Jozef Hus (CPG-IRM, Dourbes). In our common work, the emphasis went mainly to the study of Chinese loess and soils. Using MS on magnetically separated samples the various magnetic species in a loess and its associated soil were for the first time discerned in a direct way. Further, magnetically enriched samples of four different loess/paleosol couplets from a loess sequence in Huangling have been systematically investigated by MS. From the obtained qualitative and quantitative information the neoformation of magnetite/maghemite in the soils, responsible for the increased observed remanence and susceptibility, could be evidenced.

  18. Spin-probe ESR and molecular modeling studies on calcium carbonate dispersions in overbased detergent additives.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Luciano; Frigerio, Francesco

    2010-08-15

    Oil-soluble calcium carbonate colloids are used as detergent additives in lubricating oils. They are colloidal dispersions of calcium carbonate particles stabilized by different surfactants; in this study alkyl-aryl-sulfonates and sulfurized alkyl-phenates, widely used in the synthesis of these additives, are considered. The physical properties of surfactant layers surrounding the surfaces of calcium carbonate particles were analyzed by using some nitroxide spin-probes (stable free radicals) and observing the corresponding ESR spectra. The spin-probe molecules contain polar groups which tend to tether them to the carbonate particle polar surface. They can reach these surfaces only if the surfactant layers are not very compact, hence the relative amounts of spin-probe molecules accessing carbonate surfaces are an index of the compactness of surfactant core. ESR signals of spin-probe molecules dissolved in oil or "locked" near the carbonate surfaces are different because of the different molecular mobility. Through deconvolution of the ESR spectra, the fraction of spin-probes penetrating surfactant shells have been calculated, and differences were observed according to the surfactant molecular structures. Moreover, by using specially labeled spin-probes based on stearic acids, functionalized at different separations from the carboxylic acid group, it was possible to interrogate the molecular physical behavior of surfactant shells at different distances from carbonate surfaces. Molecular modeling was applied to generate some three-dimensional micellar models of the colloidal stabilizations of the stabilized carbonate particles with different molecular structures of the surfactant. The diffusion of spin-probe molecules into the surfactant shells were studied by applying a starting force to push the molecules towards the carbonate surfaces and then observing the ensuing behavior. The simulations are in accordance with the ESR data and show that the geometrical

  19. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  20. Neuroleptic drug utilization in out-patients--a prescription database study.

    PubMed Central

    Rosholm, J U; Hansen, L J; Hallas, J; Gram, L F

    1993-01-01

    1 A prescription database study was conducted to describe the out-patient utilization of neuroleptics in the Odense area (207,000 inhabitants) during a period of 1 year. 2 Neuroleptic drug use is widespread, the period prevalence being 2.45% of the population. 3 The prevalence increases with increasing age. Fifteen percent of the population aged 90 years or more received neuroleptic drugs in spite of the many warnings against side effects in the elderly. 4 Estimated daily doses of neuroleptics were considerably lower than the Defined Daily Dose, probably as a reflection of many neuroleptics being prescribed to non-psychotic patients, in whom lower doses are used. 5 For perphenazine, a comparison of estimated daily doses from this study with doses from patients whose treatment had been adjusted by plasma concentration monitoring showed that generally much lower doses were used by patients included in this study. PMID:12959276

  1. Utilizing Web-Based Case Studies for Cutting-Edge Information Services Issues: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Deborah Lynn; Li, Xiaodong

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a pilot study conducted to determine whether the benefits of the case study method as a training framework for change initiatives in academic libraries could successfully transfer from traditional instruction to a virtual Web-based format. Presents results of a survey that evaluated the study and showed positive feedback. (Author/LRW)

  2. ToHajiilee Economic Development, Inc.(TEDI) Feasibility Study for Utility-Scale Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Burpo, Rob

    2012-02-29

    To Hajiilee Economic Development, Inc. (TEDI) is the economic development entity representing the ToHajiilee Chapter of the Navajo Nation, also known as the Caoncito Band of Navajo (CBN). Using DOE funding, TEDI assembled a team of qualified advisors to conduct a feasibility study for a utility-scale 30 MW Photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation facility on TEDI trust lands. The goal for this project has been to gather information and practical business commitments to successfully complete the feasibility analysis. The TEDI approach was to successively make informed decisions to select an appropriate technology best suited to the site, determine environmental viability of the site, secure options for the sale of generated power, determine practicality of transmission and interconnection of power to the local grid, and secure preliminary commitments on project financing. The feasibility study has been completed and provides TEDI with a practical understanding of its business options in moving forward with developing a solar project on CBN tribal lands. Funding from DOE has allowed TEDI and its team of professional advisors to carefully select technology and business partners and build a business model to develop this utility-scale solar project. As a result of the positive feasibility findings, TEDI is moving forward with finalizing all pre-construction activities for its major renewable energy project.

  3. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  4. Course of psychiatric comorbidity and utilization of mental health care after laryngeal cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Keszte, J; Danker, H; Dietz, A; Meister, E; Pabst, F; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Oeken, J; Singer, S; Meyer, A

    2017-03-01

    In a German multi-center prospective cohort study, we wanted to assess the course of psychiatric comorbidity, utilization of mental health care and psychosocial care needs in laryngeal cancer patients during the first year after partial laryngectomy (PRL). Structured interviews with patients were conducted before surgery, 1 week (1 w), 3 months (3 m) and 1 year (12 m) after PRL. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Psychosocial care needs and utilization of mental health care were evaluated with standardized face-to-face interviews. In 176 patients, psychiatric disorders were prevalent in 11 % (1 w), 15 % (3 m) and 14 % (12 m), respectively, of which 4 % (12 m) underwent psychiatric treatment or psychotherapy. Two percent had acute, 15 % emerging and 6 % chronic psychiatric comorbidity. Chronically mental ill patients were more frequently younger than 65 years (p = 0.026), female (p = 0.045) and experienced more often a need for psychological counseling (p ≤ 0.001). One year after surgery, 27 % of the comorbid psychiatric patients expressed a need for additional psychological counseling. Alcohol-related disorders were diagnosed in 3 % (1 w), 3 % (3 m) and 8 % (12 m), respectively. Only one of these patients received psychological treatment, while 14 % expressed a need for psychological counseling and 7 % for additional medical consultations. The non-treatment of alcohol-related disorders measured in our sample indicates a major problem since continued alcohol consumption in laryngeal cancer patients is associated with reduced global quality of life, increased functional impairments and reduced overall survival. Screening instruments integrated into acute care are necessary to detect harmful drinking behavior.

  5. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  6. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  7. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  8. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-02

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer.

  10. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  11. An fMRI study of magnitude comparison and exact addition in children.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Gatenby, J Christopher; Warton, Christopher; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Gore, John C; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2010-04-01

    By contrast to the adult literature, in which a consistent parietofrontal network for number processing has been identified, the data from studies of number processing in children have been less consistent, probably due to differences in study design and control conditions. Number processing was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 right-handed children (8-12 years) from the Cape Coloured community in Cape Town, South Africa, using Proximity Judgment and Exact Addition (EA) tasks. The findings were consistent with the hypothesis that, as in adults, the anterior horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) plays a major role in the representation and manipulation of quantity in children. The posterior medial frontal cortex, believed to be involved in performance monitoring in more complex arithmetic manipulations in adults, was extensively activated even for relatively simple symbolic number processing in the children. Other areas activated to a greater degree in the children included the left precentral sulcus, which may mediate number knowledge and, for EA, the head of the caudate nucleus, which is part of a fronto-subcortical circuit involved in the behavioral execution of sequences. Two regions that have been linked to number processing in adults - the angular gyrus and posterior superior parietal lobule - were not activated in the children. The data are consistent with the inference that although the functional specialization of the anterior HIPS may increase as symbolic number processing becomes increasingly automatic, this region and other elements of the parietofrontal network identified in adults are already reliably and robustly activated by middle childhood.

  12. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  13. Project hindsight. A Defense Department study of the utility of research.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, C W; Isenson, R S

    1967-06-23

    Recently developed weapon systems were compared with systems of similar function in use 10 to 20 years earlier. The most significant finding was that the improvement in performance or reduction in cost is largely the synergistic effect of a large number of scientific and technological innovations, of which only about 10 percent had been made at the time the earlier system was designed. The common scientific and technological base of the systems was not analyzed. Of the innovations, or Events, 9 percent were classified as science and 91 percent as technology. Ninety-five percent of all Events were funded by the defense sector. Nearly 95 percent were motivated by a recognized defense need. Only 0.3 percent came from undirected science. The results of the study do not call in question the value of undirected science on the 50-year-or-more time scale. In light of our finding that 5 to 10 years are often required before even a piece of highly applied research is "fitted in" as an effective contributing member of a large assembly of other Events, it is not surprising that "fragments" of undirected science are infrequently utilized on even a 20-year time scale. The most obvious way in which undirected science appears to enter into technology and utilization on a substantial scale seems to be in the compressed, highly organized form of a well-established, clearly expressed general theory, or in the evaluated, ordered knowledge of handbooks, textbooks, and university courses.

  14. A Survey of Bandwidth Utilization: Case Study of Federal University of Technology Minna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, A.; Bello Salau, H.; Aibinu, A. M.; Onwuka, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    The effective utilization of the limited scarce bandwidth resources allocated by a spectrum regulator usually the Nigerian Communications Commissions (NCC) in Nigeria universities is paramount in maximizing the usage of the expensive scarce bandwidth resources. A significant bandwidth allocation is needed in order to meet up with the challenges of the day and the task of networking, communicating and reaching the word in our universities. Therefore, bandwidth management becomes necessary and essential. This paper contributes in that direction by surveying the bandwidth utilization at Federal University of Technology Minna campus with the hope of proffering a general solution that can be adopted in Nigerian universities for effective bandwidth management. Also, factors that hindered the development of most Nigeria universities are also examined. The federal university of technology minna which is structured like all other universities in the country in terms of the bandwidth requirement was choosing as a case study for this research work. Furthermore, some policies which can be adopted in order to effectively manage the scarce bandwidth resources in Nigerian universities are also proposed.

  15. Theoretical study of ignition reactions of linear symmetrical monoethers as potential diesel fuel additives: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrouni, Karim El; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Kaliaguine, Serge

    This work investigates the chemical reactivity of four linear symmetrical monoethers with molecular oxygen. Such oxygenated compounds may be considered as potential diesel fuel additives in order to reduce the ignition delay in diesel fuel engines. For this purpose, a kinetic study is proposed to clarify the relation between the molecular structure of the fuel molecule and its ignition properties. To this end, DFT calculations were performed for these reactions using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and BH&HLYP/6-311G(d,p) to determine structures, energies, and vibrational frequencies of stationary points as well as activated complexes involved in each gas-phase combustion initiation reaction of the monoethers CH3OCH3, C2H5OC2H5, C3H7OC3H7, or C4H9OC4H9 with molecular oxygen. This theoretical kinetic study was carried out using electronic structure results and the transition state theory, to assess the rate constants for all studied combustion reactions. As it has been shown in our previous work [Abou-Rachid et al., J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003, 621, 293], the cetane number (CN) of a pure organic molecule depends on the initiation rate of its homogeneous gas-phase reaction with molecular oxygen. Indeed, the calculated initiation rate constants of the H-abstraction process of linear monoethers with O2 show a very good correlation with experimental CN data of these pure compounds at T D 1,000 K. This temperature is representative of the operating conditions of a diesel fuel engine.0

  16. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Utility of a human-mouse xenograft model and in vivo near-infrared fluorescent imaging for studying wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; Tassi, Elena; Schmidt, Marcel O; McNish, Sean; Baker, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher; Wang, Hong; Shara, Nawar; Wellstein, Anton

    2015-12-01

    To study the complex cellular interactions involved in wound healing, it is essential to have an animal model that adequately mimics the human wound microenvironment. Currently available murine models are limited because wound contraction introduces bias into wound surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate utility of a human-mouse xenograft model for studying human wound healing. Normal human skin was harvested from elective abdominoplasty surgery, xenografted onto athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, and allowed to engraft for 3 months. The graft was then wounded using a 2-mm punch biopsy. Wounds were harvested on sequential days to allow tissue-based markers of wound healing to be followed sequentially. On the day of wound harvest, mice were injected with XenoLight RediJect cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) probe and imaged according to package instructions. Immunohistochemistry confirms that this human-mouse xenograft model is effective for studying human wound healing in vivo. Additionally, in vivo fluorescent imaging for inducible COX-2 demonstrated upregulation from baseline to day 4 (P = 0·03) with return to baseline levels by day 10, paralleling the reepithelialisation of the wound. This human-mouse xenograft model, combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging provides a useful mechanism for studying molecular pathways of human wound healing.

  18. Cost-utility analysis of stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma V; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Richards, Toby; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M; Brown, Martin M

    2017-01-01

    Background The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) was a multicentre randomised trial in which patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly allocated to treatment by carotid stenting or endarterectomy. Economic evidence comparing these treatments is limited and inconsistent. Aims We compared the cost-effectiveness of stenting versus endarterectomy using ICSS data. Methods We performed a cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient for both treatments over a five-year time horizon based on resource use data and utility values collected in the trial. Costs of managing stroke events were estimated using individual patient data from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Results Mean costs per patient (95% CI) were US$10 477 ($9669 to $11 285) in the stenting group (N=853) and $9669 ($8835 to $10 504) in the endarterectomy group (N=857).There were no differences in mean QALYs per patient (3.247 (3.160 to 3.333) and 3.228 (3.150 to 3.306), respectively). There were no differences in adjusted costs between groups (mean incremental costs for stenting versus endarterectomy $736 (95% CI -$353 to $1826)) or adjusted outcomes (mean QALYs gained -0.010 (95% CI -0.117 to 0.097)). The incremental net monetary benefit for stenting versus endarterectomy was not significantly different from zero at the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK. Sensitivity analyses showed little uncertainty in these findings. Conclusions Economic considerations should not affect whether patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergo stenting or endarterectomy. PMID:26880056

  19. Utilization of psychiatric inpatient care in Greece: a nationwide study (1984-1996).

    PubMed

    Madianos, M G; Zacharakis, C; Tsitsa, C

    2000-01-01

    This report examines the trends in the utilization of psychiatric inpatient care for the period 1984-1996, when the implementation of the psychiatric reform programme was initiated in Greece. Admissions in public mental hospitals declined by 7.2%. However discharges have been increased by 30.6% with a parallel decrease of the length of stay by 53.7% followed by an increase in discharges of patients diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia and affective psychoses by 61.1% and 123.8% respectively. In the private sector a remarkable reduction in both admissions and discharges was noticed. Admissions in psychiatric departments of general hospitals for the same years have been increased by 1054.1%. It seems that the recent deinstitutionalization process resulted in increasing trends in the discharges of patients suffering from psychoses. Additionally, a substantial increase in the number of extramural psychiatric services and rehabilitation places between 1994-1996 was observed. The demand for the mental health care services expressed as the urbanization index was found to be related with mental health professionals and the extramural units ratios. The higher degree of urbanism is, the greater the number of extramural services exist. The models explained variance reached 50.6%.

  20. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  1. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  2. Meiofaunal and bacterial community response to diesel additions in a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-03-01

    Effects of low PAH-containing diesel were studied in a 60-day microcosm experiment at PAH concentrations 130, 1300 and 13,000μg/kg sediment. Nutrient fluxes, potential nitrification and meiofaunal community composition were analysed at three time points. Changed ∑NOx-fluxes indicated reduced sediment nitrification in Medium and High with time, in agreement with lowered potential nitrification rates in all treatments. Reduction in silicate and phosphate fluxes over time suggested severe effects on activity of meiofauna. Reduced activity increased the anoxic sediment layer, which could have contributed to the changed ∑NOx-fluxes. There were significant differences in meiofaunal community composition after 30 and 60days in Medium and High. Changes were due to increasing numbers of harpacticoids and the foraminiferan group Rotaliina, as well as decreasing numbers of Nematodes and the foraminiferan group Reophax. In spite of the low PAH-level, small additions of this diesel can still have pronounced effects on meiofaunal and bacterial communities.

  3. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  4. Tackling missing data in community health studies using additive LS-SVM classifier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanjin; Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2016-12-01

    Missing data is a common issue in community health and epidemiological studies. Direct removal of samples with missing data can lead to reduced sample size and information bias, which deteriorates the significance of the results. While data imputation methods are available to deal with missing data, they are limited in performance and could introduce noises into the dataset. Instead of data imputation, a novel method based on additive least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed in this paper for predictive modeling when the input features of the model contain missing data. The method also determines simultaneously the influence of the features with missing values on the classification accuracy using the fast leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. The performance of the method is evaluated by applying it to predict the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people using health data collected in the community. The dataset involves demographics, socioeconomic status, health history and the outcomes of health assessments of 444 community-dwelling elderly people, with 5% to 60% of data missing in some of the input features. The QOL is measured using a standard questionnaire of the World Health Organization. Results show that the proposed method outperforms four conventional methods for handling missing data - case deletion, feature deletion, mean imputation and K-nearest neighbor imputation, with the average QOL prediction accuracy reaching 0.7418. It is potentially a promising technique for tackling missing data in community health research and other applications.

  5. Feasibility study on the utilization of rubber latex effluent for producing bacterial biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Tang, S N; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    Rubber latex effluent is a polluting source that has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). It is estimated that about 100 million liters of effluent are discharged daily from rubber processing factories. Utilization of this effluent such as the use of a coupled system not only can reduce the cost of treatment but also yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of bioplastic. This study initially was carried out to increase the production of organic acids by anaerobic treatment of rubber latex effluent. It was found that through anaerobic treatment the concentration of organic acids did not increase. Consequently, separation of organic acids from rubber latex effluent by anion exchange resin was examined as a preliminary study of recovering acetic and propionic acids. However, the suspended solids (SS) content in the raw effluent was rather high which partially blocked the ion-exchange columns. Lime was used to remove the SS in the rubber latex effluent. After the lime precipitation process, organic acids were found to adsorb strongly onto the anion exchange resin. Less adsorption of organic acids onto the resin was observed before the lime precipitation. This was probably due to more sites being occupied by colloidal particles on the resin thus inhibiting the adsorption of organic acids. The initial concentration of organic acids in the raw effluent was 3.9 g/L. After ion exchange, the concentration of the organic acids increased to 27 g/L, which could be utilized for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). For PHA accumulation stage, concentrated rubber latex effluent obtained from ion exchange resins and synthetic acetic acid were used as the carbon source. Quantitative analyses from fed batch culture via HPLC showed that the accumulation of PHA in Alcaligenes eutrophus was maximum with a concentration of 1.182 g/L when cultivated on synthetic acetic acid, corresponding to a yield of 87% based on its cell dry weight. The dry cell weight increased from

  6. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  7. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Immobilized E. coli alkaline phosphatase. Its properties, stability, and utility in studying the dephosphorylation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Basheeruddin, K; Rothman, V; Margolis, S

    1985-04-01

    We have immobilized E. coli alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) by linking it covalently to sepharose 4B. This preparation has several advantages over the soluble enzyme. The immobilized enzyme is easily separable from other constituents in incubation mixtures. The immobilized enzyme can be reused repeatedly and is more stable than the soluble enzyme to heat treatment in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+. The insoluble and soluble phosphatases removed 75 and 77%, respectively, of the inorganic phosphorus from casein. The immobilized enzyme inactivated two enzymes believed to be active in the phosphorylated state, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) by 39% and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase by 89%. The utility of immobilized alkaline phosphatase for studying the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of soluble or membrane-bound enzymes and proteins is discussed.

  9. When do Latinos use hospice services? Studying the utilization of hospice services by Hispanics/Latinos.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Iraida V

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the utilization of hospice services within the Latino community including both hospice and non-hospice users. Data were collected from 20 participants using semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were examined through a combination of ethnographic, open coding, and thematic categorization of the interviewees' responses. The research uncovers cultural factors that contribute to the underutilization of hospice services by this population. The findings indicate that hospice users learned about their terminal diagnosis during a hospital admission from an attending physician. When hospice services were offered, these individuals accepted the services. Conversely, all of the non-hospice users learned about their terminal diagnosis in a medical office setting from their primary physician. When they were offered hospice services, they refused the services.

  10. A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United States, there is a need to develop rigorous acculturation measures that include health indicators. Findings suggest that multidimensional acculturation scales are robust measurement tools when assessing nationality, cultural awareness, media and language preferences, and health status. Furthermore, aspects of Hispanic cultural lifestyle, such as beliefs about nutrition and physical activity, affect health care utilization, treatment, and prevention. Health communication researchers should consider aspects of cultural values and beliefs, and their impact on health status, for future research and health promotion interventions. PMID:20582238

  11. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bolyatko, V. V.

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject “Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium.” This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  12. Utilization of Group-Based, Community Acupuncture Clinics: A Comparative Study with a Nationally Representative Sample of Acupuncture Users

    PubMed Central

    Tippens, Kimberly M.; Connelly, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Acupuncture utilization in the United States has increased in recent years, but is less common among racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status. Group-based, community acupuncture is a delivery model gaining in popularity around the United States, due in part to low-cost treatments provided on a sliding-fee scale. Affordable, community-based acupuncture may increase access to health care at a time when increasing numbers of people are uninsured. To assess the population using local community acupuncture clinics, sociodemographic factors, health status, and utilization patterns compared to national acupuncture users were examined. Design Data were employed from (1) a cross-sectional survey of 478 clients of two community acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon and (2) a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Results Portland community acupuncture clients were more homogeneous racially, had higher educational attainment, lower household income, and were more likely to receive 10 or more treatments in the past 12 months (odds ratio=5.39, 95% confidence interval=3.54, 8.22), compared to a nationally representative sample of U.S. acupuncture users. Self-reported health status and medical reasons for seeking acupuncture treatment were similar in both groups. Back pain (21%), joint pain (17%), and depression (13%) were the most common conditions for seeking treatment at community acupuncture clinics. Conclusions Study findings suggest that local community acupuncture clinics reach individuals of a broad socioeconomic spectrum and may allow for increased frequency of treatment. Limited racial diversity among community acupuncture clients may reflect local demographics of Portland. In addition, exposure to and knowledge about acupuncture is likely to vary by race and ethnicity. Future studies should examine access, patient satisfaction, frequency of treatment, and clinical

  13. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  14. Does Addition of Propolis to Glass Ionomer Cement Alter its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Girish Babu, K L; Neeraja, G; Pillai, S

    Propolis is a natural resinous substance produced by honey bees. The antimicrobial effects of glass ionomer cement have been shown to improve with the addition of propolis; however its effect on the physicomechanical properties of the cement is not known.

  15. Comparative Studies of Cathodically-Promoted and Base-Catalyzed Michael Addition Reactions of Levoglucosenone.

    PubMed

    Samet, Alexander V.; Niyazymbetov, Murat E.; Semenov, Victor V.; Laikhter, Andrei L.; Evans, Dennis H.

    1996-12-13

    Regioselective Michael addition of nitro and heterocyclic compounds to levoglucosenone, 1, is effectively catalyzed by amines and also by cathodic electrolysis. In comparison to the base-catalyzed reaction, it was found that under electrochemical conditions the reaction proceeds under milder conditions and with higher yields. Cathodically-initiated Michael addition of thiols to levoglucosenone using small currents produces the previously unknown threo addition product in several instances. The normal erythro isomer, identified as the kinetic product, tends to be formed when large currents are used. In contrast, slow, low current electrolyses promote equilibration of the two forms so that erythro can be converted to threo by the retro reaction and readdition. Addition of 2-naphthalenethiol to (R)-(+)-apoverbenone is also reported.

  16. Study of metal whiskers growth and mitigation technique using additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Vikranth

    For years, the alloy of choice for electroplating electronic components has been tin-lead (Sn-Pb) alloy. However, the legislation established in Europe on July 1, 2006, required significant lead (Pb) content reductions from electronic hardware due to its toxic nature. A popular alternative for coating electronic components is pure tin (Sn). However, pure tin has the tendency to spontaneously grow electrically conductive Sn whisker during storage. Sn whisker is usually a pure single crystal tin with filament or hair-like structures grown directly from the electroplated surfaces. Sn whisker is highly conductive, and can cause short circuits in electronic components, which is a very significant reliability problem. The damages caused by Sn whisker growth are reported in very critical applications such as aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and military weapons systems. They are also naturally very strong and are believed to grow from compressive stresses developed in the Sn coating during deposition or over time. The new directive, even though environmentally friendly, has placed all lead-free electronic devices at risk because of whisker growth in pure tin. Additionally, interest has occurred about studying the nature of other metal whiskers such as zinc (Zn) whiskers and comparing their behavior to that of Sn whiskers. Zn whiskers can be found in flooring of data centers which can get inside electronic systems during equipment reorganization and movement and can also cause systems failure. Even though the topic of metal whiskers as reliability failure has been around for several decades to date, there is no successful method that can eliminate their growth. This thesis will give further insights towards the nature and behavior of Sn and Zn whiskers growth, and recommend a novel manufacturing technique that has potential to mitigate metal whiskers growth and extend life of many electronic devices.

  17. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  18. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of commercial rotary wing transport aircraft for the 1985 time period are presented. Two aircraft configurations, a tandem helicopter and a tilt rotor, were designed for a 200 nautical mile short haul mission with an upper limit of 100 passengers. In addition to the baseline aircraft two further designs of each configuration are included to assess the impact of external noise design criteria on the aircraft size, weight, and cost.

  19. The study of knowledge management capability and organizational effectiveness in Taiwanese public utility: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Huei-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies on the significance of knowledge management (KM) in the business world have been performed in recent years. Public sector KM is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that few authors specialize in the field and there are several obstacles to developing a cohesive body of literature. In order to examine their effect of the knowledge management capability [which consists of knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC)] and organizational effectiveness (OE), this study conducted structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses with 302 questionnaires of Taipei Water Department staffs in Taiwan. In exploring the model developed in this study, the findings show that there exists a significant relationship between KPC and OE, while KIC and OE are insignificant. These results are different from earlier findings in the literature. Furthermore, this research proposed organizational commitment (OC) as the mediator role. The findings suggest that only OC has significant mediating effects between KPC and OE, whereas this is not the case for KIC and OE. It is noteworthy that the above findings inspired managers, in addition to construct the knowledge infrastructure more than focus on social media tools on the Internet, which engage knowledge workers in "peer-to-peer" knowledge sharing across organizational and company boundaries. The results are likely to help organizations (particularly public utilities) sharpen their knowledge management strategies. Academic and practical implications were drawn based on the findings.

  20. In-situ study of beneficial utilization of coal fly ash in reactive mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Kyu; Shang, Julie Q; Wang, Hongliu; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-03-15

    Oxidation of reactive mine tailings and subsequent generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) have been long recognized as the largest environmental concern for the mining industry. Laboratory studies on utilization of coal fly ash in management of reactive mine tailings have shown reducing water and oxygen infiltration into tailings matrix, thus preventing oxidation of sulphide minerals and acid generation. However, few data from field studies to evaluate the performance of co-placement of mine tailings and fly ash (CMF hereafter) are reported in the open literature. This paper documents the construction and instrumentation of three CMF systems on the Musselwhite mine located in Ontario, Canada and presents results of 3-year real time monitoring. The field data indicates that the CMFs reduced the ingress of water due to cementation generated by hydration of fly ash. It was also found that the electrical conductivity of leachate from CMFs decreased in the early stage of co-placement, compared to the control. With further study, the principle and approach demonstrated in this paper can be adopted as a sustainable technology in the mine tailings management.

  1. Use of proton-pump inhibitors among adults: a Danish nationwide drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Hallas, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B. Schaffalitzky; Lassen, Annmarie T.; Lødrup, Anders B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has increased over the last decade. The objective of this study was to provide detailed utilization data on PPI use over time, with special emphasis on duration of PPI use and concomitant use of ulcerogenic drugs. Methods: Using the nationwide Danish Prescription Registry, we identified all Danish adults filling a PPI between 2002 and 2014. Using descriptive statistics, we reported (i) the distribution of use between single PPI entities, (ii) the development in incidence and prevalence of use over time, (iii) measures of duration and intensity of treatment, and (iv) the prevalence of use of ulcerogenic drugs among users of PPIs. Results: We identified 1,617,614 adults using PPIs during the study period. The prevalence of PPI use increased fourfold during the study period to 7.4% of all Danish adults in 2014. PPI use showed strong age dependency, reaching more than 20% among those aged at least 80 years. The proportion of users maintaining treatment over time increased with increasing age, with less than10% of those aged 18–39 years using PPIs 2 years after their first prescription, compared with about 40% among those aged at least 80 years. The overall use of ulcerogenic drugs among PPI users increased moderately, from 35% of users of PPI in 2002 to 45% in 2014. Conclusions: The use of PPIs is extensive and increasing rapidly, especially among the elderly. PMID:27582879

  2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Clients' Utilization of a University Counseling Center: An Archival Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Yakushka, Oksana F.; Sanford-Martens, Tiffany C.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of a university counseling center's services by non-international racial and ethnic minority students via an archival approach. A total of 242 participants were included. Data were examined utilizing ANOVA, bivariate correlation, and chi-square analyses. Results support previous assertions that minority…

  3. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  4. Utilizing Social Media to Increase Student Engagement: A Study of Kern County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Steven Lance

    2011-01-01

    Social media has permeated almost every aspect of the lives of anyone who utilizes the internet. Teachers and students are no exception. Students are most likely to use social media sites such as MySpace, Facebook and Twitter. This research focuses on best practices related to augmenting school curriculum to utilize these tools to increase student…

  5. Can ligand addition to soil enhance Cd phytoextraction? A mechanistic model study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongbing; Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is a potential method for cleaning Cd-polluted soils. Ligand addition to soil is expected to enhance Cd phytoextraction. However, experimental results show that this addition has contradictory effects on plant Cd uptake. A mechanistic model simulating the reaction kinetics (adsorption on solid phase, complexation in solution), transport (convection, diffusion) and root absorption (symplastic, apoplastic) of Cd and its complexes in soil was developed. This was used to calculate plant Cd uptake with and without ligand addition in a great number of combinations of soil, ligand and plant characteristics, varying the parameters within defined domains. Ligand addition generally strongly reduced hydrated Cd (Cd(2+)) concentration in soil solution through Cd complexation. Dissociation of Cd complex ([Formula: see text]) could not compensate for this reduction, which greatly lowered Cd(2+) symplastic uptake by roots. The apoplastic uptake of [Formula: see text] was not sufficient to compensate for the decrease in symplastic uptake. This explained why in the majority of the cases, ligand addition resulted in the reduction of the simulated Cd phytoextraction. A few results showed an enhanced phytoextraction in very particular conditions (strong plant transpiration with high apoplastic Cd uptake capacity), but this enhancement was very limited, making chelant-enhanced phytoextraction poorly efficient for Cd.

  6. Health Utility Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Medical Management for Chronic Rhinosinusitis – A Prospective Multi-Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Lauren J.; Steele, Toby O.; Mace, Jess C.; Soler, Zachary M.; Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A health utility value represents an individual’s preference for living in a specific health state and is used in cost-utility analyses. This study investigates the impact of continuing medical therapy on health utility outcomes in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-6D (SF-6D) was administered to patients prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study examining treatment outcomes for CRS. Patients were prescribed robust, initial medical therapy and then elected to continue with medical therapy (n=40) or undergo endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), followed by medical therapy (n=152). Patients observed through treatment crossover to ESS were also evaluated (n=20). Health utility values (SF-6D) were generated at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months follow-up for both cohorts and evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Treatment crossover patients were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of previous sinus surgery compared to medical management (χ2=6.91; p=0.009) and surgical intervention (χ2=8.11; p=0.004) subgroups. Mean baseline utility value for the medical therapy cohort was significantly better compared to the ESS cohort (0.76[0.12] versus 0.70[0.15]; p=0.023). Significant improvement in health utility was reported in the ESS cohort (F(2)=37.69; p<0.001), while values remained stable, without significant improvement, in both the medical therapy cohort (F(2)=0.03; p=0.967) and treatment crossover cohort (F(2)=2.36; p=0.115). Conclusions Patients electing continued medical management report better baseline health utility compared to patients electing ESS. Patients electing ESS demonstrate significant improvement in health utility while those electing continued medical management demonstrate stable health utility over 12 months. PMID:26140502

  7. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 1: Automation costs versus crew utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Hambright, R. N.; Nedungadi, A.; Mcfayden, G. M.; Tsuchida, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A significant emphasis upon automation within the Space Biology Initiative hardware appears justified in order to conserve crew labor and crew training effort. Two generic forms of automation were identified: automation of data and information handling and decision making, and the automation of material handling, transfer, and processing. The use of automatic data acquisition, expert systems, robots, and machine vision will increase the volume of experiments and quality of results. The automation described may also influence efforts to miniaturize and modularize the large array of SBI hardware identified to date. The cost and benefit model developed appears to be a useful guideline for SBI equipment specifiers and designers. Additional refinements would enhance the validity of the model. Two NASA automation pilot programs, 'The Principal Investigator in a Box' and 'Rack Mounted Robots' were investigated and found to be quite appropriate for adaptation to the SBI program. There are other in-house NASA efforts that provide technology that may be appropriate for the SBI program. Important data is believed to exist in advanced medical labs throughout the U.S., Japan, and Europe. The information and data processing in medical analysis equipment is highly automated and future trends reveal continued progress in this area. However, automation of material handling and processing has progressed in a limited manner because the medical labs are not affected by the power and space constraints that Space Station medical equipment is faced with. Therefore, NASA's major emphasis in automation will require a lead effort in the automation of material handling to achieve optimal crew utilization.

  8. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  9. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  10. Utilization of a population health survey in policy and practice: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest by funding bodies and researchers in assessing the impact of research on real world policy and practice. Population health monitoring surveys provide an important source of data on the prevalence and patterns of health problems, but few empirical studies have explored if and how such data is used to influence policy or practice decisions. Here we provide a case study analysis of how the findings from an Australian population monitoring survey series of children’s weight and weight-related behaviors (Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS)) have been used, and the key facilitators and barriers to their utilization. Methods Data collection included semi-structured interviews with the chief investigators (n = 3) and end-users (n = 9) of SPANS data to explore if, how and under what circumstances the survey findings had been used, bibliometric analysis and verification using documentary evidence. Data analysis involved thematic coding of interview data and triangulation with other data sources to produce case summaries of policy and practice impacts for each of the three survey years (1997, 2004, 2010). Case summaries were then reviewed and discussed by the authors to distil key themes on if, how and why the SPANS findings had been used to guide policy and practice. Results We found that the survey findings were used for agenda setting (raising awareness of issues), identifying areas and target groups for interventions, informing new policies, and supporting and justifying existing policies and programs across a range of sectors. Reported factors influencing use of the findings were: i) the perceived credibility of survey findings; ii) dissemination strategies used; and, iii) a range of contextual factors. Conclusions Using a novel approach, our case study provides important new insights into how and under what circumstances population health monitoring data can be used to influence real world policy and practice

  11. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  12. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  13. Antidepressant response to aripiprazole augmentation associated with enhanced FDOPA utilization in striatum: a preliminary PET study

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Charles R.; Chibnall, John T.; Cumming, Paul; Mintun, Mark A.; Gebara, Marie Anne I.; Perantie, Dana C.; Price, Joseph L.; Cornell, Martha E.; McConathy, Jonathan E.; Gangwani, Sunil; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2014-01-01

    Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole’s antidepressant augmentation efficacy arises from dopamine partial agonist activity. To test this, we assessed the effects of aripiprazole augmentation on the cerebral utilization of 6-[18F]-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (FDOPA) using positron emission tomography (PET). Fourteen depressed patients, who had failed 8 weeks of antidepressant therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, underwent FDOPA PET scans before and after aripiprazole augmentation; eleven responded to augmentation. Whole brain, voxel-wise comparisons of pre- and post-aripiprazole scans revealed increased FDOPA trapping in the right medial caudate of augmentation responders. An exploratory analysis of depressive symptoms revealed that responders experienced large improvements only in putatively dopaminergic symptoms of lassitude and inability to feel. These preliminary findings suggest that augmentation of antidepressant response by aripiprazole may be associated with potentiation of dopaminergic activity. PMID:24468015

  14. Care and cost-utility indicators for high-flow PICC catheters: a study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Paloma Ruiz; López, Juan Luis González; Martín, Juliana González; Eguía, Beatriz Rivas

    Intravenous therapy teams (IVTT) provide care, education and supervision of the patient with a central line, and his/her family. This article discusses the creation of an IVTT in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos of Madrid, Spain, demonstrating its effectiveness using cost-utility analysis and outcomes indicators. In 2009 the IVTT began using a high-flow peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) with its target population of chronic patients dependent on central venous catheters or prolonged IV treatment. The team designed activity, welfare, educational and economic indicators. Of the 98 catheters placed, 80% of patients achieved a positive response; 42% of catheters were removed after death and 30% by the end of treatment. Four percent were removed due to infection. The average implantation duration was 45 days. The economic study showed an increasing cost saving compared to peripheral catheters after 90 days of implantation, and after 77 days compared to central venous catheters. This translated into an immediate saving of 161 euros (£133.70) and 303.83 euros (£252.31) per catheter over Hickman lines and ports, as well as reduced risks, length of hospital stays and costs. The study shows PICC to be cost-effective with reported benefits to patients, professionals and organizations. The creation of the IVTT has resulted in improvements to care and the management of resources.

  15. Study of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.; Raman, A.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    There has been a critical need for analyzing various aspects of atmospheric corrosion and for the development of atmospheric corrosion microsensors. The project work has involved the following activities: (1) making of multielectrode corrosion monitors on dielectric substrates; (2) testing them in the laboratory for functional characteristics; (3) preparing a report on the state of the art of atmospheric corrosion sensor development around the world; and (4) corrosion testing of electrochemical changes of sensor specimens and related fog testing. The study included work on the subject of development and utilization of a multipurpose atmospheric corrosion sensor and this report is the annual report on work carried out on this research project. This has included studies on the development of sensors of two designs, stage 1 and stage 2, and with glass and alumina substrate, experimentation and development and characterization of the coating uniformity, aspects of corrosion monitoring, literature search on the corrosion sensors and their development. A state of the art report on atmospheric corrosion sensor development was prepared and submitted.

  16. A study of moving base simulation motion cues utilizing washout technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N., Jr.; Brye, R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was conducted to derive data on non-visual motion thresholds utilizing washout technique, and to develop specific threshold values for use as washout parameters. It describes the results of acceleration detection studies carried out using the NASA MSFC General Purpose Simulator which provides six degree-of-freedom cab motion. A series of experiments was performed to test the hypothesis that constant velocity visual cues might suppress non-visual deceleration sensitivity. The psychophysical method employed was the forced-choice procedure which theoretically yields a pure sensitivity measure. The MSFC General Purpose Simulator was programmed to provide velocity ramps in three axes - pitch, fore-aft translation, and vertical translation. Data were collected with and without a constant velocity visual input. Comparison of the current results with classical data suggested significantly greater sensitivity of the human observer to fore-aft accelerations than has generally been reported, sensitivity tending to depend on motion direction and sign of velocity change.

  17. Study on the spectrophotometric detection of free fatty acids in palm oil utilizing enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Azeman, Nur Hidayah; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yunus, Robiah; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Hajian, Reza

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs) in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V) ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453).

  18. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  19. Study to Determine the Feasibility of Utilizing Skull-Melting Techniques for the Growth of Single Crystals of Yttrium Vanadate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    1• STUDY TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY T" ~OF UTILIZING SKULL-MELTING TECHNIQUES . S~FOR THE GROWTH OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OF S~YTTRIUM. VANADATE.. f...determine the feasibility of Final Report utilizing skull-melting techniques for the 15 Sept. 1981 to 14 Sept 1984 growth of single crystals of yttrium...KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree side If neceeess , and Identify by block number) Yttrium Vanadate, Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Crystal Growth , Cold Crucible

  20. Profiles in renewable energy: Case studies of successful utility-sector projects

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, S.; Sinclair, K.; Swezey, B.

    1993-10-01

    As considerations of fuel diversity, environmental concerns, and market uncertainties are increasingly factored into electric utility resource planning, renewable energy technologies are beginning to find their place in the utility resource portfolio. This document profiles 10 renewable energy projects, utilizing six different renewable resources, that were built in the US throughout the 1980s. The resources include: biomass, geothermal, hydropower, photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind. For each project, the factors that were key to its success and the development issues that it faced are discussed, as are the project`s cost, performance, and environmental impacts and benefits.

  1. Utility of ichnology in sequence stratigraphic studies: Examples fromn Alabama Paleogene

    SciTech Connect

    Savrda, C.E.; Huchison, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    When used in conjunction with other sedimentological evidence, ichnofossils are useful indicators of paleoenvironmental parameters such as physical energy, sedimentation rate, substrate consistency, and bottomwater and/or pore-water chemistry. Because these parameters are controlled in part by sea level dynamics as well as absolute water depth, ichnofossils may be of greater utility in sequence stratigraphic studies than previously recognized. Paleogene strata of the Alabama coastal plain record both spatial and temporal changes in paleobathymetry; lateral facies relationships generally reflect increasing water depth westward across the state, whereas vertical facies changes reflect the stacking of discrete depositional sequences, each of which represents a major eustatic cycle. A study of several of these sequences at various localities across the state has been initiated in order to systematically assess the composition and preservational state of trace-fossil assemblages within and across component facies-independent systems tracts and their bounding surfaces (i.e., unconformities, transgressive surfaces, and surfaces of maximum starvation). Thus far, results obtained from studies of two depositional sequences within the lower Paleocene Clayton and Porters Creek formations indicate that trace-fossil assemblages do respond in a manner that is commensurate with predicted sea level mediated changes in environmental parameters. Continued intra- and intersequence studies of trace fossils at the systems-tract level will (I) provide an independent test of sequence stratigraphic concepts and interpreted sea level histories, (2) enhance their understanding of trace fossils as paleoenvironmental indicators, and (3) form the basis for ichnological models useful for recognizing the eustasy signal in other Coastal-plain sequences.

  2. The utilization of humanized mouse models for the study of human retroviral infections

    PubMed Central

    Van Duyne, Rachel; Pedati, Caitlin; Guendel, Irene; Carpio, Lawrence; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2009-01-01

    The development of novel techniques and systems to study human infectious diseases in both an in vitro and in vivo settings is always in high demand. Ideally, small animal models are the most efficient method of studying human afflictions. This is especially evident in the study of the human retroviruses, HIV-1 and HTLV-1, in that current simian animal models, though robust, are often expensive and difficult to maintain. Over the past two decades, the construction of humanized animal models through the transplantation and engraftment of human tissues or progenitor cells into immunocompromised mouse strains has allowed for the development of a reconstituted human tissue scaffold in a small animal system. The utilization of small animal models for retroviral studies required expansion of the early CB-17 scid/scid mouse resulting in animals demonstrating improved engraftment efficiency and infectivity. The implantation of uneducated human immune cells and associated tissue provided the basis for the SCID-hu Thy/Liv and hu-PBL-SCID models. Engraftment efficiency of these tissues was further improved through the integration of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mutation leading to the creation of NODSCID, NOD/Shi-scid IL2rγ-/-, and NOD/SCID β2-microglobulinnull animals. Further efforts at minimizing the response of the innate murine immune system produced the Rag2-/-γc-/- model which marked an important advancement in the use of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Together, these animal models have revolutionized the investigation of retroviral infections in vivo. PMID:19674458

  3. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  4. A Search for Additional Planets in the Exoplanetary Systems Studied by the NASA EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sarah; Christiansen, J. L.; Charbonneau, D.; Holman, M. J.; Deming, D.; Wellnitz, D. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; EPOXI Team

    2010-01-01

    The EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission used the HRI camera aboard the Deep Impact spacecraft to observe transiting exoplanet systems from January through August 2008. The majority of these targets were each observed nearly continuously for several weeks at a time. We searched these high-precision time series for additional planets in these systems, which could be revealed either directly through their photometric transits, or indirectly through the variations these second planets induce on the times of transit of the previously known planet. We present upper limits on putative additional planets in six of the systems observed by EPOXI: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, GJ 436, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7.

  5. Thiopeptin, a New Feed-Additive Antibiotic: Biological Studies and Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mine, K.; Miyairi, N.; Takano, N.; Mori, S.; Watanabe, N.

    1972-01-01

    Thiopeptin is a new antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces tateyamensis and developed solely for animal use as a feed additive. The antibiotic content in animal tissue and feed was assayed in terms of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma laidlawii A. This antibiotic was found to be relatively nontoxic in rats and mice. In chickens, this antibiotic is excreted into feces within 48 hr of administration and is not absorbed in tissue. It is well tolerated in both broilers and swine and is highly stable in animal feed. Thiopeptin-supplemented feed contributes to the improvement of weight gain, feed efficiency in chickens and swine, and the egg performance in layers. Thus, thiopeptin, when used as a feed additive, is quite suitable for supplementing animal nutrition. PMID:4680812

  6. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  7. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    This simple process is the basis for most consumer-grade desktop AM machines, commonly known as 3D printers (Pham & Gault, 1998:1270). Material...as a single purchase to decrease initial capital costs. Once the 3D printers are purchased and delivered, the selected bases can begin training...for several Questions if you would liKe to explain or elaborate on your answers. Additional information •out 3D printers and UTCs is provided as an

  8. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  9. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  10. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  11. A Study of Aerospace Education Workshops Which Utilize NASA Materials and Resource Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Robert Dale

    1974-01-01

    Reports findings from two questionnaires administered to participants of aerospace workshops which utilized the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) materials and resource personnel. The findings gave a broad picture of aerospace workshops across the United States. (BR)

  12. Mission definition study for a VLBI station utilizing the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    The uses of the Space Shuttle transportation system for orbiting VeryLong-Baseline Interferometry (OVLBI) were examined, both with respect to technical feasibility and its scientific possibilities. The study consisted of a critical look at the adaptability of current technology to an orbiting environment, the suitability of current data reduction facilities for the new technique, and a review of the new science that is made possible by using the Space Shuttle as a moving platform for a VLBI terminal in space. The conclusions are positive in all respects: no technological deficiencies exist that would need remedy, the data processing problem can be handled easily by straightforward adaptations of existing systems, and there is a significant new research frontier to be explored, with the Space Shuttle providing the first step. The VLBI technique utilizes the great frequency stability of modern atomic time standards, the power of integrated circuitry to perform real-time signal conditioning, and the ability of magnetic tape recorders to provide essentially error-free data recording, all of which combine to permit the realization of radio interferometry at arbitrarily large baselines.

  13. Big Data access and infrastructure for modern biology: case studies in data repository utility.

    PubMed

    Boles, Nathan C; Stone, Tyler; Bergeron, Charles; Kiehl, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Big Data is no longer solely the purview of big organizations with big resources. Today's routine tools and experimental methods can generate large slices of data. For example, high-throughput sequencing can quickly interrogate biological systems for the expression levels of thousands of different RNAs, examine epigenetic marks throughout the genome, and detect differences in the genomes of individuals. Multichannel electrophysiology platforms produce gigabytes of data in just a few minutes of recording. Imaging systems generate videos capturing biological behaviors over the course of days. Thus, any researcher now has access to a veritable wealth of data. However, the ability of any given researcher to utilize that data is limited by her/his own resources and skills for downloading, storing, and analyzing the data. In this paper, we examine the necessary resources required to engage Big Data, survey the state of modern data analysis pipelines, present a few data repository case studies, and touch on current institutions and programs supporting the work that relies on Big Data.

  14. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations: Analytical Framework and Arizona Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Mike, Heaney

    2015-06-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with subhourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances. PMID:28331379

  16. Study of the structure of steel 12Kh12M1BFP modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. A.; Bakulina, A. S.; Efremov, I. V.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Yagodkin, Yu. D.; Glezer, A. M.; Rashkovskii, A. Yu.; Vainshtein, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy are used to study the structure of compacted specimens of steel 12Kh12M1BFP, modified with additions of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. The effect of additions on the microhardness of compacted specimens is established.

  17. Consideration of an industry-wide occupational health study of nuclear utility workers

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This report assesses the advisability and feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study of workers at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Such a study`s purpose would be to improve knowledge of the health implications of workplace exposure to fractional low-dose ionizing radiation. This issue is of considerable societal concern and can be addressed in human populations only by epidemiologic follow-up of large worker cohorts over extended periods of time. The report recommends that an industry-wide retrospective cohort health study of nuclear power workers is highly advisable. It would provide valuable information regarding the presence of observable health risks related to workplace exposures to ionizing radiation, especially the upper bounds of such risk. The study`s value will be enhanced if it continues as ongoing worker surveillance and if its analysis can eventually be merged with similar worker cohort studies elsewhere. Additional recommendations are made as to epidemiologic design, standardization, data assembly and analytic methods.

  18. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  20. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative study of medical resource utilization and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Pei; Wang, Shen-Nien; Lee, King-Teh

    2017-04-01

    Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is currently the standard of surgical procedure for gallstone disease. Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive surgery; it is safe and ergonomic, but expensive. The aim of this study is to compare the medical resource utilization and clinical outcomes between the two procedures. This study was conducted retrospectively by assessing data of the clinical outcomes and medical resource of 78 patients receiving RC and 367 patients receiving CLC. We reviewed the data of operation times, length of hospital stay, hospital charges, outpatient department visits, outpatient department service charges, and postoperative complications, which were retrieved from the health information system (HIS) database in this hospital. Patients in both groups had similar demographic and clinical features. The RC group had longer length of hospital stay (p=0.056), significantly longer operation time (p=0.035), and much more hospital charges (p=0.001). The RC group, however, experienced less postoperative complication rates (average 3.8% vs. 20.4%, p=0.001). Conversion rate was 1.9% in the CLC group versus 0% in the RC group (p=0.611). Most complications were mild, and following the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were two cases (2.5%) Grade I for the RC group; 50 cases (13.6%) Grade I and 14 cases (3.81%) Grade II for the CLC group (p<0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Procedure-related complications of Grade IIIa status were encountered in nine patients (2.45%) in the CLC group and none in the RC group (p=0.002).The RC group consumed more medical resources in the index hospitalization; however, they experienced significantly less postoperative complications.

  2. Utilizing Moist or Dry Swabs for the Sampling of Nasal MRSA Carriers? An In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Warnke, Philipp; Devide, Annette; Weise, Mirjam; Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Schäffler, Holger; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the quantitative bacterial recovery of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal screenings by utilizing dry or moistened swabs within an in vivo and an in vitro experimental setting. 135 nasal MRSA carriers were each swabbed in one nostril with a dry and in the other one with a moistened rayon swab. Quantitative bacterial recovery was measured by standard viable count techniques. Furthermore, an anatomically correct artificial nose model was inoculated with a numerically defined suspension of MRSA and swabbed with dry and moistened rayon, polyurethane-foam and nylon-flocked swabs to test these different settings and swab-materials under identical laboratory conditions. In vivo, quantities of MRSA per nostril in carriers varied between <101 and >107 colony forming units, with a median of 2.15x104 CFU. However, no statistically significant differences could be detected for the recovery of MRSA quantities when swabbing nasal carriers with moist or dry rayon swabs. In vitro testing confirmed the in vivo data for swabs with rayon, polyurethane and nylon-flocked tips, since pre-moistening of swabs did not significantly affect the quantities of retrieved bacteria. Therefore, pre-moistening of swabs prior to nasal MRSA sampling provides no advantage in terms of recovering greater bacterial quantities and therefore can be omitted. In addition, this situation can be mimicked in an in vitro model, thereby providing a useful basis for future in vitro testings of new swab types or target organisms for screening approaches. PMID:27626801

  3. A Review of Approaches to the Study of Turbulence Modification by Means of Non-Newtonian Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    interesting class of polymers for drag reduction studies. These polymers ( xanthomonas campestris , guar gum) were found to show long term stability...and their superiority to "typical" drag reducing polymers like polyethylene oxide, was evident. His degradation studies showed that the xanthomonas ... campestris is a better and more durable additive than guar gum. One of the most important biological additives is the DNA. It is actually a random

  4. A pilot-scale study of selective desulfurization via urea addition in iron ore sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hong-ming; Wu, Xue-jian; Chun, Tie-jun; Di, Zhan-xia; Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min

    2016-11-01

    The iron ore sintering process is the main source of SO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. In our previous research, we proposed a novel technology for reducing SO2 emissions in the flue gas in the iron ore sintering process by adding urea at a given distance from the sintering grate bar. In this paper, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out in a commercial sintering plant. The results showed that, compared to the SO2 concentration in flue gas without urea addition, the SO2 concentration decreased substantially from 694.2 to 108.0 mg/m3 when 0.10wt% urea was added. NH3 decomposed by urea reacted with SO2 to produce (NH4)2SO4, decreasing the SO2 concentration in the flue gas.

  5. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  7. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-27

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  10. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  11. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  12. "I Worry about My Community": African American Women Utilizing Communal Notions of Citizenship in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study utilizes a Black feminist ethic of caring (Collins, 2009; Thompson, 1998) to explore how three African American women social studies teachers draw on their personal and community knowledge to conceptualize and teach the construct of citizenship to their students of color. Instead of conveying traditional…

  13. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  14. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  15. Health services utilization of patients with vertigo in primary care: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grill, Eva; Strupp, Michael; Müller, Martin; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    Vertigo and dizziness count among the most frequent symptoms in outpatient practices. Although most vestibular disorders are manageable, they are often under- and misdiagnosed in primary care. This may result in prolonged absence from work, increased resource use and, potentially, in chronification. Reliable information on health services utilization of patients with vertigo in primary care is scarce. Retrospective cohort study in patients referred to a tertiary care balance clinic. Included patients had a confirmed diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular paroxysmia (VP), bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP), vestibular migraine (VM), or psychogenic vertigo (PSY). All previous diagnostic and therapeutic measures prior to the first visit to the clinic were recorded. 2,374 patients were included (19.7 % BPPV, 12.7 % MD, 5.8 % VP, 7.2 % BVP, 14.1 % VM, 40.6 % PSY), 61.3 % with more than two consultations. Most frequent diagnostic measures were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 76.2 %, 71 % in BPPV) and electrocardiography (53.5 %). Most frequent therapies were medication (61.0 %) and physical therapy (41.3 %). 37.3 % had received homoeopathic medication (39 % in BPPV), and 25.9 % were treated with betahistine (20 % in BPPV). Patients had undergone on average 3.2 (median 3.0, maximum 6) diagnostic measures, had received 1.8 (median 2.0, maximum 8) therapies and 1.8 (median 1.0, maximum 17) different drugs. Diagnostic subgroups differed significantly regarding number of diagnostic measures, therapies and drugs. The results emphasize the need for establishing systematic training to improve oto-neurological skills in primary care services not specialized on the treatment of dizzy patients.

  16. Prescription patterns of antihypertensives in a community health centre in Mexico City: a drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Alba-Leonel, Adela; Carvajal, Alfonso; Fierro, Immaculada; Castillo-Nájera, Fernando; Campos-Ramos, Oscar; Villa-Romero, Antonio; Molina-Guarneros, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent; in Mexico, the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey reported a prevalence of hypertension of 31.5% in the adult population. Pharmacological treatment is the commonest intervention and has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and total mortality. Accordingly, the type and number of antihypertensives used and the outcome - in terms of blood pressure (BP) control - are important. Therefore, our purpose is to learn the pattern of antihypertensive drug prescription and explore the determinants of BP control in an urban population in Mexico. A retrospective cross-sectional drug utilization study was conducted. Medical records from a community health centre were searched to identify those corresponding to patients diagnosed with hypertension; information upon antihypertensives used and control of the disease was carefully retrieved. A logistic regression model was built to know the main determinants of BP control. A sample of 345 clinical records of interest was identified. Most patients received antihypertensives (86.4%); the leading medications used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 63.8%; beta-blockers (26.5%), diuretics (19.8%), angiotensin-receptor blockers (15.8%) and calcium-channel blockers (6.4%). Only the age (≥55 years) and BMI (>30) of the patients, and the age of the doctors (≥55 years), had an important influence on BP control. Obesity is a particular and important determinant of uncontrolled hypertension; it is worth to act on body weight, on an individual basis. As lack of control has been also tied to elderly doctors, an education programme could be envisaged.

  17. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  18. Using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores as Additional Predictors of Student Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…

  19. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  20. Recent developments and clinical studies utilizing engineered zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyongbum; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Efficient methods for creating targeted genetic modifications have long been sought for the investigation of gene function and the development of therapeutic modalities for various diseases, including genetic disorders. Although such modifications are possible using homologous recombination, the efficiency is extremely low. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are custom-designed artificial nucleases that make double-strand breaks at specific sequences, enabling efficient targeted genetic modifications such as corrections, additions, gene knockouts and structural variations. ZFNs are composed of two domains: (i) a DNA-binding domain comprised of zinc finger modules and (ii) the FokI nuclease domain that cleaves the DNA strand. Over 17 years after ZFNs were initially developed, a number of improvements have been made. Here, we will review the developments and future perspectives of ZFN technology. For example, ZFN activity and specificity have been significantly enhanced by modifying the DNA-binding domain and FokI cleavage domain. Advances in culture methods, such as the application of a cold shock and the use of small molecules that affect ZFN stability, have also increased ZFN activity. Furthermore, ZFN-induced mutant cells can be enriched using episomal surrogate reporters. Additionally, we discuss several ongoing clinical studies that are based on ZFN-mediated genome editing in humans. These breakthroughs have substantially facilitated the use of ZFNs in research, medicine and biotechnology.

  1. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  2. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-09

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  3. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  4. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Lesion removal and lesion addition algorithms in lung volumetric data sets for perception studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Mark T.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Ellingson, Andrew; Thompson, Brad H.; Mullan, Brian F.

    2006-03-01

    Image perception studies of medical images provide important information about how radiologists interpret images and insights for reducing reading errors. In the past, perception studies have been difficult to perform using clinical imaging studies because of the problems associated with obtaining images demonstrating proven abnormalities and appropriate normal control images. We developed and evaluated interactive software that allows the seamless removal of abnormal areas from CT lung image sets. We have also developed interactive software for capturing lung lesions in a database where they can be added to lung CT studies. The efficacy of the software to remove abnormal areas of lung CT studies was evaluated psychophysically by having radiologists select the one altered image from a display of four. The software for adding lesions was evaluated by having radiologists classify displayed CT slices with lesions as real or artificial scaled to 3 levels of confidence. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the radiologist had difficulty in distinguishing the raw clinical images from those that had been altered. We conclude that this software can be used to create experimental normal control and "proven" lesion data sets for volumetric CT of the lung fields. We also note that this software can be easily adapted to work with other tissue besides lung and that it can be adapted to other digital imaging modalities.

  7. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  8. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  9. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  10. EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

  11. A Multicase Study: Exploring Human Resource Information System Implementation and Utilization in Multinational Corporations in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nzyoka Yongo, Cyd W.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation and utilization of human resource information system (HRIS) though a very desirable prospect for many organizations, still remains a daunting task for many. This has been daunting because of prohibitive costs, security risks, top management resistance, employee attitudes, and so forth. Trends globally show that, organizations that…

  12. A Review of Studies on the General Problem of Knowledge Production and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    The growing complexity of society has resulted in increased attention to the problem of knowledge production and utilization. This review of the scholarship pertaining to this subject traces the topic in its most general sense. Three fields of interest have received attention from researchers: 1) the relation of research to practice; 2) the nature…

  13. A Comparative Study of the Literature on the Dissemination and Utilization of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Ronald G.; And Others

    This report provides a framework for understanding the processes of innovation, dissemination, and knowledge utilization (D&U) and it reviews the relevant literature in education and other fields of practice within this framework. D&U is viewed as a transfer of messages by various media between resource systems and users. Major sections analyze…

  14. A Micro-Developmental Approach to Studying Young Children's Problem Solving Behavior in Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study that investigated the process of change in 5-6-year-old children's successful problem-solving approaches when tackling a multiple-step task in elementary arithmetic. Micro-developmental changes in children's successful problem-solving behavior were analyzed using Karmiloff-Smith's model of representational redescription…

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  16. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  17. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  18. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  19. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  20. Reflections on DSM Classification and Its Utility in Primary Care: Case Studies in “Mental Disorders”

    PubMed Central

    Katerndahl, David A.; Larme, Anne C.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Amodei, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Background: This case series was conducted to demonstrate the limitations of the DSM system in primary care patients. Method: Sixty family health center patients free of mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria completed monthly quantitative interviews, using multiple rating instruments, concerning the levels of psychiatric symptoms, presence of distress and/or a mental disorder, functional status, support, and stressors. In addition, a purposive sample of 16 subjects completed an in-depth qualitative interview concerning their situation at the time they crossed a DSM threshold. Data were collected from April 2000 to March 2001. Results: Overall, there were 14 subjects with distress alone, 6 subjects with subthreshold disorders, and 3 subjects with known transient (< 2 months' duration) threshold disorders. Thus, even with the incomplete longitudinal data in this study, the clinical needs of 23 (38%) of the original 60 subjects were inadequately met by the DSM criteria. From the 10 subjects who crossed a DSM threshold and completed a qualitative interview, we selected 5 case studies with the most complete and complementary quantitative and qualitative data to illustrate several findings regarding the utility of the DSM classification in primary care. First, these cases show that psychological symptoms and DSM disorders vary considerably. Second, distress and subthreshold disorders are often seen in primary care patients. Third, the crossing of a DSM threshold corresponds to extreme levels of psychological symptoms and may therefore represent symptom severity. Fourth, psychological symptoms are often linked to physical illness. Finally, the context in which these symptoms and disorders develop often produces complex dynamic patterns. Conclusions: The current DSM system failed to adequately reflect the spectrum and context of mental illness in patients from a predominantly low-income, Hispanic primary care population. PMID:16027763

  1. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  2. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  3. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  4. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Spray Dam, Eden, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1981-01-30

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Spray Dam near Eden, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 10 ft., was built in 1898 for hydroelectric power generation with one of 2 installed units currently operating. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is possible and that the economics of retrofits will depend on whether existing equipment can be repaired or will have to be replaced. (LCL)

  5. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  6. Improving Natural Uranium Utilization By Using Thorium in Low Moderation PWRs - A Preliminary Neutronic Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Ignacio Somoza

    2010-10-01

    The Th-U fuel cycle is not quite self-sustainable when used in water-cooled reactors and with fuel burnups higher than a few thousand of MWd/t characteristic of CANDU reactors operating with a continuous refueling. For the other industrially mature water-cooled reactors (i.e. PWRs and BWRs) it is economically necessary that the fuel has enough reactivity to reach fuel burnups of the order of a few tens of thousand of MWd/t. In this particular case, an additional input of fissile material is necessary to complement the bred fissile U-233. This additional fissile material could be included in the form of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) at the fabrication of the Th-U fuel. The objective of this preliminary neutronic scoping study is to determine (1) how much HEU and, consequently, how much natural uranium is necessary in such Th-U fuel cycle with U recycling and (2) how much TRansUranics (TRU=Pu, Np, Am and Cm) are produced. These numbers are then compared with those of a standard UO2 PWR. The thorium reactors considered have a homogeneous hexagonal lattice made up of the same (Th-U)O2 pins. Furthermore, at this point, we are not considering the use of blankets inside or outside the core. The lattice pitch has been varied to estimate the effect of the water-to-fuel volume ratio, and light water as well as heavy water have been considered. For most cases, an average burnup at discharge of 45,000 MWd/t has been considered.

  7. Models of endometriosis and their utility in studying progression to ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    King, Claire M; Barbara, Cynthia; Prentice, Andrew; Brenton, James D; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign gynaecological condition affecting at least 10% of women of childbearing age and is characterized by pain--frequently debilitating. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, the economic burden is substantial (∼$50 billion a year in the USA alone) and it is associated with considerable morbidity. The development of endometriosis is inextricably linked to the process of menstruation and thus the models that best recapitulate the human disease are in menstruating non-human primates. However, the use of these animals is ethically challenging and very expensive. A variety of models in laboratory animals have been developed and the most recent are based on generating menstrual-like endometrial tissue that can be transferred to a recipient animal. These models are genetically manipulable and facilitate precise mechanistic studies. In addition, these models can be used to study malignant transformation in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Epidemiological and molecular evidence indicates that endometriosis is the most plausible precursor of both clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer (OCCA and OEA, respectively). While this progression is rare, understanding the underlying mechanisms of transformation may offer new strategies for prevention and therapy. Our ability to pursue this is highly dependent on improved animal models but the current transgenic models, which genetically modify the ovarian surface epithelium and oviduct, are poor models of ectopic endometrial tissue. In this review we describe the various models of endometriosis and discuss how they may be applicable to developing our mechanistic understanding of OCCA and OEA.

  8. Utility of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in gout: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, CSL; Teng, GG; Chong, KJ; Cheung, PP; Lim, AYN; Wee, HL; Santosa, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The outcomes of any chronic illness often depend on patients’ adherence with their treatment. A tool is lacking to assess adherence in gout that is standardized, allows real-time feedback, and is easy to understand. Objective We set out to evaluate the utility of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in monitoring medication adherence in a multiethnic Asian gout cohort on urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Methods This cohort study recruited patients with gout where baseline and 6-monthly clinical data, self-report of adherence, and health status by Gout Impact Scale (GIS) and EuroQoL-5 dimension 3 levels were collected. Those who received at least 9 months of ULT were analyzed. Convergent and construct validities of MMAS-8 were evaluated against medication possession ratio (MPR) and known groups, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Results Of 91 patients, 92.3% were male, 72.5% Chinese with mean age 53.5 years. MMAS-8 (mean 6.17) and MPR (mean 96.3%) were poorly correlated (r=0.069, P=0.521). MMAS-8 did not differ between those who did or did not achieve target serum urate (SU) <360 µmol/L (P=0.852); or among those whose SU improved, stagnated, or worsened during follow-up (P=0.777). Adherence was associated with age (β=0.256, P=0.015) and education level (P=0.011) but not comorbidities, polypharmacy, or flare frequency. Concerns for medication side effects and anxiety or depression were associated with lower MMAS-8 (P<0.005). Internal consistency was acceptable (α=0.725) and test–retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC =0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.88). Conclusion MMAS-8 had limited construct validity in assessing medication adherence to ULT in our gout patients. Nevertheless, it identified patients bothered or worried about ULT side effects, and those with

  9. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records.

  10. [Anatomical and radiological studies on additional mandible teeth anesthesia considering innervation variability].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, S V; Dydykin, S S; Kuzin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents studies on nutritional foramina of the mandible. Some nutritional foramina located in the frontal mandibular region on the lingual surface and containing significant blood vessels and nerves are found to be more typical for teeth-bearing mandible. In retromolar area in case of third molars presence intraosseous canals were revealed leading to inferior alveolar nerve canal. One should consider intraligamental and lingual anesthesia by lower incisors extraction. Intraosseous anesthesia and retromolar area infiltration significantly increase anesthesia efficiency by third molar extraction.

  11. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine.

  12. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  13. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues.

  14. The Utility of the MMPI-2 Malingering Discriminant Function Index in the Detection of Malingering: A Study of Criminal Defendants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Joseph A.; Kucharski, L. Thomas; Duncan, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2's (MMPI-2) malingering discriminant function index (M-DFI), recently developed by Bacchiochi and Bagby, in the detection of malingering in a forensic sample. Criminal defendants were divided into "malingering" and "not malingering" groups using…

  15. Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: a meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Daniel M; McCarty, Dennis; Fu, Rongwei; Wiest, Katharina; Chalk, Mady; Gastfriend, David R

    2014-08-01

    Through improved adherence, once-monthly injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) may provide an advantage over other oral agents approved for alcohol and opioid dependence treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cost and utilization outcomes between XR-NTX and other pharmacotherapies for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence. Published studies were identified through comprehensive search of two electronic databases. Studies were included if they compared XR-NTX to other approved medicines and reported economic and healthcare utilization outcomes in patients with opioid or alcohol dependence. We identified five observational studies comparing 1,565 patients using XR-NTX to other therapies over 6 months. Alcohol dependent XR-NTX patients had longer medication refill persistence versus acamprosate and oral naltrexone. Healthcare utilization and costs was generally lower or as low for XR-NTX-treated patients relative to other alcohol dependence agents. Opioid dependent XR-NTX patients had lower inpatient substance abuse-related utilization versus other agents and $8170 lower total cost versus methadone.

  16. The Utility of Vulnerability and Social Capital Theories in Studying the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a disaster is followed by an explanation of vulnerability and social capital theories. The importance of using a sound theoretical framework and the utility and efficacy of vulnerability and social capital theories in studying the impact of natural disasters on the elderly population are emphasized and discussed. The conclusion…

  17. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  18. Facilities Inventory and Utilization Study Fall of 1988 for the State of North Carolina. Twenty-Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Commission on Higher Education Facilities, Raleigh.

    This edition of an annual series of facilities inventory and utilization studies reflects the status of space in North Carolina institutions of higher education at the end of the drop-add period of the 1988 fall term at each college. It gives indications of the uses being made of the space and provides norms and historical information for the past…

  19. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  20. Additional results for 'Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs'.

    PubMed

    Montague, Timothy H; Potvin, Diane; Diliberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, this group published a paper on approaches for two-stage crossover bioequivalence (BE) studies that allowed for the reestimation of the second-stage sample size based on the variance estimated from the first-stage results. The sequential methods considered used an assumed GMR of 0.95 as part of the method for determining power and sample size. This note adds results for an assumed GMR = 0.90. Two of the methods recommended for GMR = 0.95 in the earlier paper have some unacceptable increases in Type I error rate when the GMR is changed to 0.90. If a sponsor wants to assume 0.90 for the GMR, Method D is recommended. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  2. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food.

  3. Developing a science of clinical utility in diagnostic classification systems field study strategies for ICD-11 mental and behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jared W; Reed, Geoffrey M; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Robles, Rebeca; Rebello, Tahilia; Sharan, Pratap; Gureje, Oye; First, Michael B; Andrews, Howard F; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luís; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Juergen; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse has developed a systematic program of field studies to evaluate and improve the clinical utility of the proposed diagnostic guidelines for mental and behavioral disorders in the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). The clinical utility of a diagnostic classification is critical to its function as the interface between health encounters and health information, and to making the ICD-11 be a more effective tool for helping the WHO's 194 member countries, including the United States, reduce the global disease burden of mental disorders. This article describes the WHO's efforts to develop a science of clinical utility in regard to one of the two major classification systems for mental disorders. We present the rationale and methodologies for an integrated and complementary set of field study strategies, including large international surveys, formative field studies of the structure of clinicians' conceptualization of mental disorders, case-controlled field studies using experimental methodologies to evaluate the impact of proposed changes to the diagnostic guidelines on clinicians' diagnostic decision making, and ecological implementation field studies of clinical utility in the global settings in which the guidelines will ultimately be implemented. The results of these studies have already been used in making decisions about the structure and content of ICD-11. If clinical utility is indeed among the highest aims of diagnostic systems for mental disorders, as their developers routinely claim, future revision efforts should continue to build on these efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Participating centres: Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante: Maria Jesús Olaso, Javier Agulló, Clara Faura. Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería: Carmen Fernández Sánchez, Miguel Lorenzo Campos, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Alonso. Hospital Quirúrgic Adriano, Barcelona: Carmen Alerany Pardo, Paquita Alvarez González, Teresa Martín Benito. Hospital Universitari del Mar-IMIM, Barcelona: Magí Farré, Maite Terán. Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell: Montserrat Cañellas, Sergio Zavala, Josep Planell. Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Silvia Mateo. Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona: Carmen Bosch, María José Martínez. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga: Maribel Lucena, José Antonio González, Gabriel Carranque. Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid: Emilio Vargas, Amparo Gil López-Oliva, Míriam García Mateos. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander: Mario González, Antonio Cuadrado. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla: Juan Antonio Durán, Pilar Máyquez, María Isabel Serrano. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla: Jaume Torelló, Juan Ramón Castillo, María de las Nieves Merino. Aims Postoperative pain is common in hospital-admitted patients. Its management is determined by different therapeutic traditions and by the attitudes of health professionals in each hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of prescription and administration of analgesic drugs used for postoperative pain after abdominal surgery in Spanish hospitals, to know the prevalence and the severity of postoperative pain, and to determine the extent of variability in the management of postoperative pain among the participating centres. Methods The study was a multicentre descriptive cross-sectional drug utilization study in 12 Spanish hospitals. The subjects were an unselected sample of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal

  5. A Feasibility Study on Generation of Acoustic Waves Utilizing Evanescent Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuya, I.; Matozaki, K.; Kosugi, A.; Ihara, I.

    2014-06-01

    A new approach of generating acoustic waves utilizing evanescent light is presented. The evanescent light is a non-propagating electromagnetic wave that exhibits exponential decay with distance from the surface at which the total internal reflection of light is formed. In this research, the evanescent light during total internal reflection at prism surface is utilized for generating acoustic waves in aluminium and the feasibility for ultrasonic measurements is discussed. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 0.36 J/cm2 power density is used and the incident angle during the total internal reflection is arranged to be 69.0° for generating the evanescent light. It has been demonstrated that the amplitude of the acoustic waves by means of evanescent light is about 1/14 as large as the one generated by the conventional pulsed laser. This reveals the possibility of using a laser ultrasonic technique with near-field optics.

  6. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  7. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  8. A Methodology for Conducting Space Utilization Studies within Department of Defense Medical Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    institution-wide benefits of A Space Utilization 20 facility management automation , to include (a) the ability to identify current discrepancies in...September). Survey Pinpoints Leading Application and Shows That 47% Rely on FM Automation . FacilitiesDesign andt Mia-maI. pp 35.36. Ledeen, K. (1989, August...conference room is not needed. 100 NSF for libary reference material is needed. 200 NSF is authorized. Total 100 Support Areas: Equipment/Device

  9. Simulation studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The potential electrical problems that may be inherent in the inertia of clusters of wind turbine generators and an electric utility network were investigated. Preliminary and limited results of an analog simulation of two MOD-2 wind generators tied to an infinite bus indicate little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus. The system demonstrated transient stability for the conditions considered.

  10. Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Armon, A; Gutner, S; Rosenberg, A; Scolnicov, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, e.g. by means of a SCADA system and sensors measuring flow, pressure, and other data. We discuss how an algorithmic statistical solution analyses this wealth of raw data, flexibly using many types of input and picking out and reporting significant events and failures in the network. Of particular interest to most water utilities is the early detection capability for invisible leaks, also a means for preventing large visible bursts. The system also detects sensor and SCADA failures, various water quality issues, DMA boundary breaches, unrecorded or unintended network changes (like a valve or pump state change), and other events, including types unforeseen during system design. We discuss results from use at HaGihon, showing clear operational value.

  11. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  12. A Comparative Kirkwood-Buff Study of Aqueous Methanol Solutions Modeled by the CHARMM Additive and Drude Polarizable Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study on aqueous methanol solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields was carried out by employing Kirkwood-Buff analysis. It was shown that both models reproduced the experimental Kirkwood-Buff integrals and excess coordination numbers adequately well over the entire concentration range. The Drude model showed significant improvement over the additive model in solution densities, partial molar volumes, excess molar volumes, concentration-dependent diffusion constants, and dielectric constants. However, the additive model performed somewhat better than the Drude model in reproducing the activity derivative, excess molar Gibbs energy and excess molar enthalpy of mixing. This is due to the additive achieving a better balance among solute-solute, solute-solvent, and solvent-solvent interactions, indicating the potential for improvements in the Drude polarizable alcohol model. PMID:23947568

  13. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  14. Additional erythrocytic and reticulocytic parameters helpful for diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Mullier, François; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Da Costa, Lydie; Schillinger, Françoise; Bailly, Nicolas; Cornet, Yvan; Chatelain, Christian; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is characterised by weakened vertical linkages between the membrane skeleton and the red blood cell's lipid bilayer, leading to the release of microparticles. All the reference tests suffer from specific limitations. The aim of this study was to develop easy to use diagnostic tool for screening of hereditary spherocytosis based on routinely acquired haematological parameters like percentage of microcytes, percentage of hypochromic cells, reticulocyte counts, and percentage of immature reticulocytes. The levels of haemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocytes (Ret), immature reticulocytes fraction (IRF), hypochromic erythrocytes (Hypo-He) and microcytic erythrocytes (MicroR) were determined on EDTA samples on Sysmex instruments from a cohort of 45 confirmed SH. The HS group was then compared with haemolytical disorders, microcytic anaemia, healthy individuals and routine samples (n = 1,488). HS is characterised by a high Ret count without an equally elevated IRF. All 45 HS have Ret >80,000/μl and Ret(10(9)/L)/IRF (%) greater than 7.7 (rule 1). Trait and mild HS had a Ret/IRF ratio greater than 19. Moderate and severe HS had increased MicroR and MicroR/Hypo-He (rule 2). Combination of both rules gave predictive positive value and negative predictive value of respectively 75% and 100% (n=1,488), which is much greater than single parameters or existing rules. This simple and fast diagnostic method could be used as an excellent screening tool for HS. It is also valid for mild HS, neonates and ABO incompatibilities and overcomes the lack of sensitivity of electrophoresis in ankyrin deficiencies.

  15. Comparative studies of inorganic carbon utilization in Emiliania huxleyi and some non-calcifying marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang-Feng, Dong; Merrett, M. J.; Chao-Yuan, Wu

    1999-09-01

    Inorganic carbon utilization in the non-calcifying marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium purpureum was compared with high- and low-calcifying strains of Emiliania huxleyi grown in artificial seawater medium aerated with either air (0.03% V/V CO2) or CO2-free air. For high-calcifying strain of E. oculata and P. tricornutem, similar growth patterns were observed in air-and CO2-free air-grown cultures. P. purpureum showed a less final cell density in CO2-free air than in air-grown culture. However, low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi was able to grow only in air-grown culture, but not in CO2-free air-grown culture. Measurements of alkalinity, pH, concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2 showed different patterns of DIC utilization. With N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum the pattern of DIC utilization was characterized by an increase of pH and a decrease of DIC but a constant alkalinity in the cultures aerated with air or CO2-free air, suggesting that bicarbonate utilization was concomitant with an efflux of OH-. Both alkalinity and pH were maintained rather constant in air-grown culture of low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, suggesting that diffusive entry of CO2 could meet the requirement of DIC for its photosynthesis and growth. High-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, however, showed a pattern of decrease of alkalinity and DIC but an almost constant pH, indicating that bicarbonate was the major form of inorganic carbon utilised by this organism and bicarbonate uptake is unlikely to be accompanied by an efflux of OH-. The final pH values reached by N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum in a closed system were 10.75, 10.60 and 9.85 respectively, showing that bicarbonate utilisation is concomitant with an efflux of OH-. While the final pH of 8.4 in high-calcifying E. huxleyi suggests that bicarbonate utilization was not accompanied by an efflux of OH-.

  16. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, Jason; Stoms, David M; Davis, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  17. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  18. Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P < 0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P < 0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P < 0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion

  19. Cognitive Modules Utilized for Narrative Comprehension in Children: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Plante, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The ability to comprehend narratives constitutes an important component of human development and experience. The neural correlates of auditory narrative comprehension in children were investigated in a large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving 313 subjects ages 5–18. Using group Independent Component Analysis (ICA), bilateral task-related components were found comprising the primary auditory cortex, the mid-superior temporal gyrus, the hippocampus, the angular gyrus and medial aspect of the parietal lobule (precuneus/posterior cingulate). In addition, a right-lateralized component was found involving the most posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, and a left-lateralized component was found comprising the inferior frontal gyrus (including Broca’s area), the inferior parietal lobule, and the medial temporal gyrus. Using a novel data-driven analysis technique, increased task-related activity related to age was found in the components comprising the mid-superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke’s area) and the posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, while decreased activity related to age was found in the component comprising the angular gyrus. The results are discussed in light of recent hypotheses involving the functional segregation of Wernicke’s area and the specific role of the mid-superior temporal gyrus in speech comprehension. PMID:16109491

  20. Labview utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  1. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  2. Digital magnetic recording systems utilizing magnetoresistive (MR) playback technology: Theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, Eric Justin

    1997-11-01

    The use of magnetoresistive playback technology in high density magnetic recording systems poses special challenges for the hard drive designer. The MR sensor is an intrinsically nonlinear device which must be biased into a region of linear response with respect to the external field. Additional magnetic structures are required to stabilize the sensor against domain formation. These structures result in complicated magnetization processes during the playback of recorded information. The spatial variation of the MR head replay voltage is complicated and has asymmetries due to the magnetic structure of the device. These issues require sophisticated modeling to properly characterize the system performance. This dissertation presents studies of several key problems involved with integrating MR heads into hard disk drives. Models of varying levels of sophistication have been developed for this work. These range from simple linear reciprocity analyses to large scale numerical energy minimization techniques. The spatial variation of the MR playback voltage is studied as a function of the system geometry using a linear theory. The response is found to depend strongly on both the head and medium parameters. Instabilities are investigated using a large scale numerical model for a particular head fabrication geometry. The interface between the stabilizing magnetic structures and the head material produces repeatable hysteretic effects in the voltage response. The saturation of MR heads is characterized using numerical modeling. This is important for estimates of the error rate in the drive. The results show that the saturation characteristics can vary significantly between different head designs and as a function of the spatial position of the device. The issues involved with the use of MR heads as positioning sensors are also addressed. The servo system stability is a strong function of the recording parameters and the head spatial symmetry. Optimization of the servo system

  3. The role of health extension workers in improving utilization of maternal health services in rural areas in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community health workers are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. Since 2003 the government of Ethiopia has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community based health workers named health extension workers (HEWs). This initiative has been called the health extension program. Very few studies have investigated the role of these community health workers in improving utilization of maternal health services. Methods A cross sectional survey of 725 randomly selected women with under-five children from three districts in Northern Ethiopia. We investigated women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care, birth assistance, postnatal care, HIV testing and use of iodized salt and compared our results to findings of a previous national survey from 2005. In addition, we investigated the association between several variables and utilization of maternal health services using logistic regression analysis. Results HEWs have contributed substantially to the improvement in women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care and HIV testing. However, their contribution to the improvement in health facility delivery, postnatal check up and use of iodized salt seems insignificant. Women who were literate (OR, 1.85), listened to the radio (OR, 1.45), had income generating activities (OR, 1.43) and had been working towards graduation or graduated as model family (OR, 2.13) were more likely to demonstrate good utilization of maternal health services. A model family is by definition a family which has fulfilled all the packages of the HEP. Conclusions The HEWs seem to have substantial contribution in several aspects of utilization of maternal health services but their insignificant contribution in improving health facility delivery and skilled birth attendance remains an important problem. More effort is needed to improve the effectiveness of HEWs in these regards. For example, strengthening HEWs’ support for pregnant women

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  5. Outpatient physical therapy utilization for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: a population-based nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Lin, Jin-Ding; Tung, Ho-Jui; Chiang, Po-Huang; Hsu, Shang-Wei

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzed the utilization and utilization determinants of outpatient physical therapy (PT) among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze 2007 national health insurance (NHI) claim data from 35,802 eighteen-year-old and younger persons with intellectual disabilities. A total of 3944 (11.02%) claimants received outpatient physical therapy. Variables that affected PT utilization included age, residence urbanization level, ID level, copayment status and major co-morbidity. The average annual PT visit frequency was 25.4 ± 33.0; pre-school children, claimants suffering from catastrophic disease and ID co-occurring with cerebral palsy had a higher mean cost per visit. Age, ID level, copayment status and co-morbidity were factors that influenced expenditure. Pre-school children, males, individuals who resided in the lowest urbanization areas and individuals with a catastrophic disease tended to use hospital services. The point prevalence of epilepsy and cerebral palsy were 12.10% and 19.80%, respectively. Despite the NHI program and government regulations to provide special services, the use of physical therapy for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities was low, and the utilization decreased as the subjects aged.

  6. Emergency department utilization among recently released prisoners: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The population of ex-prisoners returning to their communities is large. Morbidity and mortality is increased during the period following release. Understanding utilization of emergency services by this population may inform interventions to reduce adverse outcomes. We examined Emergency Department utilization among a cohort of recently released prisoners. Methods We linked Rhode Island Department of Corrections records with electronic health record data from a large hospital system from 2007 to 2009 to analyze emergency department utilization for mental health disorders, substance use disorders and ambulatory care sensitive conditions by ex-prisoners in the year after release from prison in comparison to the general population, controlling for patient- and community-level factors. Results There were 333,369 total ED visits with 5,145 visits by a cohort of 1,434 ex-prisoners. In this group, 455 ex-prisoners had 3 or more visits within 1 year of release and 354 had a first ED visit within 1 month of release. ED visits by ex-prisoners were more likely to be made by men (85% vs. 48%, p < 0.001) and by blacks (26% vs. 16%, p < 0.001) compared to the Rhode Island general population. Ex-prisoners were more likely to have an ED visit for a mental health disorder (6% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) or substance use disorder (16%vs. 4%, p < 0.001). After controlling for patient- and community-level factors, ex-prisoner visits were significantly more likely to be for mental health disorders (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.27-1.61), substance use disorders (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.77-2.11) and ambulatory care sensitive conditions (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.18). Conclusions ED visits by ex-prisoners were significantly more likely due to three conditions optimally managed in outpatient settings. Future work should determine whether greater access to outpatient services after release from prison reduces ex-prisoners’ utilization of emergency services. PMID:24188513

  7. System study of the utilization of space for carbon dioxide research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Vranka, R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives included: compiling and selecting the Scientific Data Requirements (SDRs) pertinent to the CO2 Research Program that have the potential to be more successfully achieved by utilizing space-based sensor systems; assessment of potential space technology in monitoring those parameters which may be important first indicators of climate change due to increasing atmospheric CO2, including the behavior of the West Antarctic ice sheet; and determine the potential of space technology for monitoring those parameters to improve understanding of the coupling between CO2 and cloud cover.

  8. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  9. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  10. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  11. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K; Vecellio, Daniel J

    2017-02-11

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance--particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology--provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  12. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  13. Knowledge and Utilization of Computers Among Health Professionals in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Incorporation of information communication technology in health care has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developing countries are also incorporating information communication technology into the health system including the implementation of electronic medical records in major hospitals and the use of mobile health in rural community-based health interventions. However, the literature on the level of knowledge and utilization of information communication technology by health professionals in those settings is scarce for proper implementation planning. Objective The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, computer utilization, and associated factors among health professionals in hospitals and health institutions in Ethiopia. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 554 health professionals working in 7 hospitals, 19 primary health centers, and 10 private clinics in the Harari region of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a semi-structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression techniques using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corporation) were applied to determine the level of knowledge and identify determinants of utilization of information communication technology. Results Out of 554 participants, 482 (87.0%) of them responded to the questionnaire. Among them, 90 (18.7%) demonstrated good knowledge of computers while 142 (29.5%) demonstrated good utilization habits. Health professionals who work in the primary health centers were found to have lower knowledge (3.4%) and utilization (18.4%). Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.06, 95% CI 0.57-5.37), field of study (AOR=3.08, 95% CI 1.65-5.73), level of education (AOR=2.78, 95% CI 1.43-5.40), and previous computer training participation (AOR=3.65, 95% CI 1.62-8.21) were found to be significantly associated with computer utilization habits of health professionals. Conclusions Computer knowledge and utilization habits of health

  14. The role of environmental groups in electric-utility regulation: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E. )

    1994-03-01

    Environmental groups, if they pick their issues and their turf carefully, and work closely with other interest groups, can have a profound and positive effect on electric utility planning and regulation. From July 1992 through June 1993 the author spent a year working with the Energy Project of the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies (LAW Fund) in Boulder, Colorado. The LAW Fund is a regional environmental law center that provides legal support to local environmental groups throughout the Rocky Mountain region. The LAW Fund's Energy Project focuses on the use of demand-side management programs, renewable resources, and integrated resource planning as ways for electric and gas utilities to deliver desired energy services to their customers at minimal environmental cost. The Energy Project works on state-specific and regional issues in six states. This paper offers the author's observations on the substantial influence and valuable services that such a small group can provide. He also comments on the problems faced in deciding to allocate limited human and financial resources among competing objectives, projects, and activities. The article also describes the Energy Project activities in 1992 and 1993; suggests the factors that accounted for its successes; and reflects on the choices that such groups make in selecting projects on which to focus, on allocating time and effort among projects, negotiating vs. litigating, working with the media, developing alliances with other groups that have similar interests, and participating in state politics.

  15. Dynamic Effects among Patients' Treatment Needs, Beliefs, and Utilization: A Prospective Study of Adolescents in Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Terry L; Orlando, Maria; Morral, Andrew R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To document the prospective, reciprocal relationships among substance use problems, utilization of drug treatment, and predisposing beliefs thought to increase treatment utilization. Data Source Persistent Effects of Treatment Study-Adolescent (PETS-A), conducted by the Center on Substance Abuse Treatment. This was a longitudinal study of youths originally participating in one of two CSAT studies; one sample included 476 youths receiving residential drug treatment, and the other included 519 youths receiving outpatient treatment. Study Design This study uses five waves of data collected over a 12-month period to examine the temporal relationships among four variables: treatment dose, substance use problems, drug resistance self-efficacy, and perceived need for treatment (PNT). Data from this longitudinal study were analyzed using cross-lagged panel models, and structural equation modeling techniques were used to estimate the prospective, reciprocal relationships among these four variables in each of the two samples, while controlling for several covariates. Principal Findings Both PNT and low drug resistance self-efficacy led to higher levels of subsequent treatment. However, low self-efficacy presaged increases in drug problems while PNT predicted decreases. Conclusions Understanding the role of psychological variables in the utilization of health services is complicated for psychological disorders because beliefs that affect treatment can also influence the disorder itself. Efforts to keep adolescents in drug treatment should focus on convincing youth that treatment can help them with their problems, rather than convincing them that they cannot resist drugs on their own. While both messages increase treatment utilization, the latter belief undermines the effects of treatment. PMID:16033496

  16. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Walmet, Paula S.

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  17. Cross-Border Utilization of Health Care: Evidence from a Population-Based Study in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dejun; Richardson, Chad; Wen, Ming; Pagán, José A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of health care utilization in Mexico by Texas border residents and to identify the main contributing factors to their cross-border utilization of health care services. Data and Methods This study used primary data from a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in the whole Texas border area in 2008. The survey included responses from 1,405 adults. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to determine predictors of utilizing a wide range of health care services in Mexico. Principal Findings Forty-nine percent of the sample reported having ever purchased medications in Mexico, followed by 41 percent for dentist visits, 37.3 percent for doctor visits, and 6.7 percent for inpatient care. The most significant predictors of health care utilization in Mexico were lack of U.S. health insurance coverage, dissatisfaction with the quality of U.S. health care, and poor self-rated health status. Conclusions The high prevalence of use of health care services in Mexico by Texas border residents is suggestive of unmet needs in health care on the U.S. side of the border. Addressing these unmet needs calls for a binational approach to improve the affordability, accessibility, and quality of health care in the U.S.–Mexico border region. PMID:21158855

  18. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  19. Glucose utilization by intracranial meningiomas as an index of tumor aggressivity and probability of recurrence: a PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Di Chiro, G.; Hatazawa, J.; Katz, D.A.; Rizzoli, H.V.; De Michele, D.J.

    1987-08-01

    Seventeen patients with intracranial meningiomas were studied with positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) to assess the glucose utilization of these tumors. Four meningiomas followed for 3-5 years after PET-FDG and surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. These tumors had significantly lower glucose utilization rates (1.9 mg/dl/min +/- 1.0) than 11 recurrent or regrowing meningiomas (4.5 mg/dl/min +/- 1.96). The glucose metabolic rates of meningiomas correlated with tumor growth, as estimated from changes in tumor size on repeated computed tomographic scans. Histopathologically, a syncytial (atypical) meningioma had the highest glucose utilization rate, followed by a papillary meningioma and an angioblastic meningioma. Individual transitional and syncytial (typical) meningiomas showed marked differences in glucose metabolism despite similar microscopic appearance. Glucose utilization rate appears to be at least as reliable as histologic classification and other proposed criteria for predicting the behavior and recurrence of intracranial meningiomas.

  20. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies of bovine serum albumin interaction with sodium acetate food additive.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Dehghan, Parvin; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-08-01

    Sodium acetate (SA) has been used as a highly effective protectant in food industry and the possible effect of this additive on the binding to albumin should be taken into consideration. Therefore, for the first time, the mechanism of SA interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods under physiological conditions. Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching analysis showed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of BSA upon increasing the amounts of SA. The high affinity of SA to BSA was demonstrated by a binding constant value (1.09×10(3) at 310°K). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic binding plays a main role in the binding of SA to Albumin. Furthermore, the results of UV-vis spectra confirmed the interaction of this additive to BSA. In addition, molecular modeling study demonstrated that A binding sites of BSA play the main role in the interaction with acetate.

  1. A mechanistic study of manganese(iii) acetate-mediated phosphonyl group additions to [60]- and [70]-fullerenes: the oxidative-ion-transfer mechanism vs. free radical addition.

    PubMed

    Tumanskii, Boris L; Sabirov, Denis S; Lyakhovetsky, Yury I

    2016-11-14

    The phosphonylation of C60 with HP(O)(OAlk)2 and Mn(OAc)3·2H2O has been considered to occur via a free radical (FR) path involving intermediate radicals ˙P(O)(OAlk)2. The present study provides evidence in support of another mechanism for the reactions, oxidative-ion-transfer (OIT). The mechanism involves the change of an acetate group in Mn(OAc)3 for the phosphonate group and oxidation of C60 by the Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 formed to a pair: (C60˙(+), Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2˙(-)) followed by the transfer of the phosphonate anion to give the monophposphonylfullerenyl radical. It undergoes reversible dimerization. The polyaddition occurs analogously. Moreover, the compounds Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 (Alk = Et and i-Pr) obtained make novel reagents for phosphonylation of fullerenes working by the OIT mechanism. The reactions of C60 in benzene with equimolar amounts of Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OPr-i)2 or Hg[P(O)(OPr-i)2]2 which is known as working by the FR mechanism since it produces radical ˙P(O)(OPr-i)2 under UV-irradiation, furnished the same radical ˙C60P(O)(OPr-i)2. However, at a 20-fold molar excess of the reagent toward C60, a single derivative C60[P(O)(OPr-i)2]4 and a mixture of derivatives bearing between two and eight phosphonyls were obtained in the former and latter cases, respectively. With C70, the change of the mechanism produced a change in the regioselectivity: 5 and 3 isomers of ˙C70P(O)(OPr-i)2 were obtained, respectively. DFT-calculations provided the hyperfine coupling (hfc) constants of the isomers and explained the regioselectivity change.

  2. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-02-14

    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  3. Enantioselective conjugate addition of nitro compounds to α,β-unsaturated ketones: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Rubén; Andrés, José M; Álvarez, Rosana; Muruzábal, María D; de Lera, Ángel R; Pedrosa, Rafael

    2011-05-16

    A series of chiral thioureas derived from easily available diamines, prepared from α-amino acids, have been tested as catalysts in the enantioselective Michael additions of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated ketones. The best results are obtained with the bifunctional catalyst prepared from L-valine. This thiourea promotes the reaction with high enantioselectivities and chemical yields for aryl/vinyl ketones, but the enantiomeric ratio for alkyl/vinyl derivatives is very modest. The addition of substituted nitromethanes led to the corresponding adducts with excellent enantioselectivity but very poor diastereoselectivity. Evidence for the isomerization of the addition products has been obtained from the reaction of chalcone with [D(3)]nitromethane, which shows that the final addition products epimerize under the reaction conditions. The epimerization explains the low diastereoselectivity observed in the formation of adducts with two adjacent tertiary stereocenters. Density functional studies of the transition structures corresponding to two alternative activation modes of the nitroalkanes and α,β-unsaturated ketones by the bifunctional organocatalyst have been carried out at the B3LYP/3-21G* level. The computations are consistent with a reaction model involving the Michael addition of the thiourea-activated nitronate to the ketone activated by the protonated amine of the organocatalyst. The enantioselectivities predicted by the computations are consistent with the experimental values obtained for aryl- and alkyl-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  4. Financial impacts of net-metered PV on utilities and ratepayers: A scoping study of two prototypical U.S. utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Darghouth, Naim

    2014-09-19

    Deployment of customer-sited photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has expanded rapidly in recent years, driven in part by public policies premised on a range of societal benefits that PV may provide. With the success of these efforts, heated debates have surfaced in a number of U.S. states about the impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders and ratepayers, and such debates will likely become only more pronounced and widespread as solar costs continue to decline and deployment accelerates. To inform these discussions, we performed a scoping analysis to quantify the financial impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders and ratepayers and to assess the potential efficacy of various options for mitigating those impacts.

  5. Examining Geothermal Potential Utilizing a Non-traditional Approach: Case Studies from the New England Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteas, C.; Rhodes, J. M.; Mabee, S. B.; Adams, S.; Goodhue, N.; Gagnon, T.; Thomas, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating geothermal potential in regions without extensive borehole heat flow data or traditional geophysical studies remains challenging. However, estimates can be generated by combining regional mapping of areas containing high concentrations of granitoids with geochemical analysis (see Rhodes et al., this session). This approach allows for relatively inexpensive reconnaissance studies over large areas that can be used to produce temperature-depth profile models, which can be easily tested against existing borehole-based data sets. Additionally, site-specific heat production calculations can be correlated with regional tectonic maps and terrane models that can further inform estimates of geothermal potential. Over three hundred granitoid localities in Massachusetts (MA) and Connecticut (CT) have been sampled and analyzed to date. For simplification, the study area can be subdivided into four major litho-tectonic zones: the Taconic-Berkshire zone of western MA and northwestern CT, The Bronson Hill zone associated with the Connecticut River Valley, the Nashoba zone of central MA and eastern CT, and the Milford-Dedham zone of eastern MA and eastern CT. In southeastern MA and eastern CT, average heat production of granitoid samples is approximately 2.7 μW/m3. Isolated samples in eastern CT are up to ~6 μW/m3 and greater than 4 μW/m3 in southeastern MA. The Fall River granite within this region of eastern MA has been modeled with a 2 km thick sediment package overlying the granite. These models, which account for the insulating effects of sediments within the Narragansett Basin, suggest temperatures may reach 107°C at depths of 4 km and 132°C at 6 km. The Andover granite, which is within the Nashoba zone of central MA, has been altered by upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies metamorphism and is in a much more structurally complex configuration than granitoids to the south or east. Nevertheless, models suggest that the average temperature at 4 km depth

  6. Utility of C-2 (Cyclosporine) monitoring in postrenal transplant patients: A study in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, V; Kumar, R; Gupta, P N

    2008-07-01

    The study was planned and conducted to assess the benefit of C-2 levels (blood cyclosporine levels two hours postdosing) monitoring over trough (C0) levels (predosing) in postrenal transplant patients. The patient population included 34 postrenal transplant individuals (28 males and six females, mean age of 39.9 +/- 12.3 years). The patients were first-transplant patients and were receiving a microemulsion form of cyclosporine A (CsA) as an immunosuppressant along with azathioprine and prednisolone. In addition, they were not on any enzyme inducer/inhibitor drugs, except for diltiazem. Timed collection of C0 and C-2 samples was done and the samples were immediately processed using the cedia cyclosporine plus assay kit. Estimation was done on a Beckman synchron CX5CE fully automated chemistry analyzer. Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were checked. Poor graft survival was found in this population with 29.3% patients showing graft rejection. The graft rejection patients were assigned to two groups: group I with chronic graft rejection patients (17.6%) and group II with acute graft rejection patients (11.7%). Group III consisted of graft survival patients (70.7%). Mean +/- SD was calculated for C0 and C2 levels. Individual values for C0 and C-2 were plotted on a scatter chart. C0 and C-2 levels were normalized by calculating them as the percentage of their targets (data not shown) and compared using the Kruskal Wallis one-way analysis of variance. C0 levels in all the three groups were within the recommended therapeutic range (150-300 ng/mL) (P < 0.182). Blood C-2 concentrations did not achieve the recommended target levels in these patients. One-way analysis of variance for C-2 values when expressed as the percentage of the target values did not show any significant difference between these groups (P < 0.84). No significant difference was found in C0 levels between groups I, II, and group III patients when expressed as the percentage of the target values (P

  7. Investigating Solvent Purity Utilizing Comprehensive Gas Chromatography: A Study of Acetones

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Bolz, Cinnamon DH; Wahl, Karen L.

    2010-04-01

    Broad spectrum chemical analysis of trace level components is a continuing challenge for any analytical chemist. This challenge is further confounded when chemical impurities may be present in common organic solvents or when chemical artifacts may be formed, produced and introduced during an analytical procedure. Minimizing and understanding these chemical artifacts, is critical for trace level detection and is crucial for unambiguous analytical results. Comprehensive gas chromatography is an excellent analytical tool to help address these complex mixture challenges. This work examines the impurities present in various acetone sources utilizing comprehensive gas chromatography. This work highlights the extreme variability possible in solvent sources and hence the importance of understanding the impurities that may confound an analytical method or result.

  8. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 6: Space shuttle interfaces/utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impacts of achieving compatibility of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) with the space shuttle and the potential benefits of space shuttle utilization are discussed. Mission requirements and mission suitability, including the effects of multiple spacecraft missions, are addressed for the full spectrum of the missions. Design impact is assessed primarily against Mission B, but unique requirements reflected by Mission A, B, and C are addressed. The preliminary results indicated that the resupply mission had the most pronounced impact on spacecraft design and cost. Program costs are developed for the design changes necessary to achieve EOS-B compatibility with Space Shuttle operations. Non-recurring and recurring unit costs are determined, including development, test, ground support and logistics, and integration efforts. Mission suitability is addressed in terms of performance, volume, and center of gravity compatibility with both space shuttle and conventional launch vehicle capabilities.

  9. A feasibility study of large-scale photobiological hydrogen production utilizing mariculture-raised cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    In order to decrease CO(2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the development of new renewable energy sources sufficiently large in quantity is essential. To meet this need, we propose large-scale H(2) production on the sea surface utilizing cyanobacteria. Although many of the relevant technologies are in the early stage of development, this chapter briefly examines the feasibility of such H(2) production, in order to illustrate that under certain conditions large-scale photobiological H(2) production can be viable. Assuming that solar energy is converted to H(2) at 1.2% efficiency, the future cost of H(2) can be estimated to be about 11 (pipelines) and 26.4 (compression and marine transportation) cents kWh(-1), respectively.

  10. Utilization study of filgrastim (Neutromax) during autologous haematopoietic precursor transplantation for myeloma and lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Hugo H; Juni, Mariana; Bello, Ricardo; Vidal, Alejandro; Diez, Roberto A; Pavlovsky, Santiago

    2009-10-01

    To describe utilization of a biosimilar product containing filgrastim (Neutromax), data of 414 myeloma or lymphoma patients subjected to autologous SCT between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed. Filgrastim was used for mobilization of progenitors (5 days at 300 microg/day) and for the recovery of neutropenia after transplantation (100 microg/day, since day +5). In 2003, the excipient mannitol was replaced by sorbitol. A mean dose of 9.47 x 10(6)CD34(+)cells/kg was infused; 100 neutrophils/mm(3) required 5-day treatment; 500 neutrophils/mm(3), 6 days and 1000 neutrophils/mm(3), 7 days. Neutromax effect in SCT is similar to reports with other brands. No difference was found between formulations.

  11. Spatially selective photocoagulation of biological tissues: feasibility study utilizing cryogen spray cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Anvari, B. |; Tanenbaum, B.S.; Milner, T.E.; Tang, K.; Liaw, L.; Kalafus, K.; Kimel, S.; Nelson, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Successful laser treatment of selected dermatoses such as hemangiomas requires thermally induced damage to blood vessels while protecting the epidermis. We present and test a procedure in a rabbit liver tissue model that utilizes cryogen spray cooling during continuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation to induce deep photocoagulation necrosis while protecting superficial tissues from thermal injury. Gross and histologic observations are consistent with calculated thicknesses of protected and photocoagulated tissues and demonstrate the feasibility of inducing spatially selective photocoagulation when cryogen spray cooling is used in conjunction with laser irradiation. This procedure may be useful in the thermal treatment of some pathological conditions for which it is desired that deep photocoagulation be induced while protecting superficial tissues. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  12. State regulation of electric and gas utilities: energy policy study. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Taschjian, M.; Hewlett, J.

    1980-01-01

    State regulation of electric and gas utilities is examined. The concept of natural monopoly is reviewed, and alternative approaches to the problem are examined, using current economic literature. Private monopoly, public ownership, and regulatory intervention are compared as the chief alternatives. Various forms of regulatory intervention are discussed, ranging from franchise auction through rate-of-return regulation. The latter approach is then examned in detail, discussing the Averch-Johnson effect, regulatory lag, and the impact on technological choice and development of new technology. Alternative price structures are examined and contrasted with the free market case of an unregulated monopolist. The main conclusion is that current regulatory intervention appears to be the least desirable of the alternatives in terms of efficiency of resource use, price, output, and distribution of consumer surplus. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Spatially selective photocoagulation of biological tissues: feasibility study utilizing cryogen spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Milner, Thomas E.; Tang, Kimberly; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Kalafus, Ken; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1996-07-01

    Successful laser treatment of selected dermatoses such as hemangiomas requires thermally induced damage to blood vessels while protecting the epidermis. We present and test a procedure in a rabbit liver tissue model that utilizes cryogen spray cooling during continuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation to induce deep photocoagulation necrosis while protecting superficial tissues from thermal injury. Gross and histologic observations are consistent with calculated thicknesses of protected and photocoagulated tissues and demonstrate the feasibility of inducing spatially selective photocoagulation when cryogen spray cooling is used in conjunction with laser irradiation. This procedure may be useful in the thermal treatment of some pathological conditions for which it is desired that deep photocoagulation be induced while protecting superficial tissues. infrared radiometry, laser, microwave, thermal-damage confinement.

  14. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  15. Enzymological studies of one-carbon reactions in the pathway of acetate utilization by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Several enzymes in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane and carbon dioxide have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila. The mechanisms of these enzymes are under investigation utilizing biochemical, biophysical and molecular genetic approaches. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA. The primary structure of these enzymes will be determined through cloning and sequencing of the genes. Two protein components of the CO dehydrogenase complex are under investigations. The metal centers of each component have been characterized using EPR. Cloning and sequencing of the genes for the two subunits of each component is in progress. Results indicate that the Ni/Fe-S component cleaves the C-C and C-S bonds of acetyl-CoA followed by oxidation of the carbonyl group to carbon dioxide and transfer of the methyl group to the Co/Fe-S component. The enzymes and cofactors involved in transfer of the methyl group from the Co/Fe-S component to coenzyme M will be purified and characterized. Ferredoxin is an electron acceptor for the Ni/Fe-S component and also serves to reductively reactivate methylreductase which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl coenzyme M to methane. This ferredoxin is being characterized utilizing EPR and RR spectroscopic methods to determine the properties of the Fe-S centers. Genes encoding this and other ferredoxins have been cloned and sequenced to determine the primary structures. Carbonic anhydrase is being purified and characterized to determine the function of this enzyme in the pathway.

  16. Enzymological studies of one-carbon reactions in the pathway of acetate utilization by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    Several enzymes in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane and carbon dioxide have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila. The mechanisms of these enzymes are under investigation utilizing biochemical, biophysical and molecular genetic approaches. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA. The primary structure of these enzymes will be determined through cloning and sequencing of the genes. Two protein components of the CO dehydrogenase complex are under investigations. The metal centers of each component have been characterized using EPR. Cloning and sequencing of the genes for the two subunits of each component is in progress. Results indicate that the Ni/Fe-S component cleaves the C-C and C-S bonds of acetyl-CoA followed by oxidation of the carbonyl group to carbon dioxide and transfer of the methyl group to the Co/Fe-S component. The enzymes and cofactors involved in transfer of the methyl group from the Co/Fe-S component to coenzyme M will be purified and characterized. Ferredoxin is an electron acceptor for the Ni/Fe-S component and also serves to reductively reactivate methylreductase which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl coenzyme M to methane. This ferredoxin is being characterized utilizing EPR and RR spectroscopic methods to determine the properties of the Fe-S centers. Genes encoding this and other ferredoxins have been cloned and sequenced to determine the primary structures. Carbonic anhydrase is being purified and characterized to determine the function of this enzyme in the pathway.

  17. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  18. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  19. Examining related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization among people with disabilities in Taiwan, a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsien-Tang; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Su, Hsun-Pi; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-09-01

    Limited studies with large samples have been conducted on the utilization of dental calculus scaling among people with physical or mental disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the national disabled population. This study analyzed the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the disabled people, using the nationwide data between 2006 and 2008. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization. The dental calculus scaling utilization rate among people with physical or mental disabilities was 16.39%, and the annual utilization frequency was 0.2 times. Utilization rate was higher among the female and non-aboriginal samples. Utilization rate decreased with increased age and disability severity while utilization rate increased with income, education level, urbanization of residential area and number of chronic illnesses. Related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization rate were gender, age, ethnicity (aboriginal or non-aboriginal), education level, urbanization of residence area, income, catastrophic illnesses, chronic illnesses, disability types, and disability severity significantly influenced the dental calculus scaling utilization rate.

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  3. Modeling multiple experiments using regularized optimization: A case study on bacterial glucose utilization dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, András; Lemos, João M; Vinga, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The aim of inverse modeling is to capture the systems׳ dynamics through a set of parameterized Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Parameters are often required to fit multiple repeated measurements or different experimental conditions. This typically leads to a multi-objective optimization problem that can be formulated as a non-convex optimization problem. Modeling of glucose utilization of Lactococcus lactis bacteria is considered using in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements in perturbation experiments. We propose an ODE model based on a modified time-varying exponential decay that is flexible enough to model several different experimental conditions. The starting point is an over-parameterized non-linear model that will be further simplified through an optimization procedure with regularization penalties. For the parameter estimation, a stochastic global optimization method, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used. A regularization is introduced to the identification, imposing that parameters should be the same across several experiments in order to identify a general model. On the remaining parameter that varies across the experiments a function is fit in order to be able to predict new experiments for any initial condition. The method is cross-validated by fitting the model to two experiments and validating the third one. Finally, the proposed model is integrated with existing models of glycolysis in order to reconstruct the remaining metabolites. The method was found useful as a general procedure to reduce the number of parameters of unidentifiable and over-parameterized models, thus supporting feature selection methods for parametric models.

  4. Mechanistic modeling study on process optimization and precursor utilization with atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhang; He, Wenjie; Duan, Chenlong; Chen, Rong; Shan, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (SALD) is a promising technology with the aim of combining the advantages of excellent uniformity and conformity of temporal atomic layer deposition (ALD), and an industrial scalable and continuous process. In this manuscript, an experimental and numerical combined model of atmospheric SALD system is presented. To establish the connection between the process parameters and the growth efficiency, a quantitative model on reactant isolation, throughput, and precursor utilization is performed based on the separation gas flow rate, carrier gas flow rate, and precursor mass fraction. The simulation results based on this model show an inverse relation between the precursor usage and the carrier gas flow rate. With the constant carrier gas flow, the relationship of precursor usage and precursor mass fraction follows monotonic function. The precursor concentration, regardless of gas velocity, is the determinant factor of the minimal residual time. The narrow gap between precursor injecting heads and the substrate surface in general SALD system leads to a low Péclet number. In this situation, the gas diffusion act as a leading role in the precursor transport in the small gap rather than the convection. Fluid kinetics from the numerical model is independent of the specific structure, which is instructive for the SALD geometry design as well as its process optimization.

  5. Fluids and Materials Science Studies Utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Rodney; Tryggvason, Bjarni; Duval, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Canada's Microgravity Sciences Program (MSP) is the smallest program of the ISS partners and so can participate in only a few, highly focused projects in order to make a scientific and technological impact. One focused project involves determining the effect of accelerations (g-jitter) on scientific measurements in a microgravity environment utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM). Many experiments share the common characteristic of having a fluid stage in their process. The quality of the experimental measurements have been expected to be affected by g-jitters which has lead the ISS program to include specifications to limit the level of acceleration allowed on a subset of experimental racks. From finite element analysis (FEM), the ISS structure will not be able to meet the acceleration specifications. Therefore, isolation systems are necessary. Fluid science results and materials science results show significant sensitivity to g-jitter. The work done to date should be viewed only as a first look at the issue of g-jitter sensitivity. The work should continue with high priority such that the international science community and the ISS program can address the requirement and settle on an agreed to overall approach as soon as possible.

  6. Cash Transfers to Increase Antenatal Care Utilization in Kisoro, Uganda: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Chava; Iraguha, Moses; Baganizi, Michael; Kolenic, Giselle E; Paccione, Gerald A; Tejani, Nergesh

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends four antenatal visits for pregnant women in developing countries. Cash transfers have been used to incentivize participation in health services. We examined whether modest cash transfers for participation in antenatal care would increase antenatal care attendance and delivery in a health facility in Kisoro, Uganda. Twenty-three villages were randomized into four groups: 1) no cash; 2) 0.20 United States Dollars (USD) for each of four visits; 3) 0.40 USD for a single first trimester visit only; 4) 0.40 USD for each of four visits. Outcomes were three or more antenatal visits and delivery in a health facility. Chi-square, analysis of variance, and generalized estimating equation analyses were performed to detect differences in outcomes. Women in the 0.40 USD/visit group had higher odds of three or more antenatal visits than the control group (OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.57). The odds of delivering in a health facility did not differ between groups. However, women with more antenatal visits had higher odds of delivering in a health facility (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.42). These findings are important in an area where maternal mortality is high, utilization of health services is low, and resources are scarce.

  7. Utility of the advanced chronic kidney disease patient management tools: case studies.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Meenal B; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Haley, William E

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate management of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) delays or limits its progression. The Advanced CKD Patient Management Toolkit was developed using a process-improvement technique to assist patient management and address CKD-specific management issues. We pilot tested the toolkit in 2 community nephrology practices, assessed the utility of individual tools, and evaluated the impact on conformance to an advanced CKD guideline through patient chart abstraction. Tool use was distinct in the 2 sites and depended on the site champion's involvement, the extent of process reconfiguration demanded by a tool, and its perceived value. Baseline conformance varied across guideline recommendations (averaged 54%). Posttrial conformance increased in all clinical areas (averaged 59%). Valuable features of the toolkit in real-world settings were its ability to: facilitate tool selection, direct implementation efforts in response to a baseline performance audit, and allow selection of tool versions and customizing them. Our results suggest that systematically created, multifaceted, and customizable tools can promote guideline conformance.

  8. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S.

    2006-12-15

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  9. The Utilization of Rehabilitation in Patients with Hemophilia A in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rehabilitation plays an important role in the physical health of patients with hemophilia. However, comprehensive information regarding the utilization of rehabilitation for such patients remains scarce. Aim This population-based study aimed to examine the characteristics, trends, and most important factors affecting rehabilitation usage in patients with hemophilia A using a nationwide database in Taiwan. Methods Data from 777 patients with hemophilia A who were registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database between 1998 and 2008 were analyzed using SAS 9.0. Results Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and clotting factor VIII concentrate costs were identified as factors affecting rehabilitation usage; musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures (odds ratio = 3.788; P < 0.001) were the most important predictor of whether a patient with hemophilia A would use rehabilitation services. Joint disorders, arthropathies, bone and cartilage disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and brain trauma were common diagnoses during rehabilitation use. The costs of physical therapy (physiotherapy) comprised the majority (71.2%) of rehabilitation therapy categories. Increasingly, rehabilitation therapy was performed at physician clinics. The total rehabilitation costs were <0.1% of the total annual medical costs. Conclusion Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and increased use of clotting factor VIII concentrate affect the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A the most. The findings in this study could help clinicians comprehensively understand the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A. PMID:27690229

  10. Study of Drug Utilization Pattern for Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital - A Prescription Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anuj Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Manish; Dikshit, Harihar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. It affects individuals of all ages, neonates to elderly. Owing to its chronic nature, it causes serious impact on quality of life and financial status of the sufferer and his family. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Periodic prescription audit in form of drug utilization study is a way to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a global phenomenon. Aim This study aims to determine the drug utilization pattern and assess the economic burden of the patient with skin disease. Materials and Methods It was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted over a period of three months from January to March 2015 in newly diagnosed cases attending outpatient department of Skin and VD, IGIMS, Patna. The prescriptions were analysed with the help of descriptive statistics and results were expressed in percentage. Results Total 752 prescriptions were analysed during the study. Male patients were lesser as compared to female as male to female ratio was 0.88. Over 50% of patients were in adolescent age group i.e. 21-40 years. Acne (17.95%) was most common disease in the study population followed by eczema and Dermatophytosis. Among the drugs, antihistaminics (24.13%) were prescribed most frequently followed by antifungals and antibiotics. Topical agents constituted almost 60% of the total prescription and average number of drugs per prescription was 5.13, irrespective of the dosage forms prescribed. Conclusion This drug utilization study provides an insight to the prescriber regarding various issues related to polypharmacy, cost analysis and prevalent disease pattern in the region. This study also suggests periodic evaluation of prescription pattern to monitor and improve quality of prescription in other departments of the hospital. PMID:27042479

  11. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning: Scenario Case Studies Using the Resource Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Barrows, Clayton; Lopez, Anthony; Hale, Elaine; Dyson, Mark; Eurek, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations — particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling — to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  12. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  13. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010–2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  14. Utility of the Mini-Cog for Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Care: Data from Two Spanish Studies

    PubMed Central

    Carnero-Pardo, Cristóbal; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Espejo-Martínez, Beatriz; Martos-Aparicio, Carolina; López-Alcalde, Samuel; Olazarán, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the utility of the Mini-Cog test for detection of patients with cognitive impairment (CI) in primary care (PC). Methods. We pooled data from two phase III studies conducted in Spain. Patients with complaints or suspicion of CI were consecutively recruited by PC physicians. The cognitive diagnosis was performed by an expert neurologist, after formal neuropsychological evaluation. The Mini-Cog score was calculated post hoc, and its diagnostic utility was evaluated and compared with the utility of the Mini-Mental State (MMS), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the sum of the MMS and the CDT (MMS + CDT) using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The best cut points were obtained on the basis of diagnostic accuracy (DA) and kappa index. Results. A total sample of 307 subjects (176 CI) was analyzed. The Mini-Cog displayed an AUC (±SE) of 0.78 ± 0.02, which was significantly inferior to the AUC of the CDT (0.84 ± 0.02), the MMS (0.84 ± 0.02), and the MMS + CDT (0.86 ± 0.02). The best cut point of the Mini-Cog was 1/2 (sensitivity 0.60, specificity 0.90, DA 0.73, and kappa index 0.48 ± 0.05). Conclusions. The utility of the Mini-Cog for detection of CI in PC was very modest, clearly inferior to the MMS or the CDT. These results do not permit recommendation of the Mini-Cog in PC. PMID:24069544

  15. Assessment of management approaches in a public water utility: A case study of the Namibia water corporation (NAMWATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndokosho, Johnson; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makurira, Hodson

    More than 90% of urban water supply and sanitation services in developing countries are provided by public organizations. However, public provision of services has been inherently inefficient. As a result a number of initiatives have emerged in recent years with a common goal to improve service delivery. In Namibia, the water sector reform resulted in the creation of a public utility called the Namibia Water Corporation (NAMWATER) which is responsible for bulk water supply countrywide. Since its inception in 1998, NAMWATER has been experiencing poor financial performance. This paper presents the findings of a case study that compared the management approaches of NAMWATER to the New Public Management (NPM) paradigm. The focus of the NPM approach is for the public water sector to mirror private sector methods of management so that public utilities can accrue the benefits of effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility often associated with private sector. The study tools used were a combination of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. It was found out that NAMWATER has a high degree of autonomy in its operations, albeit government approved tariffs and sourcing of external financing. The utility reports to government annually to account for results. The utility embraces a notion of good corporate culture and adheres to sound management practices. NAMWATER demonstrated a strong market-orientation indicated by the outsourcing of non-core functions but benchmarking was poorly done. NAMWATER’s customer-orientation is poor as evidenced by the lack of customer care facilities. NAMWATER’s senior management delegated operational authority to lower management to facilitate flexibility and eliminate bottlenecks. The lower management is in turn held accountable for performance by the senior management. There are no robust methods of ensuring sufficient accountability indicated by absence of performance contracts or service level agreements. It was concluded that

  16. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  17. St. Lawrence Seaway N.Y. Feasibility Study for Additional Locks and Other Navigation Improvements: Plan of Study. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    throughout has increased. The shift to larger vessels, laker and ocean, has been faster than the rate of growth in tonnage demand for carriage. Various studies...Conditions Navigation Season 15 April to 15 December (1) (Thousands of Short Tons) :Annual * : Rate of * * *: Growth Commodity :: 1980- Group :1980 1990...December (1) (Thousands of Short Tons) * . * *:Annual * * * *: Rate of *: Growth Commodity : *: 1980- Group :1980 :1990 :2000 :2010 :2020 :2030 : 2030

  18. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    triplet PES than on the singlet PES for the formation of similar analogues. There are fewer competitive reaction pathways on the triplet surface than on the singlet PES. Also, cycloadditions that seem impossible on the singlet PES seem possible on the doublet and or triplet PESs, this is the case typically for the Rh and Co complexes, illustrating the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions.Graphical AbstractTable of Contents Synopsis: A study of the mechanism of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3)(M=Co,Rh,Ir) shows the reactions of the Co complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3+2] and [2+2] addition pathways and fewer side reactions than those of Rh and Ir. Reactions are more feasible and selective on the triplet PES than on the singlet PES. These illustrate the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions and shows catalyst activity and selectivity decreases down the group.

  19. Utilizing Crowdsourced Data for Studies of Cycling and Air Pollution Exposure: A Case Study Using Strava Data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yeran; Mobasheri, Amin

    2017-03-08

    With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level). The assessment of spatially varying effects of air pollution during active travel (cycling or walking) might benefit from Strava Metro data, as a variation in air pollution levels within a city would be expected. In this paper, to explore the potential of Strava Metro data in research of active travel and health, we investigate spatial patterns of non-commuting cycling activities and associations between cycling purpose (commuting and non-commuting) and air pollution exposure at a large scale. Additionally, we attempt to estimate the number of non-commuting cycling trips according to environmental characteristics that may help identify cycling behavior. Researchers who are undertaking studies relating to cycling purpose could benefit from this approach in their use of cycling trip data sets that lack trip purpose. We use the Strava Metro Nodes data from Glasgow, United Kingdom in an empirical study. Empirical results reveal some findings that (1) when compared with commuting cycling activities, non-commuting cycling activities are more likely to be located in outskirts of the city; (2) spatially speaking, cyclists riding for recreation and other purposes are more likely to be exposed to relatively low levels of air pollution than cyclists riding for commuting; and (3) the method for estimating of the

  20. Utilizing Crowdsourced Data for Studies of Cycling and Air Pollution Exposure: A Case Study Using Strava Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yeran; Mobasheri, Amin

    2017-01-01

    With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level). The assessment of spatially varying effects of air pollution during active travel (cycling or walking) might benefit from Strava Metro data, as a variation in air pollution levels within a city would be expected. In this paper, to explore the potential of Strava Metro data in research of active travel and health, we investigate spatial patterns of non-commuting cycling activities and associations between cycling purpose (commuting and non-commuting) and air pollution exposure at a large scale. Additionally, we attempt to estimate the number of non-commuting cycling trips according to environmental characteristics that may help identify cycling behavior. Researchers who are undertaking studies relating to cycling purpose could benefit from this approach in their use of cycling trip data sets that lack trip purpose. We use the Strava Metro Nodes data from Glasgow, United Kingdom in an empirical study. Empirical results reveal some findings that (1) when compared with commuting cycling activities, non-commuting cycling activities are more likely to be located in outskirts of the city; (2) spatially speaking, cyclists riding for recreation and other purposes are more likely to be exposed to relatively low levels of air pollution than cyclists riding for commuting; and (3) the method for estimating of the

  1. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  2. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  3. FOCUS: Future of fecal calprotectin utility study in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Greg; Greenup, Astrid-Jane; Round, Andrew; Takach, Oliver; Halparin, Lawrence; Saadeddin, Abid; Ho, Jin Kee; Lee, Terry; Enns, Robert; Bressler, Brian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the perspective of gastroenterologists regarding the impact of fecal calprotectin (FC) on the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS Patients with known IBD or symptoms suggestive of IBD for whom the physician identified that FC would be clinically useful were recruited. Physicians completed an online “pre survey” outlining their rationale for the test. After receipt of the test results, the physicians completed an online “post survey” to portray their perceived impact of the test result on patient management. Clinical outcomes for a subset of patients with follow-up data available beyond the completion of the “post survey” were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Of 373 test kits distributed, 290 were returned, resulting in 279 fully completed surveys. One hundred and ninety patients were known to have IBD; 147 (77%) with Crohn’s Disease, 43 (21%) Ulcerative Colitis and 5 (2%) IBD unclassified. Indications for FC testing included: 90 (32.2%) to differentiate a new diagnosis of IBD from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), 85 (30.5%) to distinguish symptoms of IBS from IBD in those known to have IBD and 104 (37.2%) as an objective measure of inflammation. FC levels resulted in a change in management 51.3% (143/279) of the time which included a significant reduction in the number of colonoscopies (118) performed (P < 0.001). Overall, 97.5% (272/279) of the time, the physicians found the test sufficiently useful that they would order it again in similar situations. Follow-up data was available for 172 patients with further support for the clinical utility of FC provided. CONCLUSION The FC test effected a change in management 51.3% of the time and receipt of the result was associated with a reduction in the number of colonoscopies performed. PMID:27688663

  4. Utilizing Social Media to Study Information-Seeking and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords “gene therapy” from the Q&A site “Yahoo! Answers” for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. Results The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease. PMID:23470490

  5. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles.

  6. Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology. Progress performance report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Two distinct sources of information are available from a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar step-heating experiment: the age spectrum and Arrhenius plot. Model ages are calculated from the flux of radiogenic argon ({sup 40}Ar*) (assuming trapped argon of atmospheric composition) relative to the reactor produced {sup 39}Ar evolved during discrete laboratory heating steps. With the additional assumption that the {sup 39}Ar is uniformly distributed within the sample, we can infer the spatial distribution of the daughter product. ne associated Arrhenius plot, derived by plotting the diffusion coefficient (obtained from the inversion of the 39{sup Ar} release function assuming a single domain) against the inverse temperature of laboratory heating, are a convolution of the parameters which characterize the individual diffusion domains (whether these be dictated by varying length scale, energetics, etc.). However, many and perhaps Most {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectra for slowly cooled alkali feldspars are significantly different from model age spectra calculated assuming a single diffusion-domain size. In addition, Arrhenius plots calculated from the measured loss of {sup 39}Ar during the step heating experiment show departures from linearity that are inconsistent with diffusion from domains of equal size. By extending the single diffusion-domain closure model (Dodsontype) to apply to minerals with a discrete distribution of domain sizes, we obtained an internally consistent explanation for the commonly observed features of alkali feldspar age spectra and their associated Arrhenius plots.

  7. Utilization of 3D printing for an intravital microscopy platform to study the intestinal microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Burkovskiy, I; Lehmann, C; Jiang, C; Zhou, J

    2016-11-01

    Intravital microscopy of the intestine is a sophisticated technique that allows qualitative and quantitative in vivo observation of dynamic cellular interactions and blood flow at a high resolution. Physiological conditions of the animal and in particular of the observed organ, such as temperature and moisture are crucial for intravital imaging. Often, the microscopy stage with the animal or the organ of interest imposes limitations on how well the animal can be maintained. In addition, the access for additional oxygen supply or drug administration during the procedure is rather restricted. To address these limitations, we developed a novel intravital microscopy platform, allowing us to have improved access to the animal during the intravital microscopy procedure, as well as improved microenvironmental maintenance. The production process of this prototype platform is based on 3D printing of device parts in a single-step process. The simplicity of production and the advantages of this versatile and customizable design are shown and discussed in this paper. Our design potentially represents a major step forward in facilitating intestinal intravital imaging using fluorescent microscopy.

  8. Study of EHD flow generator's efficiencies utilizing pin to single ring and multi-concentric rings electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumariyah; Kusminart; Hermanto, A.; Nuswantoro, P.

    2016-11-01

    EHD flow or ionic wind yield corona discharge is a stream coming from the ionized gas. EHD is generated by a strong electric field and its direction follows the electric field lines. In this study, the efficiency of the EHD flow generators utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes (P-MRE) and the EHD pin-single ring electrode (P-SRE) have been measured. The comparison of efficiencies two types of the generator has been done. EHD flow was generated by using a high-voltage DC 0-10 KV on the electrode pin with a positive polarity and electrode ring/ multi-concentric rings of negative polarity. The efficiency was calculated by comparison between the mechanical power of flow to the electrical power that consumed. We obtained that the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes was 0.54% and the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing a pin-single ring electrode was 0.23%. Efficiency of EHD with P-MRE 2.34 times Efficiency of EHD with P-SRE

  9. Theoretical study of the formation of naphthalene from the radical/π-bond addition between single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Andrea; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2011-06-09

    The experimental investigations performed in the 1960s on the o-benzyne + benzene reaction as well as the more recent studies on reactions involving π-electrons highlight the importance of π-bonding for different combustion processes related to PAH's and soot formation. In the present investigation radical/π-bond addition reactions between single-ring aromatic compounds have been proposed and computationally investigated as possible pathways for the formation of two-ring fused compounds, such as naphthalene, which serve as precursors to soot formation. The computationally generated optimized structures for the stationary points were obtained with uB3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations, while the energies of the optimized complexes were refined using the uCCSD(T) method and the cc-pVDZ basis set. The computations have addressed the relevance of a number of radical/π-bond addition reactions including the singlet benzene + o-benzyne reaction, which leads to formation of naphthalene and acetylene through fragmentation of the benzobicyclo[2,2,2]octatriene intermediate. For this reaction, the high-pressure limit rate constants for the individual elementary reactions involved in the overall process were evaluated using transition state theory analysis. Other radical/π-bond addition reactions studied were between benzene and triplet o-benzyne, between benzene and phenyl radical, and between phenyl radicals, for all of which potential energy surfaces were produced. On the basis of the results of these reaction studies, it was found necessary to propose and subsequently confirm additional, alternative pathways for the formation of the types of PAH compounds found in combustion systems. The potential energy surface for one reaction in particular, the phenyl + phenyl addition, is shown to contain a low-energy channel leading to formation of naphthalene that is energetically comparable to the other examined conventional pathways leading to formation of biphenyl compounds. This

  10. The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buddadee, Bancha Wirojanagud, Wanpen Watts, Daniel J. Pitakaso, Rapeepan

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

  11. Utility of Gram's stain and efficacy of quantitative cultures for posttraumatic pneumonia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Croce, M A; Fabian, T C; Waddle-Smith, L; Melton, S M; Minard, G; Kudsk, K A; Pritchard, F E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective trial examined the efficacy of using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of pneumonia (PN) and the utility of Gram's stain (GS) for dictating empiric therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Posttraumatic nosocomial PN remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. However, its diagnosis is elusive, especially in multiply injured patients. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome of fever, leukocytosis, and a hyperdynamic state is common in trauma patients, especially patients with pulmonary contusion. Bronchoscopy with BAL with quantitative cultures of the lavage effluent may distinguish between PN and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and GS of the lavage effluent may guide empiric therapy before quantitative culture results. METHODS: Mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a clinical diagnosis of PN (fever, leukocytosis, purulent sputum, and new or changing infiltrate on chest radiograph) underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Effluent was sent for GS and quantitative cultures. The diagnostic threshold for PN was > or =10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and antibiotics were continued. Antibiotics were stopped for < 10(5) CFU/mL and the diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was made. Causative organisms for PN were compared to GS. RESULTS: Over a 2-year period, 232 patients underwent 443 bronchoscopies with BAL (71% men, 29% women; mean age, 41). The mean injury severity score was 30. Sixty percent of the patients had pulmonary contusion, and 59% were cigarette smokers. The overall incidence of PN was 39% and was no different regardless of the number of BALs a patient had. The false-negative rate of BAL was 7%. GS identified gram-positive organisms in 80% of patients with gram-positive PN and 40% of patients with gram-negative PN. GS identified gram-negative organisms in 52% of patients with gram-positive PN and 77% with gram-negative PN. The duration of the intensive care unit stay relative to

  12. A European chart review study on early rheumatoid arthritis treatment patterns, clinical outcomes, and healthcare utilization.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Solem, Caitlyn; Majer, Istvan; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Tarallo, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review aimed to provide a current, real-world overview of biologic usage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Germany, Spain, and the UK, and estimate clinical and healthcare utilization outcomes associated with early versus late treatment. Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed RA diagnosis between January 2008 and December 2010, who received biologic treatment for ≥3 months and had ≥12 months of follow-up were included. Early treatment was receipt of biologic agent ≤1 year after RA diagnosis. Outcomes included 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) reduction of ≥1.2 from biologic start and remission (DAS28 < 2.6). Time to outcome was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Of 328 patients enrolled (Germany [n = 111], Spain [n = 106], UK [n = 111]), 58.2 % received early biologic (Germany: 55.0 %, UK: 55.9 %, Spain: 64.2 %; p = 0.321). First-line biologics were more frequent in Spain (26.4 %) and Germany (19.8 %) versus the UK (7.2 %; p < 0.001). Late-treated patients were hospitalized more often than early-treated patients (10.5 vs 2.9 % [p = 0.006] for 9.0 vs 5.4 mean inpatient days [p = 0.408]). DAS28 was 5.1 at biologic initiation (n = 310); 73.5 % of patients had a DAS28 decrease of ≥1.2 and 44.5 % achieved remission. More patients had DAS28 decrease of ≥1.2 (79.2 vs 65.9 %; p = 0.009) and remission (51.1 vs 35.6 %; p = 0.007) with early versus late treatment, with a significant difference in Kaplan-Meier curves when indexing on time since diagnosis (p < 0.001) and biologic start (p = 0.024). In RA patients receiving biologic therapy, over half received biologic therapy early. Early initiation was associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced hospitalization rates versus late treatment.

  13. Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two-pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

  14. Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. was investigated. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

  15. Snohomish County Public Utility District Geothermal Energy Exploration Study Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Adam; Collar, Craig W.

    2012-10-04

    Supported by funds from this award, the District thoroughly explored the feasibility of a hydrothermal geothermal development within its service territory. The District successfully planned and drilled six exploratory geothermal wells and added significantly to the knowledge of the geology of the area. The Straight Creek Fault region, which was the sole location that showed significant potential for hydrothermal development in the District's service territory, was determined not to be feasible for development. The District subsequently expanded its search for geothermal development locations to include all of Washington State. Mount Baker has been identified as the area of the state with the greatest potential for geothermal development. Having gathered additional information about the Mount Baker region with support from this award, the District is actively pursuing exploration and development in the area.

  16. An Analysis of the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data in Conducting Institutional and Higher Education Sector Comparisons: Proceedings of the Joint Study Group on the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data. (Washington, DC, May 22-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.; And Others

    Proceedings of a study group that considered the utility of the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) finance data for institutional and higher educational sector comparisons are presented, as are issue papers and descriptive information. The study group of representatives from higher education institutions and organizations outlined…

  17. A Summary of NASA Architecture Studies Utilizing Fission Surface Power Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Poston, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005, NASA has conducted various mission architecture studies to evaluate implementation options for the U.S. Space Policy. Several of the studies examined the use of Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems for human missions to the lunar and Martian surface. This paper summarizes the FSP concepts developed under four different NASA-sponsored architecture studies: Lunar Architecture Team, Mars Architecture Team, Lunar Surface Systems/Constellation Architecture Team, and International Architecture Working Group-Power Function Team.

  18. High-utility conserved avian microsatellite markers enable parentage and population studies across a wide range of species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellites are widely used for many genetic studies. In contrast to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and genotyping-by-sequencing methods, they are readily typed in samples of low DNA quality/concentration (e.g. museum/non-invasive samples), and enable the quick, cheap identification of species, hybrids, clones and ploidy. Microsatellites also have the highest cross-species utility of all types of markers used for genotyping, but, despite this, when isolated from a single species, only a relatively small proportion will be of utility. Marker development of any type requires skill and time. The availability of sufficient “off-the-shelf” markers that are suitable for genotyping a wide range of species would not only save resources but also uniquely enable new comparisons of diversity among taxa at the same set of loci. No other marker types are capable of enabling this. We therefore developed a set of avian microsatellite markers with enhanced cross-species utility. Results We selected highly-conserved sequences with a high number of repeat units in both of two genetically distant species. Twenty-four primer sets were designed from homologous sequences that possessed at least eight repeat units in both the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and chicken (Gallus gallus). Each primer sequence was a complete match to zebra finch and, after accounting for degenerate bases, at least 86% similar to chicken. We assessed primer-set utility by genotyping individuals belonging to eight passerine and four non-passerine species. The majority of the new Conserved Avian Microsatellite (CAM) markers amplified in all 12 species tested (on average, 94% in passerines and 95% in non-passerines). This new marker set is of especially high utility in passerines, with a mean 68% of loci polymorphic per species, compared with 42% in non-passerine species. Conclusions When combined with previously described conserved loci, this new set of conserved markers will not only

  19. A study on fibre addition to gluten free bread: its effects on bread quality and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sciarini, L S; Bustos, M C; Vignola, M B; Paesani, C; Salinas, C N; Pérez, G T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fibre addition on gluten-free (GF) dough properties and bread technological quality, and on protein and starch in vitro digestibility. Soluble (Inulin, In) and insoluble fibres (oat fibre, OF, and type IV resistant starch, RSIV) were used at 5 and 10% substitution levels. Dough firmness increased when insoluble fibres were added, and decreased when In was used. Incorporation of insoluble fibres resulted into bread with a low specific volume (SBV) since firmer dough were more difficult to expand during proofing and baking. Staling rate was reduced after fibre addition, with the exception being OF 10%, as its lower SBV may have favoured molecule re-association. In general, protein and starch digestibility increased when fibres were added at 5%, and then decreased after further increasing the level. Fibres may have disrupted bread crumb structure, thus increasing digestibility, although the higher addition may have led to a physical and/or chemical impediment to digestion. Inulin has well-known physiological effects, while RS presented the most important effect on in vitro starch digestibility (GI). These results showed the possibility of adding different fibres to GF bread to decrease the GI and increase protein digestibility, while obtaining an overall high quality end-product.

  20. The Paradigm of Utilizing Robots in the Teaching Process: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacivarov, Ioan C.; Ilian, Virgil L. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a comparative study of the effects of using a humanoid robot for introducing students to personal robotics. Even if a humanoid robot is one of the more complicated types of robots, comprehension was not an issue. The study highlighted the importance of using real hardware for teaching such complex subjects as opposed to…