Science.gov

Sample records for additional supporting materials

  1. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  2. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  3. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  4. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. ATS materials support

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Holcomb, R.S.; Rawlins, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-base gas turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. The materials manufacturing subelement was developed with input from gas turbine manufacturers, material suppliers, government laboratories and universities. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single-crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization and technology information exchange. Westinghouse Power Generation and Pratt and Whitney each have material programs to develop dependable TBCs that enable increased turbine inlet temperatures while maintaining airfoil substrate temperatures at levels to meet the ATS life goals. Howmet and PCC Airfoils each have projects to extend the capability of single-crystal complex-cored airfoil technology to larger sizes so that higher turbine inlet temperatures can be attained in land-based turbines in a cost-effective manner. Materials characterization tasks are ongoing on TBCs in support of the industrial projects. In addition, a project on long-term testing of ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites for gas turbines is being conducted in support of programs at Solar Turbines, Allison Engines, and Westinghouse Power Generation.

  7. Materials support for HITAF

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Parten, R.J.; Lin, H.T.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to compare structural ceramic materials proposed for use in the air heater of a coal fired high temperature furnace (HITAF) for power generation. This new generation of coal fired power plants with increased efficiency, fewer emissions and lower costs are currently being developed under the Combustion 2000 program funded by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Large improvements in efficiencies will require a change to combined cycles that employ gas turbines and steam turbines (Brayton Cycle) instead of exclusive reliance on steam turbines. Extremely high temperature working fluid is required to boost the efficiency, and the result is that the power plant sub-systems will be exposed to much more corrosive environments than in the present systems. The uses of ceramic heat exchangers are being investigated for those new power plants because of the potential for producing a clean, hot working fluid for the gas turbine.

  8. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  9. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  10. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  11. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  12. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  13. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  14. Infrared Database for Process Support Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Boothe, R. E.; Burns, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Process support materials' compatibility with cleaning processes is critical to ensure final hardware cleanliness and that performance requirements are met. Previous discovery of potential contaminants in process materials shows the need for incoming materials testing and establishment of a process materials database. The Contamination Control Team of the Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing (MP&M) Department at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated the development of such an infrared (IR) database, called the MSFC Process Materials IR database, of the common process support materials used at MSFC. These process support materials include solvents, wiper cloths, gloves, bagging materials, etc. Testing includes evaluation of the potential of gloves, wiper cloths, and other items to transfer contamination to handled articles in the absence of solvent exposure, and the potential for solvent exposure to induce material degradation. This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the initial testing completed through December 2002. It is anticipated that additional testing will be conducted with updates provided in future TMs.Materials were analyzed using two different IR techniques: (1) Dry transference and (2) liquid extraction testing. The first of these techniques utilized the Nicolet Magna 750 IR spectrometer outfitted with a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) crystal accessory. The region from 650 to 4,000 wave numbers was analyzed, and 50 scans were performed per IR spectrum. A dry transference test was conducted by applying each sample with hand pressure to the HATR crystal to first obtain a spectrum of the parent material. The material was then removed from the HATR crystal and analyzed to determine the presence of any residues. If volatile, liquid samples were examined both prior to and following evaporation.The second technique was to perform an extraction test with each sample in five different solvents.Once the scans were complete for

  15. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  16. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  17. Approaches to Dispute Resolution in Additional Support Needs in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004 aimed, among other things, to increase parents' rights in relation to the education of their children. In addition to the creation of the Additional Supports Needs Tribunals for Scotland, parents were given new rights to challenge local authority decisions through mediation and…

  18. Additional Material Related to Child Care Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    Material relating to Child Care Legislation is provided. The material concerns the following: (1) Provisions of H.R. 1 relating to child care: Opportunities for families program; Family assistance plan; (2) Excerpts from House report on H.R. 1 relating to child care: Provision of child care by Department of Labor; Exclusion of child care expenses…

  19. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; French, David M.; Hayden, Steven C.

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with themore » exception of polycarbonate).« less

  20. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  1. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  2. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  3. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  4. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication.

  5. Longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials (CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999b), and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials.

  6. Materials processing in space program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Activities in support of NASA's Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program are reported. The overall task of the MPS project support contract was to provide the organization and administration of colloquiums, science reviews, workshops, technical meetings, bibliographic services, and visiting scientist programs. The research objectives and accomplishments of the University Space Research Association visiting scientist team are also summarized.

  7. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    D. Tang

    2000-01-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

  8. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, David H.

    2001-05-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors

  9. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  10. Material Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRCs Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  11. Materials Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRC's Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  12. Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Salem, Ayman; Beuth, Jack; Harrysson, Ola; Lewandowski, John J.

    2016-03-01

    This overview highlights some of the key aspects regarding materials qualification needs across the additive manufacturing (AM) spectrum. AM technology has experienced considerable publicity and growth in the past few years with many successful insertions for non-mission-critical applications. However, to meet the full potential that AM has to offer, especially for flight-critical components (e.g., rotating parts, fracture-critical parts, etc.), qualification and certification efforts are necessary. While development of qualification standards will address some of these needs, this overview outlines some of the other key areas that will need to be considered in the qualification path, including various process-, microstructure-, and fracture-modeling activities in addition to integrating these with lifing activities targeting specific components. Ongoing work in the Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Reliability Center at Case Western Reserve University is focusing on fracture and fatigue testing to rapidly assess critical mechanical properties of some titanium alloys before and after post-processing, in addition to conducting nondestructive testing/evaluation using micro-computerized tomography at General Electric. Process mapping studies are being conducted at Carnegie Mellon University while large area microstructure characterization and informatics (EBSD and BSE) analyses are being conducted at Materials Resources LLC to enable future integration of these efforts via an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to AM. Possible future pathways for materials qualification are provided.

  13. Mechanical characterisation of additively manufactured material having lattice microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuan-Urquizo, E.; Yang, S.; Bhaskar, A.

    2015-02-01

    Many natural and engineered structures possess cellular and porous architecture. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterisation of additively manufactured lattice structures. The lattice consists of a stack of polylactic acid (PLA) filaments in a woodpile arrangement fabricated using a fused deposition modelling 3D printer. Some of the most promising applications of this 3D lattice material of this type include scaffolds for tissue engineering and the core for sandwich panels. While there is a significant body of work concerning the manufacture of such lattice materials, attempts to understand their mechanical properties are very limited. This paper brings together manufacturing with the need to understand the structure-property relationship for this class of materials. In order to understand the elastic response of the PLA-based lattice structures obtained from the fused deposition modelling process, single filaments manufactured using the same process were experimentally characterised first. The single PLA filaments were manufactured under different temperatures. These filaments were then characterised by using tensile testing. The stress-strain curves are presented. The variability of the measured results is discussed. The measured properties are then taken as input to a finite element model of the lattice material. This model uses simple one-dimensional elements in conjunction with a novel method achieving computational economy which precludes the use of fine meshes. Using this novel model, the apparent elastic modulus of lattice along the filaments has been obtained and is presented in this paper.

  14. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  15. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  16. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  17. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  18. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs

  19. Timing of Getter Material Addition in Cementitious Wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawter, A.; Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental immobilization technology for the Hanford sites's low activity waste (LAW), which contains radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. Cast Stone is made of a dry blend 47% blast furnace slag, 45% fly ash, and 8% ordinary Portland cement, mixed with a low-activity waste (LAW). To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to provide a stable domain for the radionuclides of concern. Previous testing conducted with a variety of getters has identified Tin(II)-Apatite and Silver Exchanged Zeolite as promising candidates for Tc and I, respectively. Investigation into the sequence in which getters are added to Cast Stone was performed following two methods: 1) adding getters to the Cast Stone dry blend, and then mixing with liquid waste, and 2) adding getters to the liquid waste first, followed by addition of the Cast Stone dry blend. Cast Stone monolith samples were prepared with each method and leach tests, following EPA method 1315, were conducted in either distilled water or simulated vadose zone porewater for a period of up to 63 days. The leachate was analyzed for Tc, I, Na, NO3-, NO2- and Cr with ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ion chromatography and the results indicated that the Cast Stone with getter addition in the dry blend mix (method 1) has lower rates of Tc and I leaching. The mechanisms of radionuclide release from the Cast Stone were also investigated with a variety of solid phase characterization techniques of the monoliths before and after leaching, such as XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED and other spectroscopic techniques.

  20. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  1. Repurposing Existing Material for Performance Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Francis A.; Nelson, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of performance support systems (PSS), describes their role in promoting productivity in agile organizations, and discusses issues related to developing effective performance support using existing orientation, training, or procedural manuals. Topics include strategic principles of agility, and adding value when incorporating…

  2. Growth of CZT using additionally zone-refined raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, David J.; Berghmans, Andre; Kahler, David; Wagner, Brian; King, Matthew; Mclaughlin, Sean; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; James, Ralph; Singh, Narsingh B.

    2012-10-01

    Results will be presented for the growth of CdZnTe by the low pressure Bridgman growth technique. To decrease deeplevel trapping and improve detector performance, high purity commercial raw materials will be further zone refined to reduce impurities. The purified materials will then be compounded into a charge for crystal growth. The crystals will be grown in the programmable multi-zone furnace (PMZF), which was designed and built at Northrop Grumman's Bethpage facility to grow CZT on Space Shuttle missions. Results of the purification and crystal growth will be presented as well as characterization of crystal quality and detector performance.

  3. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  4. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  5. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term supported housing includes facilities to provide temporary shelter to eligible individuals as well as...

  6. Additional Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Regions of Northwest Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenborg, Carolien B.; Nakken, H.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    One in 10 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) exhibits behaviors that represent a significant challenge to the people who support them. Parents and staff (such as direct support professionals) often are challenged in trying to find a solution to overcome or reduce these behaviors. A form of additional professional support (i.e., external…

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  9. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed. PMID:26411443

  10. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  11. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  12. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  13. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  14. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  15. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  16. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  17. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  18. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  19. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  20. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  1. Supported metal nanoparticles on porous materials. Methods and applications.

    PubMed

    White, Robin J; Luque, Rafael; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Clark, James H; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2009-02-01

    Nanoparticles are regarded as a major step forward to achieving the miniaturisation and nanoscaling effects and properties that have been utilised by nature for millions of years. The chemist is no longer observing and describing the behaviour of matter but is now able to manipulate and produce new types of materials with specific desired physicochemical characteristics. Such materials are receiving extensive attention across a broad range of research disciplines. The fusion between nanoparticle and nanoporous materials technology represents one of the most interesting of these rapidly expanding areas. The harnessing of nanoscale activity and selectivity, potentially provides extremely efficient catalytic materials for the production of commodity chemicals, and energy needed for a future sustainable society. In this tutorial review, we present an introduction to the field of supported metal nanoparticles (SMNPs) on porous materials, focusing on their preparation and applications in different areas. PMID:19169462

  2. Review of the Additional Support for Learning Act: "Adding Benefits for Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the Minister for Children and Early Years, gave a commitment to Parliament to establish a working group to report on how the "Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004" (the Act) is affecting children and young people who: (1) are looked after; (2) are young carers; (3) have mental health disorders; and (4) have…

  3. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placement in permanent housing or in a living environment appropriate to his or her health and social needs... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  4. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  6. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  7. 15 CFR 930.127 - Briefs and supporting materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefs and supporting materials. 930... for Review Related to the Objectives of the Act and National Security Interests § 930.127 Briefs and... appellant shall submit to the Secretary its principal brief accompanied by the appendix described...

  8. Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems.

    PubMed

    Obenhuber, D C; Folsome, C E

    1988-01-01

    Materially closed microbial ecosystems represent model life support systems for the future human habitation of space. These ecosystems when subjected to a constant energy flux seem to be reliable and self-sufficient systems for recycling of biologically produced carbon compounds.

  9. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial, material, or technological support. 548.313 Section 548.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 548.313 - Financial, material, or technological support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial, material, or technological support. 548.313 Section 548.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  11. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  12. Development of Novel Supported Gold Catalysts: A Materials Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Ma, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Since Haruta et al. discovered that small gold nanoparticles finely dispersed on certain metal oxide supports can exhibit surprisingly high activity in CO oxidation below room temperature, heterogeneous catalysis by supported gold nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention. The majority of publications deal with the preparation and characterization of conventional gold catalysts (e.g., Au/TiO{sub 2}), the use of gold catalysts in various catalytic reactions, as well as elucidation of the nature of the active sites and reaction mechanisms. In this overview, we highlight the development of novel supported gold catalysts from a materials perspective. Examples, mostly from those reported by our group, are given concerning the development of simple gold catalysts with single metal-support interfaces and heterostructured gold catalysts with complicated interfacial structures. Catalysts in the first category include active Au/SiO{sub 2} and Au/metal phosphate catalysts, and those in the second category include catalysts prepared by pre-modification of supports before loading gold, by post-modification of supported gold catalysts, or by simultaneous dispersion of gold and an inorganic component onto a support. CO oxidation has generally been employed as a probe reaction to screen the activities of these catalysts. These novel gold catalysts not only provide possibilities for applied catalysis, but also furnish grounds for fundamental research.

  13. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  14. Material transfer system in support of the plutonium immobilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, D

    2000-12-20

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program requires development of the process and plant prototypic equipment to immobilize surplus plutonium in ceramic for long-term storage. Because of the hazardous nature of plutonium, it was necessary to develop a remotely operable materials transfer system which can function within the confines of a glovebox. In support of this work at LLNL, such a material transfer system (MTS) was developed. This paper presents both the mechanical and controls parts making up this system, and includes photographs of the key components and diagrams of their assemblies, as well as a description of the control sequence used to validate the MTS capabilities.

  15. Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, D. C.; Folsome, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results of studies are presented of materially closed energetically open microbial ecosystems or 'closed ecosystems'. These are natural marine ecosystems that have been sealed in glass containers to prevent material exchange with the environment but allow energy to pass freely through them. They represent model life support systems for the future human habitation of space. The results are discussed analytically and indicate that these ecosystems, when subjected to a constant energy flux, seem to be reliable and self-sufficient systems for recycling of biologically produced carbon compounds.

  16. Children's Recall and Motivation for an Environmental Education Video with Supporting Pedagogical Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This study examined recall (Rcl) differences of high, average and low achieving fifth-grade elementary students (72) for an environmental education video with supporting pedagogical materials. In addition, it assessed the motivational level of all students. Recall assessment was carried out one-week and twenty-weeks after intervention. Main…

  17. A Support Program for English as an Additional Language Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the most diverse countries in the world. To provide meaningful health care, the Canadian health care system requires nursing health care teams reflecting this diversity. Meeting this demand should be a specific goal of Canadian nursing schools. Nursing students with English as an Additional Language (EALs) are graduating and passing national licencing exams at a lower rate than nursing students whose first language is English. It is the premise of the article that EALs require both academic and nonacademic forms of support during their years of nursing education. A literature review reveals that EALs facing academic crisis benefit from individual and group English language support, aimed at improving their understanding and use of English in an academic environment. Studies also suggest that group sessions help improve EALs' psychosocial functioning. This article provides an overview of the establishment and implementation of a proactive nursing support program, purposely designed to address the challenges faced by EALs. PMID:25288563

  18. Report on the Implementation of the Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…

  19. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  20. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  1. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  2. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  3. Postural control in response to a perturbation: role of vision and additional support.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Vennila, Krishnan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the availability of vision and additional support on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments and their interaction. Eight healthy adults were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing with and without holding onto a walker in full vision and while blindfolded. Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COPAP) displacement were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APA and CPA. The results showed that with full vision, there was no difference in both APA and CPA in standing with and without holding onto a walker. With subjects holding onto a walker, CPA in standing blindfolded were comparable to CPA in full vision; this was seen in changes in the electrical activity of most of the muscles at the individual muscle, joint, and the muscle group levels as well as in COPAP displacement. The findings suggest that (1) in conditions where vision is available, vision overrules simultaneously available proprioceptive information from the support, (2) while in conditions where vision is not available, proprioceptive information from the support or support itself could be substituted for vision. It is possible to suggest that using a non-stabilizing support could be a valuable strategy to improve postural control when visual information is not available or compromised.

  4. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  5. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  6. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  7. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  8. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  9. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC...

  10. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  11. 12 CFR 367.15 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facts. 367.15 Section 367.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil... facts material to the proposed suspension and/or exclusion, the contractor shall be afforded...

  12. 12 CFR 367.15 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... facts. 367.15 Section 367.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil... facts material to the proposed suspension and/or exclusion, the contractor shall be afforded...

  13. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    PubMed

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the reduction of 0.2 log unit on belt material without additives. Reductions were significantly less (P<0.05) in the presence of food residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. PMID:20655607

  14. Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook establishes NASA program requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials to preclude unsafe conditions related to flammability, odor, offgassing, and fluid compatibility. Materials intended for use in space vehicles, specified test facilities, and specified ground support equipment (GSE) must meet the requirements of this document. Additional materials performance requirements may be specified in other program or NASA center specific documentation. Responsible NASA centers materials organizations must include applicable requirements of this document in their materials control programs. Materials used in habitable areas of spacecraft, including the materials of the spacecraft, stowed equipment, and experiments, must be evaluated for flammability, odor, and offgassing characteristics. All materials used in other areas must be evaluated for flammability characteristics. In addition, materials that are exposed to liquid oxygen (LOX), gaseous oxygen (GOX), and other reactive fluids' must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid in their use application. Materials exposed to pressurized breathing gases also must be evaluated for odor and offgassing characteristics. The worst-case anticipated use environment (most hazardous pressure, temperature, material thickness, and fluid exposure conditions) must be used in the evaluation process. Materials that have been shown to meet the criteria of the required tests are acceptable for further consideration in design. Whenever possible, materials should be selected that have already been shown to meet the test criteria in the use environment. Existing test data are compiled in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) and published periodically as the latest revision of a joint document with Johnson Space Center (JSC), MSFC-HDBK-527/JSC 09604. MAPTIS can be accessed by computer datalink. Systems containing materials that have not

  15. Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, Andrew R.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2012-08-14

    A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

  16. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Schmid, P; Hean, S; Lamani, X; Bester, K; Boller, M

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol 1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  17. Recycling of fly ash for preparing porous mullite membrane supports with titania addition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Zhou, Jian-er; Lin, Bin; Ji, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Guangyao

    2010-08-15

    In order to effectively utilize industrial waste fly ash, porous mullite ceramic membrane supports were prepared from fly ash and calcined bauxite with chemically pure titania as sintering additive. The effects of TiO(2) on the sintering behaviors and main properties of porous mullite were studied in detail. Due to the addition of titania, the sintering of the flyash-based mullite was inhibited at low temperatures, but effectively improved at high temperatures, the latter is suitable for preparing porous mullite membrane supports by incomplete sintering. Titania entered into liquid glassy phase with low high-temperature viscosity during sintering, resulting in the improvement of sintering activity, as well as the lowering of secondary mullitization temperature (where 2.0% titania). Between 1300 and 1500 degrees C, with increasing titania content, the samples exhibit increased trends in both linear shrinkage percent and bulk density, but a slightly decreased trend in open porosity, at all sintering temperatures. At 1300-1500 degrees C, the samples sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2h exhibit the lowest shrinkage and bulk density, as well as the highest open porosities in the investigated titania content range of 0-6.0 wt.%. Also, with increasing titania content, the pore size decreases slightly but the three-point flexural strength increases gradually at 1450 degrees C.

  18. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  19. Clay-supported graphene materials: application to hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Cristina; Pérez-Carvajal, Javier; Berenguer-Murcia, Angel; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Cazorla-Amorós, Diego; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2013-11-14

    The present work refers to clay-graphene nanomaterials prepared by a green way using caramel from sucrose and two types of natural clays (montmorillonite and sepiolite) as precursors, with the aim of evaluating their potential use in hydrogen storage. The impregnation of the clay substrates by caramel in aqueous media, followed by a thermal treatment in the absence of oxygen of these clay-caramel intermediates gives rise to graphene-like materials, which remain strongly bound to the silicate support. The nature of the resulting materials was characterized by different techniques such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TEM, as well as by adsorption isotherms of N2, CO2 and H2O. These carbon-clay nanocomposites can act as adsorbents for hydrogen storage, achieving, at 298 K and 20 MPa, over 0.1 wt% of hydrogen adsorption excess related to the total mass of the system, and a maximum value close to 0.4 wt% of hydrogen specifically related to the carbon mass. The very high isosteric heat for hydrogen sorption determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures (14.5 kJ mol(-1)) fits well with the theoretical values available for hydrogen storage on materials that show a strong stabilization of the H2 molecule upon adsorption.

  20. Using Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Preservice Elementary Teachers' Curricular Planning: A Comparison between Two Different Forms of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Educative curriculum materials--materials designed to promote both teacher and student learning--may help novice teachers learn how to engage in productive curricular planning. However, little is known about how educative supports within these materials should be written to best support teachers. This quasi-experimental study examines the…

  1. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  2. Material need support interventions for diabetes prevention and control: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Lily S; Wexler, Deborah J; DeWalt, Darren; Berkowitz, Seth A

    2015-02-01

    Unmet material needs, such as food insecurity and housing instability, are associated with increased risk of diabetes and worse outcomes among diabetes patients. Healthcare delivery organizations are increasingly held accountable for health outcomes that may be related to these "social determinants," which are outside the scope of traditional medical intervention. This review summarizes the current literature regarding interventions that provide material support for income, food, housing, and other basic needs. In addition, we propose a conceptual model of the relationship between unmet needs and diabetes outcomes and provide recommendations for future interventional research. PMID:25620406

  3. On the design of novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnigan, Ross Daniel

    This thesis has been organized into five chapters. The main focus of this thesis is to design novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives. Chapter 1 is devoted to reviewing recent studies in additive manufacturing (AM) and other background information. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of novel Ti3SiC2-reinforced Zn-matrix composites is reported. During this study, all the Zn composites were hot pressed at 500°C for 5 min at a uniaxial pressure of ~150 MPa. Microstructure analysis by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and phase analysis by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between Ti3SiC 2 particles and the Zn matrix. The addition of Ti3SiC 2 improved the tribological performance of these composites against alumina substrates but did not have any beneficial effect on the mechanical performance. The addition of Ti3SiC2 particulates to metal and polymer matrices show interesting properties. Chapter 3 will focus on additive manufacturing of Ti3SiC2 particulates in a polymer matrix. Waste materials are a big problem in the world. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on recycling materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of the Resin-Nylon and ResinPolyester composites are reported, respectively.

  4. Effect of vermicomposting on concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge with additive materials.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Zhang, Yaxin; Shen, Maocai; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Mucen; Li, Meirong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the total content and speciation of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by Eisenia fetida earthworm with different additive materials (soil, straw, fly ash and sawdust). Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon were reduced, while the electric conductivity and germination index increased after a combined composting - vermicomposting process. The addition of bulking agents accelerated the stabilization of sludge and eliminated its toxicity. The total heavy metals after vermicomposting in 10 scenarios were lowered as compared with the initial values and the control without amendment. BCR sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting significantly decreased the mobility of all heavy metals by increasing the residual fractions. The activity of earthworms and appropriate addition of amendment materials played a positive role in sequestering heavy metals during the treatment of sewage sludge. PMID:27434304

  5. Impact ignition of aluminum-teflon based energetic materials impregnated with nano-structured carbon additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappagantula, Keerti; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Hunt, Emily M.

    2012-07-01

    The inclusion of graphene into composite energetic materials to enhance their performance is a new area of interest. Studies have shown that the addition of graphene significantly enhances the thermal transport properties of an energetic composite, but how graphene influences the composite's ignition sensitivity has not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of carbon additives in composite energetic material composed of aluminum and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon™) on ignition sensitivity due to low velocity, drop weight impact. Specifically, three forms of carbon additives were investigated and selected based on different physical and structural properties: spherically shaped amorphous nano particles of carbon, cylindrically shaped multi walled carbon nanotubes, and sheet like graphene flakes. Results show an interesting trend: composites consisting of carbon nanotubes are significantly more sensitive to impact ignition and require the lowest ignition energy. In contrast, graphene is least sensitive to ignition exhibiting negligible reduction in ignition energy with low concentrations of graphene additive. While graphene does not significantly sensitize the energetic composite to ignition, graphene does, however, result in greater overall reactivity as observed through images of the reaction. The enhanced thermal transport properties of graphene containing composites may promote greater energy transport once ignited, but those properties do not also increase ignition sensitivity. These results and the understanding of the structural arrangement of particles within a composite as a key parameter affecting impact ignition sensitivity will have an impact on the safe handling and use of composite energetic materials.

  6. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  7. Pyramidal Fin Arrays Performance Using Streamwise Anisotropic Materials by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of pyramidal fin arrays produced using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Near-net-shaped pyramidal fin arrays of pure aluminum, pure nickel, and stainless steel 304 were manufactured. Fin array characterization such as fin porosity level and surface roughness evaluation was performed. The thermal conductivities of the three different coating materials were measured by laser flash analysis. The results obtained show a lower thermal efficiency for stainless steel 304, whereas the performances of the aluminum and nickel fin arrays are similar. This result is explained by looking closely at the fin and substrate roughness induced by the cold gas dynamic additive manufacturing process. The multi-material fin array sample has a better thermal efficiency than stainless steel 304. The work demonstrates the potential of the process to produce streamwise anisotropic fin arrays as well as the benefits of such arrays.

  8. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  9. A comparison of dimensional accuracy between three different addition cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Forrester-Baker, L; Seymour, K G; Samarawickrama, D; Zou, L; Cherukara, G; Patel, M

    2005-06-01

    Ten impressions of a metal implant abutment were made with each of three addition-cured silicone impression materials. Using the technique of co-ordinate metrology, the shoulder region of the abutment and corresponding regions of both impressions and dies made from these impressions were scanned and measured. Comparison of these measurements indicated that the mean dimension measured from the shoulder region for each group of impression materials was significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. However, when these impressions were cast in a gypsum based die material, none of the measured dimensions taken from the casts were significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. Thus, any change in measured dimensions occurring during impression making, was compensated for in some way by the casting process. PMID:16011234

  10. Morphological and nanomechanical behavior of supported lipid bilayers on addition of cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lia M C; Giannotti, Marina I; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Sanz, Fausto

    2013-07-30

    The addition of surfactants to lipid bilayers is important for the modulation of lipid bilayer properties (e.g., in protein reconstitution and development of nonviral gene delivery vehicles) and to provide insight on the properties of natural biomembranes. In this work, the thermal behavior, organization, and nanomechanical stability of model cationic lipid-surfactant bilayers have been investigated. Two different cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and a novel derivative of the amino acid serine (Ser16TFAc), have been added (up to 50 mol %) to both liposomes and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) composed by the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. The thermal phase behavior of mixed liposomes has been probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the morphology and nanomechanical properties of mixed SLBs by atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS). Although DSC thermograms show different results for the two mixed liposomes, when both are deposited on mica substrates similar trends on the morphology and the mechanical response of the lipid-surfactant bilayers are observed. DSC thermograms indicate microdomain formation in both systems, but while CTAB decreases the degree of organization on the liposome bilayer, Ser16TFAc ultimately induces the opposite effect. Regarding the AFM-FS studies, they show that microphase segregation occurs for these systems and that the effect is dependent on the surfactant content. In both SLB systems, different microdomains characterized by their height and breakthrough force Fb are formed. The molecular organization and composition is critically discussed in the light of our experimental results and literature data on similar lipid-surfactant systems. PMID:23782267

  11. Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Rua, F; Lorino, H; Lemaire, F; Harf, A

    1991-11-01

    Breathing through an endotracheal tube and a demand valve may increase the work performed by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure support (PS) is known to reduce this work and might therefore compensate for this increased requirement. To test this hypothesis, we measured the work of breathing (WOB) in 11 patients whose tracheas were intubated. Five had no intrinsic lung disease, but six had chronic obstructive lung disease. We compared WOB measurements taken under several sets of conditions: during assisted breathing at four levels of PS, during unassisted breathing and connection to a T-piece, and after extubation of the trachea. During unassisted breathing via the ventilator circuit (PS set at 0 cmH20), the WOB per minute was greater than that after extubation, with a mean increase (+/- standard deviation) of 68 +/- 38% (10.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.01). While breathing through the T-piece, the WOB was 27 +/- 18% greater than after tracheal extubation (8.2 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.05). The principal reason why inspiratory work decreased after extubation was that the ventilatory requirement decreased. For each patient, we determined retrospectively, after extubation, the level of PS that had reduced WOB to its postextubation value and obtained levels ranging from 3.4 to 14.4 cmH2O. The PS level at which additional WOB was compensated for, was greater in patients with chronic lung disease than in those free of lung disease (12.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 5.7 +/- 1.5 cm H2O, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Aging effects on fire-retardant additives in organic materials for nuclear-plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    Inhibiting fire is a major concern of nuclear safety. One of the most widely used commercial fire-retardant additives incorporated into cable insulation and other organic materials to reduce their flammability has been the halocarbon (usually a chlorinated hydrocarbon), typically in combination with antimony oxide. Such materials may be installed for the design lifetime of a nuclear plant; this report describes an investigation of the long-term aging behavior of these fire-retardant additives in polymeric materials. Extensive aging experiments on fire-retarded formulations of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) have been carried out, with chemical analysis of halogen and antimony content performed as a function of aging time and conditions. Oxygen index flammability measurements were also performed on selected samples. Significant fire-retardant losses (both chlorine (Cl) and antimony (Sb)) were found to occur in certain of the fire-retardant materials but not in others, depending on the molecular structure of the particular halogen-containing component. The data indicate that the loss of halogen- and antimony-based fire retardants appears to be insignificant under ambient conditions expected for nuclear plants.

  13. Porous hollow carbon spheres for electrode material of supercapacitors and support material of dendritic Pt electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang; Liu, Pei-Fang; Huang, Zhong-Yuan; Jiang, Tong-Wu; Yao, Kai-Li; Han, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Porous hollow carbon spheres (PHCSs) are prepared through hydrothermal carbonization of alginic acid and subsequent chemical activation by KOH. The porosity of the alginic acid derived PHCSs can be finely modulated by varying activation temperature in the range of 600-900 °C. The PHCSs activated at 900 °C possess the largest specific surface area (2421 m2 g-1), well-balanced micro- and mesoporosity, as well as high content of oxygen-containing functional groups. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, the PHCSs exhibit superior capacitive performance with specific capacitance of 314 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1. Pt nanodendrites supported on the PHCSs are synthesized by polyol reduction method which exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Moreover, CO-poisoning tolerance of the Pt nanodendrites is greatly enhanced owing to the surface chemical property of the PHCSs support.

  14. Analysis of negative material supported helix slow wave structure for traveling-wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, N.; Srivastava, V.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the effect of negative materials used as support structures for helix travelling wave tubes (TWTs). Analysis is carried out with materials having negative permittivity or negative permeability and compared with the positive dielectric support materials. The work attempts to focus on the dispersion relation and interaction impedance as a measure to check for the feasibility of using negative materials in TWT.

  15. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  16. Gold nanocatalysts supported on heterostructured PbSO4-MCF mesoporous materials for CO oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Tian, Chengcheng; Chai, Songhai; Binder, Andrew J; Brown, Suree; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Metal oxides are commonly used as the supports of gold nanoparticles for catalytic CO oxidation, whereas metal salts are rarely considered suitable supports. In the present work, we developed a new kind of gold nanocatalyst supported on heterostructured PbSO4-MCF mesoporous materials that was prepared by an in situ growth method using dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SOBS) as a sulfonate precursor. It was found that an Au/PbSO4-MCF (SDBS) catalyst preheated at 300 degrees C showed high CO conversion below 100 degrees C. In addition, the stability of selected catalysts was studied as a function of time on stream. Because of the alteration of surface properties, these Au nanocatalysts were highly sinter-resistant. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  18. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  19. How Good Are We at Implementing the Additional Support for Learning Act? How Good Can We Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…

  20. Supported Intrinsically Porous Oligomers as Hybrid Materials for Separations, Storage, and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anthony Boone

    Adsorption-desorption phenomena are often difficult to study at the molecular level because the surfaces on which they occur can be heterogeneous, giving a wide distribution of adsorption sites and associated energies. Considering that these phenomena underlie an incredibly wide variety of industrially important processes, a better understanding could aid in the development of more efficient methods. In this work, we describe an approach to designing materials with well-defined adsorption sites by covalently attaching intrinsically porous molecules to solid surfaces by a rigid multidentate linker. These cup-shaped molecules are intended to act as adsorption sites on the material, whereas the rigid attachment to the solid support serves to prevent movement and conformational changes of the sites, leading to better understanding of adsorption phenomena. As a proof-of-concept application, materials were used for adsorption of n-butanol biofuel and related compounds from dilute aqueous solution. The materials were thermally and hydrolytically stable, and adsorption phenomena were reversible. Adsorption sites containing more hydrophobic molecular area led to stronger adsorption, suggesting that it is driven by weak van der Waals forces. Likewise, adsorption sites that were strongly polarized performed poorly, possibly reflecting a greater energy penalty of removing water molecules from the cavity. Upon placing a Lewis acidic metal at the bottom of the cavity, an enhancement was seen only with the most acidic metal, which may indicate weak guest coordination. Observing that hydrophobic interactions dominate adsorption on these materials, efforts were made to develop hybrid materials with large hydrophobic area for adsorption. Glaser coupling of diethynylbenzene was used to grow oligo(phenylene butadiynylene)s from the surface of silica, resulting in materials that were more than 25% organic by weight. In addition to their potential use as adsorbents, these materials may

  1. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  2. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  3. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  4. Comparative study of dimensional accuracy of different impression techniques using addition silicone impression material.

    PubMed

    Penaflor, C F; Semacio, R C; De Las Alas, L T; Uy, H G

    1998-01-01

    This study compared dimensional accuracy of the single, double with spacer, double with cut-out and double mix impression technique using addition silicone impression material. A typhodont containing Ivorine teeth model with six (6) full-crown tooth preparations were used as the positive control. Two stone replication models for each impression technique were made as test materials. Accuracy of the techniques were assessed by measuring four dimensions on the stone dies poured from the impression of the Ivorine teeth model. Results indicated that most of the measurements for the height, width and diameter slightly decreased and a few increased compared with the Ivorine teeth model. The double with cut-out and double mix technique presents the least difference from the master model as compared to the two latter impression techniques. PMID:10202524

  5. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  6. Macrocyclic cyclooctene-supported AlCl-salen catalysts for conjugated addition reactions: effect of linker and support structure on catalysis.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Nandita; Takatani, Tait; Sherrill, C David; Weck, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    AlCl-salen (salen=N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine dianion) catalysts supported onto macrocyclic oligomeric cyclooctene through linkers of varying length and flexibility have been developed to demonstrate the importance of support architecture on catalyst activity. The role played by the support and the linkers in dictating catalyst activity was found to vary for reactions with contrasting mechanisms, such as the bimetallic cyanide and the monometallic indole addition reactions. While the flexible support significantly enhanced the cyanide addition reaction, most likely by improving salen-salen interactions in the transition state, it lowered the reaction rate for the monometallic indole reaction. For both reactions, significant increase in catalytic activity was observed for catalysts with the longest linkers. The effect of the flexible macrocyclic support on catalysis was further exemplified by the enhanced activity of the supported catalyst in comparison with its unsupported analogue for the conjugate addition of tetrazoles, which is known to be catalyzed by dimeric mu-oxo-salen catalysts. Our studies with the cyclooctene supported AlCl-salen catalysts provides significant insights for rationally designing highly efficient AlCl-salen catalysts for a diverse set of reactions.

  7. Material transfer system in support of the plutonium immobilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, D

    2000-02-23

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project is currently undertaking formulation and process development to demonstrate the immobilization of surplus plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic. These ceramic forms will be encapsulated within canisters containing high level waste glass for geologic disposal. Process development work is being conducted with sub-scale, process prototypic equipment. Final validation of the process will be done using actual plutonium material and functionally prototypic equipment within a glovebox. Due to the radioactive nature of the material, remote material handling is necessary to reduce the radiation exposure to the operators. A remote operated Material Transfer System to interface with process equipment has been developed.

  8. Dielectric properties measurement of substrate and support materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a fast and straightforward waveguide measurement technique is described for the determination of the dielectric constant and loss tangent of many commercially available materials. These dielectric materials include Cuflon, Teflon, Arlon's polyimides, Lockheed's ceramic foams, and Rogers Duroid materials. The effective dielectric constant and loss tangent of Hexsel's honeycomb material is also measured by this method and is compared to the predicted data obtained using the volume averaging theory. The accuracy and other features of this measurement technique are also discussed.

  9. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  10. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  11. Carbon materials as additives to WO3 for an enhanced conversion of simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rocío; Velasco, Leticia; Laurenti, Enzo; Maurino, Valter; Ania, Conchi

    2016-02-01

    We have explored the impact of the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as additives to tungsten oxide on the photocatalytic degradation of two recalcitrant pollutants: rhodamine B and phenol, under simulated solar light. For this purpose, WO3/carbon mixtures were prepared using three carbon materials with different properties (in terms of porosity, structural order and surface chemistry). Despite the low carbon content used (2 wt. %), a significant increase in the photocatalytic performance of the semiconductor was observed for all the catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the carbon additive on the performance of the photocatalysts was found to be very different for the two pollutants. Carbon additives of hydrophobic nature increased the photodegradation yield of phenol compared to bare WO3, likely due to the higher affinity and stronger interactions of phenol molecules towards basic nanoporous carbons. Oppositely, the use of acidic carbon additives led to higher rhodamine B conversions due to increased acidity of the WO3/carbon mixtures and the stronger affinity of the pollutant for acidic catalyst’s surfaces. As a result, the photooxidation of rhodamine B is favored by means of a coupled (photosensitized and photocatalytic) degradation mechanism. All these results highlight the importance of favoring the interactions of the pollutant with the catalyst’s surface through a detailed design of the features of the photocatalyst.

  12. Support the Common Core with the Right Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Rachel; Udall, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strong instructional materials are crucial to realizing the promise of the Common Core State Standards. Research suggests that the choice of instructional materials can have an impact as large as or larger than the impact of teacher quality. Unfortunately, many popular textbooks are not aligned to the new standards, leaving educators scrambling.…

  13. In-situ materials processing systems and bioregenerative life support systems interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mignon, George V.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The synergy and linkages between bioregenerative life support systems and the materials produced by in-situ materials processing systems was investigated. Such systems produce a broad spectrum of byproducts such as oxygen, hydrogen, processed soil material, ceramics, refractory, and other materials. Some of these materials may be utilized by bioregenerative systems either directly or with minor modifications. The main focus of this project was to investigate how these materials can be utilized to assist a bioregenerative life support system. Clearly the need to provide a sustainable bioregenerative life support system for long term human habitation of space is significant.

  14. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  15. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Hopper, J. R.; Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Results for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells are presented. Analyses of process system properties are important for chemical materials involved in the several processes under consideration for semiconductor and solar cell grade silicon production. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon source and processing chemical materials.

  16. Development of magnetodielectric materials to be used in additive manufacturing processes for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Paul Emerson, II

    Electrical devices for very-high frequency (VHF, 0.03 -- 0.3 GHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 0.3 -- 3.0 GHz) are commonly used for communications. However, the wavelengths, lambda, of these frequency bands correspond to lengths between 10 and 0.1 m, resulting in prohibitively large devices. Materials with an index of refraction, n, greater than 1 can be used to effectively shrink these devices by a factor of 1/ n. In this thesis, magnetodielectric materials (MDM), where n ≥1, have been made to be used in additive manufacturing processes with strict particle size requirements and were developed using various methods, such as polyol reduction and conventional ceramic solid state processing. These materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), to determine their crystalline, physical, and direct current (DC) magnetization properties. The techniques used to synthesize the MDM yielded particles that were chemically similar, but had drastically different physical properties which heavily influences their high-frequency electromagnetic properties. These materials were then uniformly dispersed into a non-conducting medium, such as a low-electrical loss polymer or resin, and formed into composite samples with variable volumetric loading. These composite samples were measured using several techniques to characterize the frequency-dependent electromagnetic (EM) properties, such as relative permeability, relative permittivity, and their respective losses. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were performed using these MDM-composites to design a spiral antenna to be used at approximately 585 MHz.

  17. Mission and spacecraft support functions of the Materials Engineering Branch: A space oriented technology resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A.; Staugaitis, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) of the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, are surveyed. The specific functions of spacecraft materials review, materials processing and information dissemination, and laboratory support, are outlined in the Activity Report. Further detail is provided by case histories of laboratory satellite support and equipment. Project support statistics are shown, and complete listings of MEB publications, patents, and tech briefs are included. MEB staff, and their respective discipline areas and spacecraft liaison associations, are listed.

  18. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    During this reporting period, major activies were devoted to process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses. Analyses of process system properties was continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for silicon tetrafluoride: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of varporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analysis of the BCL process was continued with primary efforts being devoted to the preliminary process design. Status and progress are reported for base case conditions; process flow diagram; reaction chemistry; material and energy balances; and major process equipment design.

  19. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  20. Research Opportunities Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration from the Transformation of the Former Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Szofran, Frank; Bassler, Julie A.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Cook, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Program established a strong research capability through partnerships between NASA and the scientific research community. With the announcement of the vision for space exploration, additional emphasis in strategic materials science areas was necessary. The President's Commission recognized that achieving its exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as "enabling technologies." Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were: advanced structures, advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity systems; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis, biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. Mission success may depend upon use of local resources to fabricate a replacement part to repair a critical system. Future propulsion systems will require materials with a wide range of mechanical, thermophysical, and thermochemical properties, many of them well beyond capabilities of today's materials systems. Materials challenges have also been identified by experts working to develop advanced life support systems. In responding to the vision for space exploration, the Microgravity Materials Science Program aggressively transformed its research portfolio and focused materials science areas of emphasis to include space radiation shielding; in situ fabrication and repair for life support systems; in situ resource utilization for life support consumables; and advanced materials for exploration, including materials science for space propulsion systems and for life support systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the scientific community of these new research directions and opportunities to utilize their materials science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  1. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  2. Additive-free thick graphene film as an anode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Kuldeep; Kim, Seong Dae; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This work demonstrates a simple route to develop mechanically flexible electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) that are usable as lightweight effective conducting networks for both cathodes and anodes. Removing electrochemically dead elements, such as binders, conducting agents and metallic current collectors, from the battery components will allow remarkable progress in this area. To investigate the feasibility of using thick, additive-free graphene films as anodes for flexible LIBs, we have synthesized and tested thick, additive-free, freestanding graphene films as anodes, first in a coin cell and further in a flexible full cell. As an anode material in a half cell, it showed a discharge capacity of about 350 mA h g-1 and maintained nearly this capacity over 50 cycles at various current rates. This film was also tested as an anode material in a full cell with a LiCoO2 cathode and showed good electrochemical performance. Because the graphene-based flexible film showed good performance in half- and full coin cells, we used this film as a flexible anode for flexible LIBs. No conducting agent or binder was used in the anode side, which helped in realizing the flexible LIBs. Using this, we demonstrate a thin, lightweight and flexible lithium ion battery with good electrochemical performance in both its flat and bent states.This work demonstrates a simple route to develop mechanically flexible electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) that are usable as lightweight effective conducting networks for both cathodes and anodes. Removing electrochemically dead elements, such as binders, conducting agents and metallic current collectors, from the battery components will allow remarkable progress in this area. To investigate the feasibility of using thick, additive-free graphene films as anodes for flexible LIBs, we have synthesized and tested thick, additive-free, freestanding graphene films as anodes, first in a coin cell and further in a flexible full cell. As an anode

  3. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  4. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGES

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  5. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  6. Passive vibration control in rotor dynamics: Optimization of composed support using viscoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Afonso; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás; Alberto Bavastri, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    One of the major reasons for inserting damping into bearings is that rotating machines are often requested in critical functioning conditions having sometimes to function under dynamic instability or close to critical speeds. Hydrodynamic and magnetic bearings have usually been used for this purpose, but they present limitations regarding costs and operation, rendering the use of viscoelastic supports a feasible solution for vibration control in rotating machines. Most papers in the area use simple analytic or single degree of freedom models for the rotor as well as classic mechanical models of linear viscoelasticity for the support - like Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Zenner, four-element, GHM models and even frequency independent models - but they lack the accuracy of fractional models in a large range of frequency and temperature regarding the same number of coefficients. Even in those works, the need to consider the addition of degrees of freedom to the support is evident. However, so far no paper has been published focusing on a methodology to determine the optimal constructive form for any viscoelastic support in which the rotor is discretized by finite elements associated to an accurate model for characterizing the viscoelastic material. In general, the support is meant to be a simple isolation system, and the fact the stiffness matrix is complex and frequency-temperature dependent - due to its viscoelastic properties - forces the traditional methods to require an extremely long computing time, thus rendering them too time consuming in an optimization environment. The present work presents a robust methodology based mainly on generalized equivalent parameters (GEP) - for an optimal design of viscoelastic supports for rotating machinery - aiming at minimizing the unbalance frequency response of the system using a hybrid optimization technique (genetic algorithms and Nelder-Mead method). The rotor is modeled based on the finite element method using Timoshenko's thick

  7. Physics of Granular Materials: Investigations in Support of Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.

    2002-01-01

    This publication list is submitted as a summary of the work conducted under Cooperative Agreement 1120. The goal of the 1120 research was to study granular materials within a planetary, astrophysical, and astrobiological context. This involved research on the physical, mechanical and electrostatic properties of granular systems, as well as the examination of these materials with atomic force microscopy and x-ray analysis. Instruments for analyzing said materials in planetary environments were developed, including the MECA (Mars Environment Compatibility Assessment) experiment for the MSP '01 lander, the ECHOS/MATADOR experiment for the MSP '03 lander, an ISRU experiment for the '03 lander, and MiniLEAP technology. Flight experiments for microgravity (Space Station and Shuttle) have also been developed for the study of granular materials. As expressed in the publications, work on 1120 encompassed laboratory research, theoretical modeling, field experiments, and flight experiments: a series of successful new models were developed for understanding the behavior of triboelectrostatically charged granular masses, and 4 separate instruments were selected for space flight. No inventions or patents were generated by the research under this Agreement.

  8. Information Support for Using Open Learning Materials within Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Stephen M.; Davies, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed are some current trends in engineering education in the UK, particularly those toward open and distance learning. A case study is provided that shows a recent move to develop relevant and up-to-date course materials in the area of Advanced Manufacturing Technology for undergraduates through collaboration between academic and library…

  9. Develop Improved Materials to Support the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael C. Martin

    2012-07-18

    The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) solicited and funded hydrogen infrastructure related projects that have a near term potential for commercialization. The subject technology of each project is related to the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals as outlined in the multi-year plan titled, 'Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan.' Preference was given to cross cutting materials development projects that might lead to the establishment of manufacturing capability and job creation. The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) used the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals to find and fund projects with near term commercialization potential. An RFP process aligned with this plan required performance based objectives with go/no-go technology based milestones. Protocols established for this program consisted of a RFP solicitation process, white papers and proposals with peer technology and commercialization review (including DoE), EMTEC project negotiation and definition and DoE cost share approval. Our RFP approach specified proposals/projects for hydrogen production, hydrogen storage or hydrogen infrastructure processing which may include sensor, separator, compression, maintenance, or delivery technologies. EMTEC was especially alert for projects in the appropriate subject area that have cross cutting materials technology with near term manufacturing and commercialization opportunities.

  10. Microanalytical Efforts in Support of NASA's Materials Science Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2004-01-01

    Following a brief overview of NASA s Microgravity Materials Science programs, specific examples will be given showing electron beam and optical microscopic applications to two-phase glass structures, dendrite tip radii, solid solution semiconductors, undercooled two-phase stainless steels and meteorites.

  11. Action Research to Support Teachers' Classroom Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. [1975]. "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…

  12. Materials support for HITAF. Final report for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1995-03-01

    Improvements in coal-fired systems will require a change from steam turbines to gas turbines using air as working fluid; pressurized ceramic heat exchangers operating up to 1600 C will be needed. Leading candidate materials are SiC-based ceramics. Mechanical properties of 3 materials are compared in this work: NT230 Si/SiC from Saint Gobain Norton, {beta}-SiC from Coors Ceramics Co., and Lanxide DIMOX SiCp/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from Du Pont Lanxide Composites Inc. The first material is siliconized Si carbide, the second is sintered. They all were tested in 4-point flexure at RT and 1100 and 1400 C. Fast-fracture tests were carried out. Slow crack growth was investigated. Failure modes were studied using optical microscopy and SEM. Four materials were exposed to two coal ashes at two different temperatures. In the comparison, Coors {beta}-SiC stands out from a strength and reliability standpoint when exposed to air at high temperatures. Lanxide DIMOX withstood coal ash exposure well.

  13. Stabilization of solid-supported phospholipid multilayer against water by gramicidin addition.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Bae; Kim, Yongdeok; An, Hyeun Hwan; Kim, Hee-Soo; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2014-03-20

    It was demonstrated that hydrophobicity of solid supported planar dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) phospholipid multilayer can be greatly increased by incorporating a transmembrane protein, gramicidin, into the DPPC membrane. The contact angle of deionized water droplet on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane increased from 0° (complete wetting) without gramicidin to 55° after adding 15 mol % gramicidin. The increased hydrophobicity of the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane allowed the membrane to remain stable at the air/water interface as well as underwater. The Au nanoparticles deposited on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane reproduced the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak after being kept underwater or in phosphate-buffered saline solution for 5 days, attesting to the membrane stability in an aqueous environment. The enhanced underwater stability of the lipid multilayer substantially broadens the potential application of the lipid multilayer which includes biosensing, enzymatic fuel cell, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate.

  14. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin. PMID:23127224

  15. Enhancement of elemental mercury adsorption by silver supported material.

    PubMed

    Khunphonoi, Rattabal; Khamdahsag, Pummarin; Chiarakorn, Siriluk; Grisdanurak, Nurak; Paerungruang, Adjana; Predapitakkun, Somrudee

    2015-06-01

    Mercury, generally found in natural gas, is extremely hazardous. Although average mercury levels are relatively low, they are further reduced to comply with future mercury regulations, which are stringent in order to avoid releasing to the environment. Herein, vapor mercury adsorption was therefore investigated using two kinds of supports, granular activated carbon (GAC) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Both supports were impregnated by silver (5 and 15 wt.%), before testing against a commercial adsorbent (sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, SAC). The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and its thermodynamics of mercury adsorption were reported. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit to the experimental data. Pseudo second-order was applicable to describe adsorption kinetics. The higher uniform Ag dispersion was a key factor for the higher mercury uptake. TiO2 supported silver adsorbent showed higher mercury adsorption than the commercial one by approximately 2 times. Chemisorption of mercury onto silver active sites was confirmed by an amalgam formation found in the spent adsorbents.

  16. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  17. 24 CFR 906.41 - Additional supporting documentation for acquisition of non-public housing for homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional supporting documentation... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC...

  18. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.; Miller, J. W., Jr.; Yaws, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Initial results for gas thermal conductivity of silicon tetrafluoride and trichlorosilane are reported in respective temperature ranges of 25 to 400 C and 50 to 400 C. For chemical engineering analyses, the preliminary process design for the original silane process of Union Carbide was completed for Cases A and B, Regular and Minimum Process Storage. Included are raw material usage, utility requirements, major process equipment lists, and production labor requirements. Because of the large differences in surge tankage between major unit operations the fixed capital investment varied from $19,094,000 to $11,138,000 for Cases A and B, respectively. For the silane process the original flowsheet was revised for a more optimum arrangement of major equipment, raw materials and operating conditions. The initial issue of the revised flowsheet (Case C) for the silane process indicated favorable cost benefits over the original scheme.

  19. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Process system properties are analyzed for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for trichlorosilane: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, gas heat capacity, liquid heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation, and Gibb's free energy of formation. Work continued on the measurement of gas viscosity values of silicon source materials. Gas phase viscosity values for silicon tetrafluoride between 40 C and 200 C were experimentally determined. Major efforts were expended on completion of the preliminary economic analysis of the silane process. Cost, sensitivity and profitability analysis results are presented based on a preliminary process design of a plant to produce 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon by the revised process.

  20. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material, task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of process system properties were continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for semiconductor silicon. Primary efforts centered on physical and thermodynamic property data for dichlorosilane. The following property data are reported for dichlorosilane which is involved in processing operations for solar cell grade silicon: critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, critical density, acentric factor, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, gas heat capacity, liquid heat capacity and density. Work was initiated on the assembly of a system to prepare binary gas mixtures of known proportions and to measure the thermal conductivity of these mixtures between 30 and 350 C. The binary gas mixtures include silicon source material such as silanes and halogenated silanes which are used in the production of semiconductor silicon.

  1. Light-harvesting materials: Soft support for energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Stolley, Ryan M.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-11-10

    To convert solar energy into viable fuel sources, coupling light-harvesting materials to catalysts is a critical challenge. Now, coupling between an organic supramolecular hydrogel and a non precious metal catalyst has been demonstrated to be effective for photocatalytic H2 production. Ryan M. Stolley and Monte L. Helm are at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA, USA 99352. PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. e-mail: Monte.Helm@pnnl.gov

  2. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials for LA

    SciTech Connect

    D. Tang

    2003-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  3. Sulfide oxidation in fluidized bed bioreactor using nylon support material.

    PubMed

    Midha, Varsha; Jha, M K; Dey, Apurba

    2012-01-01

    A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) with nylon support particles was used to treat synthetic sulfide wastewater at different hydraulic retention time of 25, 50 and 75 min and upflow velocity of 14, 17 and 20 m/hr. The effects of upflow velocity, hydraulic retention time and reactor operation time on sulfide oxidation rate were studied using statistical model. Mixed culture obtained from the activated sludge, taken from tannery effluent treatment plant, was used as a source for microorganisms. The diameter and density of the nylon particles were 2-3 mm and 1140 kg/m3, respectively. Experiments were carried out in the reactor at a temperature of (30 +/- 2) degrees C, at a fixed bed height of 16 cm after the formation of biofilm on the surface of support particles. Biofilm thickness reached (42 +/- 3) microm after 15 days from reactor start-up. The sulfide oxidation, sulfate and sulfur formation is examined at all hydraulic retention times and upflow velocities. The results indicated that almost 90%-92% sulfide oxidation was achieved at all hydraulic retention times. Statistical model could explain 94% of the variability and analysis of variance showed that upflow velocity and hydraulic retention time slightly affected the sulfide oxidation rate. The highest sulfide oxidation of 92% with 70% sulfur was obtained at hydraulic retention time of 75 min and upflow velocity of 14 m/hr.

  4. From waste biomass to solid support: lignosulfonate as a cost-effective and renewable supporting material for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaohuan; Bai, Rongxian; Gu, Yanlong

    2014-01-01

    Lignosulfonate (LS) is an organic waste generated as a byproduct of the cooking process in sulfite pulping in the manufacture of paper. In this paper, LS was used as an anionic supporting material for immobilizing cationic species, which can then be used as heterogeneous catalysts in some organic transformations. With this strategy, three lignin-supported catalysts were prepared including 1) lignin-SO3 Sc(OTf)2 , 2) lignin-SO3 Cu(OTf), and 3) lignin-IL@NH2 (IL=ionic liquid). These solid materials were then examined in many organic transformations. It was finally found that, compared with its homogeneous counterpart as well as some other solid catalysts that are prepared by using different supports with the same metal or catalytically active species, the lignin-supported catalysts showed better performance in these reactions not only in terms of activity but also with regard to recyclability.

  5. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Polymeric Materials With Additives for Durability and Radiation Shielding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials are attractive for use in space structures because of their light weight and high strength In addition, polymers are made of elements with low atomic numbers (Z), primarily carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (0), and nitrogen (N) which provide the best shielding from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) (ref. 1). Galactic cosmic rays are composed primarily of nuclei (i.e., fully ionized atoms) plus a contribution of about 2% from electrons and positrons. There is a small but significant component of GCR particles with high charge (Z > 10) and high energy (E >100 GeV) (ref. 2). These so-called HZE particles comprise only 1 to 2% of the cosmic ray fluence but they interact with very high specific ionization and contribute 50% of the long- term dose to humans. The best shield for this radiation would be liquid hydrogen, which is not feasible. For this reason, hydrogen-containing polymers make the most effective practical shields. Moreover, neutrons are formed in the interactions of GCR particles with materials. Neutrons can only lose energy by collisions or reactions with a nucleus since they are uncharged. This is a process that is much less probable than the Coulombic interactions of charged particles. Thus, neutrons migrate far from the site of the reaction in which they were formed. This increases the probability of neutrons reaching humans or electronic equipment. Fast neutrons (> 1 MeV) can interact with silicon chips in electronic equipment resulting in the production of recoil ions which can cause single event upsets (SEU) in sensitive components (ref. 3). Neutrons lose energy most effectively by elastic collisions with light atoms, particularly hydrogen atoms. Therefore, hydrogen-containing polymers are not only effective in interacting with GCR particles; they are also effective in reducing the energy of the neutrons formed in the interactions.

  7. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  11. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  12. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  13. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  14. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  15. Paleomagnetism of Silver Island, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan: Additional Support (?) for the Primary Curvature of the MCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, J. F.; Durant, A. J.; Schepke, C.

    2009-05-01

    Silver Island lies between Eagle Harbor and Copper Harbor on the NW coastline of the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan. The island consists of a series of basaltic lava flows which dip to the north-northwest (356°) at an angle of approximately 38°. These flows constitute part of the Lake Shore Traps (LST), a series of interbedded lava flows within the Copper Harbor Conglomerate (CHC). The LST represent the youngest eruptive material associated with the 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR). The most recent paleomagnetic study (now 15 years old) on the Lakeshore Traps (LST) defined three distinct directional clusters. Each cluster of directions corresponded to a different stratigraphic package of the LST within the CHC and all have extremely low between-site dispersion (s ˜ 4°) suggesting rather rapid emplacement of the LST packages. Consequently, each cluster has its own unique direction of magnetization. Since the lower two LST packages crop out along the coast line of the Peninsula with different structural trends, an opportunity was presented to test the conclusions of Hnat et al. (2006) that the curvature of the MCR was primary. To that end nine lava flows were sampled on Silver Island and their mean direction compared to the equivalent mean from lava flows sampled by Diehl and Haig (1994) from the tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula (upper lava flows of the Middle LST) which have an entirely different structural trend. Characteristic directions of magnetization of the Silver Island lava flows were isolated either using alternating field, thermal or a combination of both. The mean direction of magnetization for the nine sites is: D = 277.7°, I = 46.9°, α95 = 3.0°, k = 292.5. The mean direction recalculated from the Diehl and Haig study is: D = 277.8°, I = 40.6°, α95 = 2.9°, k = 315.7. Although the declinations of the two means are identical, interestingly the two means are statistically distinct at the 95% confidence level. Fold tests were inconclusive. Nevertheless

  16. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  17. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of process system properties was continued for silicon source materials under consideration for producing silicon. The following property data are reported for dichlorosilane which is involved in processing operations for silicon: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. The properties are reported as a function of temperature to permit rapid engineering usage. The preliminary economic analysis of the process is described. Cost analysis results for the process (case A-two deposition reactors and six electrolysis cells) are presented based on a preliminary process design of a plant to produce 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. Fixed capital investment estimate for the plant is $12.47 million (1975 dollars) ($17.47 million, 1980 dollars). Product cost without profit is 8.63 $/kg of silicon (1975 dollars)(12.1 $/kg, 1980 dollars).

  18. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  19. The Impact of Emotional and Material Social Support on Women's Drug Treatment Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Cathleen A.; Hill, Twyla J.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed how women's perceptions of emotional and material social support affect their completion of residential drug treatment. Although previous research has examined how social support affects recovery, few studies, if any, have examined both the types and the sources of social support. The study hypothesized that women's perceptions…

  20. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  1. Graphene Supported Graphone/Graphane Bilayer Nanostructure Material for Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Soin, Navneet; Makgato, Thuto; Chuang, C. H.; Pong, W. F.; Roy, Susanta S.; Ghosh, Sarit K.; Strydom, André M.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    We report an investigation into the magnetic and electronic properties of partially hydrogenated vertically aligned few layers graphene (FLG) synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The FLG samples are hydrogenated at different substrate temperatures to alter the degree of hydrogenation and their depth profile. The unique morphology of the structure gives rise to a unique geometry in which graphane/graphone is supported by graphene layers in the bulk, which is very different from other widely studied structures such as one-dimensional nanoribbons. Synchrotron based x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements have been used to investigate the electronic structure and the underlying hydrogenation mechanism responsible for the magnetic properties. While ferromagnetic interactions seem to be predominant, the presence of antiferromagnetic interaction was also observed. Free spins available via the conversion of sp2 to sp3 hybridized structures, and the possibility of unpaired electrons from defects induced upon hydrogenation are thought to be likely mechanisms for the observed ferromagnetic orders. PMID:24457465

  2. Graphene supported graphone/graphane bilayer nanostructure material for spintronics.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sekhar C; Soin, Navneet; Makgato, Thuto; Chuang, C H; Pong, W F; Roy, Susanta S; Ghosh, Sarit K; Strydom, André M; McLaughlin, J A

    2014-01-24

    We report an investigation into the magnetic and electronic properties of partially hydrogenated vertically aligned few layers graphene (FLG) synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The FLG samples are hydrogenated at different substrate temperatures to alter the degree of hydrogenation and their depth profile. The unique morphology of the structure gives rise to a unique geometry in which graphane/graphone is supported by graphene layers in the bulk, which is very different from other widely studied structures such as one-dimensional nanoribbons. Synchrotron based x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements have been used to investigate the electronic structure and the underlying hydrogenation mechanism responsible for the magnetic properties. While ferromagnetic interactions seem to be predominant, the presence of antiferromagnetic interaction was also observed. Free spins available via the conversion of sp(2) to sp(3) hybridized structures, and the possibility of unpaired electrons from defects induced upon hydrogenation are thought to be likely mechanisms for the observed ferromagnetic orders.

  3. Electron irradiation experiments in support of fusion materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S. ); Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. ); Matsui, H. ); Kohno, Y. )

    1991-11-01

    Microstructural evolution in response to 1 MeV irradiation has been investigated for three simple ferritic alloys, pure beryllium, pure vanadium, and two simple vanadium alloys over a range of temperatures and doses. Microstructural evolution in Fe-3, -9, and -18Cr ferritic alloys is found to consist of crenulated, faulted a<100> loops and circular, unfaulted a/2 <111> loops at low temperatures, but with only unfaulted loops at high temperatures. The complex dislocation evolution is attributed to sigma phase precipifaults arising from chromium segregation to point defect sinks. Beryllium is found to be resistant to electron damage; the only effect observed was enhanced dislocation mobility. Pure vanadium, V-5Fe, and V-1Ni microstructural response was complicated by precipitation on heating to 400{degrees}C and above, but dislocation evolution was investigated in the range of room temperature to 300{degrees}C and at 600{degrees}C. The three materials behaved similarly, except that pure vanadium showed more rapid dislocation evolution. This difference does not explain the enhanced swelling observed in vanadium alloys.

  4. Supporting Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Lesson Plans Using Educative Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Carrie; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Critiquing and adapting curriculum materials are essential teaching practices but challenging for many preservice teachers. This study explores the use of educative curriculum materials--materials intended to support both teacher and student learning--to help preservice elementary teachers develop their pedagogical design capacity for critiquing…

  5. Resource Materials To Support Your Environmental Education Efforts. EE-TIPS (Environmental Education Technical Information Packages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Association for Environmental Education, Troy, OH.

    This collection gathers together over 50 high-quality materials to support environmental education (EE) curricula. Because each community has unique environmental and educational needs, the guide includes a broad set of educational materials that can be adapted to a variety of settings. The materials can be used to supplement educational…

  6. Material Properties of CorCap Passive Cardiac Support Device

    PubMed Central

    Chitsaz, Sam; Wenk, Jonathan F; Ge, Liang; Wisneski, Andrew; Mookhoek, Aart; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M; Tseng, Elaine E

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventricular remodeling deteriorates myocardial function in congestive heart failure patients. Ventricular restraint therapy using Cardiac Support Device (CSD) is designed to reduce the amount of stress inside the dilated ventricles which in turn halts remodeling. However, as an open mesh surrounding the heart, it is unknown what the mechanical properties of the CSD are in different fiber orientations. Methods Composite specimens of CorCap™ CSD fabric and silicone were constructed in different fiber orientations and tested on a custom-built biaxial stretcher. Silicone controls were made and stretched to detect parameters of the matrix. CSD coefficients were calculated using the composite and silicone matrix stress-strain data. Stiffness in different fiber orientations was determined. Results Silicone specimens exerted a linear behavior with stiffness of 2.57MPa. For the composites with one fiber set aligned with respect to the stretch axes, stiffness in the direction of the aligned fiber set was higher than that in the cross-fiber direction (14.39MPa vs. 5.66MPa), indicating greater compliance in the cross-fiber direction. When the orientation of the fiber sets in the composite were matched to the expected clinical orientation of the implanted CorCap, the stiffness in the circumferential axis (with respect to the heart) was greater than in the longitudinal axis (10.55MPa vs. 9.70MPa). Conclusions The mechanical properties of the CorCap demonstrate directionality with greater stiffness circumferentially than longitudinally. Implantation of CorCap clinically should take into account the directionality of the biomechanics to optimize ventricular restraint. PMID:22981255

  7. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  8. Capillary electrochromatography using a fluoropolymer as the chromatographic support material.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Maldonado, R; Colón, L A

    1999-01-01

    Fused-silica capillary columns were packed with ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) particles for use in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Electroosmotic flow (EOF) was generated in these columns using acetonitrile-water mixtures as the mobile phase. Electroosmotic mobilities of 1.6 x 10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) (linear velocities of 1 mm s(-1)) were observed using a mobile phase without an electrolyte present. The EOF in the ECTFE-packed columns is enhanced when using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a mobile phase additive; electroosmotic mobilities of 3.65 x 10(-4) cm2 (V-1) s(-1) (linear velocity of 2.5 mm s(-1)) were observed. This enhancement of EOF is attributed to dynamic coating of the ECTFE particles by TFA. Other electrolytes (i.e., Tris/Tris-HCl buffer and H3PO4) in the mobile phase did not have such an enhancement of EOF. However, a slight enhancement of EOF is observed, for example, if small quantities of TFA are added to the mobile phase containing Tris buffer. The potential of ECTFE for CEC is demonstrated by separating a mixture of amino acids.

  9. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  10. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  11. 45 CFR 1641.10 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.10 Section 1641.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  12. 45 CFR 1641.10 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.10 Section 1641.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  13. 45 CFR 1641.21 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.21 Section 1641.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  14. 45 CFR 1641.21 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.21 Section 1641.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  15. Evaluation of fuel additives for reduction of material imcompatibilities in methanol-gasoline blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, C. F.; Barbee, J. G.; Knutson, W. K.; Cuellar, J. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives which seemed to protect some of the metals were tested in higher concentrations and binary combinations in search of optimal application conditions. Results indicate that two of the additives have protective properties and combining them increases the protection of the metals corroded by methanol-gasoline blends. Half of the metals in the tests were not corroded. Testing at recommended concentrations and then at higher concentrations and in combinations shows that the additives would have no protective or harmful effects on the nonmetals. Two additives emerged as candidates for application to the protection of metals in automotive methanol-gasoline fuel systems. The additives tested were assigned letter codes to protect their proprietary nature.

  16. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  17. Materials used in new generation vehicles: supplies, shifts, and supporting infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1997-08-01

    The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program intends to develop new designs for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption by two thirds but otherwise have price, comfort, safety, and other measures of performance similar to the typical automobile now on the market. PNGV vehicle designs are expected to substitute lightweight materials, such as aluminum, magnesium, carbon-reinforced polymer composites, glass-reinforced polymer composites, and ultra- light steel, for heavier materials such as steel and iron in automobile components. The target mass of a PNGV vehicle is 1,960 pounds, as compared to the average current vehicle that weights 3,240 pounds. Other changes could include the use of different ferrous alloys, engineering changes, or incorporation of advanced ceramic components. Widespread adoption of these vehicle designs would affect materials markets and require concurrent development and adoption of supporting technologies to supply the materials and to use and maintain them in automobiles. This report identifies what would be required to bring about these changes and developments in materials substitution; identifies reasons that might make these substitutions difficult to accomplish within the overall objectives and timetable of the PNGV program; and identifies any issues arising from the substitution that could prompt consideration of policies to deal with them. The analysis in this paper uses scenarios that assume the production of new generation vehicles will begin in 2007 and that their market share will increase gradually over the following 25 years. The scenarios on which the analysis is based assume a maximum substitution of each potential replacement material considered. This maximum substitution of individual materials (i.e., the amount of replacement material by weight that would be added to the baseline vehicle`s composition) is as follows: ULSAB (high strength steel), 298 lbs.; glass-reinforced composites, 653 lbs.; carbon

  18. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  19. High temperature support apparatus and method of use for casting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Roger F; Cliber, James A; Stoddard, Nathan G; Gerber, Jesse I; Roberts, Raymond J; Wilmerton, Mark A

    2015-02-10

    This invention relates to a system and a method of use for large ceramic member support and manipulation at elevated temperatures in non-oxidizing atmospheres, such as using carbon-carbon composite materials for producing high purity silicon in the manufacture of solar modules. The high temperature apparatus of this invention includes one or more support ribs, one or more cross braces in combination with the one or more support ribs, and a shaped support liner positionable upon the one or more support ribs and the one or more cross braces.

  20. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  1. Simplified Language Materials--Their Usage and Value to Teachers and Support Staff in Mainstream Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the current use of simplified language materials (SLMs) by teachers and support staff across England. Drawing on a survey of Primary and Secondary schools it identifies the degree to which teachers and support staff use and produce SLMs. It explores both the contradictions and similarities between practitioners' perceptions of…

  2. 30 CFR 75.214 - Supplemental support materials, equipment and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental support materials, equipment and tools. 75.214 Section 75.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support §...

  3. Farm Management and Leadership. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with farm management. SMAT materials can…

  4. As Teachers Tell It: Implementing All Aspects of the Industry. Supporting Materials. [Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Erika Nielsen, Ed.

    This document contains supporting materials from five case studies illustrating the All Aspects of the Industry (AAI) approach. AAI provides a framework for redesigning programs around broadly conceived, interdisciplinary, industry-focused programs and integrating academic and vocational education. Materials from the Boston (Massachusetts) Public…

  5. Using Educative Curriculum Materials to Support the Development of Prospective Teachers' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia J.; Tyminski, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on the work of Ball and Cohen and that of Davis and Krajcik, as well as more recent research related to teacher learning from and about curriculum materials, we seek to answer the question, How can prospective teachers (PTs) learn to read and use educative curriculum materials in ways that support them in acquiring the knowledge needed…

  6. Selectability of Print Materials in Support of the Grades 10 and 11 Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, D. B.; Yearwood, E. I.

    This project report critiques library print materials used to support grades 10 and 11 social studies curriculum in British Columbia. The data collected are intended to provide a ready reference for school librarians when considering the particular print materials listed. Four criteria were used: readability, format and style, organization, and…

  7. The effects of material property assumptions on predicted meltpool shape for laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chong; Ashby, Kathryn; Phan, Nam; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide guidance on material specifications for powders used in laser powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The methodology was to investigate how different material property assumptions in a simulation affect meltpool prediction and by corrolary how different material properties affect meltpool formation in AM processes. The sensitvity of meltpool variations to each material property can be used as a guide to help drive future research and to help prioritize material specifications in requirements documents. By identifying which material properties have the greatest affect on outcomes, metrology can be tailored to focus on those properties which matter most; thus reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary testing and property charaterizations. Futhermore, this sensitivity study provides insight into which properties require more accurate measurements, thus motivating development of new metrology methods to measure those properties accurately.

  8. Controlling cell-material interactions with polymer nanocomposites by use of surface modifying additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole-Warren, L. A.; Farrugia, B.; Fong, N.; Hume, E.; Simmons, A.

    2008-11-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (NC) are fabricated by incorporating well dispersed nanoscale particles within a polymer matrix. This study focuses on elastomeric polyurethane (PU) based nanocomposites, containing organically modified silicates (OMS), as bioactive materials. Nanocomposites incorporating chlorhexidine diacetate as an organic modifier (OM) were demonstrated to be antibacterial with a dose dependence related to both the silicate loading and the loading of OM. When the non-antibacterial OM dodecylamine was used, both cell and platelet adhesion were decreased on the nanocomposite surface. These results suggest that OM is released from the polymer and can impact on cell behaviour at the interface. Nanocomposites have potential use as bioactive materials in a range of biomedical applications.

  9. Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-15

    The catalyst supports exhibit great influence on the cost, performance, and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. This review paper is to summarize several important kinds of novel support materials for PEM fuel cells (including direct methanol fuel cell, DMFC): nanostructured carbon materials (carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers, mesoporous carbon), conductive doped diamonds and nanodiamonds, conductive oxides (tin oxide/indium tin oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide) and carbides (tungsten carbides). The advantages and disadvantages, the acting mechanism to promote electrocatalysis, and the strategies to improve present catalyst support materials and to search for new ones are discussed. This is expected to throw light on future development of catalyst support for PEM fuel cells.

  10. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  11. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  12. Fabrication of coatings and bulk products made of a nickel-based material by additive technology laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorunov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that products made of a nickel-based material can be formed by direct additive laser deposition. Ring samples with good antifriction properties are formed. The material after direct laser deposition is characterized by a heterogeneous structure: coarse inclusions with a high hardness are distributed in a softer matrix. Final laser treatment leads to the formation of a homogeneous microstructure and the refinement of second phases.

  13. Interoperability of Materials Database Systems in Support of Nuclear Energy Development and Potential Applications for Fuel Cell Material Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lianshan; Austin, Timothy; Ren, Weiju

    2015-01-01

    Materials database interoperability has been of great interest in recent years for information exchange in support of research and development (R&D). In response to data and knowledge sharing needs of the GenIV International Forum (GIF) for global collaboration in nuclear energy R&D, the European Commission JRC Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have established a materials database interoperability project that develops techniques for automated materials data exchange between systems hosted at the two institutes MatDB Online at JRC IET and the Gen IV Materials Handbook at ORNL, respectively. The work to enable automated exchange of data between the two systems leverages the XML data import and export functionalities of both systems in combination with recently developed standards for engineering materials data. The preliminary results of data communication between the two systems have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of materials database interoperability, which constructs an interoperation framework that can be seamlessly integrated into the high-throughput First Principles material databases and thus advance the discovery of novel materials in fuel cell applications.

  14. Interoperability of Materials Database Systems in Support of Nuclear Energy Development and Potential Applications for Fuel Cell Material Selection

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Lianshan; Austin, Timothy; Ren, Weiju

    2015-01-01

    Materials database interoperability has been of great interest in recent years for information exchange in support of research and development (R&D). In response to data and knowledge sharing needs of the GenIV International Forum (GIF) for global collaboration in nuclear energy R&D, the European Commission JRC Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have established a materials database interoperability project that develops techniques for automated materials data exchange between systems hosted at the two institutes MatDB Online at JRC IET and the Gen IV Materials Handbook at ORNL, respectively. The work to enable automatedmore » exchange of data between the two systems leverages the XML data import and export functionalities of both systems in combination with recently developed standards for engineering materials data. The preliminary results of data communication between the two systems have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of materials database interoperability, which constructs an interoperation framework that can be seamlessly integrated into the high-throughput First Principles material databases and thus advance the discovery of novel materials in fuel cell applications.« less

  15. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  16. A review on graphite and hybrid nano-materials as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Gautam; Saxena, Prateek

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a review on use of nano-particles as lubricant additives. Nanoparticles have a strong potential to improve the lubrication property of grease when they are used as additives. Nano-grease has several advantages such as improved frictional behaviour, high load bearing capacity and reduced wear, as compared to base oil grease. Current advancements, limitations and challenges in use of nano-grease as a lubricant are discussed. Although, nanogrease has shown outstanding results, more research is required in this field for the commercialization of technology related to nano-grease.

  17. Role of point defects and additives in kinetics of hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Walle, Chris

    2010-03-01

    First-principles computational studies of hydrogen interactions with storage materials can provide direct insight into the processes of H uptake and release, and may help in developing guidelines for designing storage media with improved storage capacity and kinetics. One important conclusion is that the defects involved in kinetics of semiconducting or insulating H-storage materials are charged, and hence their formation energy is Fermi-level dependent and can be affected by the presence of impurities that change the Fermi level [1,2]. This provides an explanation for the role played by transition-metal impurities in the kinetics of NaAlH4 and related materials. Desorption of H and decomposition of NaAlH4 requires not only mass transport of H but also of Al and/or Na. This process is mediated by native defects. We have investigated the structure, stability, and migration enthalpy of native defects based on density functional theory. The results allow us to estimate diffusion activation energies for the defects that may be involved in mass transport. Most of the relevant defects exist in charge states other than neutral, and consideration of these charge states is essential for a proper description of kinetics. We propose specific new mechanisms to explain the observed activation energies and their dependence on the presence of impurities. We have also expanded our studies to materials other than NaAlH4. In the case of LiBH4 and Li4BN3H10 we have found that the calculations have predictive power in terms of identifying which impurities will actually enhance kinetics. Other complex hydrides that we are currently investigating include Li2NH and LiNH2. [4pt] [1] A. Peles and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214101 (2007). [0pt] [2] C. G. Van de Walle, A. Peles, A. Janotti, and G. B. Wilson-Short, Physica B 404, 793 (2009).

  18. Supporting Infrastructure and Acceptability Issues for Materials Used in New Generation Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.E.; Rubin, J.D.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1999-03-01

    To achieve its goal of producing vehicles that use two thirds less fuel than current vehicles, the Partnership of a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is designing vehicles that will use lightweight materials in place of heavier materials used in current vehicles. using new materials in automobiles will require the development of a supporting infrastructure to produce both the substitute materials and the components of the substitute materials, as well as the automotive parts constructed from the new materials. This report documents a set of analyses that attempt to identify potential barriers--economic, infrastructure, and public acceptance barriers--to the materials substitution in New Generation Vehicles. The analyses rely on hypothetical vehicle market penetration scenarios and material composition. The approach is comprehensive, examining issues ranging from materials availability to their eventual disposition and its effect on the automobile recycling industry, and from supporting industries' capacity to the public acceptability of these vehicles. The analyses focus on two likely substitute materials, aluminum and glass-reinforced polymer composites.

  19. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  20. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kade H. Poper; Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael Daniels

    2014-10-01

    Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) ignition. This study shows that small concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to the highly reactive mixture of aluminum and copper oxide (Al + CuO) significantly reduces ESD ignition sensitivity. CNT act as a conduit for electric energy, bypassing energy buildup and desensitizing the mixture to ESD ignition. The lowest CNT concentration needed to desensitize ignition is 3.8 vol.% corresponding to percolation corresponding to an electrical conductivity of 0.04 S/cm. Conversely, added CNT increased Al + CuO thermal ignition sensitivity to a hot wire igniter.

  1. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  2. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  5. An exploration of how pre-service early childhood teachers use educative curriculum materials to support their science teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englehart, Deirdre

    young children and how children communicate their findings. Young children need support in their participation of inquiry learning. Successful implementation of guided inquiry practices occurred in this research. Also, the teachers in this research found insightful ways that directly supported young children in their communication of ideas. Implications for further research are also discussed. Educative materials could further support pre-service early childhood teachers if additional supports were used including accessible curricular rationales, support in classroom management and the specific use of guided inquiry.

  6. Field-assisted Densification of Superhard B6O Materials with Y2O3/Al2O3 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, M.; Raethel, J.; Sempf, K.; Thiele, M.; Bales, A.; Sigalas, I.

    B6O is a possible candidate of superhard materials with a hardness of 45 GPa measured on single crystals. Up to now, densification of these materials was only possible at high pressure. However, recently it was found that different oxides can be utilized as effective sintering additives. In this work the effect of addition of Y2O3/Al2O3 on the densification behaviour as a function of applied pressure, its microstructure evolution, and resulting mechanical properties were investigated. A strong dependence of the densification with increasing pressure was found. The material revealed characteristic triple junctions filled with amorphous residue composed of B2O3, Al2O3 and Y2O3, while no amorphous grain-boundary films were observed along internal interfaces. Mechanical testing revealed on average hardness of 33 GPa, a fracture toughness of 4 MPam1/2, and a strength value of 500 MPa.

  7. Carbon nanocages: A new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Tan, Zhe Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Jian Nong

    2014-01-01

    Low durability is the major challenge hindering the large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, and corrosion of carbon support materials of current catalysts is the main cause. Here, we describe the finding of remarkably high durability with the use of a novel support material. This material is based on hollow carbon nanocages developed with a high degree of graphitization and concurrent nitrogen doping for oxidation resistance enhancement, uniform deposition of fine Pt particles, and strong Pt-support interaction. Accelerated degradation testing shows that such designed catalyst possesses a superior electrochemical activity and long-term stability for both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction relative to industry benchmarks of current catalysts. Further testing under conditions of practical fuel cell operation reveals almost no degradation over long-term cycling. Such a catalyst of high activity, particularly, high durability, opens the door for the next-generation PEMFC for “real world” application. PMID:24658614

  8. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Anđić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on α-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.

  9. Composite materials based on high-modulus compounds for additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Kotelnikov, N.; Buyakova, S.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of adding nanocrystalline ZrO2 and submicron TiC to ultrafine Al2O3 on mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composites developed by hot pressing was investigated. It was shown that by means of hot pressing in argon atmosphere at the sintering temperature of 1500 °C one can obtain the composites of Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC with a fine structure and minimal porosity. It was shown that in the material a multi-scale hierarchical structure is formed, which possesses high physical and mechanical properties: the hardness and fracture toughness was 22 GPa and 5.2 MPa*m1/2, respectively. It has been shown that mechanical properties of the composite are better than those of commercial composites based on aluminum oxide (Al2O3, ZTA, Al2O3-TiC) and are comparable to those of silicon nitride.

  10. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  11. Toward new fuel cell support materials: a theoretical and experimental study of nitrogen-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Lim, Eun Ja; Kwon, In Hye; Seo, Joon Kyo; Noh, Seung Hyo; Kim, Won Bae; Han, Byungchan

    2014-09-01

    Nano-scale Pt particles are often reported to be more electrochemically active and stable in a fuel cell if properly displaced on support materials; however, the factors that affect their activity and stability are not well understood. We applied first-principles calculations and experimental measurements to well-defined model systems of N-doped graphene supports (N-GNS) to reveal the fundamental mechanisms that control the catalytic properties and structural integrity of nano-scale Pt particles. DFT calculations predict thermodynamic and electrochemical interactions between N-GNS and Pt nanoparticles in the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, the dissolution potentials of the Pt nanoparticles supported on GNS and N-GNS catalysts are calculated under acidic conditions. Our results provide insight into the design of new support materials for enhanced catalytic efficiency and long-term stability.

  12. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  13. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  14. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-09-28

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  15. The capability of satellite borne remote sensors to measure stratospheric trace constituents. Volume 3: Supporting material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Contained in this volume is material of a supportive nature not considered to be of sufficient importance to be included in the other two previous volumes. This material is of two types:(1) information and numerical evaluations used in the development of mission evaluations for stratospheric trace constituent measurement;and (2) various spatial and temporal distributions for those stratospheric trace species having sufficient measurements available to warrant their presentation.

  16. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  17. Sail film materials and supporting structure for a solar sail, a preliminary design, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Solar sailing technology was examined in relation to a mission to rendezvous with Halley's Comet. Development of an ultra-light, highly reflecting material system capable of operating at high solar intensity for long periods of time was emphasized. Data resulting from the sail materials study are reported. Topics covered include: basic film; coatings and thermal control; joining and handling; system performance; and supporting structures assessment for the heliogyro.

  18. Dispositions Supporting Elementary Interns in the Teaching of Reform-Based Science Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.; Stewart, Bethany

    2010-11-01

    Dispositions supporting the teaching of science as structured inquiry by four elementary candidates are presented. Candidates were studied during student teaching based on their positive attitudes toward teaching science with reform-based materials in their methods course. Personal learning histories informed their attitudes, values, and beliefs about the teaching and learning of science through structured inquiry. Supportive dispositions included curiosity and questioning, investigating first-hand, learning together, and active learning. These dispositions supported early science teaching despite candidates limited science content knowledge, and may contribute to candidates’ further learning of science.

  19. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  20. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  1. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funabashi, Tsubasa; Mizuno, Jun; Sato, Masamichi; Kitajima, Masao; Matsuura, Makoto; Shoji, Shuichi

    2013-09-01

    A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM), was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce). Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3) treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  2. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  3. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  4. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  5. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  6. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  7. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  8. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  9. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  10. Farm Management and Leadership. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner with the reading, writing, and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  11. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  12. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  13. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  14. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  15. Dispositions Supporting Elementary Interns in the Teaching of Reform-Based Science Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.; Stewart, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Dispositions supporting the teaching of science as structured inquiry by four elementary candidates are presented. Candidates were studied during student teaching based on their positive attitudes toward teaching science with reform-based materials in their methods course. Personal learning histories informed their attitudes, values, and beliefs…

  16. Relationship between Use of Online Support Materials and Student Performance in an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biktimirov, Ernest N.; Klassen, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between student online activity, including access to specific course materials, and performance in a traditional face-to-face introductory finance course that a class Web site supported. The authors used 6 measures: (a) total hits, (b) hit consistency, (c) number of unique files that the students accessed, (d)…

  17. Selection of support materials for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in treatment of carbofuran-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Laocharoen, S; Plangklang, P; Reungsang, A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utilization of agricultural matrices as the support materials for cell immobilization to improve the technique of bioremediation. Coir, bulrush, banana stem and water hyacinth stem in both delignified and undelignified forms were used to immobilize Burkholderia cepacia PCL3 in bioremediation of carbofuran at 5 mg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater. Undelignified coir was found to be the most suitable support material for cell immobilization, giving the short half-life of carbofuran of 3.40 d (2.8 times shorter than the treatments with free cells). In addition, it could be reused three times without a loss in ability to degrade carbofuran. The growth and degradation ability of free cells were completely inhibited at the initial carbofuran concentrations of 250 mg l(-1), while there was no inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the immobilized cells. The results indicated a great potential for using the agricultural matrices as support material for cell immobilization to improve the overall efficiency of carbofuran bioremediation in contaminated water by B. cepacia PCL3.

  18. Application of copper nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid to increase the quality of grinding of magnetic ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevchik, V. D.; Skryabin, V. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Men'shova, S. B.; Artemov, I. I.; Prokof'ev, M. V.; Karasev, N. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of copper nanoparticles in a grinding fluid (GF) used for grinding on the characteristics of the surface layer of ferrite parts and their service properties is studied. Profilograms of the ground surfaces and their roughness are measured. The electromagnetic losses of 10000NN ferrite parts ground in an GF medium with copper nanoparticles are estimated. The use of metal nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid is shown to be useful for processing of brittle nonmetallic materials.

  19. The Support to Rural India's Public Education System (STRIPES) Trial: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Supplementary Teaching, Learning Material and Material Support

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Eble, Alex; Bhakta, Preetha; Frost, Chris; Boone, Peter; Elbourne, Diana; Mann, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the STRIPES trial was to assess the effectiveness of providing supplementary, remedial teaching and learning materials (and an additional ‘kit’ of materials for girls) on a composite of language and mathematics test scores for children in classes two, three and four in public primary schools in villages in the Nagarkurnool division of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods STRIPES was a cluster randomised trial in which 214 villages were allocated either to the supplementary teaching intervention (n = 107) or to serve as controls (n = 107). 54 of the intervention villages were further randomly allocated to receive additional kit for girls. The study was not blinded. Analysis was conducted on the intention to treat principle, allowing for clustering. Results Composite test scores were significantly higher in the intervention group (107 villages; 2364 children) than in the control group (106 villages; 2014 children) at the end of the trial (mean difference on a percentage scale 15.8; 95% CI 13.1 to 18.6; p<0.001; 0.75 Standard Deviation (SD) difference). Composite test scores were not significantly different in the 54 villages (614 girls) with the additional kits for girls compared to the 53 villages (636 girls) without these kits at the end of the trial (mean difference on a percentage scale 0.5; 95% CI -4.34 to 5.4; p = 0.84). The cost per 0.1 SD increase in composite test score for intervention without kits is Rs. 382.97 (£4.45, $7.13), and Rs.480.59 (£5.58, $8.94) for the intervention with kits. Conclusions A 18 month programme of supplementary remedial teaching and learning materials had a substantial impact on language and mathematics scores of primary school students in rural Andhra Pradesh, yet providing a ‘kit’ of materials to girls in these villages did not lead to any measured additional benefit. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN69951502 PMID:23874383

  20. A combination of vermiculite and paper pulp supporting material for the photoautotrophic micropropagation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Afreen-Zobayed; Zobayed; Kubota; Kozai; Hasegawa

    2000-08-22

    A mixture of vermiculite (hydrous silicates) and paper pulp (waste product of paper industry) was used as a supporting material for the in vitro photoautotrophic micropropagation of plantlets. Sweet potato was used as a model plant to find out the appropriate proportion of vermiculite and paper pulp for the optimum growth of the plantlets. The plantlets grown in the conventional supporting material, agar, were used as the control. The study revealed that in all aspects, the plantlets grown in vermiculite mixed with 30% (w/w) paper pulp exhibited the highest growth performance. The shoot and root fresh mass were x2.7 greater than those in agar (control); the leaf, stem and root dry mass were also greater and at least two fold in this treatment compared with those in the control. The net photosynthetic rate per plantlet was highest in this treatment, and on day 20 it was 15.3 µmol CO(2) h(-1) as compared with 9.8 µmol CO(2) h(-1) in the control. The growth of both shoots and roots decreased gradually with the increase or decrease of percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. In general, the growth was significantly poorer in the plantlets grown in 100% vermiculite than that in vermiculite mixed with 30% paper pulp but still greater than in the control. The porosity of the supporting materials increased with the increase in the percentage of paper pulp in the supporting material. After transplanting to the ex vitro condition the survival percentage did not vary significantly (90-100%) among the treatments, except in control where it was only 73%. The number of unfolded leaves and the stem height were similar among the treatments except those in the control. PMID:10960736

  1. Dependence of the impact response of polyvinylidene fluoride sensors on their supporting materials' elasticity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunfang; Chen, Xinjuan; Ni, Qingshan; Li, Longhua; Ju, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is popular sensing material because of its unique piezoelectric characteristics. In this work an impact sensor was prepared from a sandwiched structure PVDF film, and the related detection circuits were presented. The dependence of the PVDF sensors' response on the elasticity of the supporting materials was examined and discussed. Here two response indexes were discussed, which were the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) and the recovery time. Firstly, falling impact experiments were executed on desk-supported PVDF sensors (100 mm PVDF film) using free falls of different weights from different heights. Then the same shock experiments were repeated on the same sensor, but changing the backstops to a sponge and rubber, respectively. On the desk, the values of Vpp were bigger than when the other two backstops were used; but the changes of the impact energy could not be reflected by the PVDF sensor when it was supported by a hard material. It was found that the biggest sensitivity of the voltage response (about 96.62 V/J) was obtained by the sponge-supported sensor; for the same sensor, when it was supported by rubber, the slope was 82.26 V/J. Moreover, the recovery time for the desk-supported sensor was almost constant, varying from 0.15 to 0.18 s, while for the same sensor supported by sponge or rubber, its recovery time changed with the shifting of the impact energy in the range of 0.02~0.36 s, but no pattern could be found in the recovery-time characteristics.

  2. Dependence of the Impact Response of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Sensors on Their Supporting Materials' Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yunfang; Chen, Xinjuan; Ni, Qingshan; Li, Longhua; Ju, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is popular sensing material because of its unique piezoelectric characteristics. In this work an impact sensor was prepared from a sandwiched structure PVDF film, and the related detection circuits were presented. The dependence of the PVDF sensors' response on the elasticity of the supporting materials was examined and discussed. Here two response indexes were discussed, which were the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) and the recovery time. Firstly, falling impact experiments were executed on desk-supported PVDF sensors (100 μm PVDF film) using free falls of different weights from different heights. Then the same shock experiments were repeated on the same sensor, but changing the backstops to a sponge and rubber, respectively. On the desk, the values of Vpp were bigger than when the other two backstops were used; but the changes of the impact energy could not be reflected by the PVDF sensor when it was supported by a hard material. It was found that the biggest sensitivity of the voltage response (about 96.62 V/J) was obtained by the sponge-supported sensor; for the same sensor, when it was supported by rubber, the slope was 82.26 V/J. Moreover, the recovery time for the desk-supported sensor was almost constant, varying from 0.15 to 0.18 s, while for the same sensor supported by sponge or rubber, its recovery time changed with the shifting of the impact energy in the range of 0.02∼0.36 s, but no pattern could be found in the recovery-time characteristics. PMID:23881132

  3. Dependence of the impact response of polyvinylidene fluoride sensors on their supporting materials' elasticity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunfang; Chen, Xinjuan; Ni, Qingshan; Li, Longhua; Ju, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is popular sensing material because of its unique piezoelectric characteristics. In this work an impact sensor was prepared from a sandwiched structure PVDF film, and the related detection circuits were presented. The dependence of the PVDF sensors' response on the elasticity of the supporting materials was examined and discussed. Here two response indexes were discussed, which were the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) and the recovery time. Firstly, falling impact experiments were executed on desk-supported PVDF sensors (100 mm PVDF film) using free falls of different weights from different heights. Then the same shock experiments were repeated on the same sensor, but changing the backstops to a sponge and rubber, respectively. On the desk, the values of Vpp were bigger than when the other two backstops were used; but the changes of the impact energy could not be reflected by the PVDF sensor when it was supported by a hard material. It was found that the biggest sensitivity of the voltage response (about 96.62 V/J) was obtained by the sponge-supported sensor; for the same sensor, when it was supported by rubber, the slope was 82.26 V/J. Moreover, the recovery time for the desk-supported sensor was almost constant, varying from 0.15 to 0.18 s, while for the same sensor supported by sponge or rubber, its recovery time changed with the shifting of the impact energy in the range of 0.02~0.36 s, but no pattern could be found in the recovery-time characteristics. PMID:23881132

  4. Supporting Teachers' Use of a Project-Based Learning Environment in Ocean Science: Web-Based Educative Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ravit Golan; El-Moslimany, Hebbah; McDonnell, Janice; Lichtenwalner, Sage

    2011-01-01

    The development of inquiry and project-based materials is challenging in many ways, not the least of which is the design of supports for teachers implementing such materials. We report on the design of educative and just-in-time teacher supports for an online project-based unit in ocean science. The teacher supports were visible as tabs on the…

  5. Modeling the mechanical and aging properties of silicone rubber and foam - stockpile-historical & additively manufactured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Gee, R. H.

    2014-09-30

    M97* and M9763 belong to the M97xx series of cellular silicone materials that have been deployed as stress cushions in some of the LLNL systems. Their purpose of these support foams is to distribute the stress between adjacent components, maintain relative positioning of various components, and mitigate the effects of component size variation due to manufacturing and temperature changes. In service these materials are subjected to a continuous compressive strain over long periods of time. In order to ensure their effectiveness, it is important to understand how their mechanical properties change over time. The properties we are primarily concerned about are: compression set, load retention, and stress-strain response (modulus).

  6. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  7. Readability of Educational Materials to Support Parent Sexual Communication With Their Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Lin, Jessica S; Constantine, Norman A

    2016-05-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, expectations, and knowledge from parents to their children and adolescents. Many parents seek information and guidance to support talking with their children about sex and sexuality. Parent education materials can deliver this guidance but must use appropriate readability levels to facilitate comprehension and motivation. This study appraised the readability of educational materials to support parent sexual communication with their children. Fifty brochures, pamphlets, and booklets were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) index methods. Mean readability grade-level scores were 8.3 (range = 4.5-12.8), 9.7 (range = 5.5-14.9), and 10.1 (range = 6.7-13.9), respectively. Informed by National Institutes of Health-recommended 6th to 7th grade levels and American Medical Association-recommended 5th to 6th grade levels, percentages falling at or below the 7.0 grade level were calculated as 38%, 12%, and 2% and those falling at or below the 6.0 grade level were calculated as 12%, 2%, and 0% based on the Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning Fog, and SMOG methods, respectively. These analyses indicate that the majority of educational materials available online to support parents' communication with their children about sex and sexuality do not meet the needs of many or most parents. Efforts to improve the accessibility of these materials are warranted. PMID:27116292

  8. Influence of the supporting die structures on the fracture strength of all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Munir Tolga; Yondem, Isa; Aykent, Filiz; Eraslan, Oğuz

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the elastic modulus of supporting dies on the fracture strengths of all-ceramic materials used in dental crowns. Four different types of supporting die materials (dentin, epoxy resin, brass, and stainless steel) (24 per group) were prepared using a milling machine to simulate a mandibular molar all-ceramic core preparation. A total number of 96 zirconia cores were fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The specimens were divided into two groups. In the first group, cores were cemented to substructures using a dual-cure resin cement. In the second group, cores were not cemented to the supporting dies. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The geometric models of cores and supporting die materials were developed using finite element method to obtain the stress distribution of the forces. Cemented groups showed statistically higher fracture strength values than non-cemented groups. While ceramic cores on stainless steel dies showed the highest fracture strength values, ceramic cores on dentin dies showed the lowest fracture strength values among the groups. The elastic modulus of the supporting die structure is a significant factor in determining the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns. Using supporting die structures that have a low elastic modulus may be suitable for fracture strength tests, in order to accurately reflect clinical conditions. PMID:21845404

  9. Influence of the supporting die structures on the fracture strength of all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Munir Tolga; Yondem, Isa; Aykent, Filiz; Eraslan, Oğuz

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the elastic modulus of supporting dies on the fracture strengths of all-ceramic materials used in dental crowns. Four different types of supporting die materials (dentin, epoxy resin, brass, and stainless steel) (24 per group) were prepared using a milling machine to simulate a mandibular molar all-ceramic core preparation. A total number of 96 zirconia cores were fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The specimens were divided into two groups. In the first group, cores were cemented to substructures using a dual-cure resin cement. In the second group, cores were not cemented to the supporting dies. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The geometric models of cores and supporting die materials were developed using finite element method to obtain the stress distribution of the forces. Cemented groups showed statistically higher fracture strength values than non-cemented groups. While ceramic cores on stainless steel dies showed the highest fracture strength values, ceramic cores on dentin dies showed the lowest fracture strength values among the groups. The elastic modulus of the supporting die structure is a significant factor in determining the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns. Using supporting die structures that have a low elastic modulus may be suitable for fracture strength tests, in order to accurately reflect clinical conditions.

  10. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  11. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. Stine

    1996-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

  13. Materials technology programs in support of a mercury Rankine space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    A large portion of the materials technology is summarized that was generated in support of the development of a mercury-rankine space power system (SNAP-8). The primary areas of investigation are: (1) the compatibility of various construction materials with the liquid metals mercury and NaK, (2) the mechanical properties of unalloyed tantalum, and (3) the development of refractory metal/austenitic stainless steel tubing and transition joints. The primary results, conclusions, and state of technology at the completion of this effort for each of these areas are summarized. Results of possible significance to other applications are highlighted.

  14. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-07-16

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method.

  15. Associations between social support network characteristics and receipt of emotional and material support among a sample of male sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry; Barton, Staci; Siconolfi, Daniel; Figueroa, Rafael Perez

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how social support network characteristics are related to perceived receipt of social support among male sexual minority youth. Using egocentric network data collected from a study of male sexual minority youth (n=592), multivariable logistic regression analyses examined distinct associations between individual and social network characteristics with receipt of (1) emotional and (2) material support. In multivariable models, frequent communication and having friends in one's network yielded a two-fold increase in the likelihood of receiving emotional support whereas frequent communication was associated with an almost three-fold higher likelihood of perceived material support. Finally, greater internalized homophobia and personal experiences of gay-related stigma were inversely associated with perceived receipt of emotional and material support, respectively. Understanding the evolving social context and social interactions of this new generation of male sexual minority youth is warranted in order to understand the broader, contextual factors associated with their overall health and well-being.

  16. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  17. Mechanical degradation under hydrogen of yttrium doped barium zirconate electrolyte material prepared with NiO additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciria, D.; Ben Hassine, M.; Jiménez-Melendo, M.; Iakovleva, A.; Haghi-Ashtiani, P.; Aubin, V.; Dezanneau, G.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a novel process was presented to fabricate dense yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolytes with high proton conductivity. This process was based on the use of a NiO additive during reactive sintering. We show here that materials made from this process present a fast degradation of mechanical properties when put in hydrogen-rich conditions, while material made from conventional sintering without NiO aid remains intact in the same conditions. The fast degradation of samples made from reactive sintering, leading to sample failure under highly compressive conditions, is due to the reduction of NiO nanoparticles at grain boundaries as shown from structural and chemical analyses using Transmission Electron Microscopy. By the present study, we alert about the potential risk of cell failure due to this mechanical degradation.

  18. Pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose: a versatile support for lithium ion battery anode materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Yang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xiangjun; Song, Qi; Chen, Shiyan; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-22

    A scalable, low-cost and environmentally benign strategy is developed for the facile construction of a unique kind of three-dimensional porous electrode architecture for high-performance lithium ion batteries. The methodology is based on the employment of pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose as a new three-dimensional porous scaffold to support various nanostructured active electrode materials, such as SnO2 and Ge.

  19. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  20. Fabrication of Fe-FeAl Functionally Graded Material Using the Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Pan, Zengxi; Cuiuri, Dominic; Roberts, Jon; Li, Huijun

    2016-02-01

    A functionally gradient iron-aluminum wall structure with aluminum composition gradient from 0 at. pct to over 50 at. pct is fabricated using a wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system. The as-fabricated alloy is investigated using optical microstructure analysis, hardness testing, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction phase characterization, and electron-dispersive spectrometry. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental samples has shown that the WAAM system can be used for manufacturing iron aluminide functionally graded material with full density, desired composition, and reasonable mechanical properties.

  1. Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids

    DOEpatents

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Frank, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

  2. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  3. Sorptive uptake of selenium with magnetite and its supported materials onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae H; Wilson, Lee D; Sammynaiken, R

    2015-11-01

    Kinetic and equilibrium uptake studies of selenite in aqueous solution with synthetic magnetite (Mag-P), commercial magnetite (Mag-C), goethite, activated carbon (AC), and a composite material containing 19% magnetite supported on activated carbon (CM-19) were investigated. Kinetic uptake studies used a one-pot setup at pH 5.26 at variable temperature. Sampling of unbound selenite in-situ was achieved with analytical detection by atomic absorbance. The sorptive uptake at equilibrium and kinetic conditions are listed in descending order: goethite>Mag-P>Mag-C>CM-19. Kinetic uptake parameters reveal that Mag-P showed apparent negative values for the activation energy (E(a)) and the enthalpy of activation (ΔH(‡)), in agreement with a multi-step process for the kinetic uptake of selenite. By contrast, Mag-C, CM-19, and goethite showed positive values for E(a) and ΔH(‡). The uptake properties of the various sorbent materials with selenite are in accordance with the formation of inner- and out-sphere complexes. Leaching of iron from the composite material (CM-19) was attenuated due to the stabilizing effect of the magnetite within the pore sites and the surface of AC. Supported iron oxide nanomaterial composites represent a unique sorbent material with tunable uptake properties toward inorganic selenite in aqueous solution.

  4. Geochemistry and materials studies in support of the Magma Energy Extraction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry and materials studies are being performed in support of the Magma Energy Extraction Program. The scope of the studies is dictated by the sites under consideration and the designs of the drilling and energy extraction systems. The work has been largely restricted to characterizing magmatic environments at sites of interest and testing engineering materials in laboratory simulated rhyolite magmatic environments. The behavior of 17 commercially available materials has been examined at magmatic conditions. Analysis of reaction products reveal that oxidation, and not sulfidation, is the main corrosion problem for most alloys in rhyolite, and that reaction with other magmatic components is limited. Considerations of corrosion resistance, high-temperature strength, and cost indicate nickel-base superalloys offer the most promise as candidates for use in rhyolitic magma.

  5. CO oxidation over gold supported on Cs, Li and Ti-doped cryptomelane materials.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia A C; Santos, Vera P; Pereira, M Fernando R; Órfão, José J M; Figueiredo, José L

    2016-10-15

    Cryptomelane-type manganese oxides were synthesized by redox reaction under acid and reflux conditions. Different metals (cesium, lithium and titanium) were incorporated into the tunnel structure by the ion-exchange technique. Gold was loaded onto these materials (1wt%) by a double impregnation method. The obtained catalysts were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and temperature-programmed reduction. The catalytic activity of these materials was evaluated in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The incorporation of Cs, Li or Ti into cryptomelane was detrimental in terms of catalytic activity. Further addition of gold to cryptomelane doped materials significantly improved the catalytic performance, especially for Cs-K-OMS-2 and Li-K-OMS-2 (to a smaller extent). Addition of gold to the Ti containing material did not show a significant improvement. The observed trends are related to the effect of gold on samples reducibility and to the gold particle size. The lattice oxygen can also be considered accountable for the activity of the materials, since the most active cryptomelane catalysts are those with higher lattice oxygen donating ability for the oxidation of the CO molecule.

  6. CO oxidation over gold supported on Cs, Li and Ti-doped cryptomelane materials.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia A C; Santos, Vera P; Pereira, M Fernando R; Órfão, José J M; Figueiredo, José L

    2016-10-15

    Cryptomelane-type manganese oxides were synthesized by redox reaction under acid and reflux conditions. Different metals (cesium, lithium and titanium) were incorporated into the tunnel structure by the ion-exchange technique. Gold was loaded onto these materials (1wt%) by a double impregnation method. The obtained catalysts were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and temperature-programmed reduction. The catalytic activity of these materials was evaluated in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The incorporation of Cs, Li or Ti into cryptomelane was detrimental in terms of catalytic activity. Further addition of gold to cryptomelane doped materials significantly improved the catalytic performance, especially for Cs-K-OMS-2 and Li-K-OMS-2 (to a smaller extent). Addition of gold to the Ti containing material did not show a significant improvement. The observed trends are related to the effect of gold on samples reducibility and to the gold particle size. The lattice oxygen can also be considered accountable for the activity of the materials, since the most active cryptomelane catalysts are those with higher lattice oxygen donating ability for the oxidation of the CO molecule. PMID:27399615

  7. The role of textured material in supporting perceptual-motor functions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Wheat, Jon; Seifert, Ludovic; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo; Ashford, Derek; Kerr, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18-51 years and 64.7-79.4 years) and experimental task (upright balance and walking). Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed) and stability (stable and unstable). Meta-analysis (random effects) revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46-0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau(2) = 0.02; Chi(2) = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I(2) = 39.22). Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau(2) = 0.13; Chi(2) = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I(2) = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau(2) = 0.09; Chi(2) = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I(2) = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau(2) = 0.16; Chi(2) = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I(2) = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau(2) = 0.00; Chi(2) = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I(2) = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving

  8. The Role of Textured Material in Supporting Perceptual-Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Wheat, Jon; Seifert, Ludovic; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo; Ashford, Derek; Kerr, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18–51 years and 64.7–79.4 years) and experimental task (upright balance and walking). Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed) and stability (stable and unstable). Meta-analysis (random effects) revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46–0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau2 = 0.02; Chi2 = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I2 = 39.22). Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau2 = 0.13; Chi2 = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I2 = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau2 = 0.09; Chi2 = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I2 = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau2 = 0.16; Chi2 = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I2 = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau2 = 0.00; Chi2 = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I2 = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving perceptual-motor performance

  9. The role of textured material in supporting perceptual-motor functions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Wheat, Jon; Seifert, Ludovic; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo; Ashford, Derek; Kerr, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18-51 years and 64.7-79.4 years) and experimental task (upright balance and walking). Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed) and stability (stable and unstable). Meta-analysis (random effects) revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46-0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau(2) = 0.02; Chi(2) = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I(2) = 39.22). Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau(2) = 0.13; Chi(2) = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I(2) = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau(2) = 0.09; Chi(2) = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I(2) = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau(2) = 0.16; Chi(2) = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I(2) = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau(2) = 0.00; Chi(2) = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I(2) = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving

  10. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  11. Efficacy of different disinfectant systems on alginate and addition silicone impression materials of Indian and international origin: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samra, R K; Bhide, S V

    2010-09-01

    Study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants and to study qualitatively and quantitatively the persistence of microflora on the untreated (control group) and the disinfected impression surface after 24 h. Disinfectant systems used were immersion systems like glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and the ultraviolet chamber. The effect of disinfectant on most commonly used Indian impression materials was carried out in this study and results compared with the most commonly used foreign brands for irreversible hydrocolloid and addition silicone. Impressions were made of 25 healthy volunteers. These were disinfected and incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37°C for aerobic organisms. The inoculation in nutrient media was done to test the viability of microorganisms that can persist after rinsing and disinfection of the impression surface. The colony forming units were counted and compared with that of control group. Control group of all the impression material samples showed growth of Streptococcus viridans, Diphtheroids, Streptococcus pneumoniae to a greater extent. The growth of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aerugenosa and Staphyloccus albus was present in all the groups but to a lesser extent. The persistence of the microflora on the impression surface of both the studied brands was similar but the concentration of organisms in the alginate control group was two folds as compared to addition silicone group. Use of ultraviolet chamber gave better results compared to the studied immersion systems. All the disinfection systems were effective in reducing the microbial load with ultraviolet chamber as the most effective.

  12. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO2eq to 132,141 tonCO2eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  13. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  14. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  15. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  16. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  17. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  18. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  19. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory for self-referenced materials in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that young and older adults show a benefit in source memory accuracy when processing materials in reference to the self. In the young, activity within the medial prefrontal cortex supports this source memory benefit at study. In this investigation, we examined whether the same neural regions support this memory benefit in both age groups. Using fMRI, we scanned participants while they studied and retrieved pictures of objects paired with one of three scenes (source) under self-reference and other-reference conditions. At the time of study, half of the items were presented once and half twice, allowing us to match behavioral performance between the groups. Both groups showed equivalent source accuracy benefits for objects encoded self-referentially. Activity in the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex supported subsequent source memory in both age groups for the self-referenced relative to the other-referenced items. At the time of test, source accuracy for both the self- and other-referenced items was supported by a network of regions including the precuneus in both age groups. At both study and test, little in the way of age differences emerged, suggesting that when they are matched on behavioral performance, young and older adults engage similar regions in support of source memory when processing materials in reference to the self; however, when we did not match performance, age differences in functional recruitment were prevalent. These results suggest that by capitalizing on preserved processes (self-referential encoding), older adults can show improvement in memory for source details that they would typically not remember well, relative to the young.

  1. ON THE SUPPORT OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MATERIAL BY THE DIPS OF A CORONAL FLUX TUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, Andrew; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-04-01

    The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (B{sub x} ) to the axial field (B{sub y} ) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma {beta} of {approx}0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension.

  2. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO) and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD) in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  3. Designing and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Physlet-Based Learning Materials in Supporting Conceptual Learning in Secondary School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ülen, Simon; Cagran, Branka; Slavinec, Mitja; Gerlic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Many educational researchers have investigated how best to support conceptual learning in science education. In this study, the aim was to design learning materials using Physlets, small computer simulations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of these materials in supporting conceptual learning in secondary school physics. Students were taught in…

  4. Investigating Teacher Learning Supports in High School Biology Curricular Programs to Inform the Design of Educative Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Delgado, Cesar; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Krajcik, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Reform efforts have emphasized the need to support teachers' learning about reform-oriented practices. Educative curriculum materials are one potential vehicle for promoting teacher learning about these practices. Educative curriculum materials include supports that are intended to promote both student "and" teacher learning. However, little is…

  5. Evaluation of support materials for the surface immobilization and decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shin, M; Nguyen, T; Ramsay, J

    2002-10-01

    The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the jute's integrity over a 4 week period. The fungus immobilized on jute, straw and hemp decolorized amaranth (50 mg l(-1)) at a rate of about 5 mg l(-1) h(-1) without glucose being added. When 1 g l(-1) glucose was added, the dye was degraded more quickly (about 8 mg l(-1) h(-1)). Decoloration did not occur in a suspension culture without glucose. As the number of decoloration cycles increased, the rate of decoloration decreased. This rate was restored to its original level after the biomass was incubated in fresh growth medium for 5 days. With all immobilization supports, the toxicity of the medium before and after decoloration was the same or lower.

  6. Ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials supported by in-situ diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumkar, M.; Kaiser, M.; Kleiner, J.; Grossmann, D.; Flamm, D.; Bergner, K.; Nolte, S.

    2016-03-01

    For the development of industrial NIR ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials, the absorption inside the bulk material has to be controlled. Applications we aim for are front and rear side ablation, drilling and inscription of modifications for cleaving and selective laser etching of glass and sapphire in sheet geometry. We applied pump probe technology and in situ stress birefringence microscopy for fundamental studies on the influence of energy and duration (100 fs - 20 ps), temporal and spatial spacing, focusing and beam shaping of the laser pulses. Applying pump probe technique we are able to visualize differences of spatio-temporal build up of absorption, self focusing, shock wave generation for standard, multispot and beam shaped focusing. Incubation effects and disturbance of beam propagation due to modifications or ablation can be observed. In-situ imaging of stress birefringence gained insight in transient build up of stress with and without translation. The results achieved so far, demonstrate that transient stress has to be taken into account in scaling the laser machining throughput of brittle materials. Furthermore it points out that transient stress birefringence is a good indicator for accumulation effects, supporting tailored processing strategies. Cutting results achieved for selective laser etching by single pass laser modification exemplifies the benefits of process development supported by in situ diagnostics.

  7. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  8. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  9. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  10. Nb doped TiO2 as a Cathode Catalyst Support Material for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Alexander W.

    In order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and reduce dependence on the use of fossil fuels, it is necessary to pursue alternative sources of energy. Transportation is a major contributor to the emission of greenhouse gases due to the use of fossil fuels in the internal combustion engine. To reduce emission of these pollutants into the atmosphere, research is needed to produce alternative solutions for vehicle transportation. Low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are energy conversion devices that provide an alternative to the internal combustion engine, however, they still have obstacles to overcome to achieve large scale implementation. T he following work presents original research with regards to the development of Nb doped TiO2 as a cathode catalyst support material for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The development of a new process to synthesize nanoparticles of Nb doped TiO2 with controlled compositions is presented as well as methods to scale up the process and optimize the synthesis for the aforementioned application. In addition to this, comparison of both electrochemical activity and durability with current state of the art Pt on high surface area carbon black (Vulcan XC-72) is investigated. Effects of the strong metal-support interaction on the electrochemical behavior of these materials is also observed and discussed.

  11. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  12. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Van, Henricus L; Dekker, Jack; Koelen, Jurrijn; Kool, Simone; van Aalst, Gerda; Hendriksen, Marielle; Peen, Jaap; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in adherence and outcome. About half of the early nonresponders refused the additional medication. However, no clear effect of medication addition on ultimate outcome could be demonstrated. In total, 37% of the patients achieved remission. The study suggested that randomization of patients does not induce a great influence on outcome. It might be warranted to continue an initially ineffective psychotherapy for depression, because a considerable number of patients do have a pattern of delayed response.

  13. Efficacy of different disinfectant systems on alginate and addition silicone impression materials of Indian and international origin: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samra, R K; Bhide, S V

    2010-09-01

    Study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants and to study qualitatively and quantitatively the persistence of microflora on the untreated (control group) and the disinfected impression surface after 24 h. Disinfectant systems used were immersion systems like glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and the ultraviolet chamber. The effect of disinfectant on most commonly used Indian impression materials was carried out in this study and results compared with the most commonly used foreign brands for irreversible hydrocolloid and addition silicone. Impressions were made of 25 healthy volunteers. These were disinfected and incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37°C for aerobic organisms. The inoculation in nutrient media was done to test the viability of microorganisms that can persist after rinsing and disinfection of the impression surface. The colony forming units were counted and compared with that of control group. Control group of all the impression material samples showed growth of Streptococcus viridans, Diphtheroids, Streptococcus pneumoniae to a greater extent. The growth of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aerugenosa and Staphyloccus albus was present in all the groups but to a lesser extent. The persistence of the microflora on the impression surface of both the studied brands was similar but the concentration of organisms in the alginate control group was two folds as compared to addition silicone group. Use of ultraviolet chamber gave better results compared to the studied immersion systems. All the disinfection systems were effective in reducing the microbial load with ultraviolet chamber as the most effective. PMID:21886411

  14. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  15. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P.; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method. PMID:26179785

  16. Laser supported detonation wave source of atomic oxygen for aerospace material testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A pulsed high-flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was developed to perform accelerated erosion testing of spacecraft materials in a simulated low-earth orbit (LEO) environment. Molecular oxygen is introduced into an evacuated conical expansion nozzle at several atmospheres pressure through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A laser-induced breakdown is generated in the nozzle throat by a pulsed CO2 TEA laser. The resulting plasma is heated by the ensuing laser-supported detonation wave, and then it rapidly expands and cools. An atomic oxygen beam is generated with fluxes above 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse at 8 + or - 1.6 km/s with an ion content below 1 percent for LEO testing. Materials testing yielded the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as observed on the STS mission, and scanning electron micrographs of the irradiated polymer surfaces showed an erosion morphology similar to that obtained on low earth orbit.

  17. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  18. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  19. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition. PMID:27080407

  20. Molecular and Merrifield supported chiral diamines for enantioselective addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to ketones.

    PubMed

    Calvillo-Barahona, Mercedes; Cordovilla, Carlos; Genov, Miroslav N; Martínez-Ilarduya, Jesús M; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-10-28

    Chiral 1,2-ethylenediamines have been previously reported as active catalysts in the enantioselective addition reactions of ZnR2 to either methyl- or trifluoromethyl-ketones. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of different catalysts are described herein and lead to a dramatic effect in their catalytic activity. From these findings, we demonstrate the selective reactivity of the ligands used in the addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to methyl- and trifluoromethyl-ketones offering an enantioselective access either to chiral non-fluorinated alcohols or to chiral fluorinated tertiary alcohols. Considering the importance of the chiral trifluoromethyl carbinol fragment in several biologically active compounds, we have extended the scope of the addition reaction of ZnEt2 to several trifluoromethylketones catalyzed by (R,R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives. This work explores a homogeneous approach that provides excellent yields and very high ee and the use of a heterogenized tail-tied ligand affording moderate ee, high yields and allowing an easier handling and recycling.

  1. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  2. Material report in support to RCC-MRX code 2010 stainless steel parts and products

    SciTech Connect

    Ancelet, Olivier; Lebarbe, Thierry; Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Bonne, Dominique; Gelineau, Odile

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the Material Report dedicated to stainless steels parts and products issued by AFCEN (Association Francaise pour les regles de Conception et de Construction des Materiels des Chaudieres Electro-Nucleaires) in support to RCC-MRx 2010 Code. The RCC-MRx Code is the result of the merger of the RCC-MX 2008, developed in the context of the research reactor Jules Horowitz Reactor project, in the RCC-MR 2007, which set up rules applicable to the design of components operating at high temperature and to the Vacuum Vessel of ITER (a presentation of RCC-MRx 2010 Code is the subject of another paper proposed in this Congress; it explains in particular the status of this Code). This Material Report is part of a set of Criteria of RCC-MRx (this set of Criteria is under construction). The Criteria aim at explaining the design and construction rules of the Code. They cover analyses rules as well as part procurement, welding, methods of tests and examination and fabrication rules. The Material Report particularly provides justifications and explanations on requirements and features dealing with parts and products proposed in the Code. The Material Report contains the following information: Introduction of the grade(s): codes and standards and Reference Procurement Specifications covering parts and products, applications and experience gained, - Physical properties, - Mechanical properties used for design calculations (base metal and welds): basic mechanical properties, creep mechanical properties, irradiated mechanical properties, - Fabrication: experience gained, metallurgy, - Welding: weldability, experience gained during welding and repair procedure qualifications, - Non-destructive examination, - In-service behaviour. In the article, examples of data supplied in the Material Report dedicated to stainless steels will be exposed. (authors)

  3. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.; Miron, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  4. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED GRANULAR SUPPORT PARTICLES AND CATALYTIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenchen Zhong

    2002-01-15

    We have set up successfully two experimental systems during the past time of the project. The first system is sol-gel chemical method for preparing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles. The second system is the laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) technique for nanoparticle catalysts containing Fe/Cu, and Co/Cu on the granular support. We have successfully deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular support particles by sol-gel method and Co and CoO nanoparticles by LISD novel fabrication technique. The characterization methods we have used include scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The research toward to the proposed direction is in good progress. We have given three presentations in national and local materials meetings and have submitted another two papers in another two key national meetings in nanotechnology and American Physical Annual March Meeting 2002. A couple of papers are in preparation.

  5. Assessment of rock wool as support material for on-site sanitation: hydrodynamic and mechanical characterization.

    PubMed

    Wanko, Adrien; Laurent, Julien; Bois, Paul; Mosé, Robert; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Bahlouli, Nadia; Tiffay, Serge; Braun, Bouke; Provo kluit, Pieter-Willem

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes mechanical and hydrodynamic characterization of rock wool used as support material in compact filter. A double-pronged approach, based on experimental simulation of various physical states of this material was done. First of all a scanning electron microscopy observation allows to highlight the fibrous network structure, the fibres sizing distribution and the atomic absorption spectrum. The material was essentially lacunar with 97 ± 2% of void space. Static compression tests on variably saturated rock wool samples provide the fact that the strain/stress behaviours depend on both the sample conditioning and the saturation level. Results showed that water exerts plastifying effect on mechanical behaviour of rock wool. The load-displacement curves and drainage evolution under different water saturation levels allowed exhibiting hydraulic retention capacities under stress. Finally, several tracer experiments on rock wool column considering continuous and batch feeding flow regime allowed: (i) to determine the flow model for each test case and the implications for water dynamic in rock wool medium, (ii) to assess the rock wool double porosity and discuss its advantages for wastewater treatment, (iii) to analyse the benefits effect for water treatment when the high level of rock wool hydric retention was associated with the plug-flow effect, and (iv) to discuss the practical contributions for compact filter conception and management.

  6. Adiabatic Calorimetry as Support to the Certification of High-Purity Liquid Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, A.; Bosma, R.; Peruzzi, A.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Shimizu, Y.

    2009-02-01

    The certification of high-purity liquid reference materials is supported by several analytical techniques (e.g., gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, Karl Fischer coulometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, adiabatic calorimetry). Most of them provide information on a limited set of specific impurities present in the sample (indirect methods). Adiabatic calorimetry [1] complementarily provides the overall molar fraction of impurities with sensitivity down to few μmol · mol-1 without giving any information about the nature of the impurities present in the sample (direct method). As the combination of adiabatic calorimetry with one (or more than one) indirect chemical techniques was regarded as an optimal methodology, NMi VSL developed an adiabatic calorimetry facility for the purity determination of high-purity liquid reference materials [2]. Within the framework of collaboration with NMIJ, a benzene-certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 4002) from NMIJ was analyzed by adiabatic calorimetry at NMi VSL. The results of this measurement are reported in this paper. Good agreement with the NMIJ-certified purity value (99.992 ± 0.003) cmol · mol-1 was found. The influence of different data analysis approaches (e.g., extrapolation functions, melting ranges) on the measurement results is reported. The uncertainty of the measured purity was estimated.

  7. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  8. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  9. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  10. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: effects of additives and alternative container materials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Iriarte, Mercedes; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-04-15

    The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan(®), which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection.

  11. Influence of physico-chemical factors on leaching of chemical additives from aluminium foils used for packaging of food materials.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Priyanka; Ojha, C S; Sharma, V P

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the use of aluminium foils to wrap foodstuff and commodities has been increased to a great extent. Aluminium was found to leach out from the foil in different simulants particularly in distilled water, acidic and alkaline medium at 60 +/- 2 degrees C for 2 hours and 40 +/- 2 degrees C for 24 hours. The migration was found to be above the permissible limit as laid down by WHO guidelines, that is of 0.2 mg/L of water. The protocol used for this study was based on the recommendation of Bureau of Indian Standard regarding the migration of chemical additives from packaging materials used to pack food items. Migration of the aluminium metal was found significantly higher in acidic and aqueous medium in comparison to alcoholic and saline medium. Higher temperature conditions also enhanced the rate of migration of aluminium in acidic and aqueous medium. Leaching of aluminium metal occurred in double distilled water, acetic acid 3%, normal saline and sodium carbonate, except ethanol 8%, in which aluminium migration was below the detection limit of the instrument where three brands of the aluminium foil samples studied.

  12. Application of the US decision support tool for materials and waste management.

    PubMed

    Thorneloe, Susan A; Weitz, Keith; Jambeck, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) launched the Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC) in 2002 to help reduce waste and move towards more sustainable resource consumption. The objective of the RCC is to help communities, industries, and the public think in terms of materials management rather than waste disposal. Reducing cost, finding more efficient and effective strategies to manage municipal waste, and thinking in terms of materials management requires a holistic approach that considers life-cycle environmental tradeoffs. The US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory has led the development of a municipal solid waste decision support tool (MSW-DST). The computer software can be used to calculate life-cycle environmental tradeoffs and full costs of different waste management or materials recovery programs. The environmental methodology is based on the use of life-cycle assessment and the cost methodology is based on the use of full-cost accounting. Life-cycle inventory (LCI) environmental impacts and costs are calculated from the point of collection, handling, transport, treatment, and disposal. For any materials that are recovered for recycling, offsets are calculated to reflect potential emissions savings from use of virgin materials. The use of the MSW-DST provides a standardized format and consistent basis to compare alternatives. This paper provides an illustration of how the MSW-DST can be used by evaluating ten management strategies for a hypothetical medium-sized community to compare the life-cycle environmental and cost tradeoffs. The LCI results from the MSW-DST are then used as inputs into another US EPA tool, the Tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts, to convert the LCI results into impact indicators. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how the MSW-DST can be used to identify and balance multiple criteria (costs and environmental impacts) when evaluating options for materials and

  13. Associations between social support network characteristics and receipt of emotional and material support among a sample of male sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry; Barton, Staci; Siconolfi, Daniel; Figueroa, Rafael Perez

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how social support network characteristics are related to perceived receipt of social support among male sexual minority youth. Using egocentric network data collected from a study of male sexual minority youth (n=592), multivariable logistic regression analyses examined distinct associations between individual and social network characteristics with receipt of (1) emotional and (2) material support. In multivariable models, frequent communication and having friends in one’s network yielded a two-fold increase in the likelihood of receiving emotional support whereas frequent communication was associated with an almost three-fold higher likelihood of perceived material support. Finally, greater internalized homophobia and personal experiences of gay-related stigma were inversely associated with perceived receipt of emotional and material support, respectively. Understanding the evolving social context and social interactions of this new generation of male sexual minority youth is warranted in order to understand the broader, contextual factors associated with their overall health and well-being. PMID:25214756

  14. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. PMID:27401481

  15. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  16. Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste.

    PubMed

    Lunge, Sneha; Thakre, Dilip; Kamble, Sanjay; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2012-10-30

    A new alumina supported carbon composite material called "Eggshell Composite" (EC) was synthesized from eggshell waste as calcium source for selective fluoride adsorption from water. The effect of various synthesis parameters like eggshell (ES): Eggshell membrane (ESM) ratio, aluminium loading, mixing time and calcinations temperature to optimize the synthesis conditions for selective fluoride removal has been studied. It was observed that the synthesis parameters have significant influence on development of EC and in turn on fluoride removal capacity. EC synthesized was characterized for elemental composition, morphology, functionality and textural properties. Results showed that EC obtained from eggshell modified with alumina precursor is more selective and efficient for fluoride removal. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were used to obtain ultimate fluoride removal capacity. The calcium and alumina species in EC shows synergistic effect in fluoride adsorption process. Fluoride sorption studies were carried out in synthetic, groundwater and wastewater. EC proved to be a potential, indigenous and economic adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  17. A new supporting material for fascia grafting during myringoplasty: polyglycolic acid sheets.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Sawai, Yachiyo; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We used polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets, a reinforcing material, as supporting devices for securing the fascia instead of fibrin glue or Gelfoam in patients with tympanic membrane (TM) perforations. PGA sheets were placed lateral to the fascia graft attached using the underlay grafting technique in 6 patients. In each case, the PGA sheet had been macerated and had merged into the fascia within 1 week of the procedure. At 2 to 3 postoperative weeks, parts of the sheet had become dehydrated and detached from the fascia, revealing a new epithelialized TM underneath. Eventually, the sheet had disappeared, and complete epithelialization had been achieved at 4 to 5 postoperative weeks, resulting in the successful closure of the perforation. The repair of TM remained stable throughout the follow-up period of at least 6 months in all patients. These results suggest that PGA sheets have the potential to secure fascia grafts and to guide the epithelialization of new tissue.

  18. The Astronomy Workshop: Computer Assisted Learning Tools with Instructor Support Materials and Student Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Grace; Hamilton, D.; Hayes-Gehrke, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes, as supplementary materials appropriate for grades 9-12, and by the general public. The philosophy of the website is to foster student and public interest in astronomy by capitalizing on their fascination with computers and the internet. Many of the tools were developed by graduate and undergraduate students at UMD. This website contains over 20 tools on topics including scientific notation, giant impacts, extrasolar planets, astronomical distances, planets, moons, comets, and asteroids. Educators around the country at universities, colleges, and secondary schools have used the Astronomy Workshop’s tools and activities as homework assignments, in-class demos, or extra credit. Since 2005, Grace Deming has assessed several of the Astronomy Workshop’s tools for clarity and effectiveness by interviewing students as they used tools on the website. Based on these interviews, Deming wrote student activities and instructor support materials and posted them to the website. Over the next three years, we will continue to interview students, develop web materials, and field-test activities. We are targeting classes in introductory undergraduate astronomy courses and grades 11-12 for our Spring 2007 field tests. We are interested in hearing your ideas on how we can make the Astronomy Workshop more appealing to educators, museum directors, specialty programs, and professors. This research is funded by NASA EPO grants NNG04GM18G and NNG06GGF99G.

  19. Supported Lipid Bilayers for the Generation of Dynamic Cell-Material Interfaces.

    PubMed

    van Weerd, Jasper; Karperien, Marcel; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2015-12-30

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLB) offer unique possibilities for studying cellular membranes and have been used as a synthetic architecture to interact with cells. Here, the state-of-the-art in SLB-based technology is presented. The fabrication, analysis, characteristics and modification of SLBs are described in great detail. Numerous strategies to form SLBs on different substrates, and the means to patteren them, are described. The use of SLBs as model membranes for the study of membrane organization and membrane processes in vitro is highlighted. In addition, the use of SLBs as a substratum for cell analysis is presented, with discrimination between cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicry. The study is concluded with a discussion of the potential for in vivo applications of SLBs.

  20. Supported Lipid Bilayers for the Generation of Dynamic Cell-Material Interfaces.

    PubMed

    van Weerd, Jasper; Karperien, Marcel; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2015-12-30

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLB) offer unique possibilities for studying cellular membranes and have been used as a synthetic architecture to interact with cells. Here, the state-of-the-art in SLB-based technology is presented. The fabrication, analysis, characteristics and modification of SLBs are described in great detail. Numerous strategies to form SLBs on different substrates, and the means to patteren them, are described. The use of SLBs as model membranes for the study of membrane organization and membrane processes in vitro is highlighted. In addition, the use of SLBs as a substratum for cell analysis is presented, with discrimination between cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicry. The study is concluded with a discussion of the potential for in vivo applications of SLBs. PMID:26573989

  1. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  2. Effect of an organic additive on the rheology of an aluminous cement paste and consequences on the densification of the hardened material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hafiane, Y.; Smith, A.; Bonnet, J. P.; Tanouti, B.

    2005-03-01

    The material used in the present work is Secar 71 (Lafarge) mixed with water containing an organic additive (acetic acid noted HOAc). The rheological behavior of these pastes is studied. The best dispersion is obtained when the mass content of the additive with respect to the cement is equal to 0.5%. The microstructural characterizations of samples aged 4 days at 20° C and 95 % relative humidity reveal a significant increase in the density and a reduction in porosity for very small percentages of additive. The remarkable effect of the acetic acid on the microstructure of hardened material is correlated with its good dispersing action.

  3. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  4. Improving the damping ability by the addition of Nano SiO2 to the concrete materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Teng, Jun

    2009-07-01

    Damping in structures is commonly provided by viscoelastic nonstructural materials. Due to the large volume of structural materials in a structure, the contribution of a structural material to damping can be substantial. In this paper, the experimental investigation on damping ability of concrete materials and its members with Nana SiO2 was carried out by the method of 3-point bending beam damping measurement and cantilever beam free vibration respectively. The microstructure of concrete mix with Nano SiO2 was observed by XRD and SEM, then damping mechanism was discussed. The experimental results show that the damping reinforced effect achieved best with the 4% mixture ratio of Nana SiO2, but the optimal adulteration quantity of Nano SiO2 was 3% of cement weight by the comprehensive consideration of cost, workability, strength and dynamic properties. Nano materials as a mixture increase interfaces, and the non-uniform stress distribution under external force improves frictional damping energy consumption ability of concrete. The experimental results on the damping ratio and the loss tangent of the concrete materials with Nano materials are consistent.

  5. [Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future. PMID:23256382

  6. A Strategy to Support Design Processes for Fibre Reinforced Thermoset Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascons, Marc; Blanco, Norbert; Mayugo, Joan Andreu; Matthys, Koen

    2012-06-01

    The concept stage in the design for a new composite part is a time when several fundamental decisions must be taken and a considerable amount of the budget is spent. Specialized commercial software packages can be used to support the decision making process in particular aspects of the project (e.g. material selection, numerical analysis, cost prediction,...). However, a complete and integrated virtual environment that covers all the steps in the process is not yet available for the composite design and manufacturing industry. This paper does not target the creation of such an overarching virtual tool, but instead presents a strategy that handles the information generated in each step of the design process, independently of the commercial packages used. Having identified a suitable design parameter shared in common with all design steps, the proposed strategy is able to evaluate the effects of design variations throughout all the design steps in parallel. A case study illustrating the strategy on an industrial part is presented.

  7. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  8. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  9. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  10. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  11. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  12. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura Schmidt

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  13. Materials for sustained and controlled release of nutrients and molecules to support plant growth.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Drew; Gu, Frank X

    2012-02-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) are a branch of materials that are designed to improve the soil release kinetics of chemical fertilizers to address problems stemming losses from runoff or other factors. Current CRFs are used but only in a limited market due to relatively high costs and doubts about their abilities to result in higher yields and increased profitability for agricultural businesses. New technologies are emerging that promise to improve the efficacy of CRFs to add additional functionality and reduce cost to make CRFs a more viable alternative to traditional chemical fertilizer treatment. CRFs that offer ways of reducing air and water pollution from fertilizer treatments, improving the ability of plants to access required nutrients, improving water retention to increase drought resistance, and reducing the amount of fertilizer needed to provide maximum crop yields are under development. A wide variety of different strategies are being considered to tackle this problem, and each approach offers different advantages and drawbacks. Agricultural industries will soon be forced to move toward more efficient and sustainable practices to respond to increasing fertilizer cost and desire for sustainable growing practices. CRFs have the potential to solve many problems in agriculture and help enable this shift while maintaining profitability. PMID:22224363

  14. Materials for sustained and controlled release of nutrients and molecules to support plant growth.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Drew; Gu, Frank X

    2012-02-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) are a branch of materials that are designed to improve the soil release kinetics of chemical fertilizers to address problems stemming losses from runoff or other factors. Current CRFs are used but only in a limited market due to relatively high costs and doubts about their abilities to result in higher yields and increased profitability for agricultural businesses. New technologies are emerging that promise to improve the efficacy of CRFs to add additional functionality and reduce cost to make CRFs a more viable alternative to traditional chemical fertilizer treatment. CRFs that offer ways of reducing air and water pollution from fertilizer treatments, improving the ability of plants to access required nutrients, improving water retention to increase drought resistance, and reducing the amount of fertilizer needed to provide maximum crop yields are under development. A wide variety of different strategies are being considered to tackle this problem, and each approach offers different advantages and drawbacks. Agricultural industries will soon be forced to move toward more efficient and sustainable practices to respond to increasing fertilizer cost and desire for sustainable growing practices. CRFs have the potential to solve many problems in agriculture and help enable this shift while maintaining profitability.

  15. Preparation and adsorption behavior of berberine hydrochloride imprinted polymers by using silica gel as sacrificed support material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Li, Yuzhuo; Li, Zhiping; Peng, Xiyang; Li, Yanan; Li, Gui; Tan, Xianzhou; Chen, Gongxi

    2012-03-01

    Preparation of berberine hydrochloride (B-Cl) imprinted polymers (MIPs) based on surface imprinting technique with silica gel as sacrificial support material was performed successfully by using B-Cl as template, methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The prepared polymers were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorption behavior of the MIPs for the template and its structural analogues was investigated. Sites distribution on the surface of MIPs was explored by using different isotherm adsorption models and thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of B-Cl on the MIPs determined. Sample application and reusability for the MIPs was also evaluated. Results indicated the strong adsorption and high selectivity of the MIPs for B-Cl. Saturated adsorption capacity reached 27.2 μmol g-1 and the selectivity coefficient of the MIPs for B-Cl relative to jatrorrhizine hydrochloride (J-Cl) and palmatine palmatus hydrochloride (P-Cl) are 3.70 and 6.03, respectively. In addition, the MIPs were shown with good reusability and selectively retention ability in sample application.

  16. The influence of collagen support and ionic species on the morphology of collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ghitulica, Cristina; Ficai, Denisa

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of collagenous supports and ionic species on the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from aqueous solutions. To this end, we obtained hydroxyapatite by co-precipitation from a solution of calcium hydroxide and sodium dihydrogenophosphate. The formation of HA was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that the morphology of hydroxyapatite is highly influenced by the support material and the ionic species present. The obtained materials were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Full Mouth Oral Rehabilitation by Maxillary Implant Supported Hybrid Denture Employing a Fiber Reinforced Material Instead of Conventional PMMA

    PubMed Central

    Qamheya, Ala Hassan A.; Yeniyol, Sinem; Arısan, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Many people have life-long problems with their dentures, such as difficulties with speaking and eating, loose denture, and sore mouth syndrome. The evolution of dental implant supported prosthesis gives these patients normal healthy life for their functional and esthetic advantages. This case report presents the fabrication of maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis by using Nanofilled Composite (NFC) material in teeth construction to rehabilitate a complete denture wearer patient. PMID:26557392

  18. Hexagonal nanorods of tungsten trioxide: Synthesis, structure, electrochemical properties and activity as supporting material in electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaoui, Samiha; Sediri, Faouzi; Gharbi, Néji; Perruchot, Christian; Aeiyach, Salah; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Jouini, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Tungsten trioxide, unhydrated with hexagonal structure (h-WO 3), has been prepared by hydrothermal method at a temperature of 180 °C in acidified sodium tungstate solution. Thus prepared h-WO 3 has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and using electrochemical techniques. The morphology has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and it is consistent with existence of nanorods of 50-70 nm diameter and up to 5 μm length. Cyclic voltammetric characterization of thin films of h-WO 3 nanorods has revealed reversible redox behaviour with charge-discharge cycling corresponding to the reversible lithium intercalation/deintercalation into the crystal lattice of the h-WO 3 nanorods. In propylene carbonate containing LiClO 4, two successive redox processes of hexagonal WO 3 nanorods are observed at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. Such behaviour shall be attributed to the presence of at least two W atoms of different surroundings in the lattice structure of h-WO 3 nanorods. On the other hand, in aqueous LiClO 4 solution, only one redox process is observed at the scan rate of 10 mV/s. The above observations can be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of ions inside two types of channel cavities existing in the structure of the h-WO 3 nanorods. Moreover, the material can be applied as active support for the catalytic bi-metallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles during electrooxidation of ethanol in acid medium (0.5 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4).

  19. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  20. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  1. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  2. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  3. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  4. The Right Stuff for Children Birth to 8: Selecting Play Materials To Support Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Martha B.

    This book serves as a guide to selecting play materials for individuals providing education and care for young children. The introductory chapter of the book discusses child play and the importance of selection of play materials based on needs of children and the purposes they serve. The next six chapters provide information on play materials,…

  5. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties. PMID:26024614

  6. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties.

  7. Modulation of the Reactivity of a WO3/Al Energetic Material with Graphitized Carbon Black as Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Arnaud; Gibot, Pierre; Vidal, Loïc; Gadiou, Roger; Spitzer, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Although pyrotechnic performance is fundamental, the strong mechanical and electrostatic intrinsic sensitivities of nanothermite energetic composites represent an obstacle to their development. The addition of a ternary component to the classical binary energetic composite appears to be a promising idea to overcome the problem. A carbon black additive (V3G) was used on a WO3/Al nanothermite. The effect of the pristine and modified carbon particles on the mechanical and electrical sensitivities of the composites was measured together with the pyrotechnic properties. The results show a complete desensitization to friction with a ball-milled carbon when the combustion velocity is slightly reduced.

  8. Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V using welding wire: comparison of laser and arc beam deposition and evaluation with respect to aerospace material specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, E.; Baufeld, B.; Leyens, C.; Gault, R.

    In this paper, the results of two different wire based additive-layer-manufacturing systems are compared: in one system Ti-6Al4V is deposited by a Nd:YAG laser beam, in the other by an arc beam (tungsten inert gas process). Mechanical properties of the deposits and of plate material are presented and evaluated with respect to aerospace material specifications. The mechanical tests including static tension and high cycle fatigue were performed in as-built, stress-relieved and annealed conditions. Generally, the mechanical properties of the components are competitive to cast and even wrought material properties and can attain properties suitable for space or aerospace applications.

  9. Materials/manufacturing support element for the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Hoffman, E.E.; Parks, W.P.

    1994-12-31

    In 1993, DOE initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbines for power generation in utility and industrial applications. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in several stages with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. This plan was developed by a small advanced materials and turbine technology team over a 6-month period. The technology plan calls for initiation of several high priority projects in FY 1995. The technical program for the materials/manufacturing element focuses on generic materials issues, components, and manufacturing processes. Categories include coatings and process development, turbine airfoil development, ceramics adaptation, directional solidification and single crystal airfoils manufactoring technology, materials characterization, catalytic combustor materials, and technology information exchange.

  10. One-step microwave-assisted asymmetric cyclisation/hydrogenation of citronellal to menthols using supported nanoparticles on mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Balu, Alina Mariana; Campelo, Juan Manuel; Luque, Rafael; Romero, Antonio Angel

    2010-06-21

    The selective conversion of citronellal to menthols, with good diastereoselectivities to (-)-menthol for the case of (+)-citronellal as starting material, can effectively be carried out in a one-step reaction under microwave irradiation catalysed by supported nanoparticles on mesoporous materials. 2% Pt/Ga-MCM-41 was found to be the optimum catalyst for the reaction, with a quantitative conversion of starting material and selectivities above 85% to menthols obtained in short reaction times (typically 15 min). These results constitute the first report of a simple microwave-assisted one-step cyclisation/hydrogenation process for the production of menthols.

  11. Mechanical and Structural Behavior of Granular Material Packed Beds for Space Life Support System Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh

    2005-01-01

    Long-term human mission to space, such as living in International Space Station (ISS), Lunar, and Martian bases, and travel to Mars, must m ake use of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) to generate and recycle critical life supporting elements like oxygen and water. Oxygen Gen eration Assembly (OGA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA), critical c omponents of ALSS, make use of series of granular material packed beds for generation and recycling of oxygen and water. Several granular m aterials can be used for generation, recycling, processing and recovery of oxygen and water. For example, they may include soft bed media, e.g. ion exchange resins for oxygen generation assembly and hard bed media such as, activated alumina, magchem (Magnesium oxide) and activa ted carbon to remove organic species like ethanol, methanol, and urea from wastewater in Water recovery/processing assembly. These beds are generally packed using a plate-spring mechanism to provide sufficien t compaction to the bed media throughout the course of operation. This paper presents results from an experimental study of a full-scale, 3 8.1 cm (15 inches) long and 3.7 cm (1.44 inches) diameter. activated alumina bed enclosed in a cylinder determining its force-displacement behavior, friction mobilizing force, and axial normal stress distribu tion under various axially applied loads and at different levels of packing. It is observed that force-displacement behavior is non-linear for low compaction level and becomes linear with increase in compaction of the bed media. Axial normal stress distribution along the length of the bed media decreased non-linearly with increase in depth from the loading end of the granular media. This paper also presents experimental results on the amount of particulates generated corresponding to various compaction levels. Particulates generated from each of the tests were measured using standard US sieves. It was found that the p articulates and the overall displacement of

  12. Game theory and decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material tracking and accountancy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goutal, P.; Werkoff, F.; Le Manchec, K.; Preston, N.; Roche, F.

    1995-12-31

    Tracking and accountancy arrangements help guarantee the security of nuclear materials. Verifications consisting of comparisons between physical identifications or measurements on one hand and material accountancy on the other hand are carried out, in order to detect any unexpected absence of nuclear material. This paper studies two different aspects of the problem of the efficiency of these verifications. First, a decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material accountancy systems is presented. Its purpose is firstly to represent a facility and the associated verifications, tracking and accountancy operations and secondly, to calculate the detection delay in the case of an absence of nuclear material. Next, in order to minimize the detection delay for a limited, fixed number of physical identifications, a two-person, zero-sum game with incomplete information is described. The first results obtained from this analysis indicate shorter detection times than those given by games with complete information.

  13. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support... proposed depreciation rates are based (e.g., why the economic life of the pipeline section is less then the physical life). (2) An explanation of the organization, ownership, and operation of the pipeline. (3)...

  14. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support... proposed depreciation rates are based (e.g., why the economic life of the pipeline section is less then the physical life). (2) An explanation of the organization, ownership, and operation of the pipeline. (3)...

  15. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support... proposed depreciation rates are based (e.g., why the economic life of the pipeline section is less then the physical life). (2) An explanation of the organization, ownership, and operation of the pipeline. (3)...

  16. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support... proposed depreciation rates are based (e.g., why the economic life of the pipeline section is less then the physical life). (2) An explanation of the organization, ownership, and operation of the pipeline. (3)...

  17. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support... proposed depreciation rates are based (e.g., why the economic life of the pipeline section is less then the physical life). (2) An explanation of the organization, ownership, and operation of the pipeline. (3)...

  18. Removal and recovery of metals and other materials by supported liquid membranes with strip dispersion.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S Winston

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in supported liquid membranes (SLMs) with strip dispersion for removal and recovery of metals including chromium, copper, zinc, and strontium; it also discusses potential applications of SLMs for removal and recovery of other materials, including cobalt and penicillin G. The technology for chromium that we developed, not only removes the Cr(VI) from about 100-1,000 ppm to less than 0.05 ppm in the treated effluent allowable for discharge or recycle, but also recovers the chromium product at a high concentration of about 20% Cr(VI) (62.3% Na(2)CrO(4)) suitable for resale or reuse. In other words, we have achieved the goals of zero discharge and no sludge. The stability of the SLM is ensured by a modified SLM with strip dispersion, where the aqueous strip solution is dispersed in the organic membrane solution in a mixer. The strip dispersion formed is circulated from the mixer to the membrane module to provide a constant supply of the organic solution to the membrane pores. The copper SLM system that we have identified, not only removed the copper from 150 ppm in the inlet feed to less than 0.15 ppm in the treated feed, but also recovered the copper at a high concentration of greater than 10,000 ppm in the strip solution. For the zinc SLM system identified, zinc at an inlet feed concentration of 550 ppm was removed to less than 0.3 ppm in the treated feed, whereas a high zinc concentration of more than 17,000 ppm was recovered in the strip solution. For strontium removal, we synthesized a family of new extractants, alkyl phenylphosphonic acids. The SLM removed radioactive (90)Sr to the target of 8 pCi/L or lower from feed solutions of 300-1,000 pCi/L. The SLM removed cobalt from about 525 ppm to 0.7 ppm in the treated feed solution, concentrating it to at least 30,000 ppm in the aqueous strip solution. Concerning penicillin G recovery, the SLM removed penicillin G from a feed of 8,840 ppm and concentrated it to a high concentration

  19. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored.

  20. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. PMID:26488900

  1. Effect of additives on mechanical and electrical properties of semi organic non linear material-γ-glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravishankar, M. N.; Chandramani, R.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2012-06-01

    The semi-organic non-linear optical (NLO) crystals of γ-Glycine (G), with additives like Ammonium Oxalate (AO), Barium Nitrate (BN) and Potassium Nitrate (PN) were grown by aqueous solution method. The mechanical properties, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity of the grown crystals were studied. Studies confirm that the grown NLO crystals retain the merits of organic (SHG response and flexibility) and inorganic (good hardness) properties.

  2. Graphene nanoribbons hybridized carbon nanofibers: remarkably enhanced graphitization and conductivity, and excellent performance as support material for fuel cell catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Gao, Hongrong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yiren; Huang, Bowen; Zhao, Junhong; Zhu, Yan; Yuan, Wang Zhang; Zhang, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    High electronic conductivity of the support material and uniform distribution of the catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) are extremely desirable for electrocatalysts. In this paper, we present our recent progress on electrocatalysts for fuel cells with simultaneously improved conductivity of the supporting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and distribution of platinum (Pt) NPs through facile incorporation of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Briefly, GNRs were obtained by the cutting and unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and subsequent thermal reduction and were first used as novel nanofillers in CNFs towards high performance support material for electrocatalysis. Through electrospinning and carbonization processes, GNR embedded carbon nanofibers (G-CNFs) with greatly enhanced graphitization and electronic conductivity were synthesized. Chemical deposition of Pt NPs onto G-CNFs generated a new Pt-G-CNF hybrid catalyst, with homogeneously distributed Pt NPs of ~3 nm. Compared to Pt-CNF (Pt on pristine CNFs) and Pt-M-CNF (Pt on MWCNT embedded CNFs), Pt-G-CNF hybrids exhibit significantly improved electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), better CO tolerance for electro-oxidation of methanol and higher electrochemical stability, testifying G-CNFs are promising support materials for high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells.High electronic conductivity of the support material and uniform distribution of the catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) are extremely desirable for electrocatalysts. In this paper, we present our recent progress on electrocatalysts for fuel cells with simultaneously improved conductivity of the supporting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and distribution of platinum (Pt) NPs through facile incorporation of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Briefly, GNRs were obtained by the cutting and unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and subsequent thermal reduction and were first used as novel nanofillers in CNFs towards high performance support material for

  3. A reusable perfusion supporting tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound hyperthermia phantoms.

    PubMed

    Chin, R B; Madsen, E L; Zagzebski, J A; Jadvar, H; Wu, X K; Frank, G R

    1990-01-01

    A new ultrasonically and thermodynamically tissue-mimicking material is reported. The material is well suited for use in phantoms for testing ultrasound hyperthermia systems or related predictive models. Controlled convective heat transfer effects, mimicking to some extent perfusive heat transfer in tissues, can be instituted in the material with appropriate fluid sources and sinks. The material consists of closely packed agar spheres varying in diameters from 0.3-3.6 mm. The interstitial space between spheres is filled with 10% n-propanol solution. The material has two practical advantages over the solid-gel-type tissue-mimicking materials. The first advantage is that it allows rapid return of a hyperthermia phantom to thermal equilibrium following a heating test by rapid circulation of the perfusion fluid. The second advantage is that the material is in a "liquid" form. It can be easily siphoned in and out of phantom containers of any geometric shape for different purposes without change in its physical properties. Methods for measuring ultrasonic and thermodynamic properties of the material and the results of the measurements are reported. The physical parameters measured are the intensity attenuation and absorption coefficients, the ultrasonic speed, the thermal conductivity, specific-heat capacity and the mass density. Temperature measurements in a hyperthermia phantom made of the material are also reported. PMID:2385195

  4. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  5. Effects of additional iron-chelators on Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation: evidence to support the Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex as the initiator.

    PubMed

    Tang, L X; Yang, J L; Shen, X

    1997-12-01

    The addition of chelated Fe2+ ions in a liposomal system often results in a short lag period before peroxidation starts. The addition of a second chelator at the end of the lag period results in an inhibition of the lipid peroxidation. The degree of inhibition depends on the stability constants of the chelator in ligating Fe2+ and/or Fe3+. A more striking inhibitory effect was observed for the chelators with higher stability constant for either or both Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-complex, but much less inhibition was found for those with lower stability constants for both complexes. Assuming that the "initiator" for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation is formed through the redox process of iron ion and finally emerged at the end of the latent period, the inhibitory effect of the second chelator may be explained as the abstraction of either Fe2+ or Fe3+ from the initiator by an additional free chelator, which results in the decomposition of the initiator. This study supports the hypothesis that a Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex is responsible for iron-initiated lipid peroxidation. PMID:9397574

  6. Supporting Vocabulary Teaching and Learning in Prekindergarten: The Role of Educative Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley; Kaefer, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to support teachers' child-directed language and student outcomes by enhancing the educative features of an intervention targeted to vocabulary, conceptual development and comprehension. Using a set of design heuristics (Davis & Krajcik, 2005), our goal was to support teachers' professional development within the…

  7. Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

    The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental

  8. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  9. Wear behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tubing against alloy 718 tube-support material in sodium-cooled steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W L

    1983-05-01

    A series of prototypic steam generator 2-{1/4} Cr-1 Mo tube/alloy 718 tube support plate wear tests were conducted in direct support of the Westinghouse Nuclear Components Division -- Breeder Reactor Components Project Large Scale steam Generator design. The initial objective was to verify the acceptable wear behavior of softer, over-aged'' alloy 718 support plate material. For all interfaces under all test conditions, resultant wear damage was adhesive in nature with varying amounts of 2-{1/4} Cr-1 Mo tube material being adhesively transferred to the alloy 718 tube supports. Maximum tube wear depths exceeded the initially established design allowable limit of 127 {mu}m (.005 in.) at 17 of the 18 interfaces tested. A decrease in contact stresses produced acceptable tube wear depths below a readjusted maximum design allowable value of 381 {mu}m (.015 in.). Additional conservatisms associated with the simulation of a 40-year lifetime of rubbing in a one-week laboratory test provided further confidence that the 381 {mu}m maximum tube wear allowance would not be exceeded in service. Softer, over-aged'' alloy 718 material was found to produce slightly less wear damage on 2-{1/4} Cr-1 Mo tubing than fully age hardened material. Also, air formed oxide films on the alloy 718 reduced initial tube wear and delayed the onset of adhesive surface damage. However, at high surface stress levels, these films were not sufficiently stable to provide adequate long term protection from adhesive wear. The results of the present work and those of previous test programs suggest that the successful in-sodium tribological performance of 2-{1/4} Cr-1 Mo/alloy 718 rubbing couples is dependent upon the presence of lubricative surface films, such as oxides and/or surface reaction or deposition products. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Reusable biocompatible interface for immobilization of materials on a solid support

    DOEpatents

    Salamon, Z.; Schmidt, R.A.; Tollin, G.; Macleod, H.A.

    1996-05-28

    A method is presented for the formation of a biocompatible film composed of a self-assembled bilayer membrane deposited on a planar surface. This bilayer membrane is capable of immobilizing materials to be analyzed in an environment very similar to their native state. Materials so immobilized may be subject to any of a number of analytical techniques. 3 figs.

  11. Development of a Support Environment for First Year Students Taking Materials Science/Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laoui, Tahar; O'Donoghue, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience acquired in teaching materials science/engineering to first year university students. It has been observed that students struggle with some of the fundamental materials concepts addressed in the module/course. This applies to delivered lectures but extends to the incorporation of tutorial sessions provided…

  12. Student-Instructor Communication: An Innovative Teaching Material in Support of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kai- Wen; Chen, Yu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how the innovative teaching material "Interactive Learning Disk (ILD)" could enhance the learning effect of students taking the course of Tourist Database Management (TDM). "ILD" is a kind of teaching material that incorporate interactive concept into course and help students to learn after class. This…

  13. Reusable biocompatible interface for immobilization of materials on a solid support

    DOEpatents

    Salamon, Zdzislaw; Schmidt, Richard A.; Tollin, Gordon; Macleod, H. Angus

    1996-01-01

    A method for the formation of a biocompatible film composed of a self-assembled bilayer membrane deposited on a planar surface. This bilayer membrane is capable of immobilizing materials to be analyzed in an environment very similar to their native state. Materials so immobilized may be subject to any of a number of analytical techniques.

  14. Application of acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) as a pharmaceutical additive I. AYC as a novel coating material.

    PubMed

    Kasai, T; Eguchi, T; Ishiwaki, N; Kaneshige, J; Ozeki, T; Yuasa, H

    2000-08-25

    Acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) was newly prepared by acidifying the cell wall of brewer's yeast and the potential to use AYC as a novel coating material was studied. AYC had an oval shape with the diameter of several microm. The rheogram of AYC aqueous dispersion showed the plastic fluid property that is generally observed in the suspension. Core tablets containing 3% of acetaminophen (AAP) were coated with the AYC aqueous dispersion containing 5% (w/v) of AYC and 0.35% (w/v) of glycerol at various coating percents. The AAP release profile from the AYC-coated tablets was studied by the JP13 paddle method using solutions at various pH. Tensile strength and permeability of oxygen and water vapor of AYC cast film were measured. The AAP release from the AYC-coated tablets showed sigmoidal release profile with an initial lag time and the duration of the lag time depended on the coating percent of AYC. The pH of the dissolution fluid or the storage at room temperature for 120 days had little affect on AAP release from the AYC-coated tablets. These results suggest that it is possible to control the start time of medicine release independent of the pH by coating of AYC, that is the time-controlled release. The AYC cast film showed a large tensile strength and an extremely small oxygen permeability coefficient and a sufficient level of water permeability coefficient in order to protect from moisture. These results present that AYC has the high utility as a novel aqueous coating material for DDS preparations. PMID:11011986

  15. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  16. Conducting Polymers: Insights Into Reduced Polyparaphenylene Vinylene Materials via Nucleophilic Addition, Proton Abstraction, and Electron Transfer Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Brian Lee

    Grignard routes were investigated as methods to produce poly paraphenylene vinylene polymers. Because of coupling problems with these reactions, high molecular weight unsubstituted and dimethyl and dimethoxy substituted poly paraphenylene vinylene polymers were prepared via a literature-proven synthetic route: the sodium hydride dehydrochlorination addition polymerization route. Both the Grignard reactions and the sodium hydride method required dichloromethyl compounds monomers. The syntheses of these dichloromethyl monomers were studied extensively. The three high molecular weight poly paraphenylene vinylene polymer systems prepared in this work were charged with the traditional electron transfer reducing agent potassium/naphthalide. They were also charged via the novel nucleophilic addition of n-butyllithium across the alkenes and subjected to proton abstraction charging in the presence of a strong, complexed base mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium-t-butoxide. Conductivities were obtained via standard four point probe techniques. Characterization of these polymers and their quenched anion derivatives was via FTIR and acid titration. Results of these topics are presented and discussed.

  17. I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galownia, Jonathan M.

    This thesis is composed of two separate and unrelated projects. The first part of this thesis outlines an investigation into the synthesis and characterization of a novel zeolite supported super-base capable of carbon-carbon olefin addition to alkyl aromatics. A zeolite supported basic material capable of such reactions would benefit many fine chemical syntheses, as well as vastly improve the economics associated with production of the high performance thermoplastic polyester polyethylene naphthalate. The thermal decomposition of alkali---metal azides impregnated in zeolite X is investigated as a novel route to the synthesis of a zeolite supported super-base. Impregnation of the alkali---metal azide precursor is shown to result in azide species occluded within the pores of the zeolite support by using high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS and 2D MQMAS NMR, FTIR, and TGA characterization methods. Addition of alkali---metal azides to the zeolite results in redistribution of the extra-lattice cations in the zeolite framework. Thermal decomposition of impregnated azide species produces further cation redistribution, but no neutral metallic clusters are detected by high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS NMR following thermal activation of the materials. Instead, it is possible that inactive ionic clusters are formed. The thermally activated materials do not promote base catalysis for the isomerization of 1-butene, the ethylation of toluene and o-xylene, and the alkenylation of o-xylene with 1,3-butadiene to produce 5-ortho-tolyl-pent-2-ene (5-OTP). The lack of catalytic activity in the materials is attributed to failure of the materials to form neutral metallic clusters during thermal treatment, possibly due to preferential formation of NMR silent ionic clusters. The formation of neutral metallic clusters is found to be insensitive to synthesis technique and activation procedure. It is concluded that the impregnation of alkali---metal azides in zeolite X does not provide a

  18. The influence of N-doped carbon materials on supported Pd: enhanced hydrogen storage and oxygen reduction performance.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Kai; Chen, Qian-Wang; Lun, Zheng-Yan

    2014-02-01

    N-doped graphene has become an important support for Pd in both hydrogen storage and catalytic reactions. The molecular orbitals of carbon materials (including graphene, fullerene, and small carbon clusters) and those of the supported Pd species will hybrid much stronger as N dopants are introduced, owing to the increased electrostatic attraction at the interface. This enhances the carbon substrates' catching force for the supported Pd, preventing its leaching and aggregation in many practical applications. The better dispersion and stabilization of Pd nanoparticles, which are induced by various carbon supports with N-doping, are pleasing to us and could increase their efficiency and facilitate their recycling during various reaction processes in several fields.

  19. Self-help quit smoking interventions: effects of self-help materials, social support instructions, and telephone counseling.

    PubMed

    Orleans, C T; Schoenbach, V J; Wagner, E H; Quade, D; Salmon, M A; Pearson, D C; Fiedler, J; Porter, C Q; Kaplan, B H

    1991-06-01

    Smokers requesting self-help materials for smoking cessation (N = 2,021) were randomized to receive (a) an experimental self-quitting guide emphasizing nicotine fading and other nonaversive behavioral strategies, (b) the same self-quitting guide with a support guide for the quitter's family and friends, (c) self-quitting and support guides along with four brief counselor calls, or (d) a control guide providing motivational and quit tips and referral to locally available guides and programs. Subjects were predominantly moderate to heavy smokers with a history of multiple previous quit attempts and treatments. Control subjects achieved quit rates similar to those of smokers using the experimental quitting guide, with fewer behavioral prequitting strategies and more outside treatments. Social support guides had no effect on perceived support for quitting or on 8- and 16-month quit rates. Telephone counseling increased adherence to the quitting protocol and quit rates.

  20. KCP Activities Supporting the W76LEP Stress Cushions and LK3626 RTV Replacement Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Schneider

    2009-10-01

    The S-5370 RTV blown foam previously produced by Dow Corning is no longer commercially available. The S-5370 material has been used on all of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) programs to manufacture Stress Cushions up through the W88. The Kansas City Plant (KCP) did not have a sufficient supply of S-5370 material to cover the schedule requirements for the Program. This report provides information on the numerous activities conducted at KCP involving the development of the Program Stress Cushion and replacement RTV material.

  1. Superconductive material and magnetic field for damping and levitation support and damping of cryogenic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A superconductive load bearing support without a mechanical contact and vibration damping for cryogenic instruments in space is presented. The levitation support and vibration damping is accomplished by the use of superconducting magnets and the 'Meissner' effect. The assembly allows for transfer of vibration energy away from the cryogenic instrument which then can be damped by the use of either an electronic circuit or conventional vibration damping mean.

  2. Mesophilic hydrogen production in acidogenic packed-bed reactors (APBR) using raw sugarcane vinasse as substrate: Influence of support materials.

    PubMed

    Nunes Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane vinasse in anaerobic up-flow packed-bed reactors (APBR) was evaluated. Four types of support materials, expanded clay (EC), charcoal (Ch), porous ceramic (PC), and low-density polyethylene (LDP) were tested as support for biomass attachment. APBR (working volume - 2.3 L) were operated in parallel at a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, an organic loading rate of 36.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1), at 25 °C. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production values of 509.5, 404, 81.4 and 10.3 mL-H2 d(-1) L(-1)reactor and maximum yields of 3.2, 2.6, 0.4 and 0.05 mol-H2 mol(-1) carbohydrates total, were observed during the monitoring of the reactors filled with LDP, EC, Ch and PC, respectively. Thus, indicating the strong influence of the support material on H2 production. LDP was the most appropriate material for hydrogen production among the materials evaluated. 16S rRNA gene by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the selection of different microbial populations. 454-pyrosequencing performed on samples from APBR filled with LDP revealed the presence of hydrogen-producing organisms (Clostridium and Pectinatus), lactic acid bacteria and non-fermentative organisms. PMID:25891935

  3. Mesophilic hydrogen production in acidogenic packed-bed reactors (APBR) using raw sugarcane vinasse as substrate: Influence of support materials.

    PubMed

    Nunes Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane vinasse in anaerobic up-flow packed-bed reactors (APBR) was evaluated. Four types of support materials, expanded clay (EC), charcoal (Ch), porous ceramic (PC), and low-density polyethylene (LDP) were tested as support for biomass attachment. APBR (working volume - 2.3 L) were operated in parallel at a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, an organic loading rate of 36.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1), at 25 °C. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production values of 509.5, 404, 81.4 and 10.3 mL-H2 d(-1) L(-1)reactor and maximum yields of 3.2, 2.6, 0.4 and 0.05 mol-H2 mol(-1) carbohydrates total, were observed during the monitoring of the reactors filled with LDP, EC, Ch and PC, respectively. Thus, indicating the strong influence of the support material on H2 production. LDP was the most appropriate material for hydrogen production among the materials evaluated. 16S rRNA gene by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the selection of different microbial populations. 454-pyrosequencing performed on samples from APBR filled with LDP revealed the presence of hydrogen-producing organisms (Clostridium and Pectinatus), lactic acid bacteria and non-fermentative organisms.

  4. FY 1984 and FY 1985 geochemistry and materials studies in support of the Magma Energy Extraction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Weirick, L.J.; Cygan, R.T.; Reece, M.; Hlava, P.F.; Stockman, H.W.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1986-04-01

    Geochemistry and materials studies are being performed in support of the Magma Energy Extraction Program. The work is largely restricted to: (1) characterizing magmatic environments at sites of interest, (2) testing engineering materials in laboratory simulated magmatic environments, (3) investigating chemical mass transport effects inherent in designs for direct contact heat exchangers, and (4) evaluating degassing hazards associated with drilling into and extracting energy from shallow magma. Magma characterization studies have been completed for shallow magma at Long Valley, Coso volcanic field, and Kilauea volcano. The behavior of 17 commercially available materials has been examined in rhyolite magma at 850/sup 0/C and 200 MPa for periods up to seven days. Analysis of reaction products from materials tests to date indicate that oxidation is the main corrosion problem for most alloys in rhyolitic magma. Considerations of corrosion resistance, high-temperature strength, and cost indicate nickel-base superalloys offer the most promise as candidates for use in rhyolitic magma.

  5. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  6. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  7. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  8. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  9. Ozonation of bezafibrate over ceria and ceria supported on carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandra G; Órfão, José J M; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Two catalysts containing ceria dispersed on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon were investigated as ozonation catalysts for the mineralization of bezafibrate (BZF). The results were compared with those obtained in the absence of the catalyst and in the presence of the parent carbon materials, as well as in the presence of ceria (CeO2). Carbon materials containing ceria showed an interesting catalytic effect. Both materials enhanced the mineralization of BZF relatively to single ozonation and ozonation catalysed by the corresponding carbon materials. In the catalytic ozonation with these materials, both surface and bulk reactions are supposed to occur. The BZF ozonation catalysed by CeO2 leaded to the highest mineralization degrees, indicating that the reaction mechanism followed in the presence of CeO2 (free radical oxidation in solution) leads to the formation of intermediates more easily degradable, mainly after 120 min of reaction. Some primary products and refractory final oxidation compounds in single and catalytic ozonation of BZF were followed. The original chlorine present on the BZF molecule is completely converted to chloride anion and part of the nitrogen is mainly converted to NO3- along with smaller amounts of NO2- and NH4+. Microtox tests revealed that simultaneous use of ozone and CeO2 originated lower acute toxicity. PMID:25189707

  10. Effect of support material and enzyme pretreatment on enantioselectivity of immobilized subtilisin in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Orsat, B.; Klibanov, A.M. . Dept. of Chemistry); Drtina, G.J.; Williams, M.G. )

    1994-11-20

    Subtilisin Carlsberg was covalently attached to five macroporous acrylic supports of varying aquaphilicity (a measure of hydrophilicity). Kinetic parameters of the transesterification of S and R enantiomers of sec-phenethyl alcohol with vinyl butyrate, catalyzed by various immobilized subtilisins, were determined in anhydrous dioxane and acetonitrile. Enzyme enantioselectivity in acetonitrile, but not in dioxane, correlated with the aquaphilicity of the support; a mechanistic rationale for this phenomenon was proposed. Although the catalytic activity of immobilized subtilisin in anhydrous solvents strongly depended on enzyme pretreatment, the enantioselectivity was essential conserved.

  11. Advanced material testing in support of accurate sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Toshihiko

    2013-05-01

    This presentation is a review of experimental methods for accurately measuring and modeling the anisotropic plastic deformation behavior of metal sheets under a variety of loading paths: biaxial compression test, hydraulic bulge test, biaxial tension test using a cruciform specimen, multiaxial tube expansion test using a closed-loop electrohydraulic testing machine for the measurement of forming limit strains and stresses, combined tension-shear test, and in-plane stress reversal test. Observed material responses are compared with predictions using phenomenological plasticity models to highlight the importance of accurate material testing. Special attention is paid to the plastic deformation behavior of sheet metals commonly used in industry, and to verifying the validity of constitutive models based on anisotropic yield functions at a large plastic strain range. The effects of using appropriate material models on the improvement of predictive accuracy for forming defects, such as springback and fracture, are also presented.

  12. Use of activated carbon and natural zeolite as support materials, in an anaerobic fluidised bed reactor, for vinasse treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández, N; Fdz-Polanco, F; Montalvo, S J; Toledano, D

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba, the alcohol distillation process from cane sugar molasses, produces a final waste (vinasse), with an enormous polluting potential and a high sulfate content. Applying the anaerobic technology, most of the biodegradable organic matter can turn into biogas, rich in methane but with concentrations of sulfide above 1%. The present work develops two experiences with anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR) using both Cuban raw material, activated carbon and natural zeolite, as support media, with the purpose of obtaining high organic matter removal rates and keeping sulfide and ammonium concentrations in the permissible ranges. The reactors were operated during 120 days, achieving an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD/m3 day, with COD removal above 70%, and a methane production of 2 L/d. The activated carbon and natural zeolite used support materials in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors, and showed good results of distillery waste removal. PMID:11575071

  13. A Statistics-Based Material Property Analysis to Support TPS Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Sean R.; Cozmuta, Ioana; Alonso, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate characterization of entry capsule heat shield material properties is a critical component in modeling and simulating Thermal Protection System (TPS) response in a prescribed aerothermal environment. The thermal decomposition of the TPS material during the pyrolysis and charring processes is poorly characterized and typically results in large uncertainties in material properties as inputs for ablation models. These material property uncertainties contribute to large design margins on flight systems and cloud re- construction efforts for data collected during flight and ground testing, making revision to existing models for entry systems more challenging. The analysis presented in this work quantifies how material property uncertainties propagate through an ablation model and guides an experimental test regimen aimed at reducing these uncertainties and characterizing the dependencies between properties in the virgin and charred states for a Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) based TPS. A sensitivity analysis identifies how the high-fidelity model behaves in the expected flight environment, while a Monte Carlo based uncertainty propagation strategy is used to quantify the expected spread in the in-depth temperature response of the TPS. An examination of how perturbations to the input probability density functions affect output temperature statistics is accomplished using a Kriging response surface of the high-fidelity model. Simulations are based on capsule configuration and aerothermal environments expected during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry sequence. We identify and rank primary sources of uncertainty from material properties in a flight-relevant environment, show the dependence on spatial orientation and in-depth location on those uncertainty contributors, and quantify how sensitive the expected results are.

  14. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-08-01

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations.

  15. APPLICATION OF THE US DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA¿s National Risk Management Research Laboratory has led the development of a municipal solid waste decision support tool (MSW-DST). The computer software can be used to calculate life-cycle environmental tradeoffs and full costs of different waste management plans or recycling...

  16. Environmental Support Specialist, Block V, 17-6. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the third section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual sections are field sanitation, classes and sources of waste, composition and characteristics of sewage, principles of sewage treatment, primary waste treatment, secondary waste treatment, tertiary…

  17. TV Spots and Supportive Printed Materials on Child-Rearing Practices. Work Unit III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This is the 1976-1977 final report of Work Unit III of Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Early Childhood Program. The Unit was funded to develop media products, mass media delivery strategies, television spot announcements and supportive booklets designed to increase awareness of certain child-rearing skills and practices among low…

  18. Effects of Ce and Si additions to CoNiCrAlY bond coat materials on oxidation behavior and crack propagation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Ito, K.; Shoji, T.; Seo, D. W.; Tezuka, H.; Kato, H.

    2006-12-01

    In thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems, thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms at the interface between the top coat and the bond coat (BC) during service. Delamination or spallation at the interface occurs by the TGO formation and growth. Therefore, modifications of the BC materials are one means to inhibit the TGO formation and to improve the crack resistance of TBCs. In this study, morphologies of TGO were controlled by using Ce and Si additions to conventional CoNiCrAlY BC material. The evaluation of the crack resistance was carried out using acoustic emission methods under pure bending conditions. As a result, when the BCs of TBCs with Ce added were aged at 1373 K over 10 h, the morphologies of the TGO were changed drastically. The BC materials of TBCs coated with Ce added indicated an improved crack resistance with high-temperature exposure. It is expected that the morphologies can improve the crack resistance of TBCs.

  19. Using Japanese Curriculum Materials to Support Lesson Study outside Japan: Toward Coherent Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Perry, Rebecca R.; Friedkin, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Lesson study (jugyou kenkyuu) has spread outside Japan in the last decade, providing opportunities to see how lesson study fares in countries where the instructional practices and curriculum materials differ from those in Japan. This study reports an elementary mathematics lesson study cycle from the United States. To investigate the nature of the…

  20. Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

  1. Driver Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Support Material [and] Test Pamphlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepke, Helen; And Others

    A collection of German second language instructional materials on driving in West Germany includes: 18 pamphlets on traffic and driving regulations, each with 15 multiple-choice questions in German; an answer key; a text giving background information in English; a vocabulary list with English translation; a chart of traffic signs; and an example…

  2. The Efficacy of Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Geospatial Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Peffer, Tamara; Kulo, Violet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy…

  3. Satellite Material Type and Phase Function Determination in Support of Orbital Debris Size Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Cowardin, H. M.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2012-01-01

    In performing debris surveys of deep-space orbital regions, the considerable volume of the area to be surveyed and the increased orbital altitude suggest optical telescopes as the most efficient survey instruments; but to proceed this way, methodologies for debris object size estimation using only optical tracking and photometric information are needed. Basic photometry theory indicates that size estimation should be possible if satellite albedo and shape are known. One method for estimating albedo is to try to determine the object's material type photometrically, as one can determine the albedos of common satellite materials in the laboratory. Examination of laboratory filter photometry (using Johnson BVRI filters) on a set of satellite material samples indicates that most material types can be separated at the 1-sigma level via B-R versus R-I color differences with a relatively small amount of required resampling, and objects that remain ambiguous can be resolved by B-R versus B-V color differences and solar radiation pressure differences. To estimate shape, a technique advanced by Hall et al. [1], based on phase-brightness density curves and not requiring any a priori knowledge of attitude, has been modified slightly to try to make it more resistant to the specular characteristics of different materials and to reduce the number of samples necessary to make robust shape determinations. Working from a gallery of idealized debris shapes, the modified technique identifies most shapes within this gallery correctly, also with a relatively small amount of resampling. These results are, of course, based on relatively small laboratory investigations and simulated data, and expanded laboratory experimentation and further investigation with in situ survey measurements will be required in order to assess their actual efficacy under survey conditions; but these techniques show sufficient promise to justify this next level of analysis.

  4. Influence of Prosthetic Screw Material on Joint Stability in Passive and Non-Passive Implant-Supported Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; de Arruda Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of prosthetic screw material on joint stability in implantsupported dentures at two levels of fit. Methods: Ten mandibular implant-supported dentures were fabricated. Twenty cast models were fabricated using these dentures. Four groups (n=10) were tested, according to the vertical fit of the dentures [passive and non-passive] and prosthetic screw materials [titanium (Ti) or gold (Au) alloy]. The one-screw test was performed to quantify the vertical misfits using an optic microscope. The loosening torque for the prosthetic screws was measured 24 hours after the tightening torque (10 Ncm) using a digital torque meter. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: Overall, dentures with passive fit and Ti screws resulted in significantly higher loosening torque of the prosthetic screws (p<0.05). No significant interaction was found between fit level and screw material (p=0.199). The prosthetic screw material and fit of implant-supported dentures have an influence on screw joint stability. Ti screws presented higher joint stability than Au screws and minimum of misfit should be found clinically to improve the mechanical behavior of the screw joint. PMID:20148135

  5. Analysis of the effects of different materials in a tooth implant-supported fixed prosthesis using finite element method.

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Javad; Najarian, Siamak; Talebi, Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, design optimization of a tooth implant-supported fixed prosthesis was investigated theoretically. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was utilized to simulate the stress distribution and deformation, with an emphasis on the material selection for various parts of the prosthesis. This mandibular prosthesis was supported by six implants. The properties of 3 different materials for implants and 4 different materials for framework were incorporated into 12 different models. For the loading conditions used, it was found that the largest displacements occurred at the far ends of the framework and that the resulting deflection was highly dependent on the material properties of the framework. The simulations showed that the stress in the framework was mainly concentrated near the holes in the lower surface and that the highest values of von Mises stresses occurred in the lingual part of the prosthesis. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed that more rigid frameworks led to a corresponding decreased stress in the retaining screws and that high-stress concentration areas moved from the neck of the implant towards the base of it, as the value of Young's modulus increased. It was concluded that the first best model was the Cr-Co alloy for the framework and the Ti alloy for the implant and the second best choice was the Cr-Co alloy for both the framework and the implant. PMID:16010040

  6. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenationmore » activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.« less

  7. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenation activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.

  8. Demonstration of Super Cooled Ice as a Phase Change Material Heat Sink for Portable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a nontoxic, nonflammable PCM is being developed. The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented along with recommendations for further development of this technology.

  9. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S.; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S. Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  10. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  11. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Support Early Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Shaber; G. Baccaglini; S. Ball; T. Burchell; B. Corwin; T. Fewell; M. Labar; P. MacDonald; P. Rittenhouse; Russ Vollam; F. Southworth

    2003-01-01

    The VHTR reference concept is a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. The process heat version of the VHTR will require that an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and primary gas circulator be located in an adjoining power conversion vessel. A third VHTR mission - actinide burning - can be accomplished with either the hydrogen-production or gas turbine designs. The first ''demonstration'' VHTR will produce both electricity and hydrogen using the IHX to transfer the heat to either a hydrogen production plant or the gas turbine. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. The purpose of this report is to identify the materials research and development needs for the VHTR. To do this, we focused on the plant design described in Section 2, which is similar to the GT-MHR plant design (850 C core outlet temperature). For system or component designs that present significant material challenges (or far greater expense) there may be some viable design alternatives or options that can reduce development needs or allow use of available (cheaper) materials. Nevertheless, we were not able to assess those alternatives in the time allotted for this report and, to move forward with this material research and development assessment, the authors of this report felt that it was necessary to use a GT-MHR type design as the baseline design.

  12. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  13. Evaluation of effect of tray space on the accuracy of condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Aeran, Himanshu

    2012-09-01

    Optimal thickness of impression materials in the custom tray in order to get the most accurate impression. To investigate the effect of different tray spacer thickness on the accuracy and the dimensional stability of impressions made from monophasic condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials. Three different types of elastomeric monophasic impression materials were used for making the impression of a master die with tray having tray spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Each type of impression was poured in die stone after 1 h. Each cast was analyzed by a travelling microscope and compared with the master die. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 to 4 mm spaced trays produced more accurate stone casts when compared to 6 mm spaced tray. No statistical significant differences were observed between the accuracy and dimensional stability of the three materials tested. Minimum changes were observed when the cast was poured after 1 h and the tray space was 2 mm for all the materials tested. It is therefore advisable not to exceed tray space of 2 mm.

  14. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  15. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  16. Strength Analysis and Process Simulation of Subway Contact Rail Support Bracket of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedulov, Boris N.; Safonov, Alexander A.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.; Ushakov, Andrey E.; Klenin, Yuri G.; Makarenko, Irina V.

    2016-10-01

    An application of composites for construction of subway brackets is a very effective approach to extend their lifetime. However, this approach involves the necessity to prevent process-induced distortions of the bracket due to thermal deformation and chemical shrinkage. At present study, a process simulation has been carried out to support the design of the production tooling. The simulation was based on the application of viscoelastic model for the resin. Simulation results were verified by comparison with results of manufacturing experiments. To optimize the bracket structure the strength analysis was carried out as well.

  17. Strength Analysis and Process Simulation of Subway Contact Rail Support Bracket of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedulov, Boris N.; Safonov, Alexander A.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.; Ushakov, Andrey E.; Klenin, Yuri G.; Makarenko, Irina V.

    2016-05-01

    An application of composites for construction of subway brackets is a very effective approach to extend their lifetime. However, this approach involves the necessity to prevent process-induced distortions of the bracket due to thermal deformation and chemical shrinkage. At present study, a process simulation has been carried out to support the design of the production tooling. The simulation was based on the application of viscoelastic model for the resin. Simulation results were verified by comparison with results of manufacturing experiments. To optimize the bracket structure the strength analysis was carried out as well.

  18. Material grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods.

  19. Material Testing in Support of the ISS Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna; Shindo, David; Modica, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. With the end of the Space Shuttle Program, the ability to send up shock-kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak becomes even more difficult. Currently, the US Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns. To date, several small cases of contamination have occurred which have been remediated. NASA, however, realizes that having a secondary method of combating a microbial outbreak is a prudent investment. NASA is looking into developing hardware that can generate biocides electrochemically, and potentially deploying that hardware. The specific biocides that the technology could generate include: hydrogen peroxide, oxone, hypochlorite and peracetic acid. In order to use these biocides on deployed water systems, the project must determine that all the materials in the potential application are compatible with the biocides at their anticipated administered concentrations. This paper will detail the materials test portion of the feasibility assessment including the plan for both metals and non-metals along with results to date.

  20. Characterization and catalytic performance of heteropoly acid H4SiW12O40 supported on nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengxi; Ma, Jiping; Dong, Zhibing; Liu, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Heteropoly acid H4SiW12O40 (SiW) has been supported on different nanoporous materials and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, HRTEM, N2 physisorption, and thermal analysis. No SiW diffraction peaks are observed after loading 33-50 wt% of SiW on various mesoporous materials (pore size: -30 Å) except for siliceous MCM-48. In contrast, the SiW diffraction peaks appear at 14 wt% loading on zeolite EMT with micropore size of ca. 7.4 x 6.5 Å. Supported SiW retains the Keggin structure on mesopore surface. The cubic mesostructure of MCM-48 is stable while MCM-41 loses its regular hexagonal mesostructure upon loading SiW. Several factors account for different behaviours of various supports, including pore size, curvature of mesopore interface and interaction between SiW and aluminium sites in the framework. The resulting 33-50 wt% SiW/MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have large surface area (- 550 m2/g), regular pore arrangement with uniform pore size (- 25 Å), finely dispersed SiW and good thermal stability. They exhibit significantly improved activity in acid-catalyzed cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons in comparison with bulk SiW and SiW/MCM-41. PMID:25924405

  1. Self-assembled and supported BLMs as an adaptive material for biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottova-Leitmannova, Angelica L.; Tvarozek, Vladimir; Hianik, T.; Zhou, Tiean; Ziegler, W.; Tien, H. Ti

    1996-02-01

    Cell membranes play a vital role in energy conversion, information processing and signal transduction. This is owing to the fact that most physiological activities involve lipid bilayer- based receptor-ligand interactions. Some of the outstanding examples are ATP synthesis, ion transport, antigen-antibody binding, and gated channels. One approach to study these interactions in vitro is facilitated by employing artificial BLMs (bilayer lipid membranes). Our current efforts have been focused on ion and/or molecular selectivity and specificity using recently available self-assembled BLMs on solid support (i.e. s-BLMs) which, with their enhanced stability, greatly aid in research areas of membrane biochemistry, biophysics, and cell biology as well as in biosensor designs and molecular devices development. In this report, our recent work along with the experiments done in collaboration with others on s-BLMs are presented.

  2. Supporting online materials for mineralogy and petrology of Comet81P/Wild 2 nucleus samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Zega, Thomas J.; Yano, Hajime; Wirick, Sue; Westphal, Andrew J.; Weisberg, Mike K.; Weber, Iris; Warren, Jack L.; Velbel, Michael A.; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tsou, Peter; Toppani, Alice; Tomioka, Naotaka; Tomeoka, Kazushige; Teslich, Nick; Taheri, Mitra; Susini, Jean; Stroud, Rhonda; Stephan, Thomas; Stadermann, Frank J.; Snead, Christopher J.; Simon, Steven B.; Simionovici, Alexandre; See,Thomas H.; Robert Francois; Rietmeijer, Frans J.M.; Rao, William; Perronnet, Murielle C.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Okudaira, Kyoko; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Nakamura-Messenger, Keilo; Nakamura,Tomoki; Mostefaoui, Smail; Mikouchi, Takashi; Meibom, Anders; Matrajt,Graciela; Marcus, Matthew A.; Leroux, Hugues; Lemelle, Laurence; Antonio,Loan Le; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Langenhorst, Falko; Krot, Alexander N.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Joswiak, Davis; Jacob, Damien; Ishii, Hope; Harvey, Ralph; Hagiya, Kenji; Grossman, Lawrence; Grossman,Jeffrey N.; Graham, Giles A.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gillet, Philippe; Genge, Matthew J.; Flynn, George; Ferroir, Tristan; Fallow, Stewart; Ebel, Denton S.; Dai, Zu Rong; Cordier, Patrick; Clark, Benton; Chi,Miaofang; Butterworth, Anna L.; Brownlee, Donald E.; Bridges, John C.; Brennan, Sean; Brearley, Adrian; Bradley, John P.; Bleuet, Pierre; Bland,Phil A.; Bastien, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The bulk of the comet 81P/Wild 2 (hereafter Wild 2) samples returned to Earth by the Stardust spacecraft appear to be weakly constructed mixtures of nanometer-scale grains, with occasional much larger (over 1 micrometer) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal, and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in comet Wild 2 requires a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting very different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and the absence of hydrous phases indicate that comet Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk.

  3. Synthesis of Pt/PEI-MWCNT composite materials on polyethyleneimine-functionalized MWNTs as supports

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Sung-Chul; Jung, Chi Young; Kim, Wha Jung

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for (a) the preparation of Pt/MWCNT functionalized with PEI and (b) TEM of Pt/PEI-MWCNT. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared Pt/PEI/MWCNT where MWCNT was first functionalized by PEI (polyethyleneimine) followed by Pt deposit onto it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI functionalization provided high density homogeneous functional groups on MWCNT's sidewall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cationic PEI leads to homogeneous dispersion in solutions such as water and organic solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt/PEI/MWCNT catalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity compared to that of Pt/MWCNT catalyst obtained with polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP). -- Abstract: Composite materials with highly dispersed platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) by a noncovalent method were prepared. The PEI-functionalization provided high density homogeneous functional groups on the MWCNTs' sidewalls for binding Pt nanoparticles. Cationic PEI leads to homogeneous dispersion in solutions such as water and organic solvents. The effects of a reducing agent on the Pt nanoparticles that form on the surfaces of the MWCNT were studied by varying the molar ratio of NaOH to H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}. These composite materials were characterized with transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Pt/PEI-MWCNT catalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and compared with Pt/PVP-MWCNT catalysts obtained with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Finally, the cyclic voltammogram of methanol electrooxidation for Pt/PEI-MWCNT shows better tolerance to CO and methanol oxidation to CO{sub 2} than of Pt/PVP-MWCNT.

  4. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  5. Effect of the addition of by-product ash of date palms on the mechanical characteristics of gypsum-calcareous materials used in road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khellou, A.; Kriker, A.; Hafssi, A.; Belbarka, K.; Baali, K.

    2016-07-01

    The gypsum-calcareous materials, also known as the crusting tuff, are used in the pavement layers of low -traffic road and considered as the materials of first choice in the Saharan region of Algeria. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical characteristics of tuff of Ouargla town that is situated in the Southeast of Algeria, by adding different percentage of ash resulted from the combustion of by-products of date palms, such as 4%, 8% and l2%, to the tuff. The results obtained have shown a remarkable improvement both in compressive strength at different ages and in the bearing index in the two cases immediate and after immersion in water. These characteristics of the mixture (tuff+ash) reach their maximum values at the 8% of ash addition.

  6. Stress relaxation and creep of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core support ceramic materials: a literature search

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, J.E.; Tennery, V.J.

    1980-05-01

    Creep and stress relaxation in structural ceramics are important properties to the high-temperature design and safety analysis of the core support structure of the HTGR. The ability of the support structure to function for the lifetime of the reactor is directly related to the allowable creep strain and the ability of the structure to withstand thermal transients. The thermal-mechanical response of the core support pads to steady-state stresses and potential thermal transients depends on variables, including the ability of the ceramics to undergo some stress relaxation in relatively short times. Creep and stress relaxation phenomena in structural ceramics of interest were examined. Of the materials considered (fused silica, alumina, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide), alumina has been more extensively investigated in creep. Activation energies reported varied between 482 and 837 kJ/mole, and consequently, variations in the assigned mechanisms were noted. Nabarro-Herring creep is considered as the primary creep mechanism and no definite grain size dependence has been identified. Results for silicon nitride are in better agreement with reported activation energies. No creep data were found for fused silica or silicon carbide and no stress relaxation data were found for any of the candidate materials. While creep and stress relaxation are similar and it is theoretically possible to derive the value of one property when the other is known, no explicit demonstrated relationship exists between the two. For a given structural ceramic material, both properties must be experimentally determined to obtain the information necessary for use in high-temperature design and safety analyses.

  7. A hybrid plasma technology life support system for the generation of oxygen on Mars: Considerations on materials and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2016-06-01

    As there is a growing interest in conducting human missions to Mars, the need for suitable life support systems becomes more and more important. The reliability of such systems has to increase with the duration of manned missions. Furthermore the maintenance requirements have to be low in order to ensure their efficient use over a long period of time. A proposal for a hybrid life support system that is based on plasma technology for the creation of oxygen from the dissociation of carbon dioxide is given in this paper. The main focus lies on geometrical considerations regarding the optimal shape of the main reactor chamber as well as on suitable materials, which are most promising for the construction of such a system.

  8. Optical Property Characterization of Far IR Materials Critical for CLARREO Mission Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Wilthan, B.; Mekhontsev, S.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.; McKenna, P.; Szczesniak, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and other climate science and remote sensing applications require accurate thermal and far infrared (IR) spectral radiance measurements, which are dependent on reference blackbody sources that have high and well-characterized spectral emissivity. The design and performance of blackbody sources are strongly affected by the spectral emittance of available coatings. Hence the emittance or reflectance of such coatings need to be accurately characterized. The measurement metrology for the reflectance of near-ambient targets in the thermal IR spectral range (2.5 to 15 microns) is well established and validated. The equivalent metrology for the far IR spectral range (15 to 50 microns and longer) is currently being established at National Measurement Institutes (NMIs), such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), but will take several years to become operational and validated. Other existing facilities, such as at Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), do not have well characterized uncertainty budgets and are not traceable to the SI, but may be useful to provide support of the R&D for CLARREO. The direct measurement of the spectral emittance can also be used to obtain or validate reflectance data, but until cryo-vacuum facilities become fully functional at an NMI, such measurements are possible only for targets at elevated temperatures (typically above 200 °C). This limitation prevents the characterization of several critically important coatings. This paper describes ongoing efforts to establish the uncertainty of reflectance measurements at the SOC calibration facility over the far IR spectral range. For this purpose, NIST and PTB emittance facilities are used to measure the spectral emittance of transfer standard targets at 200 °C at wavelengths from 10 to 100 microns. Subsequently, these samples are measured at the SOC facility

  9. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  10. Material selection and evaluation of new encapsulation compounds for electric cables for launch support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asit K.

    1992-01-01

    Eight urethane compounds were evaluated as possible replacement for the existing encapsulating compoounds for electrical cables for the Launch Support System at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The existing encapsulating compound, PR-1535, contains the curative MOCA 4-4'-Methylene-BIS (2-chloroaniline), which is a suspect carcinogen and hence may be the subject of further restrictions of its use by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The samples made in the configuration of cable joints and in the form of disks were evaluated for flammability and hypergolic compatibility. These also underwent accelerated weatherability tests that measured the residual hardness of the exposed samples. Three candidates and the existing compound passed the hardness test. Of these, only one candidate and the existing compound passed the flammability test. The thermal and hydrolytic stability (weatherability) of these samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (DSC) techniques. The TMA and DSC data correlated with the residual hardness data; whereas, the TGA data showed no correlation. A hypergolic compatibility test will be conducted on the compound V-356-HE80, which passed both the flammability and accelerated weatherability tests.

  11. Leukopak PBMC Sample Processing for Preparing Quality Control Material to Support Proficiency Testing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ambrosia; Keinonen, Sarah; Sanchez, Ana M.; Ferrari, Guido; Denny, Thomas N.; Moody, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    External proficiency testing programs designed to evaluate the performance of end-point laboratories involved in vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials form an important part of clinical trial quality assurance. Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines recommend both assay validation and proficiency testing for assays being used in clinical trials, and such testing is facilitated by the availability of large numbers of well-characterized test samples. These samples can be distributed to laboratories participating in these programs and allow monitoring of laboratory performance over time and among participating sites when results are obtained with samples derived from a large master set. The leukapheresis procedure provides an ideal way to collect samples from participants that can meet the required number of cells to support these activities. The collection and processing of leukapheresis samples requires tight coordination between the clinical and laboratory teams to collect, process, and cryopreserve large number of samples within the established ideal time of ≤8 hours. Here, we describe our experience with a leukapheresis cryopreseration program that has been able to preserve the functionality of cellular subsets and that provides the sample numbers necessary to run an external proficiency testing program. PMID:24928650

  12. Effect of support materials on antibiotic MSW2000 production by immobilized Streptomyces violatus.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, Mousatfa Y; Hassan, Maha A; Said, Wafa Y Y; el-Aassar, Samy A

    2003-08-01

    The production of an antibiotic by free and immobilized cells of Streptomyces violatus through entrapment or adsorption on different materials was investigated. S. violatus entrapped in Ca-alginate beads gave low antibiotic activity compared to the free cell or adsorbed cell, while the adsorption of S. violatus on sponge cubes yielded the highest antibiotic concentration after 4 days of incubation in static cultures. A starch concentration of 10 g/L was optimum for the production of the antibiotic by adsorbed cells. The weight and size of the sponge cubes used for immobilization influenced production of the antibiotic and the optimum weight and size of the sponge were 0.8 g and 1.0 cm(3), respectively, yielding a maximum antibiotic production of 280 mg/ml. Maximum antibiotic production was obtained at an initial pH value of 7.5 and in an inoculum size of 3 ml (spore suspension) per 50 ml. The production of the antibiotic in a fixed-bed bioreactor reached a maximum value after 2 days of incubation at a circulation rate of 30 ml/h. The immobilized cells in the bioreactor were reused seven successive times over a period of 14 days.

  13. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  14. Novel supported bimetallic carbide catalysts for coprocessing of coal with waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Oyama; D.F. Cox; C. Song; F. Allen

    1999-12-15

    In this reporting period the authors have continued their investigation of bimetallic nitride and carbide compounds for use in coprocessing of coal and waste plastics or rubber. Following up on their finding of a class of bimetallic nitrides, reported in the last period, they now report on a new family of bimetallic oxycarbides M{sup I}-M{sup II}-O-C (M{sup I} = Mo, W; M{sup II} = V, Nb, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni). They have carried out a preliminary test of the compounds with a model coal liquid feed and find that, in general, these carbides are even more active than the nitrides. They have identified Nb-Mo-O-C as the most promising catalyst, and this catalyst together with Mo{sub 2}C, the most active single-metal carbide are being investigated for the coprocessing reaction. Comparison is made to standard sulfide catalysts. The latter reaction is carried out in batch autoclave systems, so that preliminary tests are first carried out with a simpler five-component feedstock. The feedstock is a multi-component model mixture that simulates the combined feed of coal and waste materials. The idea is to use different compounds that are specific for each reaction type but have no overlapping products. The proposed design involves a 5-component mixture containing: 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, abbreviated as NMBB, pyrene, tetradecane, dibenzothiophene and quinoline. NMBB simulates the aromatic-aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aliphatic C-C bonds in coal and in some aromatic plastics such as polystyrene. This compound has been used as a probe molecule in previous studies. Pyrene represents polyaromatic structures in coal, while tetradecane is representative of polyethylene-type plastics in chemical reactivity. Dibenzothiophene and quinoline provide sulfur and nitrogen content.

  15. Least Square Support Vector Machine Modelling of Breakdown Voltage of Solid Insulating Materials in the Presence of Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, S.; Tripathy, R. K.; Mohanty, S.

    2013-03-01

    The least square formulation of support vector machine (SVM) was recently proposed and derived from the statistical learning theory. It is also marked as a new development by learning from examples based on neural networks, radial basis function and splines or other functions. Here least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is used as a machine learning technique for the prediction of the breakdown voltage of solid insulator. The breakdown voltage is due to partial discharge of five solid insulating materials under ac condition. That has been predicted as a function of four input parameters such as thickness of insulating samples ` t', diameter of void ` d', the thickness of the void ` t 1' and relative permittivity of materials `ɛ r ' by using the LS-SVM model. From experimental studies performed on cylindrical-plane electrode system, the requisite training data is obtained. The voids with different dimension are artificially created. Detailed studies have been carried out to determine the LS-SVM parameters which give the best result. At the completion of training it is found that the LS-SVM model is capable of predicting the breakdown voltage V b = ( t, t 1, d, ɛ r ) very efficiently and with a small value of the mean absolute error.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of eight additives in polymer food packaging materials by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Gong, Zhiguo; Wang, Pengju; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight additives (Irgafos 168 (tri(2.4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite), Irganox 1076 (octadecyl-β-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate), Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakys 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate), BHA (butyl hydroxy anisole), TBHQ (tertiary butylhydroquinone), PG (propyl gallate), DG (dodecyl gallate), UV-326 (2-( 2'-hydroxyl-3'-tert-butyl-5'-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole) in food packaging materials. After extracted by chloromethane through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized, and the best separation was obtained on a Waters BEH-C18 column (50 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution of 0. 05% acetic acid solu- tion and methanol. The analysis was performed by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in switching between the positive and negative ion modes in one run for multiple reaction monitoring. The eight additives showed good linear relationships in the ranges with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0. 993. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) and limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N= 10) of this method were 0. 13-5.50 μg/L and 0.45-17.50 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 63. 9% - 127. 0% with all the RSDs < 15. 8% (n= 6). This method is simple, accurate and effective for the analysis of the eight additives in food packaging materials.

  17. Hydrodechlorination of 1,1-dichlorotetrafluoroethane and dichlorodifluoromethane catalyzed by Pd on fluorinated aluminas: The role of support material

    SciTech Connect

    Early, K.; Kovalchuk, V.I.; Lonyi, F.; Deshmukh, S.; d`Itri, J.L.

    1999-02-15

    The gas phase hydrodechlorination of CF{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2} to CF{sub 3}CFH{sub 2} and CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to CF{sub 2}H{sub 2} catalyzed by Pd supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a series of fluorinated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and AlF{sub 3} was investigated. A combination of reaction kinetics investigations and characterization by in situ FTIR spectroscopy has been performed. It has been found that for reactions involving CF{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2}, all catalysts exhibit a rapid and significant decrease in activity; however, little change in activity with time on stream occurs with CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. FTIR investigations suggest the occurrence of direct reaction between the CFC and the support material, which results in the consumption of hydroxyl groups during the early stages of reaction. The effect of fluorination of support on catalytic behavior of Pd is discussed.

  18. Preparation and characterization of new dental porcelains, using K-feldspar and quartz raw materials. Effect of B2O3 additions on sintering and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Guerfa, Fatiha; Harabi, Esma; Benhassine, Mohamed-Tayeb; Foughali, Lazhar; Zaiou, Soumia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of temperature and boric oxide (B2O3) addition on sintering and mechanical properties of a newly developed dental porcelain (DP) prepared from local Algerian raw materials. Based on a preliminary work, the new selected composition was 75wt.% feldspar, 20wt.% quartz and 5wt.% kaolin. It was prepared by sintering the mixture at different temperatures (1100-1250°C). The optimum sintering conditions gave a relatively higher density (2.47g/cm(3)) and excellent mechanical properties. The three point flexural strength (3PFS) and Martens micro-hardness of dental porcelains were 149MPa and 2600MPa, respectively. This obtained 3PFS value is more than four times greater than that of hydroxyapatite (HA) value (about 37MPa) sintered under the same conditions. However, the sintering temperature was lowered by about 25 and 50°C for 3 and 5wt.% B2O3 additions, respectively. But, it did not improve furthermore the samples density and their mechanical properties. It has also been found that B2O3 additions provoke a glass matrix composition variation which delays the leucite formation during sintering. PMID:27157725

  19. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  20. Effect of CeO₂ addition to Al₂O₃ supports for Pt catalysts on the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Church, Tamara L; Minett, Andrew I; Harris, Andrew T

    2013-06-01

    A series of Pt catalysts supported on Al₂O₃ that was doped with different amounts of CeO₂ was developed, characterized, and tested in the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol to H₂. Catalyst 3Pt/3CeAl, which bore 3 wt% Pt on a support that contained 3 wt % CeO₂, showed the highest carbon conversion to gas (85%) and the highest H₂ yield (80%) for a feedstock of 1 wt% glycerol in water at 240 °C and 40 bar. A CeO₂/Al₂O₃ support with only 1 wt% Pt also showed high H₂ selectivity and carbon conversion to gas, as well as a much lower CH₄ yield than the benchmark 3Pt/Al catalyst, clearly demonstrating that doping the support with 3 wt% CeO2 improved the APR of glycerol. H₂ chemisorption results showed that the highest metal dispersion (58%) and active surface area (4.3 m(2)g(-1)) were achieved for the support that contained 3 wt% CeO₂, and this effect appeared to be primarily responsible for the high H₂ yield and carbon conversion to gas. No CO was observed in the product gas; therefore, this gas could potentially be used directly in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Thus, including CeO₂ in the Al₂O₃ catalyst support enhanced both the activity and selectivity towards H₂ of a Pt catalyst for the APR of glycerol.

  1. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  2. Effect of quarry dust addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material made from industrial waste incineration bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Naganathan; Hashim, Abdul Razak; Nadzriah, Abdul Hamid Siti

    2012-06-01

    The performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was investigated in this paper, as the quarry dust was added. CLSM mixtures were made from the industrial waste incineration bottom ash, quarry dust, and cement. Tests for fresh density, bleeding, compressive strength, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and excavatability were carried out. The compressive strength ranges from 60 kPa to 6790 kPa, the friction angle varies from 5° to 19°, and the cohesion is from 4 to 604 kPa. Most of the mixtures are found to be non-excavatable. It is indicated that the quarry dust addition increases the compressive strength and shear parameters, decreases bleeding, and increases the removability modulus.

  3. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material Task I. Quarterly technical progress report (XIX), March 1-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.

    1980-06-01

    Analyses of process system properties were continued for chemical materials important in the production of silicon. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon including critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat of sublimation, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The property data covers both liquid and solid phases and are reported as a function of temperature for rapid engineering usage. Major efforts in chemical engineering analysis centered on the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation). The approach for the process involves performing initial analysis for DCS production (dichlorosilane) and then perorming analysis of polysilicon production from the DCS. For the DCS production, status and progress are reported for primary activities of base case conditions (65%), reaction chemistry (65%), process flowsheet (60%), material balance (50%) and energy balance (40%). Two key features - redistribution reactor relocation and final distillation - are introduced to increase yield of DCS by about 10 to 20%, help insure purity and reduce potential dust (fine particle nucleation) components in the polysilicon feed material. The preliminary flowsheet for DCS production was forwarded to Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation for initial screening and review. Hemlock Semiconductor is in agreement in regards to relocation of the redistribution reactor to increase yield. Additional follow-up review is in progress including boron removal options identified by Hemlock Semiconductor. 166 references.

  4. Biofilm development during the start-up period of anaerobic biofilm reactors: the biofilm Archaea community is highly dependent on the support material

    PubMed Central

    Habouzit, Frédéric; Hamelin, Jérôme; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Steyer, Jean-P; Bernet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the nature of the support material on its colonization by a methanogenic consortium, four substrata made of different materials: polyvinyl chloride, 2 polyethylene and polypropylene were tested during the start-up of lab-scale fixed-film reactors. The reactor performances were evaluated and compared together with the analysis of the biofilms. Biofilm growth was quantified and the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities were characterized by molecular fingerprinting profiles (capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism). The composition of the inoculum was shown to have a major impact on the bacterial composition of the biofilm, whatever the nature of the support material or the organic loading rate applied to the reactors during the start-up period. In contrast, the biofilm archaeal populations were independent of the inoculum used but highly dependent on the support material. Supports favouring Archaea colonization, the limiting factor in the overall process, should be preferred. PMID:24612643

  5. Graphene nanosheets-polypyrrole hybrid material as a highly active catalyst support for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sudong; Shen, Chengmin; Liang, Yanyu; Tong, Hao; He, Wei; Shi, Xuezhao; Zhang, Xiaogang; Gao, Hong-jun

    2011-08-01

    A novel electrode material based on graphene oxide (GO)-polypyrrole (PPy) composites was synthesized by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of 4.0 nm were loaded on the reduced graphene oxide(RGO)-PPy composites by a microwave-assisted polyol process. Microstructure analysis showed that a layer of coated PPy film with monodisperse Pd NPs is present on the RGO surface. The Pd/RGO-PPy catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic activity and stability for formic acid electro-oxidation when the weight feed ratio of GO to pyrrole monomer is 2:1. The superior performance of Pd/RGO-PPy catalysts may arise from utilization of heterogeneous nucleation sites for NPs and the greatly increased electronic conductivity of the supports.

  6. Graphene nanosheets-polypyrrole hybrid material as a highly active catalyst support for formic acid electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sudong; Shen, Chengmin; Liang, Yanyu; Tong, Hao; He, Wei; Shi, Xuezhao; Zhang, Xiaogang; Gao, Hong-jun

    2011-08-01

    A novel electrode material based on graphene oxide (GO)-polypyrrole (PPy) composites was synthesized by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of 4.0 nm were loaded on the reduced graphene oxide(RGO)-PPy composites by a microwave-assisted polyol process. Microstructure analysis showed that a layer of coated PPy film with monodisperse Pd NPs is present on the RGO surface. The Pd/RGO-PPy catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic activity and stability for formic acid electro-oxidation when the weight feed ratio of GO to pyrrole monomer is 2:1. The superior performance of Pd/RGO-PPy catalysts may arise from utilization of heterogeneous nucleation sites for NPs and the greatly increased electronic conductivity of the supports. PMID:21713273

  7. Effects of type of additive and particle size of TiO2 raw material powder on stabilization of BaTi2O5 phase during sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Yuuki; Ishii, Keisuke; Tashiro, Shinjiro

    2014-09-01

    BaTi2O5 (BT2) calcined powder synthesized by a solid-phase reaction decomposed into BaTiO3 (BT) and Ba6Ti17O40 (B6T17) as the firing temperature was raised. This decomposition was suppressed by adding 1 wt % SiO2 as an additive. SiO2 did not dissolve in BT2 crystal grains and segregated as a secondary phase including Ba and Ti atoms. The incorporation of Ba and Ti into SiO2 probably suppresses the decomposition of BT2. By using another TiO2 powder with small particle sizes as one of the raw material powders, perfect BT2 single-phase calcined powder was obtained. The ceramic fired from this calcined BT2 powder maintained its BT2 single phase. This is probably attributed to the non-existence of any chemical compounds other than BT2 that can be the origin of BT2 decomposition during firing. On the one hand, in the case of using 1 wt % Fe2O3 as the additive, Fe2O3 dissolved in BT2 crystal grains, and the sintered samples exhibited relaxor behavior.

  8. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-01

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L. PMID:27258161

  9. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-01

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L.

  10. Role of different additives and metallic micro minerals on the enhanced citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Haq, Ikram-ul

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the promotry effect of different additives and metallic micro minerals on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials. For this, sugar cane bagasse was fortified with sucrose salt medium. Ethanol and coconut oil at 3.0% (v/w) level increased citric acid productivity. Fluoroacetate at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml bagasse enhanced the yield of citric acid significantly. However, the addition of ethanol and fluoroacetate after 6 h of growth gave the maximum conversion of available sugar to citric acid. In another study, influence of some metallic micro-minerals viz. copper sulphate, molybdenum sulphate, zinc sulphate and cobalt sulphate on microbial synthesis of citric acid using molasses medium was also carried out. It was found that copper sulphate and molybdenum sulphate remarkably enhanced the production of citric acid while zinc sulphate was not so effective. However, cobalt sulphate was the least effective for microbial biosynthesis of citric acid under the same experimental conditions. In case of CuSO(4), the strain of Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 showed enhanced citric productivity with experimental (9.80%) over the control (7.54%). In addition, the specific productivity of the culture at 30 ppm CuSO(4) (Q(p) = 0.012a g/g cells/h) was several folds higher than other all other concentrations. All kinetic parameters including yield coefficients and volumetric rates revealed the hyper productivity of citric acid by CuSO(4) using blackstrap molasses as the basal carbon source.

  11. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

  12. Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Holze, Rudolf; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Earnest efforts have been taken to design hybrid energy storage devices using hybrid electrodes based on capacitive (rGO) and pseudocapacitive (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2) materials deposited on the skeleton of 3D macroporous (indicate sponge material) sponge support. Conducting framework was formed by coating rGO on macroporous sponge on which subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 was carried out. The synergetic combination of rGO and Ni(OH)2 or Co(OH)2) provides dual charge-storing mechanisms whereas 3D framework of sponge allows excellent accessibility of electrolyte to hybrid electrodes. Moreover, to further increase the energy density, hybrid devices have been fabricated with SP@rGO@Ni or SP@rGO@Co and SP@rGO as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. These hybrid devices operate with extended operating voltage windows and achieve remarkable electrochemical supercapacitive properties which make them truly promising energy storage devices for commercial production. PMID:25483007

  13. A New Class of Risk-Importance Measures to Support Reactor Aging Management and the Prioritization of Materials Degradation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2010-06-07

    As the US fleet of light water reactors ages, the risks of operation might be expected to increase. Although probabilistic risk assessment has proven a critical resource in risk-informed regulatory decision-making, limitations in current methods and models have constrained their prospective value in reactor aging management. These limitations stem principally from the use of static component failure rate models (which do not allow the impact of component aging on failure rates to be represented) and a very limited treatment of passive components (which would be expected to have an increasingly significant risk contribution in an aging system). Yet, a PRA captures a substantial knowledge base that could be of significant value in addressing plant aging. In this paper we will describe a methodology and a new class of risk importance measures that allow the use of an existing PRA model to support the management of plant aging, the prioritization of improvements to non-destructive examination and monitoring techniques, and the establishment of research emphases in materials science. This methodology makes use of data resources generated under the USNRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation program which addresses the anticipated effects of numerous aging degradation mechanisms on a wide variety of component types.

  14. Flexible and self-powered temperature–pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-an; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-01-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature–pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of <0.1 K and a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa−1. More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements. PMID:26387591

  15. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition. PMID:27534629

  16. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of <0.1 K and a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa-1. More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  17. Effect of support materials on supported platinum catalyst prepared using a supercritical fluid deposition technique and their catalytic performance for hydrogen-rich gas production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Burçak; Irmak, Sibel; Hesenov, Arif; Erbatur, Oktay; Erkey, Can

    2012-11-01

    A number of supported Pt catalysts have been prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide deposition technique using various supports. The reduction of Pt precursor to metal performed by heat treatment under nitrogen flow. The prepared catalysts were evaluated for gasification of wheat straw biomass hydrolysates and glucose solution for hydrogen-rich gas production. The activities of the catalysts were highly affected by distribution, amount and particle sizes of platinum on the support. In general carbon-based supported Pt catalysts exhibited better catalytic activity compared to other supports to be used. Compared to biomass hydrolysate feed, gasification of glucose always resulted in higher volume of gas mixture, however, hydrogen selectivity was decreased in all catalyst except multi-walled carbon nanotube. The deposition of Pt particles inner side of that support makes the large organic substrates inaccessible to reach and react with those metal particles.

  18. Investigating the Use and Effectiveness of Diverse Types of Materials in the Delivery and Support of Lab Sessions for Multimedia Subjects and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Aggoun, Amar; Cosmas, John

    2013-01-01

    This research study explores the use of different lab material, investigating which types of materials contribute the most to the delivery and support of laboratory (lab) sessions to design, skill-based and technical courses in higher education in the UK. A qualitative research methodology was employed for this investigation and included both key…

  19. USING TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF MATERIALS DEGRADATION FOR THE U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, W Boyd; Knobbs, Katherine J.; Carpenter, C. E.; Malik, Shah

    2010-07-19

    The majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal to extend the operating life from the current 40 years to 60 years, and there is now active interest in extending the operating life to beyond 60 years. Many plants are also applying for increases in power rating and both of these changes increases the need for an improved understanding of materials degradation. Many materials degrade over time and much is known about the degradation of materials under normal environmental conditions; however, less is known about the characteristics of materials degradation when the environment is subject to higher than normal radiological conditions over extended periods of time. Significant efforts are being made by industrial, academic and regulatory groups worldwide to identify, classify and mitigate potential problems arising from degradation of components in this context. From a regulatory perspective, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is very interested in being able to identify ways to insure their licensees proactively manage the identification of materials degradation and the mitigation of its effects. To date, the USNRC has consolidated “generic” programs for mitigating aging issues in the two volume Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report (NUREG-1801) [1][2], and have encouraged applicants for license renewal to use these programs where applicable in their plant when applying for renew of their reactor’s license. The USNRC has also published a comprehensive report entitled Expert Panel Report on Proactive Materials Degradation (NUREG/CR-6923) [3] that inventories the types of degradation mechanisms that could exist in each component of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) and each degradation mechanism is assessed regarding how much is known about mitigating its effects. Since the number of plant designs and materials used varies greatly within the U.S. fleet, there are many variations to implementing aging management programs (AMPs

  20. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  1. Noncoding sequences from the slowly evolving chloroplast inverted repeat in addition to rbcL data do not support gnetalean affinities of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, V; Bobrova, V; Pahnke, J; Troitsky, A; Antonov, A; Martin, W

    1996-02-01

    We developed PCR primers against highly conserved regions of the rRNA operon located within the inverted repeat of the chloroplast genome and used these to amplify the region spanning from the 3' terminus of the 23S rRNA gene to the 5' terminus of the 5S rRNA gene. The sequence of this roughly 500-bp region, which includes the 4.5S rRNA gene and two chloroplast intergenic transcribed spacer regions (cpITS2 and cpITS3), was determined from 20 angiosperms, 7 gymnosperms, and 16 ferns (21,700 bp). Sequences for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) from the same or confamilial genera were analyzed in both separate and combined data sets. Due to the low substitution rate in the inverted repeat region, noncoding sequences in the cpITS region are not saturated with substitutions, in contrast to synonymous sites in rbcL, which are shown to evolve roughly six times faster than noncoding cpITS sequences. Several length polymorphisms with very clear phylogenetic distributions were detected in the data set. Results of phylogenetic analyses provide very strong bootstrap support for monophyly of both spermatophytes and angiosperms. No support for a sister group relationship between Gnetales and angiosperms in either cpITS or rbcL data was found. Rather, weak bootstrap support for monophyly of gymnosperms studied and for a basal position for the aquatic angiosperm Nymphaea among angiosperms studied was observed. Noncoding sequences from the inverted repeat region of chloroplast DNA appear suitable for study of land plant evolution.

  2. [Addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Vinko; Espinoza, Mauricio; Torres, Javier; Abarca, Juan; Montes, José Miguel; Luppi, Mario; Concha, Andrés; Reynolds, Enrique; Laporte, Alberto; Canals, Claudio; Vial, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    A subgroup of patients infected with the Hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. We report a 24 years old male with HPS that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ECLS technique. Precise criteria have been developed to predict which patients should be considered for this treatment.

  3. Evaluation of the potential of novel PCL-PPDX biodegradable scaffolds as support materials for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chaim, Isaac A; Sabino, Marcos A; Mendt, Mayela; Müller, Alejandro J; Ajami, Diana

    2012-04-01

    Cartilage is a specialized tissue represented by a group of particular cells (the chondrocytes) and an abundant extracellular matrix. Because of the reduced regenerative capacity of this tissue, cartilage injuries are often difficult to handle. Nowadays tissue engineering has emerged as a very promising discipline, and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are widely used as tissue supports. In cartilage injuries, the use of autologous chondrocyte implantation from non-affected cartilage zones has emerged as a very interesting technique, where chondrocytes are expanded in order to obtain a greater number of cells. Nevertheless, it has been reported that chondrocytes in bidimensional cultures suffer a dedifferentiation process. The present study sought, in the first place, to standardize a novel protocol in order to obtain primary cultures of chondrocytes from newborn rabbit hyaline cartilage from the xiphoid process. Second, the potential of porous three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable polymeric matrices as support materials for chondrocytes was evaluated: a novel poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(p-dioxanone) (PCL-PPDX) blend in a 90:10 w:w ratio and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). After achieving the standardization, a typical round-shaped chondrocyte morphology and the expression of collagen type II and aggrecan, evaluated by RT-PCR, were observed. Second-passage chondrocytes adhered effectively to these scaffolds, although cell growth at 7 days in culture was significantly less in the PCL-PPDX blend. After 3 weeks of culture on PCL-PPDX or PCL, the cells expressed collagen type II. The present study demonstrates the potential, unknown until now, of PCL-PPDX blend scaffolds in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid.

  5. The application of Co-Al-hydrotalcite as a novel additive of positive material for nickel-metal hydride secondary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaobin; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Xiaoe

    2014-11-01

    Co-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the different Co/Al molar ration is synthesized by hydrothermal method and investigated as an additive for positive material of the Ni-MH cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the Co-Al-LDH with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) is well-crystallized and hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of the nickel electrode added with different Co/Al molar ration Co-Al-LDH, the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO are investigated by the cyclic voltammograms (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH has higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. This cell can undergo at least 400 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1 C. The discharge capacity of this cell remains about 287 mAh g-1 after the 400th cycle. Meanwhile, compared with the pure electrode, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH possess a higher rate capability to meet the needs of high-storage applications.

  6. Determination of fluorine and chlorine in geological materials by induction furnace pyrohydrolysis and standard-addition ion-selective electrode measurement.

    PubMed

    Rice, T D

    1988-03-01

    Fluorine and chlorine in geological materials are volatilized by pyrohydrolysis at about 1150 degrees in a stream of oxygen (1000 ml/min) plus steam in an induction furnace. The catalyst is a 7:2:1 mixture of silica gel, tungstic oxide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The sample/catalyst mixture is pyrohydrolysed in a re-usable alumina crucible (already containing four drops of 1 + 3 phosphoric acid) inserted in a silica-enclosed graphite crucible. The absorption solution is buffered at pH 6.5 and spiked with 1.6 mug of fluoride and 16 mug of chloride per g of solution, to ensure rapid and linear electrode response during subsequent standard-addition measurement. The simple plastic absorption vessel has 99.5% efficiency. The 3s limits of detection are 5-10 mug/g and 40-100 mug/g for fluorine and chlorine respectively. The procedure is unsuitable for determining chlorine in coal. PMID:18964490

  7. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. PMID:19809898

  8. Understanding the effects of a multi-functionalized additive on the cathode-electrolyte interfacial stability of Ni-rich materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Taeeun; Kang, Kyoung Seok; Mun, Junyoung; Lim, Sang Hoo; Woo, Sang-Gil; Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Woosuk; Song, Jun Ho; Han, Young-Kyu; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Nickel-rich lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxides have received considerable attention as a promising cathode material, however, they have suffered from poor interfacial stability, especially at high temperature. Here, we suggest a bi-functionalized divinyl sulfone that enhances the applicability of a nickel-rich cathode via stabilization of the electrolyte-electrode interface. The divinyl sulfone forms a protective layer on the cathode surface by electrochemical oxidation reactions and this greatly decreases the internal pressure of the cell via stabilization of the Ni-rich cathode-electrolyte interface. The cell controlled with divinyl sulfone shows remarkable cycling performance with 91.9% capacity retention at elevated temperature even after 100 cycles. Additional electrode analyses and first-principles calculations provide critical spectroscopic evidences to demonstrate the combined effects of the sulfone and vinyl functional groups. Once the divinyl sulfone is electrochemically oxidized, the vinyl functional groups readily participate in further stabilizing sulfone-based solid electrolyte interphase intermediates and afford a durable protective layer on the nickel-rich electrode surface.

  9. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share.

  10. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. PMID:26025643

  11. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  12. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  13. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  14. Chemistry and Materials Science Weapons-Supporting Research and Laboratory-Directed Research and Development. Second half progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are surface research, uranium research, physics and processing of metals, energetic materials. Group study areas included strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds, advanced synchrotron radiation study of materials, and theory, modeling, and computation. Individual projects were life prediction for composites and thermoelectric materials with exceptional figures of merit. The laboratory-directed R and D include director`s initiatives (aerogel-based electronic devices, molecular levels of energetic materials), individual projects, and transactinium institute studies. An author index is provided.

  15. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy.

  16. Fusible heat sink materials - An identification of alternate candidates. [for astronaut thermoregulation in EVA portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lomax, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. An extensive database search was undertaken to identify candidate materials with liquid solid transformations over the temperature range of -18 C to 5 C; and 1215 candidates were identified. Based on available data, 59 candidate materials with thermal storage capability, DeltaH values higher than that of water were identified. This paper presents the methodology utilized in the study, including the decision process used for materials selection.

  17. Au-NiCo2O4 supported on three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like material for highly effective oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei-Yan; Li, Nan; Li, Qing-Yu; Ye, Kai-Hang; Xu, Chang-Wei

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like (3D HPG) material was synthesized by a one-step ion-exchange/activation combination method using a cheap metal ion exchanged resin as carbon precursor. The 3D HPG material as support for Au-NiCo2O4 gives good activity and stability for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The 3D HPG material is induced into NiCo2O4 as conductive support to increase the specific area and improve the poor conductivity of NiCo2O4. The activity of and stability of NiCo2O4 significantly are enhanced by a small amount of Au for OER. Au is a highly electronegative metal and acts as an electron adsorbate, which is believed to facilitate to generate and stabilize Co4+ and Ni3+ cations as the active centres for the OER.

  18. Au-NiCo2O4 supported on three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like material for highly effective oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei-Yan; Li, Nan; Li, Qing-Yu; Ye, Kai-Hang; Xu, Chang-Wei

    2016-03-21

    A three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like (3D HPG) material was synthesized by a one-step ion-exchange/activation combination method using a cheap metal ion exchanged resin as carbon precursor. The 3D HPG material as support for Au-NiCo2O4 gives good activity and stability for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The 3D HPG material is induced into NiCo2O4 as conductive support to increase the specific area and improve the poor conductivity of NiCo2O4. The activity of and stability of NiCo2O4 significantly are enhanced by a small amount of Au for OER. Au is a highly electronegative metal and acts as an electron adsorbate, which is believed to facilitate to generate and stabilize Co(4+) and Ni(3+) cations as the active centres for the OER.

  19. Au-NiCo2O4 supported on three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like material for highly effective oxygen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei-Yan; Li, Nan; Li, Qing-Yu; Ye, Kai-Hang; Xu, Chang-Wei

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical porous graphene-like (3D HPG) material was synthesized by a one-step ion-exchange/activation combination method using a cheap metal ion exchanged resin as carbon precursor. The 3D HPG material as support for Au-NiCo2O4 gives good activity and stability for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The 3D HPG material is induced into NiCo2O4 as conductive support to increase the specific area and improve the poor conductivity of NiCo2O4. The activity of and stability of NiCo2O4 significantly are enhanced by a small amount of Au for OER. Au is a highly electronegative metal and acts as an electron adsorbate, which is believed to facilitate to generate and stabilize Co4+ and Ni3+ cations as the active centres for the OER. PMID:26996816

  20. Use of radiation effects for a controlled change in the chemical composition and properties of materials by intentional addition or substitution of atoms of a certain kind

    SciTech Connect

    Gurovich, B. A.; Prikhod'ko, K. E. Kuleshova, E. A.; Maslakov, K. I.; Komarov, D. A.

    2013-06-15

    This study is a continuation of works [1-12] dealing with the field developed by the authors, namely, to widen the possibilities of radiation methods for a controlled change in the atomic composition and properties of thin-film materials. The effects under study serve as the basis for the following two methods: selective atom binding and selective atom substitution. Such changes in the atomic composition are induced by irradiation by mixed beams consisting of protons and other ions, the energy of which is sufficient for target atom displacements. The obtained experimental data demonstrate that the changes in the chemical composition of thin-film materials during irradiation by an ion beam of a complex composition take place according to mechanisms that differ radically from the well-known mechanisms controlling the corresponding chemical reactions in these materials. These radical changes are shown to be mainly caused by the accelerated ioninduced atomic displacements in an irradiated material during irradiation; that is, they have a purely radiation nature. The possibilities of the new methods for creating composite structures consisting of regions with a locally changed chemical composition and properties are demonstrated for a wide class of materials.