Science.gov

Sample records for additional subtleties due

  1. Computerized characterization of lung nodule subtlety using thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Sahiner, Berkman; Gallas, Brandon D.; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design computerized image analysis techniques for automatically characterizing lung nodule subtlety in CT images. Automated subtlety estimation methods may help in computer-aided detection (CAD) assessment by quantifying dataset difficulty and facilitating comparisons among different CAD algorithms. A dataset containing 813 nodules from 499 patients was obtained from the Lung Image Database Consortium. Each nodule was evaluated by four radiologists regarding nodule subtlety using a 5-point rating scale (1: most subtle). We developed a 3D technique for segmenting lung nodules using a prespecified initial ROI. Texture and morphological features were automatically extracted from the segmented nodules and their margins. The dataset was partitioned into trainers and testers using a 1:1 ratio. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with average reader subtlety scores as the reference. Effective features for characterizing nodule subtlety were selected based on the training set using the ANN and a stepwise feature selection method. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using prediction probability (PK) as an agreement measure, which is considered a generalization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when the reference standard is multi-level. Using an ANN classifier trained with a set of 2 features (selected from a total of 30 features), including compactness and average gray value, the test concordance between computer scores and the average reader scores was 0.789 ± 0.014. Our results show that the proposed method had strong agreement with the average of subtlety scores provided by radiologists.

  2. Mathematical subtleties and scientific knowledge: Francis Bacon and mathematics, at the crossing of two traditions.

    PubMed

    Mori, Giuliano

    2016-11-22

    This article engages the much-debated role of mathematics in Bacon's philosophy and inductive method at large. The many references to mathematics in Bacon's works are considered in the context of the humanist reform of the curriculum studiorum and, in particular, through a comparison with the kinds of natural and intellectual subtlety as they are defined by many sixteenth-century authors, including Cardano, Scaliger and Montaigne. Additionally, this article gives a nuanced background to the 'subtlety' commonly thought to have been eschewed by Bacon and by Bacon's self-proclaimed followers in the Royal Society of London. The aim of this article is ultimately to demonstrate that Bacon did not reject the use of mathematics in natural philosophy altogether. Instead, he hoped that following the Great Instauration a kind of non-abstract mathematics could be founded: a kind of mathematics which was to serve natural philosophy by enabling men to grasp the intrinsic subtlety of nature. Rather than mathematizing nature, it was mathematics that needed to be 'naturalized'.

  3. Subtleties of biomineralisation revealed by manipulation of the eggshell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Niu, Li-na; Qi, Yi-pin; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne D.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2011-01-01

    Biocalcification of collagen matrices with calcium phosphate and biosilicification of diatom frustules with amorphous silica are two discrete processes that have intrigued biologists and materials scientists for decades. Recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in these two biomineralisation processes have resulted in the use of biomimetic strategies to replicate these processes separately using polyanionic, polycationic or zwitterionic analogues of extracellular matrix proteins to stabilise amorphous mineral precursor phases. To date, there is a lack of a universal model that enables the subtleties of these two apparently dissimilar biomineralisation processes to be studied together. Here, we utilise the eggshell membrane as a universal model for differential biomimetic calcification and silicification. By manipulating the eggshell membrane to render it permeable to stabilised mineral precursors, it is possible to introduce nanostructured calcium phosphate or silica into eggshell membrane fibre cores or mantles. We provide a model for infiltrating the two compartmental niches of a biopolymer membrane with different intrafibre minerals to obtain materials with potentially improved structure-property relationships. PMID:21864897

  4. Subtleties of biomineralisation revealed by manipulation of the eggshell membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Niu, Li-na; Qi, Yi-pin; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne D; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2011-12-01

    Biocalcification of collagen matrices with calcium phosphate and biosilicification of diatom frustules with amorphous silica are two discrete processes that have intrigued biologists and materials scientists for decades. Recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in these two biomineralisation processes have resulted in the use of biomimetic strategies to replicate these processes separately using polyanionic, polycationic or zwitterionic analogues of extracellular matrix proteins to stabilise amorphous mineral precursor phases. To date, there is a lack of a universal model that enables the subtleties of these two apparently dissimilar biomineralisation processes to be studied together. Here, we utilise the eggshell membrane as a universal model for differential biomimetic calcification and silicification. By manipulating the eggshell membrane to render it permeable to stabilised mineral precursors, it is possible to introduce nanostructured calcium phosphate or silica into eggshell membrane fibre cores or mantles. We provide a model for infiltrating the two compartmental niches of a biopolymer membrane with different intrafibre minerals to obtain materials with potentially improved structure-property relationships.

  5. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for ``far-side'' excitation than ``near-side''. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  7. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for “far-side” excitation than “near-side”. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface. PMID:23903714

  8. Subtleties in practical application of prolonged infusion of β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Lipman, Jeffrey; Carlier, Mieke; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged infusion (PI) of β-lactam antibiotics is increasingly used in order to optimise antibiotic exposure in critically ill patients. Physicians are often not aware of a number of subtleties that may jeopardise the treatment. In this clinically based paper, we stress pragmatic issues, such as the importance of a loading dose before PI, and discuss a number of important practicalities that are mandatory to benefit from the pharmacokinetic advantages of prolonged β-lactam antibiotic administration.

  9. Accelerated Degradation Due to Weakened Adhesion from Li-TFSI Additives in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhwa; Yun, Jae Hoon; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Reliable integration of organometallic halide perovskite in photovoltaic devices is critically limited by its low stability in humid environments. Furthermore, additives to increase the mobility in the hole transport material (HTM) have deliquescence and hygroscopic properties, which attract water molecules and result in accelerated degradation of the perovskite devices. In this study, a double cantilever beam (DCB) test is used to investigate the effects of additives in the HTM layer on the perovskite layer through neatly delaminating the interface between the perovskite and HTM layers. Using the DCB test, the bottom surface of the HTM layers is directly observed, and it is found that the additives are accumulated at the bottom along the thickness (i.e., through-plane direction) of the films. It is also found that the additives significantly decrease the adhesion at the interface between the perovskite and HTM layers by more than 60% through hardening the HTM films. Finally, the adhesion-based degradation mechanism of perovskite devices according to the existence of additives is proposed for humid environments.

  10. Ambiguities and subtleties in fermion mass terms in practical quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yifan Kong, Otto C.W.

    2014-09-15

    This is a review on structure of the fermion mass terms in quantum field theory, under the perspective of its practical applications in the real physics of Nature—specifically, we discuss fermion mass structure in the Standard Model of high energy physics, which successfully describes fundamental physics up to the TeV scale. The review is meant to be pedagogical, with detailed mathematics presented beyond the level one can find any easily in the textbooks. The discussions, however, bring up important subtleties and ambiguities about the subject that may be less than well appreciated. In fact, the naive perspective of the nature and masses of fermions as one would easily drawn from the presentations of fermion fields and their equations of motion from a typical textbook on quantum field theory leads to some confusing or even wrong statements which we clarify here. In particular, we illustrate clearly that a Dirac fermion mass eigenstate is mathematically equivalent to two degenerated Majorana fermion mass eigenstates at least as long as the mass terms are concerned. There are further ambiguities and subtleties in the exact description of the eigenstate(s). Especially, for the case of neutrinos, the use of the Dirac or Majorana terminology may be mostly a matter of choice. The common usage of such terminology is rather based on the broken SU(2) charges of the related Weyl spinors hence conventional and may not be unambiguously extended to cover more complicate models. - Highlights: • Structure of fermion mass terms in practical quantum field theory is reviewed. • Important subtleties and ambiguities on the subject are clarified. • A mass eigenstate Dirac fermion and two degenerated Majorana ones are equivalent. • The conventional meaning of such terminology for neutrinos is critically discussed.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. On the Changes in Lift of Hydrofoils Due to Surface Injections of Polymer Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    to xh in~jection~ olf polymer solutiow, .n to thoir ~u aes sho t t he i -t uit either decrease or increzise depn i i on the polymor,’ inject’lon...different boundary layer effects, and these., in turn, are iden- tical with the changes likely to be produced by polymer injections., No explicit...symmetric hydro- foils due to the injection of polymer solutions on to their surfaces show that the lift can either decrease or increase depending on

  13. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W; Langenbrunner, James R; Mack, Joseph M; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Douglas C; Evans, Scott C; Sedillo, Tom J; Kyrala, George A; Caldwell, Stephen E; Young, Carlton A; Nobile, Arthur; Wermer, Joseph R; Paglieri, Stephen N; Mcevoy, Aaron M; Kim, Yong Ho; Batha, Steven H; Horsfield, Colin J; Drew, Dave; Garbett, Warren; Rubery, Michael; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Roberts, Samuel; Frenje, Johan A

    2008-01-01

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  14. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  15. Ambiguities and subtleties in fermion mass terms in practical quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yifan; Kong, Otto C. W.

    2014-09-01

    This is a review on structure of the fermion mass terms in quantum field theory, under the perspective of its practical applications in the real physics of Nature-specifically, we discuss fermion mass structure in the Standard Model of high energy physics, which successfully describes fundamental physics up to the TeV scale. The review is meant to be pedagogical, with detailed mathematics presented beyond the level one can find any easily in the textbooks. The discussions, however, bring up important subtleties and ambiguities about the subject that may be less than well appreciated. In fact, the naive perspective of the nature and masses of fermions as one would easily drawn from the presentations of fermion fields and their equations of motion from a typical textbook on quantum field theory leads to some confusing or even wrong statements which we clarify here. In particular, we illustrate clearly that a Dirac fermion mass eigenstate is mathematically equivalent to two degenerated Majorana fermion mass eigenstates at least as long as the mass terms are concerned. There are further ambiguities and subtleties in the exact description of the eigenstate(s). Especially, for the case of neutrinos, the use of the Dirac or Majorana terminology may be mostly a matter of choice. The common usage of such terminology is rather based on the broken SU(2) charges of the related Weyl spinors hence conventional and may not be unambiguously extended to cover more complicate models.

  16. EFFECT ON 105KW NORTH WALL DUE TO ADDITION OF FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHO CS

    2010-03-08

    CHPRC D&D Projects is adding three filtration system on two 1-ft concrete pads adjacent to the north side of existing KW Basin building. This analysis is prepared to provide qualitative assessment based on the review of design information available for 105KW basin substructure. In the proposed heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filtration pad designs a 2 ft gap will be maintained between the pads and the north end of the existing 1 05KW -Basin building. Filtration Skids No.2 and No.3 share one pad. It is conservative to evaluate the No.2 and No.3 skid pad for the wall assessment. Figure 1 shows the plan layout of the 105KW basin site and the location of the pads for the filtration system or HVAC skids. Figure 2 shows the cross-section elevation view of the pad. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 directs the replacement of the existing 8-inch concrete pad with two new 1-ft think pads. The existing 8-inch pad is separated from the 105KW basin superstructure by an expansion joint of only half an inch. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 shows the gap between the new proposed pads and the north wall and any overflow pits and sumps is 2-ft. Following analysis demonstrates that the newly added filtration units and their pads do not exceed the structural capacity of existing wall. The calculation shows that the total bending moment on the north wall due to newly added filtration units and pads including seismic load is 82.636 ft-kip/ft and is within the capacity of wall which is 139.0ft-kip/ft.

  17. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  18. Effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment due to the addition of calcium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Tao, Yi; Zhou, Kuiyu; Zhang, Qiqi; Chen, Guangyao; Zhang, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    In situ sediment remediation technique is commonly used to control the release of pollutants from sediment. Addition of calcium nitrate to sediment has been applied to control the release of phosphorus from sediments. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment with the addition of calcium nitrate. The results demonstrated that the redox-potential of sediments increased from -282mV to -130mV after 28days of calcium nitrate treatment. The acid volatile sulphide in the sediments significantly decreased (by 54.9% to 57.1%), whereas the total organic carbon decreased by 9.7% to 10.2%. However, the difference between these and water quality improvement was not significant. Due to the addition of calcium nitrate, low phosphate concentration in the water column and interstitial phosphate in the sediment were observed, indicating that the calcium nitrate was beneficial to controlling the release of phosphorus from river sediment. The decrease in phosphorus release could be attributed to the fixation of iron-phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus due to the addition of calcium nitrate. The addition of calcium nitrate to sediment caused the oxidation of sulphide to sulphate, hence resulting in high nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the water column, and high interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment. The results also showed that only the water quality improvement had a significant effect on the interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment.

  19. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  20. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  1. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  2. Subtleties of human exposure and response to chemical mixtures from spills.

    PubMed

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Dietrich, Andrea M; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, chemical spills degrade drinking water quality and threaten human health through ingestion and inhalation. Spills are often mixtures of chemicals; thus, understanding the interaction of chemical and biological properties of the major and minor components is critical to assessing human exposure. The crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spill provides an opportunity to assess such subtleties. This research determined the relative amounts, volatilization, and biological odor properties of minor components cis- and trans-methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) isomers and major components cis- and trans-4-MCHM, then compared properties and human exposure differences among them. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and chromatography revealed that the minor MMCHC isomers were about 1% of the major MCHM isomers. At typical showering temperature of 40 °C, Henry's law constants were 1.50 × 10(-2) and 2.23 × 10(-2) for cis- and trans-MMCHC, respectively, which is 20-50 fold higher than for 4-MCHM isomers. The odor thresholds were 1.83 and 0.02 ppb-v air for cis- and trans-MMCHC, which were both described as predominantly sweet. These data are compared to the higher 120 ppb-v air and 0.06 ppb-v odor thresholds for cis- and trans-4-MCHM, for which the trans-isomer had a dominant licorice descriptor. Application of a shower model demonstrated that while MMCHC isomers are only about 1% of the MCHM isomers, during showering, the MMCHC isomers are 13.8% by volume (16.3% by mass) because of their higher volatility. Trans-4-MCHM contributed about 82% of the odor because of higher volatility and lower odor threshold, trans-MMCHC, which represents 0.3% of the mass, contributed 18% of the odor. This study, with its unique human sensory component to assess exposure, reaffirmed that hazard assessment must not be based solely on relative concentration, but also consider the chemical fate, transport, and biological properties to determine the actual levels of

  3. Comment on ''Subtleties of Lorentz invariance and Shapes of the Nucleon''

    SciTech Connect

    Franz Gross; G. Ramalho; M.T. Pena

    2007-08-07

    The paper on ''Subtleties of Lorentz invariance and Shapes of the Nucleon'' by Kvinikhidze and Miller (referred to as KM) was originally submitted as a comment on our manuscript ''A pure S-wave covariant model for the nucleon'' (referred to as GRP1). KM claimed that the definition of polarization states used in GRP1 was not covariant. Subsequently, GRP1 was rejected by the Physical Review (for reasons having nothing to do with the definition of the polarization states), the KM ''comment'' was accepted by Physical Review (now reclassified as a brief report), and we have nearly completed two new papers, one that is a substantial revision and replacement of GRP1 and another that applies these ideas to the {gamma}* + N {yields} {Delta} transition (we refer to these two papers collectively as GRP2). To add to the confusion, Kvinikhidze and Miller used the unpublished ''advisory report'' [prepared by one of us (FG) as part of the original review process] to revise their original draft. This advisory report contained a more complete discussion of our new definition of polarization states, a discussion not yet published anywhere (but included in more detail in GRP2, the papers we are preparing for publication). At this moment we find ourselves in the unusual position of being criticized for work that is either not yet published or exists only in a referee's report. The purposes of this comment are (i) to present the issues (referred to by KM but unpublished by us) in a coherent way that explains the physics, leaving a more complete discussion for GRP2, (ii) to answer the objections of KM, and (iii) to set the record straight (partly accomplished in this Introduction). The remainder of this comment is divided into three sections. In Sec. II, building on the physical intuition introduced in GRP1, we present a coherent discussion of wave functions and currents based on the new fixed-axis polarization vectors and show that they are covariant. In Sec. III we discuss one issue

  4. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  5. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  6. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  7. Surprising microscopy subtleties: Measuring picoscale thicknesses, visualizing core orbitals, and detecting charge transfer using the TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odlyzko, Michael Luke

    50 years ago, Richard Feynman delivered a now-famous address outlining why there was "plenty of room left at the bottom": there remained much progress to be made in seeing and manipulating matter all the way down to the atomic scale. One of many means to that end, argued Feynman, was to make electron microscopes better. Why could not electrons with wavelengths of a few picometers not be used to clearly image atoms hundreds of picometers in size? Why could not electron beams be used to pattern miniscule wires a handful of metal atoms across? Over the course of decades, Feynman's vision has been pursued zealously with rich reward, not least in the electron microscopy field. Enabled by the development of bright field-emission electron sources, high-resolution polepieces, and now aberration correctors, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at atomic resolution has become routine. Seemingly, there is little room left at the bottom; after all, once you can clearly see atoms, what more is there left to do? Thankfully, there is plenty. Much of the hard work has been in the development of equipment that expands TEM to allow unprecedented spatially resolved analysis of elemental composition, inelastic scattering, and temporal processes. But there are also many opportunities to uncover new information using now widely available techniques and equipment. In the studies presented here, there has been some success in following the latter path. In tandem with careful computational analysis, selected-area electron diffraction allows not only determination of crystal symmetry, lattice parameter, and microstructure, but also measurements of material thickness on the scale of atomic layers. Supported by careful data processing and rigorous simulations, spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy data is converted into real-space measurements of core-level electronic orbitals, in addition to providing routine atomic resolution chemical mapping. And aided by the development of novel bonding

  8. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  9. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  10. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  11. Langevin simulation of scalar fields: Additive and multiplicative noises and lattice renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassol-Seewald, N. C.; Farias, R. L. S.; Fraga, E. S.; Krein, G.; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2012-08-01

    We consider the Langevin lattice dynamics for a spontaneously broken λϕ4 scalar field theory where both additive and multiplicative noise terms are incorporated. The lattice renormalization for the corresponding stochastic Ginzburg-Landau-Langevin and the subtleties related to the multiplicative noise are investigated.

  12. Variation in mechanical behavior due to different build directions of Titanium6Aluminum4Vanadium fabricated by electron beam additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Lalit

    Titanium has always been a metal of great interest since its discovery especially for critical applications because of its excellent mechanical properties such as light weight (almost half of that of the steel), low density (4.4 gm/cc) and high strength (almost similar to steel). It creates a stable and adherent oxide layer on its surface upon exposure to air or water which gives it a great resistance to corrosion and has made it a great choice for structures in severe corrosive environment and sea water. Its non-allergic property has made it suitable for biomedical application for manufacturing implants. Having a very high melting temperature, it has a very good potential for high temperature applications. But high production and processing cost has limited its application. Ti6Al4V is the most used titanium alloy for which it has acquired the title as `workhouse' of the Ti family. Additive layer Manufacturing (ALM) has brought revolution in manufacturing industries. Today, this additive manufacturing has developed into several methods and formed a family. This method fabricates a product by adding layer after layer as per the geometry given as input into the system. Though the conception was developed to fabricate prototypes and making tools initially, but its highly economic aspect i.e., very little waste material for less machining and comparatively lower production lead time, obviation of machine tools have drawn attention for its further development towards mass production. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is the latest addition to ALM family developed by Arcam, ABRTM located in Sweden. The electron beam that is used as heat source melts metal powder to form layers. For this thesis work, three different types of specimens have been fabricated using EBM system. These specimens differ in regard of direction of layer addition. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus and yield strength, have been measured and compared with standard data

  13. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage.

  14. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  15. Addition and correction: the NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity observed in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts is due to the GBF transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Traincard, F; Ponte, E; Pun, J; Coukell, B; Veron, M

    2001-10-01

    We have previously reported that a NF-kappa B transduction pathway was likely to be present in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This conclusion was based on several observations, including the detection of developmentally regulated DNA binding proteins in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts that bound to bona fide kappa B sequences. We have now performed additional experiments which demonstrate that the protein responsible for this NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity is the Dictyostelium GBF (G box regulatory element binding factor) transcription factor. This result, along with the fact that no sequence with significant similarity to components of the mammalian NF-kappa B pathway can be found in Dictyostelium genome, now almost entirely sequenced, led us to reconsider our previous conclusion on the occurrence of a NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway in Dictyostelium.

  16. Effect of reaction pH and CuSO4 addition on the formation of catechinone due to oxidation of (+)-catechin.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, T; Wataoka, I; Urakawa, H; Yasunaga, H

    2013-08-01

    A novel hair dyeing technique being milder and safer for a human body is desired. The oxidation product of (+)-catechin, catechinone, was invented as a safer dyestuff for hair colouring under such the situation. The preparation of catechinone by a chemical oxidation is a practical way and the objective of the study is clarify the effect of the solution pH and in the presence or absence of Cu(2+) on the formation rate and yield of catechinone in order to improve the efficiency of the dye formation. The catechinone formation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Catechinone was prepared chemically from (+)-catechin in aqueous solution with O2 gas introduced over a pH range of 7.1-11.7. The rate and amount of the dye formation increase with increasing pH. Dissociation of the hydroxyl group of the catechol part of (+)-catechin is significant for the oxidation of (+)-catechin and promotes the dye production. This is because the deprotonated (+)-catechin has a higher reactivity with O2 . The production of catechinone is accelerated by the addition of CuSO4 and the production rate reaches the maximum at pH = 8.8. (+)-Catechin - Cu(2+) complexes are formed and the formation promotes the oxidation of the catechol part of (+)-catechin at pH ≤ 8.8. On the other hand, the complex becomes too stable to proceed for the oxidation reaction at pH > 8.8.

  17. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  18. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  19. A turbo engine with automatic transmission? How to marry chemicomotion to the subtleties and robustness of life.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Sarah; Otten, Marijke; Koebmann, Brian; Bruggeman, Frank; Bakker, Barbara; Snoep, Jacky; Krab, Klaas; van Spanning, Rob; van Verseveld, Henk; Jensen, Peter; Koster, Johanna; Westerhoff, Hans

    2002-09-10

    paradox, in line with the above conjecture. It may be highly important and sophisticated. We then discuss work that has begun to focus on the sophistication of bioenergetics. Homeostasis of the energetics of DNA structure in E. coli is extensive. It relies both on preexisting components and on responsive gene expression. The vastly parallel electron-transfer network of Paracoccus denitrificans engages in sophisticated dynamic and hierarchical regulation. The growth yield of the organism can depend on which terminal oxidases are active. Effective proton translocation may vary due to rerouting of electrons. We conclude that much sophistication of bioenergetics will be discovered in this era of functional genomics.

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. Subtleties in the calculation of the pressure and pressure tensor of anisotropic particles from volume-perturbation methods and the apparent asymmetry of the compressive and expansive contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumby, Paul E.; Haslam, Andrew J.; de Miguel, Enrique; Jackson, George

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and versatile method to calculate the components of the pressure tensor for hard-body fluids of generic shape from the perspective of molecular simulation is presented. After due consideration of all the possible repulsive contributions exerted by molecules upon their surroundings during an anisotropic system expansion, it is observed that such a volume change can, for non-spherical molecules, give rise to configurations where overlaps occur. This feature of anisotropic molecules has to be taken into account rigorously as it can lead to discrepancies in the calculation of tensorial contributions to the pressure. Using the condition of detailed balance as a basis, a perturbation method developed for spherical molecules has been extended so that it is applicable to non-spherical and non-convex molecules. From a series of 'ghost' anisotropic volume perturbations the residual contribution to the components of the pressure tensor may be accurately calculated. Comparisons are made with prior methods and, where relevant, results are evaluated against existing data. For inhomogeneous systems this method provides a particularly convenient route to the calculation of the interfacial tension (surface free energy) from molecular simulations.

  3. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  4. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  5. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Subtleties of Hidden Quantifiers in Implication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical conjectures and theorems are most often of the form P(x) ? Q(x), meaning ?x,P(x) ? Q(x). The hidden quantifier ?x is crucial in understanding the implication as a statement with a truth value. Here P(x) and Q(x) alone are only predicates, without truth values, since they contain unquantified variables. But standard textbook…

  9. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  10. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    PubMed

    Odum, L; Jensen, K T; Slotsbjerg, T D

    1984-06-01

    Four cases of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation of Kingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused by Kingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection with Kingella kingae.

  11. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  12. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed.

  13. Credit where due.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  15. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  16. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  18. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  19. Non-Gaussianities due to relativistic corrections to the observed galaxy bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dio, E.; Perrier, H.; Durrer, R.; Marozzi, G.; Moradinezhad Dizgah, A.; Noreña, J.; Riotto, A.

    2017-03-01

    High-precision constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) will significantly improve our understanding of the physics of the early universe. Among all the subtleties in using large scale structure observables to constrain PNG, accounting for relativistic corrections to the clustering statistics is particularly important for the upcoming galaxy surveys covering progressively larger fraction of the sky. We focus on relativistic projection effects due to the fact that we observe the galaxies through the light that reaches the telescope on perturbed geodesics. These projection effects can give rise to an effective fNL that can be misinterpreted as the primordial non-Gaussianity signal and hence is a systematic to be carefully computed and accounted for in modelling of the bispectrum. We develop the technique to properly account for relativistic effects in terms of purely observable quantities, namely angles and redshifts. We give some examples by applying this approach to a subset of the contributions to the tree-level bispectrum of the observed galaxy number counts calculated within perturbation theory and estimate the corresponding non-Gaussianity parameter, fNL, for the local, equilateral and orthogonal shapes. For the local shape, we also compute the local non-Gaussianity resulting from terms obtained using the consistency relation for observed number counts. Our goal here is not to give a precise estimate of fNL for each shape but rather we aim to provide a scheme to compute the non-Gaussian contamination due to relativistic projection effects. For the terms considered in this work, we obtain contamination of fNLloc ~ Script O(1).

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  3. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  4. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  6. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

  7. Subtleties in Energy Calculations in the Image Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddei, M. M.; Mendes, T. N. C.; Farina, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this pedagogical work, we point out a subtle mistake that can be made by undergraduate or graduate students in the computation of the electrostatic energy of a system containing charges and perfect conductors if they naively use the image method. Specifically, we show that naive expressions for the electrostatic energy for these systems…

  8. Subtleties in GPCR drug discovery: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Masahiko; Omori, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic effects through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are promoted by a full agonist, partial agonist, neutral antagonist or inverse agonist. Dramatic change of function such as from a neutral antagonist to a full agonist with minimal variation of ligand structure is a phenomenon that medicinal chemists often encounter. This is also influenced by a change of assay format. The subtle nature of structure-function relationships is difficult to grasp unless carefully considered from both chemistry and assay perspectives. In this article we discuss the subtle aspects of GPCR drug discovery from the medicinal chemistry perspective.

  9. Thermodynamical Interactions: Subtleties of Heat and Work Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Anacleto, Joaquim Alberto C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the determination of the final equilibrium state when two ideal gases, isolated from the exterior and starting from preset initial conditions, interact with each other through a piston. Depending on the piston properties, different processes take place and also different sets of equilibrium conditions must be satisfied. Three…

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  17. The Course of Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Laura A.; Summy, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    Discussion of due process rights for children with disabilities considers common issues leading to due process requests, due process procedures, hearing officers, procedural violations, effects of due process meetings, and areas for improvement (i.e., accountability, paperwork). Tables list categories of procedural violations with examples and…

  18. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  19. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  20. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  1. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  2. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  3. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ...

  4. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  5. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  6. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  7. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  10. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  12. Risk Factors for Additional Surgery after Iatrogenic Perforations due to Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gi Jun; Ji, Jeong Seon; Kim, Byung Wook; Choi, Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Endoscopic resection (ER) is commonly performed to treat gastric epithelial neoplasms and subepithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to predict the risk factors for surgery after ER-induced perforation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the data on patients who received gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) between January 2010 and March 2015. Patients who were confirmed to have perforation were classified into surgery and nonsurgery groups. We aimed to determine the risk factors for surgery in patients who developed iatrogenic gastric perforations. Results. A total of 1183 patients underwent ER. Perforation occurred in 69 (5.8%) patients, and 9 patients (0.8%) required surgery to manage the perforation. In univariate analysis, anterior location of the lesion, a subepithelial lesion, two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs, and increased heart rate within 24 hrs after the procedure were the factors related to surgery. In logistic regression analysis, the location of the lesion at the anterior wall and using two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs were risk factors for surgery. Conclusion. Most cases of perforations after ER can be managed conservatively. When a patient requires two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs and the lesion is located on the anterior wall, early surgery should be considered instead of conservative management. PMID:28316622

  13. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  14. Onychomycosis Due to Nondermatophytic Molds

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there have been many studies about onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds (NDM), few studies about etiologic agents including NDM in onychomycosis have been reported in Korea. Objective: This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Objective This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Methods In the 10-year period from 1999~2009, we reviewed 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM. The etiologic agents were identified by cultures on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. In some cases, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis was done. NDM isolated considered pathogens when the presence of fungal elements was identified by direct microscopy observation and in follow-up cultures yielding the same fungi. Results Onychomycosis due to NDM comprised 2.3% of all onychomycosis. Of the 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM, 84.7% were toenail onychomycosis and 15.3% were fingernail onychomycosis. The incidence rate was highest in the fifth decade (27.1%). The ratio of male to female patients was 1:1.6. The frequency of associated diseases, in descending order, was hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebral hematoma. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (86.4%) was the most common clinical type of onychomycosis. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent of onychomycosis due to NDM (83.0%). Other causative agents were Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (10.2%), Acremonium spp. (3.4%), Fusarium solani (1.7%), and Chaetomium globosum (1.7%). Conclusion Because of the increase in onychomycosis due to NDM, we suggest the need of a careful mycological examination in patients with onychomycosis. PMID:22577268

  15. Occupational asthma due to azodicarbonamide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Leem, Jong-Han; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Hong-Lyeol; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2004-04-30

    Azodicarbonamide is a low molecular weight foaming agent for plastics and rubbers. Azodicarbonamide can elicit acute and chronic health related problems due to its potential for pulmonary and cutaneous sensitization. Some cases of occupational asthma associated with exposure to azodicarbonamide have been reported, of which only a few cases were confirmed by specific inhalation challenges. Here, the first case of occupational asthma due to azodicarbonamide in Korea, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge, is reported.

  16. [Otomycosis due to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis].

    PubMed

    Besbes, M; Makni, F; Cheikh-Rouhou, F; Sellami, H; Kharrat, K; Ayadi, A

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of otomycosis due to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in a patient with left cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media who presented with otorrhea associated with left otalgia. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is a fungus which is rarely described as causing otomycosis although it is a saprophyte and widespread in the environment. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive gardening with poor hygiene. Its mycologic diagnosis is relatively easy and nystatin remains the most effective treatment in this region.

  17. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  1. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    PubMed

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  2. Dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Saeed; Bansal, Meghana; Agarwal, Abhishek

    2012-05-01

    Cervical bony outgrowths or osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic. In some cases, they may be associated with dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea and pulmonary aspiration. The most common causes of cervical osteophytes are osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and ankylosing hyperostosis or Diffuse Idiopathic Spinal Hyperostosis (DISH), also known as Forestier's Disease. Other causes are hypoparathyroidism, trauma, acromegaly, ochronosis and flourosis. However, while dysphagia due to osteophytes is reported in the setting of DISH, it is very rare with osteoarthritis. We report a case of a patient who developed dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytes in the setting of osteoarthritis.

  3. Hypercalcemia due to talc granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Woywodt, A; Schneider, W; Goebel, U; Luft, F C

    2000-04-01

    Pulmonary disease due to talc, a group of hydrous magnesium silicates, is almost exclusively encountered after occupational exposure. One form of this rare disorder is talc granulomatosis. In varying degrees, hypercalcemia is typical of granulomatous disease but has not yet been reported in talcosis. We report the case of a former mold maker who presented with hypercalcemia. Laboratory findings indicated extra-renal 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Pulmonary infiltrates prompted a lung biopsy that disclosed talc granulomatosis. We suggest that talc granulomatosis should be added to the list of granulomatous disorders capable of causing hypercalcemia due to increased extra-renal 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

  4. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Ben is a 16-year-old student who resides with his family in an unnamed School District. He is eligible for special education by reason of specific learning disability and ADHD. His parents requested a due process hearing, alleging that the District failed to provide him with a free appropriate public education (FAPE) and requesting reimbursement…

  5. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  6. Elephantine nose due to rhinoentomophthoromycosis.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Ashok; Sarma, Podila S A; Iqbal, Syed Md

    2006-01-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an immunocompetent Indian male due to Basidiobolus species resulting in a huge (elephantine) nasal deformity, is reported. The diagnosis was done by demonstration of hyphae in direct tissue smear examination in potassium hydroxide, histopathological examination and by cultural characteristics. He showed an excellent response to oral potassium iodide solution.

  7. Chylothorax due to tuberculosis lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Orkide; Demirbas, Soner; Sakin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare clinical condition characterized by high triglyceride and low cholesterol levels in milky pleural aspirate. Generally, it occurs through leakage of chyle as result of trauma or malignancy. Chylothorax due to tuberculous lymphadenitis is very rare clinical condition that has only been documented in a few cases. Although precise pathogenesis is not known, enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are thought to be associated with opening of collateral anastomosis between thoracic duct and the azygos and intercostal veins by creating pressure on thoracic duct and cisterna chyli. Presently described is case of chylothorax thought to be due to compression from mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis, and which had complete remission after antituberculosis treatment. PMID:28275756

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis due to appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Groth, D; Henderson, S O

    1999-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, although rare, is one of the more serious, life-threatening complications of missed acute appendicitis. Patients who are predisposed to developing necrotizing fasciitis, regardless of the cause, are typically immunocompromised. We present a case of a 49-year-old immunocompetent female whose diagnosis of acute appendicitis was missed and who subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and flank. She recovered 1 month after admission due to aggressive surgical and medical therapy.

  9. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  10. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  11. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  12. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  13. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  14. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  15. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  16. Decoherence due to Scattering Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Perreault, John; Cronin, Alex

    2004-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of a quantum system is difficult because of uncontrolled interactions with the system's environment. The study of decoherence so introduced is important for progress in quantum mechanical engineering, and for understanding the transition from quantum to classical behavior. We have observed loss of fringe contrast in a Mach-Zhender atom interferometer due to scattering background gas atoms and propose that this might be interpreted as quantum decoherence. Progress will be reported on the use of a general model of decoherence incorporating a semi-classical picture of atom scattering to explain the contrast loss [1]. A formal analogy is made to decoherence due to scattering photons from atoms in an interferometer [2]. [1] S.M. Tan, D.F. Waals, ``Loss of coherence in interferometry", Phys. Rev. A 47 p.4663 (1993) [2] D.A. Kokorowski, A.D. Cronin, T.D. Roberts, and D.E. Pritchard, ``From single- to multiple-photon decoherence in an atom interferometer", Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 p. 2191 (2001)

  17. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  18. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  19. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  20. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  1. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    PubMed

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed.

  2. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  4. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  6. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  7. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  8. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  9. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  10. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  11. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  12. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  13. Isotropic Contraction Of Mercury Due To Despinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Bills, B. G.

    2009-09-01

    Mercury's slow rotation period of 59 days is presumably the result of solar tides driving its initial rotational state to the present 3:2 spin-orbit resonance. The observed large gravity coefficients can be explained as due to a remnant rotational bulge recording an initial rotation period of a few days (Matsuyama and Nimmo 2009). Despinning changes the shape of the rotational bulge, generating both compressional and extensional stresses (Melosh 1977). However, Mercury's surface is dominated by compressional tectonic features (Watters et al. 1998), and the inferred global contraction has been explained as due to thermal cooling (Solomon 1976). In addition to non-isotropic changes associated with the rotational flattening, despinning causes isotropic contraction of the entire planet. We consider the effect of the compressional stresses generated by this isotropic contraction on the predicted tectonic pattern. References Matsuyama and Nimmo. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury: Effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation. J. Geophys. Res. (2009) vol. 114 pp. E01010 Melosh. Global tectonics of a despun planet. Icarus (1977) vol. 31 pp. 221-243 Solomon. Some aspects of core formation in Mercury. Icarus (1976) vol. 28 pp. 509-521 Watters et al. Topography of lobate scarps on Mercury: New constraints on the planet's contraction. Geology (1998) vol. 26 pp. 991-994

  14. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  16. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  17. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  18. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  19. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  20. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  1. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  2. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  4. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  5. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  7. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  9. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  10. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  11. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  12. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  14. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  15. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  16. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  17. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  18. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  19. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  20. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  1. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  2. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  3. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  4. A fatality due to cyproheptadine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica; Molina, D Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    Cyproheptadine (Periactin) is a first-generation antihistamine available in over-the-counter cold medications and is used to treat allergic-type symptoms. Although antihistamines in general have long been known to cause serious side effects, especially when taken in overdose, few reports that specifically address cyproheptadine-related fatalities exist. A 42-year-old healthy female was found dead at her home with no anatomic cause of death and a recent history of suicidal ideations. Toxicology revealed cyproheptadine and citalopram in the femoral postmortem blood at concentrations of 0.49 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Vitreous, urine, and bile analysis were also performed, yielding concentrations of < 0.04 and 0.80 mg/L in the vitreous for cyproheptadine and citalopram, respectively; 0.23 and 8.2 mg/L in the urine; and 30.7 and 9.0 mg/L in the bile. The cause of death was determined to be cyproheptadine and citalopram intoxication, and the manner was ruled a suicide. Although cyproheptadine is widely available in the United States and Europe, there are only two published fatalities due to this antihistamine and only one that specifically cites blood and tissue concentrations. Therefore, this case study will be beneficial to the forensic toxicology community by providing additional information regarding postmortem interpretation.

  5. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  6. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  7. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  8. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  9. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  10. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  11. When you pass your due date

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  12. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  13. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  14. The Due Care Paradigm of School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Bill

    The Due Care paradigm for the successful restructuring of organizations is presented in this paper, with attention to the paradigm's role in creating a fundamental shift from vertical (top/down) decision making to shared governance. The first section explains how due care is linked to three legal terms in tort law--substantive due process, due…

  15. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. For flat-rate and variable-rate premiums, the premium filing due date for... variable-rate premium payment must be made by the last day of the sixteenth full calendar month following... payment year. (ii) The due date for the variable-rate premium required by § 4006.3(b) of this chapter...

  16. Forebody flow physics due to rotary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, Kenneth Paul

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of an isolated forebody undergoing rotary motion was conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel. Force balance, surface pressure, and flow visualization data was acquired over a range of AOA, for a round and chined configuration of a generic tangent ogive shape. The nature of the fixed location of separation of the chined forebody develops a strong, symmetrical leeward side flowfield. In comparison, the round forebody develops a lateral asymmetry, as a function of AOA, from the naturally occurring separated flow. Quantifying the side force behavior due to the rotary motion of the two distinctively different forebody configurations will lead to a better understanding of the flowfield which plays a primary role in the overall stability and control of an air vehicle. For the round forebody, the side force behavior due to the rotary motion ( CYW ) is dependent upon flow speed (ReD), AOA, as well as the direction and magnitude of rotation ( W=wLV ). In the low AOA range, the rotary-induced flowfield is insufficient in promoting a side force development. In the high AOA range a damping in side force behavior is a result of the "moving wall" effect where the flow along the windward region of the forebody is the predominant influence. In the AOA range where an asymmetrical flowfield is established in a static environment, the rotary motion does not disrupt the natural asymmetric state of the vortices. Additionally, neither the presence of a static side force nor its direction is apparently sufficient in determining the CYW behavior from the axially-varying flowfield. The CYW behavior of the chined forebody is related to the leeward side vortices' vertical trajectory, which is a function of AOA. A slight propelling side force behavior develops in an AOA range where an increased suction develops from the upwind vortex. In the high AOA range there is a diminishing influence from the leeward side vortex suction resulting

  17. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  18. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  19. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  20. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  1. [Endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria. A case report of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae].

    PubMed

    Lepori, M; Bochud, P Y; Owlya, R; Broccard, A; Schaller, M D

    2001-01-01

    Endocarditis is a common disease in hospital practice. Identification of the microorganism responsible for the valvular damage is essential to establish the prognosis and to determine the optimal antibiotic treatment. In some cases of endocarditis the diagnosis is laborious, especially when the responsible microorganism is difficult to detect using standard culture techniques. Here we report a case of native aortic valve endocarditis due to Kingella kingae, a Gram negative organism of the HACEK group. In addition we review 6 other cases of endocarditis caused by organism belonging to this group, treated in our hospital between 1983 and 1999. Epidemiological studies show that less than 5% of all cases of endocarditis are caused by organisms of the HACEK group. The diagnosis is often delayed because their slow growth on a standard culture medium. We describe clinical and microbiological characteristics of this group of endocarditis.

  2. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  3. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C.F.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2000-03-23

    New bond additivity correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) Moller-Plesset (MP)2 method, BAC-hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-hybrid method is expected to scale well for large molecules. The BAC-hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 predictions as an indication of the method's accuracy, whereas the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to accomplish this. A statistical analysis of the error in each of the methods is presented on the basis of calculations performed for large sets (more than 120) of molecules.

  4. 76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... 5.35 5.28 5.38 5.39 Fort Berthold 2.98 2.96 2.66 2.83 Fort Peck Reservation 3.99 4.22 3.98 4.56... Berthold 2.68 4.20 4.13 4.68 Fort Peck Reservation 4.17 5.98 6.49 6.22 Navajo Allotted Leases in the Navajo... 3.57 3.53 2.70 2.41 Fort Belknap 5.93 5.58 5.41 5.45 Fort Berthold 4.94 3.88 2.94 2.77 Fort...

  5. 75 FR 22159 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ....74 8.35 8.77 Rocky Boys Reservation 5.81 6.38 7.00 7.41 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray....49 7.82 Rocky Boys Reservation 8.18 9.28 7.95 5.70 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray... Boys Reservation 4.66 4.41 4.13 3.91 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray Reservation..........

  6. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... 6.76 6.22 Navajo Allotted Leases in the Navajo Reservation 5.95 5.48 4.65 3.82 Rocky Boys....01 Rocky Boys Reservation 2.47 2.67 2.27 2.13 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray Reservation... 3.47 3.39 4.13 Rocky Boys Reservation 2.24 2.16 2.46 2.60 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and...

  7. 78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Reservation 4.16 4.05 3.70 3.98 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.84 3.64 3.63 3.72 ONRR-Designated areas May 2011 Jun... Reservation 4.04 4.07 4.11 4.14 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.82 3.95 3.78 3.58 ONRR-Designated areas Sep 2011 Oct... Reservation 3.78 3.57 3.38 3.29 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.54 3.13 3.00 2.82 For information on how to...

  8. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  9. Pediatric Sialadenosis Due to Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Derin, Hatice; Derin, Serhan; Oltulu, Pembe; Özbek, Orhan; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2016-12-23

    Sialadenosis is a rare entity characterized by bilateral diffuse, painless swelling of the parotid glands. Its etiology is not clear; however, it may occur due to adverse effects of some drugs. To our knowledge, sialadenosis due to valproic acid has not been reported in the literature up to date in any child. In this article, the authors presented a child who developed sialadenosis due to valproic acid, and improved after stopping use of the drug.

  10. Sudden death due to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bhagavath, Prashantha; Rastogi, Prateek; Menezes, Ritesh G; Valiathan, Manna; Mohan Kumar, T S; Raghavendra Babu, Y P; Kanchan, Tanuj; Monteiro, Francis N P; Nayak, Vinod C

    2009-01-01

    Sudden death due to respiratory pathology is not uncommon and tuberculosis with its complications is well known to cause death. We report a case of a male, train passenger, who started coughing out blood and died on reaching the hospital. Medicolegal autopsy confirmed the sudden unexpected death to be due to pulmonary aspergillosis in the person with past medical history of tuberculosis.

  11. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  12. Due Process in Adverse Personnel Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A detailed checklist and timeline for ensuring due process are provided for adverse personnel actions, and the need to supplement this with expert, same-jurisdiction legal advice is stressed. This approach emphasizes the importance of treating due process as an ethical as well as a legal requirement. (SLD)

  13. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  14. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  15. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is nomore » strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.« less

  16. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  17. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of α effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of α, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  18. Radiative forcing due to trends in stratospheric water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Claire A.; Haigh, Joanna D.; Toumi, Ralf

    Trends derived from the latest version of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) data are used in a two-dimensional atmospheric model to estimate their radiative effects over the last decade. The results show a stratospheric cooling in regions of H2O increase, of magnitude similar to that due to stratospheric ozone loss indicating a significant additional cause of observed stratospheric temperature decreases. Radiative forcings are derived and it is found that global average radiative forcing due to stratospheric water vapour changes probably lies in the range 0.12 to 0.20 Wm-2 decade-1. This could have more than compensated for the negative radiative forcing due to decadal ozone loss.

  19. Heroin fatality due to penile injection.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Rozin, L

    1999-03-01

    Death due to heroin overdose and/or rapid injection of heroin is a frequent occurrence among opioid addicts. We present an unusual case of heroin fatality due to the injection of the drug in the penis. Blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor concentrations of morphine were 0.68, 0.49, 0.32 and 0.062 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanol was detected at concentrations of 104, 124, 106, and 94 mg/dl in the blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be due to heroin and ethanol intoxication.

  20. Inspection of additive-manufactured layered components.

    PubMed

    Cerniglia, D; Scafidi, M; Pantano, A; Rudlin, J

    2015-09-01

    Laser powder deposition (LPD) is a rapid additive manufacturing process to produce, layer upon layer, 3D geometries or to repair high-value components. Currently there is no nondestructive technique that can guarantee absence of flaws in LPD products during manufacturing. In this paper a laser ultrasonic technique for in-line inspection of LPD components is proposed. Reference samples were manufactured from Inconel and machined flaws were created to establish the sensitivity of the technique. Numerical models of laser-generated ultrasonic waves have been created to gain a deeper understanding of physics, to optimize the set-up and to verify the experimental measurements. Results obtained on two sets of reference samples are shown. A proof-of-concept prototype has been demonstrated on some specific deposition samples with induced flaws, that were confirmed by an ultra-high sensitivity X-ray technique. Experimental outcomes prove that typical micro-defects due to the layer-by-layer deposition process, such as near-surface and surface flaws in a single layer deposit, can be detected.

  1. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  2. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500 mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50 V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80 min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times.

  3. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  7. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  8. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  9. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  10. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  11. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  12. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  13. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  14. Termination of Faculty due to Financial Exigency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John P.

    1980-01-01

    Recent court cases involving termination of faculty due to financial exigency are summarized. Sections include an introduction, definition, a survey of recent cases, recommendations, conclusions and questions, and a bibliography. (Author/LC)

  15. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  16. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at ...

  17. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities.

  18. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  19. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional funds. 1274.917 Section 1274.917... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.917 Additional funds. Additional Funds July 2002... under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional...

  20. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  1. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  2. Radiation damage due to electromagnetic showers

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; Mokhov, Nikolai; Striganov, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Radiation-induced damage due to atomic displacements is essential to correctly predict the behavior of materials in nuclear reactors and at charged-particle accelerators. Traditionally the damage due to hadrons was of major interest. The recent increased interest in high-energy lepton colliders gave rise to the problem of prediction of radiation damage due to electromagnetic showers in a wide energy range--from a few hundred keV and up to a few hundred GeV. The report describes results of an electron- and positron-induced displacement cross section evaluation. It is based on detailed lepton-nucleus cross sections, realistic nuclear form-factors and a modified Kinchin-Pease damage model. Numerical data on displacement cross sections for various target nuclei is presented.

  3. Angioedema-Urticaria Due to Acitretin.

    PubMed

    Solak, Berna; Metin, Nurcan; Erdem, Mustafa Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Acitretin is a synthetic oral retinoid that has been used for a number of dermatological diseases. Several side effects of acitretin have been reported such as teratogenicity, cheilitis, xerosis, dyslipidemia, and photosensitivity. Many drugs, mainly antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can cause angioedema-urticaria. We present the case of angioedema-urticaria due to acitretin, confirmed by oral provocation test, in a 61-year-old man with psoriasis. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case of angioedema due to oral acitretin has been reported in the literature so far. We report this case to draw attention that acitretin may cause angioedema-urticaria and to inform patients about this risk besides other side effects due to acitretin.

  4. Substantive due process after Gonzales v. Carhart.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    This Article begins in Part I with a doctrinal evaluation of the status of Washington v. Glucksberg ten years after that decision was handed down. Discussion begins with consideration of the Roberts Court's recent decision in Gonzales v. Carhart and then turns to the subject of Justice Kennedy's views in particular on substantive due process. In Part II, the Article goes on to consider whether the Glucksberg test for substantive due process decision making is correct in light of the original meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Article concludes in Parts II and III that Glucksberg is right to confine substantive due process rights recognition to recognition only of those rights that are deeply rooted in history and tradition.

  5. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony.

  6. Systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Martínez, Francisco Javier García; Ginarte, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2011-10-01

    Systemic photosensitivity due to the intake of plants or herbal compounds is a rare phenomenon. Goji berries are widely used as a well-being and anti-aging remedy. In spite of this, only a few adverse reactions and no cases of photosensitivity have been reported to date. A 53-year-old male consulted due to a pruriginous eruption located on sun-exposed areas of 2 weeks of duration. He had been taking Goji berries and infusions of cat's claw herb for 5 and 3 months, respectively. Minimal erythema dose for UVB (MED-UVB) was diminished when the patient was taking these products, and became normal when they were withdrawn. Photoprovocation tests with Goji berries and cat's claw were performed. MED-UVB decreased after the intake of Goji berries, and was normal with cat's claw. We report the first case of systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

  7. Mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Godoy, L; Rizo Rios, P; Sánchez Cervantes, F; Osornio-Vargas, A; García-Cuellar, C; Meneses García, A

    2007-11-01

    The highest mortality due to cancer worldwide for both genders corresponds to lung cancer (1,179,000 deaths). In Mexico, the crude mortality rate due to lung cancer was of 5.01 per 10(5) inhabitants in 1979. The most important risk factor is smoking. The present study was aimed at analyzing the mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico, assessing data from each of the states constituting the Mexican Republic during the 1998-2004 period. Data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI, for its initials in Spanish) corresponding to deaths due to lung cancer (1998-2004). We estimated the mean annual mortality rate (MAMR) for each of the 32 states of Mexico. We used the "World Population Standard". The MAMR was standardized according to age (ARS) direct method, and the standard error was determined by Poisson's approximation at a 95% confidence interval. To know the excess risk due to mortality, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of ARS for each federal state, using the national rate as reference. In this period, 397,400 deaths due to malignant neoplasms were recorded, corresponding 45,578 (11.5%) to lung cancer; for men, 31,025 (68.1%) with MAMR of 8.9 and the respective ARS of 13.2 both x10(5) inhabitants. For women, results were 4553 (31.9%) deaths with MAMR of 4.1 and ARS of 5.4 both x10(5) inhabitants. The highest mortality rates due to lung cancer in both genders were observed in the north of Mexico, whereas for women this was observed in the central states. Although smoking is the main risk for lung cancer, there are other factors such as environmental pollution or exposure to toxicants that could be associated to this cancer. The years potentially lost due to lung cancer were 258,550 for men and 133,315 for women, with a total of 391,865 according to histopathology registry neoplasm malignant RHNM (1985-1995). Studies focused on the characterization and measurement of polluting agents would be a

  8. Traumatic Endophthalmitis due to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaru-ampornpan, Pimkwan; Agarwal, Anita; Midha, Narinder K.; Kim, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of traumatic endophthalmitis due to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans. Design. Case report. Methods. Retrospective chart review. Results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of traumatic endophthalmitis due to C. cellulans, which did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics or repeat vitrectomy and ultimately led to the discovery of an occult intraocular foreign body. Conclusions. C. cellulans is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Greater awareness of this bacterium in the ophthalmic literature as a cause of endophthalmitis and its association with foreign bodies may allow earlier and more purposeful intervention in future cases. PMID:22606461

  9. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  10. Bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    PubMed

    Sage, M J; Maslowski, A H; MacCulloch, D

    1983-10-26

    A case of infective bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae in a 26 year old male involving a prosthetic mitral valve is described. Microbiological features of this organism are outlined, and the treatment of this endocarditis is discussed with reference to the four previously reported cases.

  11. Constructing the Uncertainty of Due Dates

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Sarah C.; Anthony, Kathryn E.; O'Hair, H. Dan

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, the date that a baby is predicted to be born, or the due date, is uncertain. How women construct the uncertainty of their due dates may have implications for when and how women give birth. In the United States as many as 15% of births occur before 39 weeks because of elective inductions or cesarean sections, putting these babies at risk for increased medical problems after birth and later in life. This qualitative study employs a grounded theory approach to understand the decisions women make of how and when to give birth. Thirty-three women who were pregnant or had given birth within the past two years participated in key informant or small group interviews. The results suggest that women interpret the uncertainty of their due dates as a reason to wait on birth and as a reason to start the process early; however, information about a baby's brain development in the final weeks of pregnancy may persuade women to remain pregnant longer. The uncertainties of due dates are analyzed using Babrow's problematic integration, which distinguishes between epistemological and ontological uncertainty. The results point to a third type uncertainty, axiological uncertainty. Axiological uncertainty is rooted in the values and ethics of outcomes. PMID:24266788

  12. Fetal anaemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, F; Vega, M A; Gómez-Castillo, E; Ruiz-Balda, J A; Omeñaca, F

    1993-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency was diagnosed in an infant by umbilical vessel sampling at 30 weeks' gestation. Although three previous hydropic siblings had been stillborn or died in the neonatal period, this infant survived with transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Prompt fetal diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency is feasible and allows better management of hydrops fetalis due to this disorder. PMID:8285758

  13. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community.

  14. Rectal bezoars due to pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohammad Salman; Al-Wahibi, Khalifa; Baloch, Shafiq; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2009-01-01

    Rectal bezoars commonly occur due to seeds, especially in children living in countries south of the Mediterranean and in the Middle-East. Dried seeds are considered a delicacy and consumed widely. Inadequate chewing or hastily eating without removing the hull may lead to their impaction as bezoars, which may require manual removal under general anaesthesia.

  15. Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L

    2001-05-01

    A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy.

  16. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is not born by the due date, tests can help the health care provider check on the baby’s health. Some tests, ... your baby move. Others are done in the health care provider’s office or in the hospital. These tests involve electronic fetal monitoring and include the nonstress ...

  17. The Enlightenment and Due Process of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    The purpose of this module for college students is to describe the economic, social, intellectual, and political changes which took place during the Enlightenment period and to show the interrelationship between these changes and concepts behind due process of law. This resource contains an introduction to the module; a list of objectives for the…

  18. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  19. Human Infections Due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Erba, Maria Luigia; Levrè, Egle; Lombardi, Natalia; Mantella, Antonia; Mecocci, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Three cases of human disease due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum are reported. In the first, the mycobacterium was responsible for chronic pulmonary disease in an elderly woman; in the second, it gave rise to cervical lymphadenitis in a child; and in the third, it caused a liver abscess in a young AIDS patient. PMID:11826009

  20. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  1. Due Process Rights in Student Disciplinary Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swem, Lisa L.

    1987-01-01

    Universities must walk a fine line between competing interests in student disciplinary matters. Courts accord differing levels of procedural protection to the student depending on the dispute's nature. While case law shows that a notice, hearing, and substantive evidence are required, due process does not have to meet criminal law standards. (MSE)

  2. Light incoherence due to background space fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Working by analogy, we use the description of light fluctuations due to random collisions of the radiating atoms to figure out why the reduction of the coherence for light propagating a cosmological distance in the fluctuating background space is negligibly small to be observed by the stellar interferometry.

  3. Hair transplantation in alopecia due to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nordstroem, R.E.; Holsti, L.R.

    1983-10-01

    Two cases of alopecia due to radiation of the scalp are presented in which it has been possible to achieve a technically and cosmetically satisfactory reconstruction by punch hair grafting. This does not mean that every case is suitable, but it does mean that those without contraindications should at least be given a try.

  4. Thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones.

    PubMed

    Flores-Franco, René Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right pleural effusion. Here we present the illustrative images of thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones in a woman who was treated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy one year before. The gallstones were obtained unexpectedly during a thoracentesis with aid of an Abrams needle. This rare complication is discussed under current literature review.

  5. [Cutaneous abscess due to Gemella morbillorum].

    PubMed

    Villamil, Iago; Villar, Alberto; Masa, Luis A

    2009-10-01

    We report a cutaneous abscess due to Gemella morbillorum, a Gram positive coccus found in oropharyngeal flora, that rarely causes disease in humans. Infections associated to this agent are similar to those related to viridans streptococci. There have been reports of endovascular infections (predominantly endocarditis) and also of acute invasive infections. Few previous reports are available of cutaneous infection.

  6. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  7. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  9. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  10. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  11. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

  12. The subtlety of simple eyes: the tuning of visual fields to perceptual challenges in birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Birds show interspecific variation both in the size of the fields of individual eyes and in the ways that these fields are brought together to produce the total visual field. Variation is found in the dimensions of all main parameters: binocular region, cyclopean field and blind areas. There is a phylogenetic signal with respect to maximum width of the binocular field in that passerine species have significantly broader field widths than non-passerines; broadest fields are found among crows (Corvidae). Among non-passerines, visual fields show considerable variation within families and even within some genera. It is argued that (i) the main drivers of differences in visual fields are associated with perceptual challenges that arise through different modes of foraging, and (ii) the primary function of binocularity in birds lies in the control of bill position rather than in the control of locomotion. The informational function of binocular vision does not lie in binocularity per se (two eyes receiving slightly different information simultaneously about the same objects from which higher-order depth information is extracted), but in the contralateral projection of the visual field of each eye. Contralateral projection ensures that each eye receives information from a symmetrically expanding optic flow-field from which direction of travel and time to contact targets can be extracted, particularly with respect to the control of bill position. PMID:24395967

  13. Could Masked Conceptual Primes Increase Recollection? The Subtleties of Measuring Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection…

  14. Exploring the subtleties of drug-receptor interactions: the case of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Calderone, Vito; Fragai, Marco; Giachetti, Andrea; Loconte, Mauro; Luchinat, Claudio; Maletta, Massimiliano; Nativi, Cristina; Yeo, Kwon Joo

    2007-03-07

    By solving high-resolution crystal structures of a large number (14 in this case) of adducts of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) with strong, nanomolar, inhibitors all derived from a single ligand scaffold, it is shown that the energetics of the ligand-protein interactions can be accounted for directly from the structures to a level of detail that allows us to rationalize for the differential binding affinity between pairs of closely related ligands. In each case, variations in binding affinities can be traced back to slight improvements or worsening of specific interactions with the protein of one or more ligand atoms. Isothermal calorimetry measurements show that the binding of this class of MMP inhibitors is largely enthalpy driven, but a favorable entropic contribution is always present. The binding enthalpy of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), the prototype zinc-binding group in MMP drug discovery, has been also accurately measured. In principle, this research permits the planning of either improved inhibitors, or inhibitors with improved selectivity for one or another MMP. The present analysis is applicable to any drug target for which structural information on adducts with a series of homologous ligands can be obtained, while structural information obtained from in silico docking is probably not accurate enough for this type of study.

  15. Some issues and subtleties in numerical simulation of X-ray FEL's

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M.

    2002-09-30

    Part of the overall design effort for x-ray FEL's such as the LCLS and TESLA projects has involved extensive use of particle simulation codes to predict their output performance and underlying sensitivity to various input parameters (e.g. electron beam emittance). This paper discusses some of the numerical issues that must be addressed by simulation codes in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the standard approximations and simulation methods adopted by time-dependent(i.e. polychromatic) codes such as GINGER, GENESIS, and FAST3D, including the effects of temporal discretization and the resultant limited spectral bandpass,and then discuss the accuracies and inaccuracies of these codes in predicting incoherent spontaneous emission (i.e. the extremely low gain regime).

  16. Some issues and subtleties in numerical simulation of X-ray FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawley, W. M.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the overall design effort for X-ray FELs such as the LCLS and TESLA projects has involved extensive use of particle simulation codes to predict their output performance and underlying sensitivity to various input parameters (e.g. electron beam emittance). This paper discusses some of the numerical issues that must be addressed by simulation codes in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the standard approximations and simulation methods adopted by time-dependent (i.e. polychromatic) codes such as GINGER (LBNL Report No. LBNL-49625, 2002), GENESIS (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 429 (1999) 243), and FAST3D (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 429 (1999) 233), including the effects of temporal discretization and the resultant limited spectral bandpass, and then discuss the accuracies and inaccuracies of these codes in predicting incoherent spontaneous emission (i.e. the extremely low gain regime).

  17. Neuromodulation and metamodulation by adenosine: Impact and subtleties upon synaptic plasticity regulation.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2015-09-24

    Synaptic plasticity mechanisms, i.e. the sequence of events that underlies persistent changes in synaptic strength as a consequence of transient alteration in neuronal firing, are greatly influenced by the 'chemical atmosphere' of the synapses, that is to say by the presence of molecules at the synaptic cleft able to fine-tune the activity of other molecules more directly related to plasticity. One of those fine tuners is adenosine, known for a long time as an ubiquitous neuromodulator and metamodulator and recognized early as influencing synaptic plasticity. In this review we will refer to the mechanisms that adenosine can use to affect plasticity, emphasizing aspects of the neurobiology of adenosine relevant to its ability to control synaptic functioning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain and Memory.

  18. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    A number of potential NASA missions could benefit from closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. The human and robotic mission power applications include spacecraft, surface base, and rover scenarios. Modeling of CBC subsystems allows system engineers, mission planners and project managers to make informed decisions regarding power conversion system characteristics and capabilities. To promote thorough modeling efforts, a critical review of CBC modeling techniques is presented. Analysis of critical modeling elements, component influences and cycle sensitivities is conducted. The analysis leads to quantitative results addressing projections on converter efficiency and overall power conversion system mass. Even moderate modeling errors are shown to easily over-predict converter efficiencies by 30% and underestimate mass estimates by 20%. Both static and dynamic modeling regimes are evaluated. Key considerations in determining model fidelity requirements are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented that directly address ongoing modeling efforts in solar and nuclear space power systems.

  19. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2005-01-01

    A number of potential NASA missions could benefit from closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. The human and robotic mission power applications include spacecraft, surface base, and rover scenarios. Modeling of CBC subsystems allows system engineers, mission planners and project managers to make informed decisions regarding power conversion system characteristics and capabilities. To promote thorough modeling efforts, a critical review of CBC modeling techniques is presented. Analysis of critical modeling elements, component influences and cycle sensitivities is conducted. The analysis leads to quantitative results addressing projections on converter efficiency and overall power conversion system mass. Even moderate modeling errors are shown to easily over-predict converter efficiencies by 30 percent and underestimate mass estimates by 20 percent. Both static and dynamic modeling regimes are evaluated. Key considerations in determining model fidelity requirements are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented that directly address ongoing modeling efforts in solar and nuclear space power systems.

  20. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) thermal energy conversion is one available option for future spacecraft and surface systems. 2. Brayton system conceptual designs for milliwatt to megawatt power converters have been developed 3. Numerous features affect overall optimized power conversion system performance: Turbomachinery efficiency. Heat exchanger effectiveness. Working-fluid composition. Cycle temperatures and pressures.

  1. Subtlety in the Critical Behavior of the Two Dimensional XY Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kwon

    1996-03-01

    We study the two dimensional classical XY model using the single cluster Monte Carlo algorithm^1. We present extensive high -temperature -phase bulk data that are extracted based on a novel finite- size- scaling Monte Carlo technique^2. The largest value of the estimated bulk correlation length is 1390 in lattice units. Our data reveal that η=1/4 sets in near criticality. The standard finite-size-scaling analysis of the data close to criticality, however, seems to indicate that η=1/4 is compatible only for a critical temperature (T_c) over the range 0.900 <= Tc <= 0.905. With such a T_c, our bulk data are not consistent with the Kosterlitz-Thouless singularity. ^1 U. Wolff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 361 (1989) ^2 J.-K. Kim, Euro. Phys. Lett. 28, 211 (1994) Research supported in part by the NSF

  2. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  3. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  4. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  6. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  7. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  8. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  9. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  10. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  12. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  13. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  14. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  16. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  17. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5460 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 615.5460 Section 615.5460 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under...

  19. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  1. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  3. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  4. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  7. 5 CFR 841.1006 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 841.1006 Section....1006 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A... will issue an accounting. If the State finds this accounting unacceptable, it may then and only...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT State Income Tax Withholding § 831.1905 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A request or revocation is effective when processed...

  9. Physicians in transition: practice due diligence.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Timothy E

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of healthcare is changing rapidly. That landscape is now a business model of medicine. That rapid change resulting in a business model is affecting physicians professionally and personally. The new business model of medicine has led to large healthcare organizations hiring physicians as employees. The role of a physician as an employee has many limitations in terms of practice and personal autonomy. Employed physicians sign legally binding employment agreements that are written by the legal team working for the healthcare organization. Thus physicians should practice due diligence before signing the employment agreement. "Due diligence" refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement with another party. That reasonable person should seek expertise to represent his or her interests when searching a balanced agreement between the physician and organization.

  10. [Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine crystalluria].

    PubMed

    de la Prada Alvarez, F J; Prados Gallardo, A M; Tugores Vázquez, A; Uriol Rivera, M; Morey Molina, A

    2007-05-01

    Focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii infection represents one of the most common opportunistic infection in patients with the acquired inmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the treatment is commonly with a combination sulphadiazine, and pyrimethamine. A major side effect of sulfadiazine therapy is the occurrence of crystallization in the urinary collecting system. We report a patient with AIDS and Toxoplasmic encephalitis treated with sulfadiazine who developed acute renal failure. Renal ultrasound demonstrated echogenic areas within the renal parenchyma, presumed to be sulfa crystals. Renal failure and ultrasound findings resolved rapidly with hydratation and administration of alkali. Patients infected with AIDS frequently have characteristic that increase intratubular crystal precipitation and they require treatment with one or more of the drugs that are associated with crystal-induced renal failure. Controlled alkalinization of the urine and high fluid intake are recommended for prophylaxis of crystalluria. The literature concerning crystalluria and renal failure due to sulfadiazine is reviewed.

  11. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine.

    PubMed

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past.

  12. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine

    PubMed Central

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  13. Information Security due to Electromagnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Hidenori; Seto, Shinji

    Generally, active electronic devices emit slightly unintentional electromagnetic noise. From long ago, electromagnetic emission levels have been regulated from the aspect of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Also, it has been known the electromagnetic emissions have been generated from the ON/OFF of signals in the device. Recently, it becomes a topic of conversation on the information security that the ON/OFF on a desired signal in the device can be reproduced or guessed by receiving the electromagnetic emission. For an example, a display image on a personal computer (PC) can be reconstructed by receiving and analyzing the electromagnetic emission. In sum, this fact makes known information leakage due to electromagnetic emission. “TEMPEST" that has been known as a code name originated in the U. S. Department of Defense is to prevent the information leakage caused by electromagnetic emissions. This paper reports the brief summary of the information security due to electromagnetic emissions from information technology equipments.

  14. Exposure to traffic and risk of hospitalization due to injuries.

    PubMed

    Segui-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Smyth, Ernesto; Llorca, Javier; de Irala, Jokin

    2011-03-01

    Research on the risk of motor vehicle injuries and their relationship with the amount of travel has been only partially analyzed. The few individual exposure assessments are related to very specific subsets of the driving and traveling populations. This study analyzes the relationship between kilometers traveled and hospitalization due to motor vehicle injuries. Twelve thousand three hundred and sixty nine Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra multipurpose cohort study were evaluated. They had not been hospitalized due to motor vehicle injuries at baseline and were followed up to eight years. Biannual questionnaires allowed for self-reporting of kilometers traveled in motor vehicles, together with incidence of hospitalization. Covariates in the Cox regression models included age and gender and baseline use of safety belt while driving, driving a vehicle with driver-side airbag, driving a motorcycle, and drinking and driving. There were 49,766 participant-years with an average yearly travel of 7,828 km per person-year. Thirty-six subjects reported a first hospitalization event during this time. The adjusted hazard ratio per additional kilometer traveled was 1.00005 (95% confidence interval 1.000013 to 1.000086). Even the smallest of reductions in the amount of kilometers traveled (from an average of 3,250 km per year to 1,000) has a statistically significant protective effect on the likelihood of sustaining hospitalization due to motor vehicle injury (aHR 0.9, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98). In light of current policies aimed to reduce motorized traffic due to environmental concerns, it may be appropriate to consider the additional health benefit related to reductions in injuries.

  15. Ocular injury due to bungee jumping.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Edward B; Collin, H Barry

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bungee jumping is a well-established recreational activity in New Zealand and Australia which may be associated with injuries to the eyes and other tissues. CASE HISTORY: A patient with a retinal haemorrhage which resulted from bungee jumping is reported and the clinical characteristics described. DISCUSSION: There have been several reports of injury due to bungee jumping. The types of ocular injury are reviewed and the aetiological theories discussed.

  16. Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    The surface of an insulator under vacuum and under electrical charge will flashover when illuminated by a critical dose of ultra-violet (UV...fluence (energy per unit area) required to induce surface flashover of vacuum insulators for some candid insulator materials: High Density... Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination1 J. B. Javedani, T.L. Houck, D.A. Lahowe, G.E. Vogtlin and D.A. Goerz Lawrence Livermore

  17. Sprue-like enteropathy due to olmesartan.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Cándido; López-Vivancos, Josefa; Huaman, Walter; García-Cors, Montserrat

    2015-10-01

    A case of spue-like enteropathy due to olmesartan is reported to draw attention to this disease, given the high frequency of use of this drug and the difficulty of diagnosis if the entity if it is not known. In his journal one case was published as Clinical Note in 2014 and we wish to emphasize the importance of knowledge about this relatively new entity.

  18. Generalized pustular eruptions due to terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Gunseli; Turk, Bengu Gerceker; Karaca, Nezih; Karaarslan, Isil Kilinc; Ertekin, Banu; Ertam, Ilgen; Kazandi, Alican; Kandiloglu, Gulsen

    2012-03-01

    Terbinafine, a widely used antifungal agent, may rarely cause cutaneous side effects with an incidence of 2.7%. Generalized pustular eruptions are quite uncommon but severe adverse cutaneous reactions of terbinafine have been reported. The main pustular eruptions due to terbinafine include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced pustular psoriasis. In this report, two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and one case of generalized pustular psoriasis triggered with terbinafine are presented.

  19. Exposure fluctuations of astronauts due to orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Wood, James S.; Qualls, Gary; Atwell, William; Shinn, Judy L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    The dose incurred in an anisotropic environment depends on the orientation of the astronaut's body relative to the direction of the radiation field. The fluctuations in exposure of specific organs due to astronaut orientation are found to be a factor of 2 or more in a typical space habitation module and typical space radiations. An approximation function is found that overestimates astronaut exposure in most cases studied and is recommended as a shield design guide for future space missions.

  20. Exposure fluctuations of astronauts due to orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Wood, J.S.; Qualls, G.; Atwell, W.; Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    The dose incurred in an anisotropic environment depends on the orientation of the astronaut's body relative to the direction of the radiation field. The fluctuations in exposure of specific organs due to astronaut orientation are found to be a factor of 2 or more in a typical space habitation module and typical space radiations. An approximation function is found that overestimates astronaut exposure in most cases studied and is recommended as a shield design guide for future space missions.

  1. Cholestatic hepatitis due to Ecballium elaterium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bizid, Sondès; Sabbah, Mériam; Msakni, Issam; Ben Slimene, Baha; Mohamed, Ghanem; Bouali, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Hatem; Abdelli, Nabil

    2015-10-01

    Ecballium elaterium is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. This plant is fairly common in the Mediterranean regions. It is frequently consumed in infusion, mixture of fruit or even in aerosol in cases of fever or flu. This plant is known for its respiratory and ocular toxicity. Hepatotoxicity has never been described in the literature. We report a case of acute cholestatic hepatitis due to Ecballium elaterium in a 39 years old patient, with no past medical history.

  2. Neonatal cholestasis due to primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Naman Sadanand; Shah, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis is rarely caused due to primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts, which results in obstructive fibrosis of the ducts. A 7-month-old male child presented with jaundice along with high-colored urine and clay-colored stools since birth. Liver biopsy showed mild bile duct proliferation with cholangioles showing bile and thrombi suggestive of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  3. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  4. Due Process in the Accreditation Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prairie, Michael W.; Chamberlain, Lori A.

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a detailed survey of the procedural rights afforded by the six regional accrediting agencies to colleges and universities facing the denial or withdrawal of accreditation. It asserts that additional procedural safeguards should be provided to institutions to ensure that accreditation decisions are not made in an arbitrary or…

  5. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  6. Density Limit due to SOL Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D. A.

    2004-11-01

    Recent measurements on C-Mod(M. Greenwald, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 44), R27 (2002). suggest there is a density limit due to rapid convection in the SOL: this region starts in the far SOL but expands inward to the separatrix as the density approaches the Greenwald limit. This idea is supported by a recent analysis(D. A. Russell et al., Lodestar Report LRC-04-99 (2004).) of a 3D BOUT code turbulence simulation(X. Q. Xu et al., Bull. APS 48), 184 (2003), paper KP1-20. with neutral fueling of the X-point region. Our work suggests that rapid outwards convection of plasma by turbulent coherent structures (``blobs'') occurs when the X-point collisionality is sufficiently large. Here, we calculate a density limit due to loss of thermal equilibrium in the edge plasma due to rapid radial convective heat transport. We expect a synergistic effect between blob convection and X-point cooling. The cooling increases the parallel resistivity at the X-point, ``disconnects'' the blobs electrically from the sheaths, and increases their radial velocity,(D.A. D'Ippolito et al., 2004 Sherwood Meeting, paper 1C 43.) which in turn further cools the X-points. Progress on a theoretical model will be reported.

  7. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  8. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  9. Calculation of laser absorption by metal powders in additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Boley, C D; Khairallah, S A; Rubenchik, A M

    2015-03-20

    We have calculated the absorption of laser light by a powder of metal spheres, typical of the powder employed in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. Using ray-trace simulations, we show that the absorption is significantly larger than its value for normal incidence on a flat surface, due to multiple scattering. We investigate the dependence of absorption on powder content (material, size distribution, and geometry) and on beam size.

  10. Electrophilic addition and cyclization reactions of allenes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2009-10-20

    Modern organic synthesis depends on the development of highly selective methods for the efficient construction of potentially useful target molecules. A primary goal in our laboratory is the discovery of new reactions that convert readily available starting materials to complex products with complete control of regio- and stereoselectivity. Allenes are one underused moiety in organic synthesis, because these groups are often thought to be highly reactive. However, many compounds containing the allene group, including natural products and pharmaceuticals, are fairly stable. The chemistry of allenes has been shown to have significant potential in organic synthesis. Electrophilic additions to allenes have often been considered to be synthetically less attractive due to the lack of efficient control of the regio- and stereoselectivity. However, this Account describes electrophilic reactions of allenes with defined regio- and stereoselectivity developed in our laboratory. Many substituted allenes are readily available from propargylic alcohols. Our work has involved an exploration of the reactions of these allenes with many different electrophiles: the E- or Z-halo- or seleno-hydroxylations of allenyl sulfoxides, sulfones, phosphine oxides, carboxylates, sulfides or selenides, butenolides, and arenes, and the halo- or selenolactonization reactions of allenoic acids and allenoates. These reactions have produced a host of new compounds such as stereodefined allylic alcohols, ethers, amides, thiiranes, and lactones. In all these reactions, water acts as a reactant and plays an important role in determining the reaction pathway and the stereoselectivity. The differing electronic properties of the two C=C bonds in these allenes determine the regioselectivity of these reactions. Through mechanistic studies of chirality transfer, isolation and reactivity of cyclic intermediates, (18)O-labeling, and substituent effects, we discovered that the E-stereoselectivity of some

  11. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  12. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  13. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  14. Intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoars: An update

    PubMed Central

    Dikicier, Enis; Altintoprak, Fatih; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Yagmurkaya, Orhan; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener

    2015-01-01

    The term bezoar refers to an intraluminal mass in the gastrointestinal system caused by the accumulation of indigestible ingested materials, such as vegetables, fruits, and hair. Bezoars are responsible for 0.4%-4% of cases of mechanical intestinal obstruction. The clinical findings of bezoar-induced ileus do not differ from those of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to other causes. The appearance and localization of bezoars can be established with various imaging methods. Treatment of choice depends on the localization of the bezoar which makes the clinical findings. PMID:26301232

  15. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-01-01

    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:28232918

  16. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-01-01

    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  17. Poisoning due to common household products.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Leung, K P; Critchley, J A

    1995-06-01

    From 1988 to 1992, 187 patients were admitted in four general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong with poisoning due to common household products. The main agents involved included "Dettol" liquid (46%), cleaning products (19%), pesticides (14%), and shampoos (10%). The majority of patients had only relatively mild symptoms. Ingestion of Dettol liquid and strong corrosives tended to be associated with serious complications and deaths. Two patients died after aspiration of Dettol liquid and detergent before and/or during gastric lavage. One other patient died after swallowing sulphuric acid. As with all poisoning, it is very important that the airway is adequately protected before gastric lavage is performed.

  18. Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar

    SciTech Connect

    Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2015-09-14

    We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.

  19. Pneumonia due to Enterobacter cancerogenus infection.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tülin; Baran, Gamze; Buyukguclu, Tuncay; Sezgin, Fikriye Milletli; Kaymaz, Haci

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter cancerogenus (formerly known as CDC Enteric Group 19; synonym with Enterobacter taylorae) has rarely been associated with human infections, and little is known regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of this organism. We describe a community-acquired pneumonia case in a 44-year-old female due to E. cancerogenus. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism was performed by the automatized VITEK 2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The clinical case suggests that E. cancerogenus is a potentially pathogenic microorganism in determined circumstances; underlying diseases such as bronchial asthma, empiric antibiotic treatment, wounds, diagnostic, or therapeutic instruments.

  20. Modification of gravity due to torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

  1. Pure dysarthria due to an insular infarction.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Saiko; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo

    2010-06-01

    Cortical infarction presenting with pure dysarthria is rarely reported. Previous studies have reported pure dysarthria due to cortical stroke at the precentral gyrus or middle frontal gyrus. We report a 72-year-old man who developed pure dysarthria caused by an acute cortical infarction in the insular cortex. The role of the insula in language has been difficult to assess clinically because of the rarity of pure insular strokes. Our patient showed pure dysarthria without aphasia, indicating that pure dysarthria can be the sole manifestation of insular infarctions.

  2. Obstructive hydrocephalus due to CNS toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Sang Weon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2013-06-15

    A 46-year-old man developed intermittent headache, diplopia, and visual obscuration for two months. Funduscopic examination showed optic disk swelling in both eyes. Brain MRI exhibited hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement at the prepontine cistern, left cerebellopontine angle cistern and bilateral cerebral hemisphere, and hemosiderin deposition along the cerebellar folia. CSF analysis revealed an elevated opening pressure with xanthochromic appearance and small amount of red blood cells. Antibody titer against Toxocariasis using ELISA was elevated both in blood and CSF. Obstructive hydrocephalus and hemosiderin deposition in this case may result from the active inflammatory process due to CNS toxocariasis within the subarachnoid space.

  3. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  4. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health Services Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  5. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  6. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  7. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  8. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  9. Fatal hemoperitoneum due to segmental arterial mediolysis.

    PubMed

    Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Martinês, João Augusto Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to vascular injury is a life-threatening condition mostly associated with aortic or splanchnic arterial disease, which stems from atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or infectious origin. However, in 1976, Slavin and Gonzales described a nonatherosclerotic arterial disease that may render aneurysmal formation predominantly in the splanchnic arterial bed. The clinical presentation is diverse, but abdominal pain and shock prevail. We report the case of a middle-aged man who presented a hemoperitoneum due to a middle colic artery aneurysm rupture and died after undergoing a surgical treatment attempt. The preoperative imaging study revealed the presence of a huge hematoma in the epiplon retrocavity, and abdominal free liquid as well as extensive arterial disease with multiple aneurysms. The autopsy findings included hemoperitoneum, hematoma in the upper left abdominal quadrant, the surgical ligature of the middle colic artery, and histologic features consistent with segmental arterial mediolysis. The authors call attention to this rare entity and highlight the autopsy as a fundamental examination to accurately reach this diagnosis.

  10. Vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung

    2013-07-01

    Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.

  11. Fatal hemoperitoneum due to segmental arterial mediolysis

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Martinês, João Augusto dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to vascular injury is a life-threatening condition mostly associated with aortic or splanchnic arterial disease, which stems from atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or infectious origin. However, in 1976, Slavin and Gonzales described a nonatherosclerotic arterial disease that may render aneurysmal formation predominantly in the splanchnic arterial bed. The clinical presentation is diverse, but abdominal pain and shock prevail. We report the case of a middle-aged man who presented a hemoperitoneum due to a middle colic artery aneurysm rupture and died after undergoing a surgical treatment attempt. The preoperative imaging study revealed the presence of a huge hematoma in the epiplon retrocavity, and abdominal free liquid as well as extensive arterial disease with multiple aneurysms. The autopsy findings included hemoperitoneum, hematoma in the upper left abdominal quadrant, the surgical ligature of the middle colic artery, and histologic features consistent with segmental arterial mediolysis. The authors call attention to this rare entity and highlight the autopsy as a fundamental examination to accurately reach this diagnosis. PMID:27818953

  12. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  13. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  14. Mechanical Properties of Iron Alumininides Intermetallic Alloy with Molybdenum Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhailawati, H.; Fauzi, M. N. A.

    2010-03-11

    In this work, FeAl-based alloys with and without molybdenum addition were fabricated by sintering of mechanically alloyed powders in order to investigate the effect of molybdenum on iron aluminide mechanical properties. Bulk samples were prepared by mechanical alloying for 4 hours, pressing at 360 MPa and sintering at 1000 deg. C for 2 hours. The specimens were tested in compression at room temperature using Instron machine. The phase identification and microstructure of the consolidated material was examined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope correspondingly. Results show that 2.5 wt%Mo addition significantly increased the ultimate stress and ultimate strain in compressive mode due to solid solution hardening. However, the addition of Mo more than 2.5 wt% was accompanied by a reduction in both properties caused by the presence of Mo-rich precipitate particles.

  15. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  16. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    SciTech Connect

    Kopanitsa, Natalya Sarkisov, Yurij Gorshkova, Aleksandra Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-15

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  17. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  18. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  19. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  20. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  1. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  2. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  3. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  4. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  5. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  6. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  7. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  8. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  9. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  10. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  11. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  12. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  13. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  14. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  16. Fuel compositions containing deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lilburn, J.E.

    1980-11-18

    Fuel compositions are provided which contain a deposit control additive. The deposit control additive is produced by reacting a hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) alcohol with excess phosgene and an excess amount of certain polyamines. The product comprises hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) ureylene carbamates.

  17. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  18. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  19. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  20. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  1. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  2. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  3. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  4. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  5. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  6. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  7. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  8. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  9. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  10. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  11. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  12. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Administration, New York, NY Coverage: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated by the General... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement...

  13. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Services Administration, New York, NY. COVERAGE: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  14. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR...

  15. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional audits. 9008.13 Section 9008.13... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  16. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  17. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Additional audits. 9008.13 Section 9008.13... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  18. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal... EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  19. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  20. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  1. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  2. 42 CFR 68.16 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 68.16 Section 68.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.16 Additional conditions. (a)...

  3. 42 CFR 68.16 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 68.16 Section 68.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS (LRPs) § 68.16 Additional conditions. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  5. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  6. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  7. 77 FR 27737 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. Comments Must...

  8. 77 FR 55195 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This... persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Effective Date: 10/8/2012....

  9. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the... furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities....

  10. 77 FR 44220 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  11. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  12. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  13. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  14. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  15. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  16. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  17. 10 CFR 71.65 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 71.65 Section 71.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.65 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or...

  18. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  19. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  20. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  1. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  2. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  3. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  4. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  5. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  6. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  7. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  8. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  9. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  10. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  11. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  12. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  13. Addition and Subtraction, and Algorithms in General

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    The juxtaposition of articles by Ian Thompson and Ian Sugarman in "MT202" on addition and subtraction respectively engendered some bemused thoughts in this author, who for some years has been sheltered from controversy by retirement. In this article, Fielker shares some thoughts on addition and subtraction raised by Thompson and Sugarman in their…

  14. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  15. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  20. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  1. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010.116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there be a property owners' association for...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan....

  3. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  4. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  5. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  6. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  7. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  8. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  9. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  10. Young Children's Understanding of Addition Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates children's knowledge of concrete versions of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity. Reports that in study one, four-to five-year-olds (n=24) and five- to six-year-olds (n=25) judged the equivalence of conceptually related addition problems using groups of objects. States that in study two, five- to six-year-olds…

  11. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  12. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  13. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  14. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  16. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  17. Prevention of Infection Due to Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher C; Jump, Robin L P; Chopra, Teena

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the foremost nosocomial pathogens. Preventing infection is particularly challenging. Effective prevention efforts typically require a multifaceted bundled approach. A variety of infection control procedures may be advantageous, including strict hand decontamination with soap and water, contact precautions, and using chlorine-containing decontamination agents. Additionally, risk factor reduction can help reduce the burden of disease. The risk factor modification is principally accomplished though antibiotic stewardship programs. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence for prevention is in acute care settings. This review focuses on preventative approaches to reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in healthcare settings.

  18. [Ear dysfunction due to air bag detonation?].

    PubMed

    Brehmer, D; Geidel, O; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2000-10-01

    Air bags are among the latest developments in extensive automobile safety systems. They successfully have saved the lives of car occupants in road accidents. Many additional injuries caused by air bags from minor to severe have been reported. With the help of two acceleration sensors, the electronic tuner amplifier records the vehicle's deceleration. This is the adequate trigger for air bag deployment, which creates an intense noise of up to 170 dB sound pressure level. This noise level can cause cochlear damage. We present two patients with otologic symptoms after spontaneous air bag deployment.

  19. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  20. Measuring the acceleration due to gravity using an IR transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdElazem, Sohaib; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to study the dynamics of a free-falling object in a lab setting and to measure the acceleration due to gravity g using a simple and economic setup. The precise measurement of time taken for an object to fall freely passing an infrared (IR) transceiver is utilized to deduce the acceleration due to gravity. The reflected IR intensity from a free-falling 0.19 m rod of equally spaced white stripes of 0.01 m is detected and sent to a digital oscilloscope to observe and record the falling time period of each stripe. By fitting recorded elapsed falling times to the well-known quadratic equation of motion under constant acceleration, an accurate value of the acceleration due to gravity of g = 9.8092 ± 0.0384 m s-2 is obtained. In addition to its accuracy, the proposed technique is safer and more economic than most of the other currently used setups to determine g in undergraduate teaching labs. This study may provide undergraduate lab instructors with an efficient teaching technique for a traditional classroom experiment.

  1. Tune Variations due to Septum Stray Field F. Pederson &

    SciTech Connect

    Rinolfi, L.

    1986-10-12

    Two types of antiproton instabilities due to trapped ions are harmful in the AA. One is a coherent instability occurring when an ion pocket resonates with a 3-Q mode (hiccups), the other is excitation of 11th and 15th order non-linear resonances due to the non-linear focusing fields from localized ion clouds trapped in uncleared potential well pockets. Accumulation with a good injection yield of antiprotons forces us to locate the tune of the dense core in the general area of the array of 15th order resonances. To avoid harmful blow-up of the dense core the tune is located between the resonances 11Q{sub H} + 4Q{sub V} = 34, 10Q{sub H} + 5Q{sub V} = 34, and 11Q{sub H} = 25, requiring a tune of Q{sub H} = 2.2722 to be maintained with a precision of a few 10{sup -4} (Fig. 4). Different angles of the injection and ejection trajectories require the septum current to be changed from 3860 A during accumulation to 3920 A, during ejection mode. Variations in the septum stray field due to these changes in current cause tune changes in the order of 10{sup -3}. In addition, at a given septum current, a pronounced hysteresis of the stray field causes tune variations of about the same order of magnitude, so also the past history of the septum excitation must be carefully controlled to obtain a reproducible tune.

  2. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  3. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  4. Lichenoid drug eruption due to imatinib mesylate.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Anuradha; Kanish, Bimal; Chaudhary, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a selective tyrosinase kinase inhibitor which has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It is also used in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans. Cutaneous adverse reactions are the most common nonhematological side effects secondary to imatinib. Nonlichenoid reactions are common, while lichenoid reactions are rare. We report a case of lichenoid drug eruption due to imatinib. As the indications and use of imatinib are increasing, the incidences of adverse effects, including cutaneous ones, are likely to increase. Some of the reactions may be severe enough to warrant discontinuation of the drug. The physicians should be aware of this morphological entity, which is usually benign and does not warrant withdrawal of the drug.

  5. [Delayed hemothorax due to blunt chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Saito, Gaku; Sakaizawa, Takao; Takasuna, Keiichiro; Eguchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Nobutaka; Hyougotani, Akira; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Kurai, Makoto; Kondo, Ryouichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Amano, Jun

    2010-03-01

    We report 2 cases of delayed hemothorax due to blunt chest trauma. A 48-year-old man who fell down and got a blow at the right chest had a checkup with a 1st aid outpatient. By the X-rays at the time of the 1st examination, the hemothorax was not noted. The next day, He has been transported to our hospital for atypical absence. Hemothorax was suggested by computed tomography (CT) and chest drainage was enforced. A 79-year-old man got a blow at the anterior chest by traffic accident and had a checkup in the 1st hospital. The abnormality was not recognized in the chest CT at that time. For the left hemiparesis, he was transported to our hospital the next day. Hemothorax was suggested by CT and chest drainage was enforced.

  6. Contact urticaria due to polyethylene gloves.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keiji; Sugiura, Mariko; Shiraki, Rika; Hayakawa, Ritsuko; Shamoto, Mikihiro; Sasaki, Kazumi; Itoh, Akira

    2002-05-01

    We report a rare case of contact urticaria due to polyethylene gloves. The patient, a 46-year-old cook, had had had chronic urticaria since 1985, and first visited our hospital in June 2000. We began by prescribing antihistamine and antiallergenic drugs for him, but his condition did not improve. From a detailed interview, we established that when he put on polyethylene gloves at work, his condition worsened. We suspected some component of his gloves to be the cause of his symptoms. Prick and scratch tests with a solution extracted from his gloves showed a wheal-and-flare reaction at 15 min. We advised him to wear a cotton shirt under his clothes in daily life, and to put on cotton gloves under his polyethylene gloves while at work. Subsequently, the size and the number of wheals were markedly smaller and the subject's symptoms were reduced.

  7. Anomalous transport due to magnetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, N.J.L.

    1996-03-01

    Transport in a toroidal system with broken flux surfaces is considered. Flux surfaces with rational field line winding number can degenerate and form magnetic islands. The experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic structures is reviewed. If neighboring chains of islands overlap, a region of stochastic field is formed. In a stochastic field, a field line fills up a region of space and thus makes significant radial excursions. Particles following a stochastic field line may experience rapid radial transport. The problem of computing transport in a stochastic field has two stages: what is the behavior of field lines in a stochastic region? and what is the implication for particle transport? The much used formula due to Rechester & Rosenbluth for collisionless transport in a fully ergodic field is treated. It is shown that the conditions for the validity of this formula are normally not met in a tokamak. 16 refs.

  8. Pressure Drops Due to Silica Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.; Freeston, D.H.; Dimas, Z.O.; Slatter, A.

    1995-01-01

    Experience with reinjection returns in many geothermal fields has prompted a move towards injecting waste fluids at some distance from the production field. This means that often, reinjection pipelines cover very long distances. If the waste water in the pipelines is supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica, then the deposition of silica in these pipelines is almost certain. Although the deposit may be of negligible thickness, the inner surface characteristics of the pipe will be different to those of clean mild steel. During a silica scaling experiment. geothermal brine was passed through a series of pipes of different sizes and over a period of three weeks, silica scale formed on the inner surface. The pressure drop along a distance of approximately 5m was measured by a water manometer in all test pipe sections. Significant pressure drop was observed during this time and can be correlated with the increase in the friction factor of the pipe walls due to silica scaling.

  9. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  10. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  11. Postpartum Vaginal Stenosis Due to Chemical Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurcharan; Gupta, Ridhima

    2016-01-01

    Acquired vaginal stenosis is a rare obstructing anomaly, which can be caused by use of chemicals in the vagina. A 21-year-old gravida 1 para 1, presented with secondary amenorrhea and inability to have sexual intercourse, after normal spontaneous vaginal delivery complicated by post partum bleeding. The delivery was conducted by untrained traditional birth attendant at home. The wash cloth soaked with caustic soda was packed in the patient’s vagina and was left in situ for 10 days, which ultimately led to the severe scarring and stenosis of the vagina. Patient underwent surgical management and the extensive vaginal adhesions were excised and a patent vagina was reconstructed. Patient then reported successful vaginal intercourse without dyspareunia. Post partum vaginal stenosis due to chemical vaginitis is rare. These cases can be prevented by adequate training of untrained health care workers. PMID:27437311

  12. Animal personality due to social niche specialisation.

    PubMed

    Bergmüller, Ralph; Taborsky, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The existence of 'animal personality', i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and contexts, is an evolutionary puzzle that has recently generated considerable research interest. Although social factors are generally considered to be important, it is as yet unclear how they might select for personality. Drawing from ecological niche theory, we explore how social conflict and alternative social options can be key factors in the evolution and development of consistent individual differences in behaviour. We discuss how animal personality research might benefit from insights into the study of alternative tactics and illustrate how selection can favour behavioural diversification and consistency due to fitness benefits resulting from conflict reduction among social partners.

  13. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  14. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  15. Thoracic Radiculopathy due to Rare Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of thoracic, or abdominal pain syndrome. The clinical representation of this uncommon disorder is often atypical. With many differential diagnoses to consider, it is not surprising that the cause of thoracic radiculopathy is often not discovered for months, or years, after the symptoms arise. We report two rare cases of thoracic radiculopathy; one case was caused by extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) along the thoracic paraspinal area, and the other by foraminal stenosis, due to a bony spur of the thoracic vertebra. As such, thoracic radiculopathy should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with thoracic and abdominal pain, especially if initial diagnostic studies are inconclusive. PMID:27446792

  16. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  17. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  18. Urban Runoff Response due to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, A.; Piechota, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change may produce a significant modification in the hydrological response that requires a change in overall water resources planning and management. Climate change particularly the projected change in extreme precipitation is likely to affect the runoff characteristics both regionally and temporally. The research presented here will focus on the changes in flood potential due to climate change, specifically event based storms for urban watersheds. The study site is the Flamingo-Tropicana watershed, one of the major contributors to the Las Vegas Wash in Clark County, Nevada. The output from Global Climate Models (GCMs) considers the three standard scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) for future greenhouse gas emissions. The average and maximum data derived from the entire GCM output for all scenarios will be considered. The combined climate and hydrologic modeling will follow three major steps: (1) selection of hydrological model; (2) selection of flood event and creation of climate scenarios; and (3) application of constructed scenarios to the calibrated hydrologic model. Measured flood data will be transformed to future data to represent the future climate conditions. The statistically downscaled climate projections are made available through World Climate Research Programme’s (WCRP’s) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset. The GCM output will be downscaled to simulate the real time future climate scenarios for local impact analysis. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers ‘HEC’ software will be utilized for modeling the extreme storm event that represents the most severe historical flood event. The analysis will be carried out over future time periods that represents 2010-40, 2040-70 and 2070-2100 (mid 2030’s, 60’s and 90’s). The progressive change in runoff due to future climate trends (precipitation projections) will be used to analyze the adaptability of existing flood control facilities and further improve the design and

  19. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  20. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  1. Additional Warning System for Cross Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Bester, Lucyna

    The paper contains an analysis of the safety level crossing equipped with an additional warning system for drivers that are within the level crossing before the approaching train. The proposed system is based on wireless data standard, WiMax and sensor networks WSN, placed an additional warning helps to improve safety at unguarded railway crossings. Mathematical analysis was carried out for unguarded level crossing model, and then for system with signaling the level crossing ssp and for system equipped with additional warning system for drivers. For the analysis presented models used stochastic Markov processes which allowed estimating the indicators of probabilistic studied systems.

  2. Sound radiation due to boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Meng

    1993-01-01

    This report describes progress made to date towards calculations of noise produced by the laminar-turbulence transition process in a low Mach number boundary layer formed on a rigid wall. The primary objectives of the study are to elucidate the physical mechanisms by which acoustic waves are generated, to clarify the roles of the fluctuating Reynolds stress and the viscous stress in the presence of a solid surface, and to determine the relative efficiency as a noise source of the various transition stages. In particular, we will examine the acoustic characteristics and directivity associated with three-dimensional instability waves, the detached high-shear layer, and turbulent spots following a laminar breakdown. Additionally, attention will be paid to the unsteady surface pressures during the transition, which provide a source of flow noise as well as a forcing function for wall vibration in both aeronautical and marine applications.

  3. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses.

  4. Massive ovarian edema, due to adjacent appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Callen, Andrew L; Illangasekare, Tushani; Poder, Liina

    2017-04-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a benign clinical entity, the imaging findings of which can mimic an adnexal mass or ovarian torsion. In the setting of acute abdominal pain, identifying massive ovarian edema is a key in avoiding potential fertility-threatening surgery in young women. In addition, it is important to consider other contributing pathology when ovarian edema is secondary to another process. We present a case of a young woman presenting with subacute abdominal pain, whose initial workup revealed marked enlarged right ovary. Further imaging, diagnostic tests, and eventually diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that the ovarian enlargement was secondary to subacute appendicitis, rather than a primary adnexal process. We review the classic ultrasound and MRI imaging findings and pitfalls that relate to this diagnosis.

  5. Preventing Spacecraft Failures Due to Tribological Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many mechanical failures that occur on spacecraft are caused by tribological problems. This publication presents a study that was conducted by the author on various preventatives, analyses, controls and tests (PACTs) that could be used to prevent spacecraft mechanical system failure. A matrix is presented in the paper that plots tribology failure modes versus various PACTs that should be performed before a spacecraft is launched in order to insure success. A strawman matrix was constructed by the author and then was sent out to industry and government spacecraft designers, scientists and builders of spacecraft for their input. The final matrix is the result of their input. In addition to the matrix, this publication describes the various PACTs that can be performed and some fundamental knowledge on the correct usage of lubricants for spacecraft applications. Even though the work was done specifically to prevent spacecraft failures the basic methodology can be applied to other mechanical system areas.

  6. Brittle dynamic damage due to earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harsha; Thomas, Marion

    2016-04-01

    The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990, and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. Incorporating this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over wide range of strain rates. We then implement this constitutive response to understand the role of dynamic brittle off-fault damage on earthquake ruptures. We show that off-fault damage plays an important role in asymmetry of rupture propagation and is a source of high-frequency ground motion in the near source region.

  7. Modelling induced seismicity due to fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Injection of fluid into the subsurface alters the stress in the crust and can induce earthquakes. The science of assessing the risk of induced seismicity from such ventures is still in its infancy despite public concern. We plan to use a fault network model in which stress perturbations due to fluid injection induce earthquakes. We will use this model to investigate the role different operational and geological factors play in increasing seismicity in a fault system due to fluid injection. The model is based on a quasi-dynamic relationship between stress and slip coupled with a rate and state fiction law. This allows us to model slip on fault interfaces over long periods of time (i.e. years to 100's years). With the use of the rate and state friction law the nature of stress release during slipping can be altered through variation of the frictional parameters. Both seismic and aseismic slip can therefore be simulated. In order to add heterogeneity along the fault plane a fractal variation in the frictional parameters is used. Fluid injection is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method whereby pore pressure diffuses throughout a permeable layer from the point of injection. The stress perturbation this causes on the surrounding fault system is calculated using a quasi-static solution for slip dislocation in an elastic half space. From this model we can generate slip histories and seismicity catalogues covering 100's of years for predefined fault networks near fluid injection sites. Given that rupture is a highly non-linear process, comparison between models with different input parameters (e.g. fault network statistics and injection rates) will be based on system wide features (such as the Gutenberg-Richter b-values), rather than specific seismic events. Our ultimate aim is that our model produces seismic catalogues similar to those observed over real injection sites. Such validation would pave the way to probabilistic estimation of reactivation risk for

  8. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nycz, Andrzej; Adediran, Adeola I; Noakes, Mark W; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  9. 47 CFR 68.318 - Additional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.318 Additional limitations. (a) General. Registered terminal equipment for connection to those services discussed below...

  10. 75 FR 81235 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Attendant, Pease Air National Guard Base, Newington, NH. Comments on the proposed addition were received... added to the Procurement List: Service Service Type/Location: Food Service Attendant, Pease Air...

  11. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  12. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  13. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  14. Moon Phase & Libration 2013: Additional Graphics

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows the phase and libration of the Moon throughout the year 2013, at hourly intervals. Each frame represents one hour. In addition, this version of the visualization shows addi...

  15. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  16. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  17. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  18. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  19. On the Addition of Planar Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Eli

    1974-01-01

    An interpretation of the transformation formulas for rotations in a plane in terms of the exponential function is given. Addition of two rotations is shown to correspond to the multiplication of the two corresponding matrices. (Author/LS)

  20. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  1. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  2. 32 CFR 2003.15 - Additional functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor, the ISCAP performs such additional advisory functions as... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL...

  3. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  4. Conjugate addition-enantioselective protonation reactions.

    PubMed

    Phelan, James P; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes represents one of the more general and commonly used strategies for the convergent assembly of more complex structures from simple precursors. In this review the addition of diverse protic and organometallic nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes followed by enantioselective protonation is summarized. Reactions are first categorized by the type of electron-deficient alkene and then are further classified according to whether catalysis is achieved with chiral Lewis acids, organocatalysts, or transition metals.

  5. Shock due to urosepsis: A multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Fukashi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Koichi; Takaba, Kei; Tokimatsu, Issei; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Urosepsis is a severe infection that can cause shock afterwards. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and bacterial risk factors for shock in those cases with urosepsis caused by urinary tract infection in a multicentre study. Methods Our study included 77 consecutive urosepsis cases from four hospitals. We examined factors such as patient characteristics, underlying disease, serum white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level at the time of diagnosis of urosepsis, urinary tract occlusion, causative bacteria, and bacterial antibiotic susceptibilities. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the potential risk factors for shock during the clinical course of urosepsis by a multivariate analysis. Results We had 38 male and 39 female patients aged 25–104 (median 73). Underlying diseases included cancers (n=22, 28.6 %) and diabetes mellitus (n=17, 22.1 %). Positive blood culture was seen in 74 cases; these involved 88 bacterial strains, of which Escherichia coli was the most common (34 strains, 38.6 %). There were 31 cases with shock (40.3 %) and multivariate analyses demonstrated that serum CRP was the only clinical risk factor for shock due to urosepsis. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that serum CRP was a risk factor for shock during urosepsis in a multicentre analysis. Further prospective studies with a greater number of patients are needed to draw more definitive conclusions. PMID:28360956

  6. Occupational asthma due to different spices.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Olmo, M; Novalvos, A; Ibañez, D; Lahoz, C

    1996-02-01

    We describe a 27-year-old subject who developed rhinitis and asthma symptoms 1 year after starting to prepare a certain kind of sausage. He was previously diagnosed as having allergy to coconut, banana, and kiwi and allergic rhinitis to horse, cat, dog, and cow. A positive immediate skin prick test (SPT) for paprika (dry powder of Capsicum annuum [Solanaceae]), coriander (Coriandrum sativum [umbelliferous]), and mace (shell of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans [Myristicaceae]) at a concentration of 10% (w/v) was obtained. SPT with other sausage ingredients, mites, pollens, and molds were negative. By ELISA, specific IgE antibodies to paprika, coriander, and mace were demonstrated. By ELISA-inhibition assays, a partial cross-reactivity was found among IgE-binding components from paprika and mace. The immunoblot analysis showed two IgE-reactive protein bands able to bind to IgE from mace of 20 and 40 kDa and two other bands from coriander extract of 50 and 56 kDa. No bands were detected from paprika extract. Specific bronchial inhalation challenges showed an immediate asthmatic reaction to extracts from paprika, coriander, and mace with a maximum fall in FEV1 of 26%, 40%, and 31%, respectively, with no late asthmatic reactions. In summary, we demonstrate that inhalation of dust from paprika, coriander, and mace can result in an IgE-mediated reaction to these spices. In this patient, occupational asthma was due to spices from botanically unrelated species.

  7. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  8. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  9. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    SciTech Connect

    Clauser, C. F. Farengo, R.

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  10. Observations on brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis*

    PubMed Central

    Spink, Wesley W.

    1953-01-01

    A special study was made of the problem of brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis in visits to Mexico City in 1948, to the FAO/WHO Brucellosis Centres at Montpellier (France), Florence (Italy), and Rijeka (Yugoslavia) in 1951, and to Spain in 1952. Br. melitensis infection in human beings causes more severe illness than Br. abortus infection. It develops primarily in rural communities living in close contact with goats and sheep; cattle and swine may also harbour the infection. In diagnosis, the agglutination test has proved the most satisfactory procedure; testing would be more uniformly reliable if a single antigen were used. Lack of funds and technical assistance have in many instances limited the bacteriological studies upon which a more definitive diagnosis of brucellosis depends. Antibiotics, Brucella vaccines, and colloidal preparations of gold and silver—used separately and in combination—have proved of varying therapeutic value, although response to antibiotics is less favourable than in cases of Br. abortus infection. While the drastic measures—involving the slaughter of about 10,000 sheep—taken in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, in the late 1940's, against an outbreak of brucellosis, is an inspiring example of how the disease can be eradicated, the removal of all diseased animals is rarely feasible economically. It is hoped that future research will reveal a practicable alternative in the immunization of sheep and goats against the disease. PMID:13106703

  11. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, V; Chhina, D K; Ram, Shobha; Singh, G; Kaushal, R K; Kumar, R

    2008-06-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) due to Naegleria fowleri was detected in a 36-year-old, Indian countryman who had a history of taking bath in the village pond. He was admitted in a semi comatosed condition with severe frontal headache, neck stiffness, intermittent fever, nausea, vomiting, left hemiparesis and seizures. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain showed a soft tissue non-enhancing mass with erosion of sphenoid sinus. However CSF findings showed no fungal or bacterial pathogen. Trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri were detected in the direct microscopic examination of CSF and these were grown in culture on non-nutrient agar. The patient was put on amphotericin-B, rifampicin and ceftazidime but his condition deteriorated and was taken home by his relatives in a moribund condition against medical advice and subsequently died. A literature review of 7 previous reports of PAM in India is also presented. Four of theses eight cases were non lethal. The mean age was 13.06 years with male: female ratio of 7:1. History of contact with water was present in four cases. Trophozoites could be identified in all 8 cases in this series.

  12. Traumatic Inhalation due to Merapi Volcanic Ash.

    PubMed

    Trisnawati, Ika; Budiono, Eko; Sumardi; Setiadi, Andang

    2015-07-01

    Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is fibrotic lung diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma following chronic inhalation of inorganic dusts containing crystalline silicon dioxide. The acute manifestations observed after heavy ashfalls include attacks of asthma and bronchitis, with an increased reporting of cough, breathlessness, chest tightness, and wheezing due to irritation of the lining of the airways. The chronic health condition of most concern is silicosis, a diffuse nodular fibrosis of the lungs, develops slowly, usually appearing 10 to 30 years after first exposure. A 35 years old male was admitted to Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta with complaints of progressive dyspnoea, right side chest pain since last 3 month and periodic episodes of dry cough. He had history of exposure to volcanic ash at the location around volcano eruption for about 10 month. Examination revealed hyperresonant note, diminished vesicular breath sounds in lower right side of the chest. The chest X-ray presence leads to bleb. Based on the clinical and radiological suspicion of pneumoconiosis the patient was submitted to computed tomography of the chest and revealed bilateral multiple bullae mainly at the right lung field. The biopsy specimen verified the diagnosis of anthrocosilicosis. There is no proven specific therapy for any form of silicosis. Symptomatic therapy should include treatment of airflow limitation with bronchodilators, aggressive management of respiratory tract infection with antibiotics, and use of supplemental oxygen (if indicated) to prevent complications of chronic hypoxemia.

  13. Crater Formation Due to Lunar Plume Impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsell, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Thruster plume impingement on a surface comprised of small, loose particles may cause blast ejecta to be spread over a large area and possibly cause damage to the vehicle. For this reason it is important to study the effects of plume impingement and crater formation on surfaces like those found on the moon. Lunar soil, also known as regolith, is made up of fine granular particles on the order of 100 microns.i Whenever a vehicle lifts-off from such a surface, the exhaust plume from the main engine will cause the formation of a crater. This crater formation may cause laterally ejected mass to be deflected and possibly damage the vehicle. This study is a first attempt at analyzing the dynamics of crater formation due to thruster exhaust plume impingement during liftoff from the moon. Though soil erosion on the lunar surface is not considered, this study aims at examining the evolution of the shear stress along the lunar surface as the engine fires. The location of the regions of high shear stress will determine where the crater begins to form and will lend insight into how big the crater will be. This information will help determine the probability that something will strike the vehicle. The final sections of this report discuss a novel method for studying this problem that uses a volume of fluid (VOF)ii method to track the movement of both the exhaust plume and the eroding surface.

  14. Dermatoses Due to Indian Cultural Practices

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ‘Henna’ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ‘Kumkum’ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ‘bindis’ and ‘alta’ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ‘Holi’ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ‘Mudichood’ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device “kangri” is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause. PMID:25657390

  15. Infections due to Lancefield group C streptococci.

    PubMed

    Salata, R A; Lerner, P I; Shlaes, D M; Gopalakrishna, K V; Wolinsky, E

    1989-07-01

    Our experience with group C streptococcal infection over the past 15 years demonstrates an important and emerging role for this hemolytic organism as an opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen. Significant risk factors in this predominantly male population included chronic cardiopulmonary disease, diabetes, malignancy, and alcoholism. Bacteremia occurred in 74% of cases seen in our series. Nosocomial acquisition of infection was observed in 26%, and infection was frequently polymicrobial in nature with gram-negative enteric bacilli isolated most commonly along with group C streptococci. We observed a broad spectrum of infections including puerperal sepsis, pleuropulmonary infections, skin and soft-tissue infection, central nervous system infection, endocarditis, urinary tract infection, and pharyngeal infections. Several cases of bacteremia of unknown source were observed in neutropenic patients with underlying leukemia. New syndromes of infection due to group C streptococci observed in our series included intra-abdominal abscess, epidural abscess, and dialysis-associated infection. Response to therapy and outcome was related to the underlying disease. While the literature suggests that patients with group C endocarditis respond better to synergistic penicillin-aminoglycoside regimens, patient numbers are too small to draw definite conclusions. The clinical significance of antibiotic tolerant group C streptococci remains uncertain. In patients with serious group C infections including endocarditis, meningitis, septic arthritis, or bacteremia in neutropenic hosts, we advocate the initial use of cell-wall-acting agents in combination with an aminoglycoside.

  16. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T. N.; Goyal, K. P.

    1984-12-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the United States, and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of up to 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up to 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand, that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy, and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. In this paper, observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence, and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant thermal mechanisms. Finally, although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  17. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Goyal, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the U.S. and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of upto 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up t o 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant therma mechanisms. Although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  18. Freezing Rate Due to Heterogeneous Nucleation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vali, Gabor

    1994-07-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of ice from supercooled water is influenced by the nature of the foreign nuclei that serve as the sites for ice embryo formation, and by the stochastic nature of the process of embryo growth to critical size. The relative roles of these two factors have been the subject of some debate, especially as they influence the way nucleation of ice is modeled in clouds. `Freezing rate' is defined as the time-dependent rate at which a population of macroscopically identical samples (e.g., drops in a volume of air) freeze due to the nuclei contained in them. Freezing rate is the combined result of nucleus content and of time dependence. The time-dependent freezing rate model (TDFR) is consistent with available empirical evidence. For droplets cooled at rates of the order of 1°C per min, the nucleus content, or nucleus spectrum, predicts the freezing rate with reasonable accuracy. For samples exposed to a fixed temperature, the time dependence of the freezing rate becomes important, but the probability of freezing is not the same for each individual of the sample population. Stochastic models are not supported by the results. Application of the TDFR model and use of measured freezing nucleus data for precipitation provide a basis for the description of ice formation via immersion-freezing nucleation in cloud models. Limitations to full development of these models arise from inadequate knowledge about the freezing nucleus content of cloud water as a function of cloud evolution.

  19. [Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:D100-8) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2013-12-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need.