Science.gov

Sample records for additional supportive evidence

  1. Effects of additional iron-chelators on Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation: evidence to support the Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex as the initiator.

    PubMed

    Tang, L X; Yang, J L; Shen, X

    1997-12-01

    The addition of chelated Fe2+ ions in a liposomal system often results in a short lag period before peroxidation starts. The addition of a second chelator at the end of the lag period results in an inhibition of the lipid peroxidation. The degree of inhibition depends on the stability constants of the chelator in ligating Fe2+ and/or Fe3+. A more striking inhibitory effect was observed for the chelators with higher stability constant for either or both Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-complex, but much less inhibition was found for those with lower stability constants for both complexes. Assuming that the "initiator" for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation is formed through the redox process of iron ion and finally emerged at the end of the latent period, the inhibitory effect of the second chelator may be explained as the abstraction of either Fe2+ or Fe3+ from the initiator by an additional free chelator, which results in the decomposition of the initiator. This study supports the hypothesis that a Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex is responsible for iron-initiated lipid peroxidation. PMID:9397574

  2. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication.

  3. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting evidence. (a) In... claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant should submit... signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to property...

  4. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting evidence. (a) In... claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant should submit... signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to property...

  5. Approaches to Dispute Resolution in Additional Support Needs in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004 aimed, among other things, to increase parents' rights in relation to the education of their children. In addition to the creation of the Additional Supports Needs Tribunals for Scotland, parents were given new rights to challenge local authority decisions through mediation and…

  6. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  8. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  9. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.750 Evidence of a parent's support. If you apply for parent's benefits, we will ask you for evidence to show that...

  10. NICU nurse educators: what evidence supports your teaching strategies?

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2013-01-01

    One of our roles as nurse educators is to teach best practices related to patient care. However, have you ever stopped to think about what evidence supports your teaching strategies? Just as our patients deserve care that is based on the best available evidence, our learners also deserve education that is based on evidence.1-3 With so many advances in knowledge, technology, and even life itself, it is interesting that education has changed very little over the past 100 years. A study among 946 nurse educators documented that most teach the way they were taught.4 In addition, even after learning new strategies, educators often continue teaching in the manner they are most comfortable. However, this trend is beginning to change. Nurse educators are becoming increasingly aware of and willing to try new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators are also seeking out evidence-based teaching strategies and are becoming more involved in nursing education research.

  11. Evidence supporting early nutritional support with parenteral amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C; Poindexter, Brenda B

    2007-04-01

    Postnatal growth of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains poor and does not come close to approximating rates of in utero growth. There is good evidence that early deficiencies in protein may be an important contributor to the poor growth outcomes observed in this population. Protein losses are inversely related to gestational age, and ELBW infants lose 1% to 2% of their total endogenous body protein stores each day that they receive glucose alone. It is now abundantly clear from a variety of studies that providing intravenous amino acids to sick premature infants in early postnatal life can improve protein balance and can increase protein accretion, even at low caloric intakes. Provision of approximately 1 g/kg/day of amino acids will result in a net protein balance close to zero, whereas delivery of 3 g/kg/day will accomplish protein accretion. Although data from metabolic studies, observational studies, and even a few randomized clinical trials overwhelmingly support the short-term safety and efficacy of early amino acids in reversing protein loss, there is much less known about the effects of early amino acid administration on longer-term outcomes such as growth and neurodevelopment in extremely premature infants. Based on the sum of currently available evidence presented, providing ELBW infants with 2.5 to 3.5 g/kg/day of intravenous amino acids as soon as possible after birth is a reasonable recommendation. Future studies are required to determine whether provision of 3 to 3.5 g/kg/day of amino acids is "aggressive" enough for optimal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome of ELBW infants.

  12. 20 CFR 219.57 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 219.57... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Other Evidence Requirements § 219.57 Evidence of a parent's support. (a) The Board will require the parent's signed statement showing his or her income, any other sources of...

  13. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  14. 22 CFR 511.9 - Supporting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.9 Supporting... support of claims for damage to property which as been or can be economically repaired, the claimant... itemized signed receipts if payment has been made. (c) In support of claims for loss or damage to...

  15. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750 Section 404.750 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.750 Evidence of...

  16. 17 CFR 12.405 - Leave to adduce additional evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evidence. Any time prior to issuance of its final decision pursuant to § 12.406, the Commission may, after... further evidence. The application shall show to the satisfaction of the Commission that the...

  17. 20 CFR 404.750 - Evidence of a parent's support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of a parent's support. 404.750 Section 404.750 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... parent's support. If you apply for parent's benefits, we will ask you for evidence to show that...

  18. 17 CFR 10.107 - Leave to adduce additional evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Any time prior to issuance of the final decision the Commission may, upon its own motion or upon..., reopen the hearing for the reception of further evidence. The application shall show to the...

  19. Biochemical evidence supporting the Cortina criteria.

    PubMed

    von Werder, K

    2005-01-01

    Whether acromegaly is inactive or active, respectively cured or not cured depends on the GH suppressibility and the basal IGF-I level. According to the Cortina criteria, GH suppression after oral ingestion of 75 g glucose to <1 microg/l using conventional polyclonal immunoassays and an IGF-I level within the age-matched normal range are regarded as evidence of good control of acromegaly. According to more recent publications, mortality, which is increased in active acromegaly, is normalized when GH and IGF-I levels have become normal as defined above. Morbidity, i.e. typical features of acromegaly like cardiac problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, carbohydrate intolerance, and excessive sweating may also improve though painful arthropathy, and coarse facial features usually remain unaltered even if the biochemistry has been completely normalized. Using more sensitive GH assays, a group of acromegalic patients was shown to have normal IGF-I levels after surgery, with post-glucose levels of GH <1 microg/l but >0.14 microg/l, which is the upper level of normal subjects and of a second group of successfully operated acromegalic patients. The latter group also had slightly lower IGF-I levels, though such levels were normal in both groups. Whether this may indicate that these patients who have higher GH levels after oral glucose measured with the more sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) will more likely develop recurrences remains to be demonstrated in a larger cohort. According to the criteria put forward in Cortina d'Ampezzo in February 1999, all patients who have post-glucose GH levels <1 microg/l and normal age-matched IGF-I levels have to be regarded as well controlled, i.e. sufficiently treated. Because of lack of evidence, there is at present no reason to change the consensus reached there.

  20. Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits.

    PubMed

    Heagele, Tara N

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the available evidence in support of the effectiveness of disaster supply kits presently used in household emergency preparedness in the United States. The expectation that people should take responsibility for their own disaster preparedness has largely not taken into account contextual influences on disaster preparedness. The efficiency of current disaster supply kits used during critical postdisaster periods has not been empirically tested. Professional recommendations regarding the composition of disaster supply kits containing at least water, food, first aid, hygiene, and clothing have not been universally defined. This lack of consensus may lead to the assembling of disaster supply kits yielding suboptimal results. The use of disaster supply kits should continue to be nationally recommended, although additional research is needed to demonstrate their beneficial impact on survival and resilience after a disaster. PMID:27077362

  1. 14 CFR 1261.107 - Evidence in support of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.107 Evidence in support of claim. (a... repair for property which has been repaired, or one or more written estimates of the cost of repairs...

  2. Additional evidence for complex 2-site polarons in CMR manganites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Frank; Kurczveil, Geza; Downward, Lisa; Neumeier, John J.

    2007-03-01

    Recently we have proposed a complex 2-site polaron model (which we call a dimeron) that exists for temperatures near and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature, Tc [1]. The dimeron has a hole delocalized over two Mn sites (i.e. a hole and an electron share the two Mn sites) and the two Mn sites have a reduced distortion compared to the remaining Jahn-Teller distorted electron sites. Magnetic clusters just above Tc are likely clusters of these dimeron quasiparticles. The average valance of the two Mn sites in the dimeron is 3.5 and the spin is 7/2. We show that the Mn K-absorption edge is much better described as a sum of a 3.5 valence edge (fraction 2x) plus a 3 valance edge (fraction 1-2x), compared to earlier simulations using x CaMnO3 plus 1-x LaMnO3. We also show that fitting the Mn-O peak to a sum of two experimental Mn-O standards leads to a similar result as in the earlier study - a fraction 2x of lower distorted Mn sites (dimerons) and a fraction 1-2x of more distorted sites with 1 eg electron. Both support the proposed complex - 2-site polaron model.Supported under NSF grant DMR0301971.[1] L. Downward et. al., Phys Rev Lett 95, 106401 (2005).

  3. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  4. Evidence-based practice: developing mentors to support students.

    PubMed

    Barry, Debbie; Houghton, Trish; Warburton, Tyler

    2016-08-17

    This article, the ninth in a series of 11, provides guidance for new and established mentors and practice teachers on evidence-based practice, the seventh domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of contemporary healthcare and is central to student preparation programmes for nursing, midwifery and specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN). The article describes evidence-based practice, discussing the importance and implementation of an evidence-based approach in the context of role development for mentors and practice teachers in the preparation of nursing, midwifery and SCPHN students. PMID:27533414

  5. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  6. Additional experimental evidence for a solar influence on nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jere H.; Herminghuysen, Kevin R.; Blue, Thomas E.; Fischbach, Ephraim; Javorsek, Daniel; Kauffman, Andrew C.; Mundy, Daniel W.; Sturrock, Peter A.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2012-09-01

    Additional experimental evidence is presented in support of the recent hypothesis that a possible solar influence could explain fluctuations observed in the measured decay rates of some isotopes. These data were obtained during routine weekly calibrations of an instrument used for radiological safety at The Ohio State University Research Reactor using 36Cl. The detector system used was based on a Geiger-Müller gas detector, which is a robust detector system with very low susceptibility to environmental changes. A clear annual variation is evident in the data, with a maximum relative count rate observed in January/February, and a minimum relative count rate observed in July/August, for seven successive years from July 2005 to June 2011. This annual variation is not likely to have arisen from changes in the detector surroundings, as we show here.

  7. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  8. Tools to support evidence-informed public health decision making

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health professionals are increasingly expected to engage in evidence-informed decision making to inform practice and policy decisions. Evidence-informed decision making involves the use of research evidence along with expertise, existing public health resources, knowledge about community health issues, the local context and community, and the political climate. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools has identified a seven step process for evidence-informed decision making. Tools have been developed to support public health professionals as they work through each of these steps. This paper provides an overview of tools used in three Canadian public health departments involved in a study to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. Methods As part of a knowledge translation and exchange intervention, a Knowledge Broker worked with public health professionals to identify and apply tools for use with each of the steps of evidence-informed decision making. The Knowledge Broker maintained a reflective journal and interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of decision makers and public health professionals. This paper presents qualitative analysis of the perceived usefulness and usability of the tools. Results Tools were used in the health departments to assist in: question identification and clarification; searching for the best available research evidence; assessing the research evidence for quality through critical appraisal; deciphering the ‘actionable message(s)’ from the research evidence; tailoring messages to the local context to ensure their relevance and suitability; deciding whether and planning how to implement research evidence in the local context; and evaluating the effectiveness of implementation efforts. Decision makers provided descriptions of how the tools were used within the health departments and made suggestions for improvement. Overall, the tools were perceived as valuable for advancing

  9. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) Assurances and Obligations § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need....

  10. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic impact. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an impact event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this impact.

  11. Mechanical circulatory support devices as destination therapy—current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Stephan; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Börgermann, Jochen; Rehn, Erik; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Morshuis, Michiel; Gummert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced heart failure is an increasing problem worldwide. Nowadays, mechanical circulatory support devices (MSCD) are an established therapeutic option for terminal heart failure after exhaustion of medical and conventional surgical treatment, and are becoming a realistic alternative to heart transplantation (HTX). There are a number of different treatment options for these patients, such as bridge to transplantation (BTT), bridge to candidacy (BTC), bridge to recovery (BTR) and the destination therapy (DT) option. The latter option has become more frequent throughout the last years, due to a donor organ shortage and an increasing number of older patients with terminal heart failure who are not eligible for HTX. These factors have led to a rapidly increasing number of LVAD implantations as well as centers which perform these procedures. This has also been due to improved LVAD survival rates and quality of life following the introduction of smaller, intrapericardial and more durable continuous flow left ventricular devices. The most common complications for these patients are device-related problems, such as coagulation disorders, gastrointestinal bleeding, device related infection, pump thrombosis or cerebrovascular accidents. However, some questions still remain unanswered or under debate, such as the exact time-point for LVAD implantation. In addition, aspects such as better biocompatibility for LVADs remain a major challenge. This review will concentrate on DT for terminal heart failure and provide an overview of the current evidence for LVAD implantation in this patient group, with particular emphasis on indication and time-point of implantation, choice of LVADs, and long term outcomes and quality of life. PMID:25452913

  12. The support of human genetic evidence for approved drug indications.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Tipney, Hannah; Painter, Jeffery L; Shen, Judong; Nicoletti, Paola; Shen, Yufeng; Floratos, Aris; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen; Cardon, Lon R; Whittaker, John C; Sanseau, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Over a quarter of drugs that enter clinical development fail because they are ineffective. Growing insight into genes that influence human disease may affect how drug targets and indications are selected. However, there is little guidance about how much weight should be given to genetic evidence in making these key decisions. To answer this question, we investigated how well the current archive of genetic evidence predicts drug mechanisms. We found that, among well-studied indications, the proportion of drug mechanisms with direct genetic support increases significantly across the drug development pipeline, from 2.0% at the preclinical stage to 8.2% among mechanisms for approved drugs, and varies dramatically among disease areas. We estimate that selecting genetically supported targets could double the success rate in clinical development. Therefore, using the growing wealth of human genetic data to select the best targets and indications should have a measurable impact on the successful development of new drugs.

  13. Evidence Supporting an Early as Well as Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting an intense early bombardment on the Moon in addition to the traditional Late Heavy Bombardment at approx. 4 BY ago include the distribution of N(50) Crater Retention Ages (CRAs) for candidate basins, a variety of absolute age scenarios for both a "young" and an "old" Nectaris age, and the decreasing contrasts in both topographic relief and Bouguer gravity with increasing CRA.

  14. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  15. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  16. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  17. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  18. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term supported housing includes facilities to provide temporary shelter to eligible individuals as well as...

  19. Additional Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Regions of Northwest Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenborg, Carolien B.; Nakken, H.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    One in 10 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) exhibits behaviors that represent a significant challenge to the people who support them. Parents and staff (such as direct support professionals) often are challenged in trying to find a solution to overcome or reduce these behaviors. A form of additional professional support (i.e., external…

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  2. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  3. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  4. The new polio eradication end game: rationale and supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Roland W; Platt, Lauren; Mach, Ondrej; Jafari, Hamid; Aylward, R Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication requires the removal of all polioviruses from human populations, whether wild poliovirus or those emanating from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 provides a framework for interruption of wild poliovirus transmission in remaining endemic foci and lays out a plan for the new polio end game, which includes the withdrawal of Sabin strains, starting with type 2, and the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, for risk mitigation purposes. This report summarizes the rationale and evidence that supports the policy decision to switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV and to introduce 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine into routine immunization schedules, and it describes the proposed implementation of this policy in countries using trivalent OPV.

  5. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  6. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  7. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  8. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  9. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  10. Social costs of expanding access to evidence-based supported employment: concepts and interpretive review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Salkever, David

    2013-02-01

    A recent policy analysis argued that expanding access to evidence-based supported employment can provide savings in major components of social costs. This article extends the scope of this policy analysis by placing the argument within a recently developed economic framework for social cost-effectiveness analysis that defines a program's social cost impact as its effect on net consumption of all goods and services. A total of 27 studies over the past two decades are reviewed to synthesize evidence of the social cost impacts of expanding access to the individual placement and support model of supported employment (IPS-SE). Most studies have focused primarily on agency costs of providing IPS-SE services, cost offsets when clients shift from "traditional" rehabilitation to IPS-SE, and impacts on clients' earnings. Because costs and cost offsets are similar in magnitude, incremental costs of expanding services to persons who would otherwise receive traditional services are probably small or even negative. The population served by an expansion could be sizable, but the feasibility of a policy targeting IPS-SE expansion in this way has yet to be demonstrated. IPS-SE has positive impacts on competitive job earnings, but these may not fully translate into social cost offsets. Additional empirical support is needed for the argument that large-scale expansion would yield substantial mental health treatment cost offsets. Other gaps in evidence of policy impacts include take-up rate estimates, cost impact estimates from longer-term studies (exceeding two years), and longer-term studies of whether IPS-SE prevents younger clients from becoming recipients of Supplemental Security Income or Social Security Disability Insurance

  11. Teaching strategies to support evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Winters, Charlene A; Echeverri, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is an expected core competency of all health care clinicians regardless of discipline. Use of evidence-based practice means integrating the best research with clinical expertise and patient values to achieve optimal health outcomes. Evidence-based practice requires nurses to access and appraise evidence rapidly before integrating it into clinical practice. Role modeling and integrating the skills necessary to develop evidence-based practice into clinical and nonclinical courses is an important part in developing positive attitudes toward evidence-based practice, an essential first step to using evidence to guide practice decisions. The step-by-step approach to evidence-based practice proposed by Melnyk and colleagues provides an excellent organizing framework for teaching strategies specifically designed to facilitate nurses' knowledge and skill development in evidence-based practice.

  12. Periodontal self-care: evidence-based support.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Connie L

    2013-06-01

    The focus of this review on periodontal self-care will be based primarily on the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on the evidence gleaned from systematic reviews, it is notable that most authors of these reviews commented on the relatively small number of trials that could pass the quality-assessment inclusion in the systematic review. Interproximal devices, namely interproximal brushes, are more effective for reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis than are flossing or brushing alone. Some added benefit may be attributed to the use of rotational oscillation powered toothbrushes over manual toothbrushes. Recommendations by the dentist and dental hygienist to add one or more chemotherapeutic agents to the typical oral hygiene regimen has been shown, in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to reduce the level of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients. Oral irrigation does not seem to reduce visible plaque but does tend to reduce inflammation, determined by the presence of bleeding on probing, the gingival index score and probing depth measurements. To date, high-quality evidence is either lacking or weak in some areas regarding the efficacy of self-care and periodontal disease. Low educational attainment, smoking and socio-economic status are related to adverse periodontal health outcomes. Variation in self-esteem, self-confidence and perfectionism are associated with oral health status and oral health behaviors. Better understanding of the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene would be of benefit in further developing strategies to help patients improve their oral hygiene in addition to helping professionals design better programs on prevention and education.

  13. Review of the Additional Support for Learning Act: "Adding Benefits for Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the Minister for Children and Early Years, gave a commitment to Parliament to establish a working group to report on how the "Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004" (the Act) is affecting children and young people who: (1) are looked after; (2) are young carers; (3) have mental health disorders; and (4) have…

  14. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placement in permanent housing or in a living environment appropriate to his or her health and social needs... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  17. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds. PMID:26419321

  18. Polymorphism in paracetamol: evidence of additional forms IV and V at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spencer J; Bishop, Matthew M; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Hamilton, Tracy P; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2014-08-01

    The structural phase stability of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide (paracetamol) has been studied at ambient temperature up to 23 GPa using Raman spectroscopy. Spectral changes have provided further evidence for a highly kinetically driven Form I → II transition that occurs as a mixed phase from 4.8 to 6.5 GPa, and might complete as early as 7 GPa. Upon further compression to 8.1 GPa, a drastic shift in spectral signature was observed providing the first evidence for a previously undiscovered Form IV of paracetamol. Additional shifts in mode intensities were observed near 11 GPa indicating a potential restructuring of the hydrogen bonding network and/or structural modification to a potentially new Form V. Phase boundaries at 7 and 8 GPa were confirmed under hydrostatic conditions using Raman spectroscopy. Spectral changes indicate that the transition Form IV → V occurs near 11 GPa. Multiple ab initio harmonic frequency calculations at different levels of theory were performed with a B3LYP/6-31G** being used to provide a more robust mode assignment to our experimentally obtained Raman modes. High pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed up to 21 GPa, which provided further evidence for a highly kinetically driven Form I → II transition in agreement with our Raman measurements. In addition, the XRD provided further evidence for the existence of Form IV near 8 GPa and Form V near 11 GPa with Form V persisting up to 21 GPa.

  19. The Ganong paradigm: Converging evidence supporting initial phoneme weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Erik C.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2003-10-01

    In the present experiment we investigate whether the initial phoneme is given more weight in word recognition [W. D. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh, Cognit. Psych. 10, 29-63 (1978)] or if all phonemes in a word are weighted equally [C. M. Connine, D. G. Blasko, and D. Titone, J. Mem. Lang. 32, 193-210 (1993)]. Using the Ganong paradigm [W. F. Ganong, JEP:HPP. 6, 110-125 (1980)], participants were instructed to categorize a final ambiguous fricative in the target items, which included both words and pseudowords. Pseudowords were created by changing either the initial or a medial phoneme within the words. For example, the word diminish was altered to create the pseudowords timinish and dimimish. In addition, initial and medial phonemes were altered by either one or three distinctive features. The differences in the labeling of the final ambiguous fricative in the target items led to the conclusion that the initial phoneme is weighted more heavily. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  20. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Emily S; Laird, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. PMID:25177156

  1. Preliminary Results to Support Evidence of Thermospheric Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, A.; Swinerd, G.; Lewis, H.

    Atmospheric density has an important influence in predicting the positions of satellites in low Earth orbit. For long-term predictions of satellite ephemerides, any density trend in the thermosphere would be a valuable input, not only to satellite operators, but also to studies of the future low Earth orbit environment in terms of space debris. A secular thermospheric density trend has not yet been definitively proven but predictions by Ramesh and Roble [1], along with evidence by Emmert et al. [2], strongly suggest the existence of such a phenomenon. With the ultimate goal of deriving a long-term empirical model of thermospheric cooling and contraction, the primary focus of this paper is to present preliminary results obtained to support the existing evidence for such a thermospheric contraction. There are many ways of determining atmospheric density, but inferring thermospheric density from satellite drag data is a relatively cost-effective way of gathering in-situ measurements. Given an initial satellite orbit, one approach is to use an orbital propagator to predict the satellite's state at some time ahead and then to compare that state with Two-Line Element (TLE) data at the same epoch. The difference between the semi-major axis of the satellite from the initial orbit and that after the orbit propagation is then integrated to obtain an estimate of global average density. This is the approach adopted in our new work, using a bespoke, orbital propagator that includes perturbations due to atmospheric drag, gravitational anomalies, luni-solar gravity effects and solar radiation pressure. The methods used to derive precise estimates of the ballistic coefficient of each satellite for use in the propagator are outlined, as this information is not contained explicitly in the TLE sets. In validation of the orbital propagator used in this study, Saunders et al. [3] ran simulations to predict satellite re-entry dates with satisfactory results. Now, historical satellite

  2. A Support Program for English as an Additional Language Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the most diverse countries in the world. To provide meaningful health care, the Canadian health care system requires nursing health care teams reflecting this diversity. Meeting this demand should be a specific goal of Canadian nursing schools. Nursing students with English as an Additional Language (EALs) are graduating and passing national licencing exams at a lower rate than nursing students whose first language is English. It is the premise of the article that EALs require both academic and nonacademic forms of support during their years of nursing education. A literature review reveals that EALs facing academic crisis benefit from individual and group English language support, aimed at improving their understanding and use of English in an academic environment. Studies also suggest that group sessions help improve EALs' psychosocial functioning. This article provides an overview of the establishment and implementation of a proactive nursing support program, purposely designed to address the challenges faced by EALs. PMID:25288563

  3. Report on the Implementation of the Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…

  4. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  5. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  6. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  7. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  8. 20 CFR 219.56 - When evidence of a parent's support is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of a parent's support is... a parent's support is required. If a person applies for a parent's annuity, the Board will require evidence to show that the parent received at least one-half of his or her support from the employee in...

  9. Caught on Video! Using Handheld Digital Video Cameras to Support Evidence-Based Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Nealy, Jennifer; Roland, Christine; Ryan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Engaging elementary students in evidence-based reasoning is an essential aspect of science and engineering education. Evidence-based reasoning involves students making claims (i.e., answers to questions, or solutions to problems), providing evidence to support those claims, and articulating their reasoning to connect the evidence to the claim. In…

  10. Postural control in response to a perturbation: role of vision and additional support.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Vennila, Krishnan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the availability of vision and additional support on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments and their interaction. Eight healthy adults were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing with and without holding onto a walker in full vision and while blindfolded. Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COPAP) displacement were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APA and CPA. The results showed that with full vision, there was no difference in both APA and CPA in standing with and without holding onto a walker. With subjects holding onto a walker, CPA in standing blindfolded were comparable to CPA in full vision; this was seen in changes in the electrical activity of most of the muscles at the individual muscle, joint, and the muscle group levels as well as in COPAP displacement. The findings suggest that (1) in conditions where vision is available, vision overrules simultaneously available proprioceptive information from the support, (2) while in conditions where vision is not available, proprioceptive information from the support or support itself could be substituted for vision. It is possible to suggest that using a non-stabilizing support could be a valuable strategy to improve postural control when visual information is not available or compromised.

  11. X-ray Evidence Supports Possible New Class Of Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a significant new class of supernova has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. These results strengthen the case for a population of stars that evolve rapidly and are destroyed by thermonuclear explosions. Such "prompt" supernovas could be valuable tools for probing the early history of the cosmos. A team of astronomers uncovered a puzzling situation when they examined X-ray data from DEM L238 and DEM L249, the remnants of two supernovas in a nearby galaxy. On the one hand, the unusually high concentration of iron atoms implied that the remnants are the products of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, a well-known type of supernova known as Type Ia. On the other hand, the hot gas in the remnants was much denser and brighter in X-rays than typical Type Ia remnants. A white dwarf, the dense final stage in the evolution of a sun-like star, is a very stable object and will not explode on its own. However, if a white dwarf has a close companion star it can grow beyond a critical mass by pulling gas off the companion and explode. Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Computer simulations of Type Ia supernova remnants showed that the most likely explanation for the X-ray data is that the white dwarfs exploded into very dense environments. This suggests that the stars which evolved into these white dwarfs were more massive than usual, because heavier stars are known to expel more gas into their surroundings. "We know that the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifetime," said Kazimierz Borkowski of North Carolina State University, Raleigh. "If such a star could also begin to pull matter from its companion at an early stage, then this star would have a much shorter fuse and explode in only about 100 million years -- much less than other Type Ia supernovas." Other teams have independently found evidence for

  12. New Evidence: Data Documenting Parental Support for Earlier Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…

  13. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  14. Evidence of thermal additivity during short laser pulses in an in vitro retinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael L.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Dyer, Phillip N.; Oian, Chad A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rickman, John M.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Castellanos, Cherry C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-03-01

    Laser damage thresholds were determined for exposure to 2.5-ms 532-nm pulses in an established in vitro retinal model. Single and multiple pulses (10, 100, 1000) were delivered to the cultured cells at three different pulse repetition frequency (PRF) values, and overt damage (membrane breach) was scored 1 hr post laser exposure. Trends in the damage data within and across the PRF range identified significant thermal additivity as PRF was increased, as evidenced by drastically reduced threshold values (< 40% of single-pulse value). Microthermography data that were collected in real time during each exposure also provided evidence of thermal additivity between successive laser pulses. Using thermal profiles simulated at high temporal resolution, damage threshold values were predicted by an in-house computational model. Our simulated ED50 value for a single 2.5-ms pulse was in very good agreement with experimental results, but ED50 predictions for multiple-pulse trains will require more refinement.

  15. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates.

  16. Evidence in Support of a Scalar Implicature Account of Plurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plural is semantically unmarked for number such that a plural can be interpreted as meaning "at least one." The 2 experiments reported here used a picture matching paradigm to investigate the conceptual representations built during the comprehension of sentences with plural definite descriptions…

  17. Testimony and Evidence To Support Small Classes, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    This testimonial presents evidence that reduced class size (CSR) has positive effects on student learning in grades K-3. Student achievement is improved in the areas of academics, behavior and discipline, citizenship and participation in and outside school, and development into competent and productive adults. The paper emphasizes that class size…

  18. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  19. [Evidence on support during labor and delivery: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Osis, Maria José Duarte

    2005-01-01

    The effects of support for women during labor and delivery provided by health professionals, lay women, and doulas on the maternal and neonatal outcomes have been evaluated through randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. This article presents a review of these studies, focusing on the principal characteristics, support provider, simultaneous presence of the woman's spouse and/or family members during labor and delivery and the outcomes. The analysis included studies published from 1980 to 2004 which explicitly approached these aspects. In general, the results of such support were favorable, highlighting a reduction in the cesarean rate, analgesia/ medication for pain relief, duration of labor, and utilization of oxytocin and an increase in maternal satisfaction with the experience. The benefits were greater when the support provider was not a health professional. The available studies did not evaluate the specific companion chosen by the woman as a support provider, which constitutes a gap in the knowledge that should be filled by future research.

  20. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed Policymaking in health 11: Finding and using evidence about local conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Evidence about local conditions is evidence that is available from the specific setting(s) in which a decision or action on a policy or programme option will be taken. Such evidence is always needed, together with other forms of evidence, in order to inform decisions about options. Global evidence is the best starting point for judgements about effects, factors that modify those effects, and insights into ways to approach and address problems. But local evidence is needed for most other judgements about what decisions and actions should be taken. In this article, we suggest five questions that can help to identify and appraise the local evidence that is needed to inform a decision about policy or programme options. These are: 1. What local evidence is needed to inform a decision about options? 2. How can the necessary local evidence be found? 3. How should the quality of the available local evidence be assessed? 4. Are there important variations in the availability, quality or results of local evidence? 5. How should local evidence be incorporated with other information? PMID:20018101

  1. Standardized Nursing Documentation Supports Evidence-Based Nursing Management.

    PubMed

    Mykkänen, Minna; Miettinen, Merja; Saranto, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    Nursing documentation is crucial to high quality, effective and safe nursing care. According to earlier studies nursing documentation practices vary and nursing classifications used in electronic patient records (EPR) are not yet standardized internationally nor nationally. A unified national model for documenting patient care improves information flow in nursing practice, management, research and development toward evidence-based nursing care. Nursing documentation quality, accuracy and development requires follow-up and evaluation. An audit instrument is used in the Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) when evaluating nursing documentation. The results of the auditing process suggest that the national nursing documentation model fulfills nurses' expectations of electronic tools, facilitating their important documentation duty. This paper discusses the importance of using information about nursing documentation and how we can take advantage of structural information in evidence-based nursing management. PMID:27332244

  2. Recycling of fly ash for preparing porous mullite membrane supports with titania addition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Zhou, Jian-er; Lin, Bin; Ji, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Guangyao

    2010-08-15

    In order to effectively utilize industrial waste fly ash, porous mullite ceramic membrane supports were prepared from fly ash and calcined bauxite with chemically pure titania as sintering additive. The effects of TiO(2) on the sintering behaviors and main properties of porous mullite were studied in detail. Due to the addition of titania, the sintering of the flyash-based mullite was inhibited at low temperatures, but effectively improved at high temperatures, the latter is suitable for preparing porous mullite membrane supports by incomplete sintering. Titania entered into liquid glassy phase with low high-temperature viscosity during sintering, resulting in the improvement of sintering activity, as well as the lowering of secondary mullitization temperature (where 2.0% titania). Between 1300 and 1500 degrees C, with increasing titania content, the samples exhibit increased trends in both linear shrinkage percent and bulk density, but a slightly decreased trend in open porosity, at all sintering temperatures. At 1300-1500 degrees C, the samples sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2h exhibit the lowest shrinkage and bulk density, as well as the highest open porosities in the investigated titania content range of 0-6.0 wt.%. Also, with increasing titania content, the pore size decreases slightly but the three-point flexural strength increases gradually at 1450 degrees C.

  3. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  4. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  5. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  6. Chronic Pain and Depression: Does the Evidence Support a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Turner, Judith A.

    1985-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the relevant literature provides some support for an association between depression and chronic pain. Common conceptual and methodological problems are discussed. Current biological and psychological models of the mechanisms by which the two syndromes may interact are summarized, and suggestions are made for future…

  7. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1999-01-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  8. Self Directed Support and People with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Published Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkes, Mary Anne; Brown, Michael; Horsburgh, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the evidence base underpinning the strategy of Self Directed Support and whether evidence demonstrates that this policy is accessible to everyone with a learning disability. It also sought to identify whether there were any barriers to Self Directed Support for people with severe or…

  9. An Additional Baurusuchid from the Cretaceous of Brazil with Evidence of Interspecific Predation among Crocodyliformes

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Pedro L.; Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Norell, Mark A.; Langer, Max C.

    2014-01-01

    A new Baurusuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia), Aplestosuchus sordidus, is described based on a nearly complete skeleton collected in deposits of the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous) of Brazil. The nesting of the new taxon within Baurusuchidae can be ensured based on several exclusive skull features of this clade, such as the quadrate depression, medial approximation of the prefrontals, rostral extension of palatines (not reaching the level of the rostral margin of suborbital fenestrae), cylindrical dorsal portion of palatine bar, ridge on the ectopterygoid-jugal articulation, and supraoccipital with restricted thin transversal exposure in the caudalmost part of the skull roof. A newly proposed phylogeny of Baurusuchidae encompasses A. sordidus and recently described forms, suggesting its sixter-taxon relationship to Baurusuchus albertoi, within Baurusuchinae. Additionally, the remains of a sphagesaurid crocodyliform were preserved in the abdominal cavity of the new baurusuchid. Direct fossil evidence of behavioral interaction among fossil crocodyliforms is rare and mostly restricted to bite marks resulting from predation, as well as possible conspecific male-to-male aggression. This is the first time that a direct and unmistaken evidence of predation between different taxa of this group is recorded as fossils. This discovery confirms that baurusuchids were top predators of their time, with sphagesaurids occupying a lower trophic position, possibly with a more generalist diet. PMID:24809508

  10. Evidence in support of a scalar implicature account of plurality.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plural is semantically unmarked for number such that a plural can be interpreted as meaning "at least one." The 2 experiments reported here used a picture matching paradigm to investigate the conceptual representations built during the comprehension of sentences with plural definite descriptions (e.g., leaves). In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that specified that the objects in the plural were spatially distributed (scattered leaves), spatially grouped (a pile of leaves), or neutral with respect to spatial distribution. After reading the sentence, participants saw a picture that either contained multiple spatially distributed objects, multiple spatially grouped objects, or a single object. In Experiment 2, the sentential context specified a large, uncountable set size, a small set size, or was neutral with respect to set size. The picture that followed either depicted a large set size, a small set size, or a single object. Participants read each sentence and then judged whether the picture was of an object that was in the sentence. Both experiments provided evidence that even when comprehenders build detailed conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions, they have still activated the singular interpretation of the plural. These data are consistent with an account of the plural in which the plural is semantically unmarked for number and the plural meaning is derived via a scalar implicature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Evidence that Additions of Grignard Reagents to Aliphatic Aldehydes Do Not Involve Single-Electron-Transfer Processes.

    PubMed

    Otte, Douglas A L; Woerpel, K A

    2015-08-01

    Addition of allylmagnesium reagents to an aliphatic aldehyde bearing a radical clock gave only addition products and no evidence of ring-opened products that would suggest single-electron-transfer reactions. The analogous Barbier reaction also did not provide evidence for a single-electron-transfer mechanism in the addition step. Other Grignard reagents (methyl-, vinyl-, t-Bu-, and triphenylmethylmagnesium halides) also do not appear to add to an alkyl aldehyde by a single-electron-transfer mechanism. PMID:26214553

  12. Evidence for an additional ligand, distinct from B7, for the CTLA-4 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Razi-Wolf, Z; Galvin, F; Gray, G; Reiser, H

    1993-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes requires the recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes and costimulatory signals provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The best-characterized costimulatory molecule to date is the B7 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin family that binds two receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, expressed on the T-cell surface. Using the anti-mouse B7 (mB7) monoclonal antibody (mAb) 16-10A1, which we recently developed, we found that mB7 is indeed an important costimulatory ligand for the antigen-specific activation of murine T cells by B lymphocytes. Three lines of evidence suggest, however, the existence of at least one additional ligand for the CTLA-4 receptor. First, a soluble fusion protein of human CTLA-4 and the IgG1 Fc region, termed CTLA4Ig, blocks better than the anti-mB7 mAb the allogeneic stimulation of T cells by unfractionated splenic APCs. Second, saturating amounts of anti-mB7 mAb do not significantly block binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated CTLA4Ig to activated splenic APCs. Furthermore, CTLA4Ig but not the anti-mB7 mAb reacts with the M12 and M12.C3 cell lines. The identification of an additional ligand for CTLA-4 may have applications to the treatment of autoimmune disease and transplant-associated disorders. PMID:7504299

  13. Evidence for additive polygenic control of pupation height in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Pandey, M B

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the mode of inheritance of pupation height in Drosophila ananassae, two mass culture stocks derived from ecogeographically different localities in India, were used to make a complete set of 16 crosses, which include parentals, F1, backcrosses, and F2. Pupation height defined as the distance a larva pupates over the surface of culture medium was scored in all 16 crosses. The two parental lines showed significant difference in pupation height. The F1 larvae in both reciprocal crosses had intermediate pupation height and there was no difference between two reciprocal crosses as well as between F1 and mid parent value. However, there was greater variance in the F2 generation. These findings provide evidence that the inheritance of pupation height fits a classical additive polygenic model and suggested that there is substantial amount of additive genetic variation in natural populations of D. ananassae. Furthermore, the analysis of reciprocal backcrosses shows significant maternal effect. Progeny with low pupating mothers showed lower pupation height than those with low pupating fathers and progeny with high pupating mothers had higher pupation height than those with high pupating fathers. Since the maternal effect was found only in backcrosses but not in the F1, it is suggested that this maternal effect on pupation height follows the pattern of inheritance of a transient maternal effect.

  14. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment.

  15. Geochemical evidence supporting T. C. Chamberlin's theory of glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymo, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    In 1899, T.C. Chamberlin proposed that the CO{sub 2} content of the atomsphere decreased during times of enhanced continental erosion, ultimately resulting in glacial epochs. He ascribed the increase in the rate of chemical weathering (relative to the rate of supply of CO{sub 2} from Earth's interior) to increased orogenic activity and globally higher average elevations which promoted rapid chemical erosion of silicates. The oceanic record of strontium isotopes, preserved in marine sediment, supports his suggestion that glacial climates during the Phanerozoic are in part linked to increases in the rate of global chemical erosion relative to outgassing from Earth's interior. Further, the close correspondence of the major tectonic episodes of the late Cenozoic to times of increased continental erosion and glaciation suggests that Chamberlin's hypothesis of the cause of glacial periods should be revived.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequences support allozyme evidence for cryptic radiation of New Zealand Peripatoides (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Trewick, S A

    2000-03-01

    A combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and sequencing were used to survey cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity among New Zealand ovoviviparous Onychophora. Most of the sites and individuals had previously been analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. A total of 157 peripatus collected at 54 sites throughout New Zealand were screened yielding 62 different haplotypes. Comparison of 540-bp COI sequences from Peripatoides revealed mean among-clade genetic distances of up to 11. 4% using Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) analysis or 17.5% using general time-reversible (GTR + I + Gamma) analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight well-supported clades that were consistent with the allozyme analysis. Five of the six cryptic peripatus species distinguished by allozymes were confirmed by mtDNA analysis. The sixth taxon appeared to be paraphyletic, but genetic and geographical evidence suggested recent speciation. Two additional taxa were evident from the mtDNA data but neither occurred within the areas surveyed using allozymes. Among the peripatus surveyed with both mtDNA and allozymes, only one clear instance of recent introgression was evident, even though several taxa occurred in sympatry. This suggests well-developed mate recognition despite minimal morphological variation and low overall genetic diversity.

  17. X-ray Evidence Supports Possible New Class Of Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for a significant new class of supernova has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. These results strengthen the case for a population of stars that evolve rapidly and are destroyed by thermonuclear explosions. Such "prompt" supernovas could be valuable tools for probing the early history of the cosmos. A team of astronomers uncovered a puzzling situation when they examined X-ray data from DEM L238 and DEM L249, the remnants of two supernovas in a nearby galaxy. On the one hand, the unusually high concentration of iron atoms implied that the remnants are the products of thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, a well-known type of supernova known as Type Ia. On the other hand, the hot gas in the remnants was much denser and brighter in X-rays than typical Type Ia remnants. A white dwarf, the dense final stage in the evolution of a sun-like star, is a very stable object and will not explode on its own. However, if a white dwarf has a close companion star it can grow beyond a critical mass by pulling gas off the companion and explode. Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Chandra X-ray and MCELS Optical Image of DEM L238 and DEM L249 Computer simulations of Type Ia supernova remnants showed that the most likely explanation for the X-ray data is that the white dwarfs exploded into very dense environments. This suggests that the stars which evolved into these white dwarfs were more massive than usual, because heavier stars are known to expel more gas into their surroundings. "We know that the more massive a star is, the shorter its lifetime," said Kazimierz Borkowski of North Carolina State University, Raleigh. "If such a star could also begin to pull matter from its companion at an early stage, then this star would have a much shorter fuse and explode in only about 100 million years -- much less than other Type Ia supernovas." Other teams have independently found evidence for

  18. The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: where's the supportive evidence?

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Douglas

    2004-08-01

    This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories.

  19. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted. PMID:27624514

  20. Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Henschel, Henning; Junninen, Heikki; Kontkanen, Jenni; Richters, Stefanie; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Peräkylä, Otso; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kurten, Theo; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ceburnis, Darius; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The nucleation of sulfuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for the formation of new particles over continents, whereas iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions. The molecular clustering pathways that are involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems, but direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions that involve sulfuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have yet to be reported. Here we present field data from Mace Head, Ireland, and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, that enable us to identify the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours, with average oxygen-to-iodine ratios of 2.4 found in the clusters. On the basis of this high ratio, together with the high concentrations of iodic acid (HIO3) observed, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of HIO3, followed by intracluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water either in the atmosphere or on dehydration. Our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine-containing species in the formation of new aerosol particles, and identifies the key nucleating compound.

  1. Evidence for an additional uppermost geological unit in the Medusae Fossae Formation, Equatorial Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Balme, Matt; Hagermann, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a geological formation comprising three geological units (members) spread across five principal outcrops. The MFF dominates roughly a quarter of the longitudinal extent of the equatorial region of Mars, extending east-west across a distance of ~ 5,500 km between the southern Elysium Planitia and the Tharsis region. The nature of these materials is often referred to as enigmatic, as their exact origin remains unknown. Harrison et al. (Icarus, 2010) presented new observations of outlying occurrences of MFF materials on the southern highlands, atop the dichotomy boundary. They presented two hypotheses to explain these observation: 1) the MFF had a much larger pre-erosional extent than previously thought or 2) these materials had initially been eroded from the main outcrops of the formation, then transported southward by wind and subsequently reworked. A subsequent extension of this work provided evidence for an even larger extent of outlying MFF materials, particularly around and south of the easternmost portions of the MFF. Here we present these new outlier data, together with new textural classification and facies mapping of this region of the MFF. These data show that MFF outlier textures, whilst external to the main MFF outcrops in many places, are also found superposing large areas of the "main" MFF formations. These data support the first of the two working hypotheses presented, but also suggest that these so-called outlying materials represent a previously unmapped, stratigraphically uppermost unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We also suggest that, based upon our own morphometric study of yardangs across members and analogue studies by de Silva et al. (Icarus, 2010), these represent a less indurated material than other units of the formation. In the overall context of the origins of the MFF, we find that our data are consistent with the Medusae Fossae materials being a large-scale ignimbrite complex, perhaps with

  2. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  3. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  4. No Serological Evidence that Harbour Porpoises Are Additional Hosts of Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  5. A Study of an Online Tool to Support Evidence-Based Practices with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Walker, Dale; Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the effectiveness of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language promoting…

  6. Supporting Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Practice-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Fox, Lise

    2015-01-01

    In active implementation science frameworks, coaching has been described as an important competency "driver" to ensure evidence-based practices are implemented as intended. Empirical evidence also has identified coaching as a promising job-embedded professional development strategy to support implementation of quality teaching practices.…

  7. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  8. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  9. Additional Evidence Supporting a Model of Shallow, High-Speed Supergranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Hanasoge, S. M.; Chakraborty, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Duvall and Hanasoge (Solar Phys. 287, 71, 2013) found that large distance separation [delta] travel-time differences from a center to an annulus [deltat(sub oi)] implied a model of the average super granular cell that has a peak upflow of 240 ms(exp -1) at a depth of 2.3 Mm and a corresponding peak outward horizontal flow of 700 ms(exp -1) at a depth of 1.6 Mm. In the present work, this effect is further studied by measuring and modeling center-to-quadrant travel-time differences [deltat(sub qu)], which roughly agree with this model. Simulations are analyzed that show that such a model flow would lead to the expected travel-time differences. As a check for possible systematic errors, the center-to-annulus travel-time differences [deltat(sub oi)] are found not to vary with heliocentric angle. A consistency check finds an increase of deltat(sub oi) with the temporal frequency [?] by a factor of two, which is not predicted by the ray theory.

  10. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  11. Geophysical, archaeological and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Hsu, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    Although the processes of climate change are not completely understood, an important causal candidate is variation in total solar output. Reported cycles in various climate-proxy data show a tendency to emulate a fundamental harmonic sequence of a basic solar-cycle length (11 years) multiplied by 2(N) (where N equals a positive or negative integer). A simple additive model for total solar-output variations was developed by superimposing a progression of fundamental harmonic cycles with slightly increasing amplitudes. The timeline of the model was calibrated to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 9,000 years before present. The calibrated model was compared with geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence of warm or cold climates during the Holocene. The evidence of periods of several centuries of cooler climates worldwide called 'little ice ages,' similar to the period anno Domini (A.D.) 1280-1860 and reoccurring approximately every 1,300 years, corresponds well with fluctuations in modeled solar output. A more detailed examination of the climate sensitive history of the last 1,000 years further supports the model. Extrapolation of the model into the future suggests a gradual cooling during the next few centuries with intermittent minor warmups and a return to near little-ice-age conditions within the next 500 years. This cool period then may be followed approximately 1,500 years from now by a return to altithermal conditions similar to the previous Holocene Maximum.

  12. Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Charles A.; Hsu, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    Although the processes of climate change are not completely understood, an important causal candidate is variation in total solar output. Reported cycles in various climate-proxy data show a tendency to emulate a fundamental harmonic sequence of a basic solar-cycle length (11 years) multiplied by 2N (where N equals a positive or negative integer). A simple additive model for total solar-output variations was developed by superimposing a progression of fundamental harmonic cycles with slightly increasing amplitudes. The timeline of the model was calibrated to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 9,000 years before present. The calibrated model was compared with geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence of warm or cold climates during the Holocene. The evidence of periods of several centuries of cooler climates worldwide called “little ice ages,” similar to the period anno Domini (A.D.) 1280–1860 and reoccurring approximately every 1,300 years, corresponds well with fluctuations in modeled solar output. A more detailed examination of the climate sensitive history of the last 1,000 years further supports the model. Extrapolation of the model into the future suggests a gradual cooling during the next few centuries with intermittent minor warmups and a return to near little-ice-age conditions within the next 500 years. This cool period then may be followed approximately 1,500 years from now by a return to altithermal conditions similar to the previous Holocene Maximum. PMID:11050181

  13. Morphological and nanomechanical behavior of supported lipid bilayers on addition of cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lia M C; Giannotti, Marina I; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Sanz, Fausto

    2013-07-30

    The addition of surfactants to lipid bilayers is important for the modulation of lipid bilayer properties (e.g., in protein reconstitution and development of nonviral gene delivery vehicles) and to provide insight on the properties of natural biomembranes. In this work, the thermal behavior, organization, and nanomechanical stability of model cationic lipid-surfactant bilayers have been investigated. Two different cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and a novel derivative of the amino acid serine (Ser16TFAc), have been added (up to 50 mol %) to both liposomes and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) composed by the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. The thermal phase behavior of mixed liposomes has been probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the morphology and nanomechanical properties of mixed SLBs by atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS). Although DSC thermograms show different results for the two mixed liposomes, when both are deposited on mica substrates similar trends on the morphology and the mechanical response of the lipid-surfactant bilayers are observed. DSC thermograms indicate microdomain formation in both systems, but while CTAB decreases the degree of organization on the liposome bilayer, Ser16TFAc ultimately induces the opposite effect. Regarding the AFM-FS studies, they show that microphase segregation occurs for these systems and that the effect is dependent on the surfactant content. In both SLB systems, different microdomains characterized by their height and breakthrough force Fb are formed. The molecular organization and composition is critically discussed in the light of our experimental results and literature data on similar lipid-surfactant systems. PMID:23782267

  14. Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Rua, F; Lorino, H; Lemaire, F; Harf, A

    1991-11-01

    Breathing through an endotracheal tube and a demand valve may increase the work performed by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure support (PS) is known to reduce this work and might therefore compensate for this increased requirement. To test this hypothesis, we measured the work of breathing (WOB) in 11 patients whose tracheas were intubated. Five had no intrinsic lung disease, but six had chronic obstructive lung disease. We compared WOB measurements taken under several sets of conditions: during assisted breathing at four levels of PS, during unassisted breathing and connection to a T-piece, and after extubation of the trachea. During unassisted breathing via the ventilator circuit (PS set at 0 cmH20), the WOB per minute was greater than that after extubation, with a mean increase (+/- standard deviation) of 68 +/- 38% (10.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.01). While breathing through the T-piece, the WOB was 27 +/- 18% greater than after tracheal extubation (8.2 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.05). The principal reason why inspiratory work decreased after extubation was that the ventilatory requirement decreased. For each patient, we determined retrospectively, after extubation, the level of PS that had reduced WOB to its postextubation value and obtained levels ranging from 3.4 to 14.4 cmH2O. The PS level at which additional WOB was compensated for, was greater in patients with chronic lung disease than in those free of lung disease (12.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 5.7 +/- 1.5 cm H2O, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Ecological risk and resilience perspective: a theoretical framework supporting evidence-based practice in schools.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joelle D

    2010-10-01

    Multidisciplinary school practitioners are clearly being called to use evidence-based practices from reputable sources such as their own professional organizations and federal agencies. In spite of this encouragement, most schools are not regularly employing empirically supported interventions. This paper further promotes the use of this approach by describing the theoretical support for evidence-based practice in schools. The ecological risk and resilience theoretical framework presented fills a gap in the literature and advocates for evidence-based practice in schools by illustrating how it can assist practitioners such as school social workers to better address problems associated with school failure.

  16. Ecological risk and resilience perspective: a theoretical framework supporting evidence-based practice in schools.

    PubMed

    Powers, Joelle D

    2010-10-01

    Multidisciplinary school practitioners are clearly being called to use evidence-based practices from reputable sources such as their own professional organizations and federal agencies. In spite of this encouragement, most schools are not regularly employing empirically supported interventions. This paper further promotes the use of this approach by describing the theoretical support for evidence-based practice in schools. The ecological risk and resilience theoretical framework presented fills a gap in the literature and advocates for evidence-based practice in schools by illustrating how it can assist practitioners such as school social workers to better address problems associated with school failure. PMID:21082473

  17. Cenozoic right-lateral slip on the Great Glen Fault, Scotland: Additional Evidence and Possible Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, E.; Cobbold, P. R.; Zanella, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great Glen Fault (GGF) trends NNE-SSW across all of Northern Scotland, separating two Neoproterozoic supergroups (Moine and Dalradian). The GGF developed as a left-lateral fault during the Caledonian Orogeny (Ordovician to Early Devonian). However, according to previous studies (involving seismic data from the Moray Firth and analyses of Tertiary dyke swarms in NW Scotland), the GGF reactivated right-laterally in the Tertiary. Here we present additional evidence for this later phase, from a study of Jurassic outcrops along the GGF and the nearby Helmsdale Fault. At Eathie and Shandwick, on the NE coast of Scotland, Jurassic strata of marine origin (mostly shale) crop out along the GGF, in contact with Neoproterozoic basement or Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Minor folds and faults in these outcrops indicate post-depositional right-lateral slip, under transpression. In the shale, we have also found bedding-parallel calcite veins ('beef' and 'cone-in-cone'). If these veins provide evidence for overpressure development and maturation of organic matter at significant depth (as they do in other basins), the host sediment must have accumulated deeper offshore in the Moray Firth. Therefore, the Jurassic strata at Eathie and Shandwick must have been subject to Cenozoic exhumation during right-lateral displacement along the GGF. At Helmsdale, according to previous studies, the Jurassic 'Boulder Beds' accumulated during a period of normal faulting on the Helmsdale Fault. There the sedimentary facies are more proximal than those at Eathie and Shandwick and abundant conglomerate contains Devonian clasts but no 'beef'. However we have found steep calcite veins, which cut the entire Jurassic sequence. Their sigmoidal shapes indicate left-lateral slip along the Helmsdale fault zone. Such a motion is compatible with right-lateral displacement on the GGF. Indeed, according to previous studies, folds between the Helmsdale Fault and the GGF may have developed as a result of opposing

  18. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  19. Consensus Recommendations for Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Evidence for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Scheife, Richard T.; Hines, Lisa E.; Boyce, Richard D.; Chung, Sophie P.; Momper, Jeremiah; Sommer, Christine D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.; Horn, John; Sklar, Stephen J.; Wong, Samantha K.; Jones, Gretchen; Brown, Mary; Grizzle, Amy J.; Comes, Susan; Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Borst, Clarissa; Wittie, Michael A.; Rich, Alissa; Malone, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations, compendia, and drug knowledgebase vendors use varying methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This situation has a negative effect on electronic prescribing and medication information systems that warn clinicians of potentially harmful medication combinations. Objective To provide recommendations for systematic evaluation of evidence from the scientific literature, drug product labeling, and regulatory documents with respect to DDIs for clinical decision support. Methods A conference series was conducted to develop a structured process to improve the quality of DDI alerting systems. Three expert workgroups were assembled to address the goals of the conference. The Evidence Workgroup consisted of 15 individuals with expertise in pharmacology, drug information, biomedical informatics, and clinical decision support. Workgroup members met via webinar from January 2013 to February 2014. Two in-person meetings were conducted in May and September 2013 to reach consensus on recommendations. Results We developed expert-consensus answers to three key questions: 1) What is the best approach to evaluate DDI evidence?; 2) What evidence is required for a DDI to be applicable to an entire class of drugs?; and 3) How should a structured evaluation process be vetted and validated? Conclusion Evidence-based decision support for DDIs requires consistent application of transparent and systematic methods to evaluate the evidence. Drug information systems that implement these recommendations should be able to provide higher quality information about DDIs in drug compendia and clinical decision support tools. PMID:25556085

  20. Contested evidence: Exposure to competing scientific claims and public support for banning bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Ley, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    The public controversy surrounding bisphenol A (BPA) revolves around competing claims about what scientific evidence shows regarding the effects of the chemical on human health. This study uses an experiment embedded within a public opinion survey to test the effects of exposure to such claims on public support for banning the use of BPA in products. Exposure to the claim that "there is not enough scientific evidence that BPA harms human health" reduced support, whereas exposure to the claim that there "is enough scientific evidence" failed to increase support. No effect emerged among those simultaneously exposed to both claims. The "not enough evidence" claim influenced less educated respondents and women but not college-educated respondents or men. Aspects of the underlying structure of opinion also differed depending on which claim(s) respondents received. The results illuminate how members of the public respond to competing scientific claims regarding controversial issues.

  1. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  2. How Good Are We at Implementing the Additional Support for Learning Act? How Good Can We Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…

  3. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  4. Macrocyclic cyclooctene-supported AlCl-salen catalysts for conjugated addition reactions: effect of linker and support structure on catalysis.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Nandita; Takatani, Tait; Sherrill, C David; Weck, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    AlCl-salen (salen=N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine dianion) catalysts supported onto macrocyclic oligomeric cyclooctene through linkers of varying length and flexibility have been developed to demonstrate the importance of support architecture on catalyst activity. The role played by the support and the linkers in dictating catalyst activity was found to vary for reactions with contrasting mechanisms, such as the bimetallic cyanide and the monometallic indole addition reactions. While the flexible support significantly enhanced the cyanide addition reaction, most likely by improving salen-salen interactions in the transition state, it lowered the reaction rate for the monometallic indole reaction. For both reactions, significant increase in catalytic activity was observed for catalysts with the longest linkers. The effect of the flexible macrocyclic support on catalysis was further exemplified by the enhanced activity of the supported catalyst in comparison with its unsupported analogue for the conjugate addition of tetrazoles, which is known to be catalyzed by dimeric mu-oxo-salen catalysts. Our studies with the cyclooctene supported AlCl-salen catalysts provides significant insights for rationally designing highly efficient AlCl-salen catalysts for a diverse set of reactions.

  5. Comparative outcome studies of clinical decision support software: limitations to the practice of evidence-based system acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav Jay; Amber, Kyle T; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2015-04-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) assist clinicians with patient diagnosis and treatment. However, inadequate attention has been paid to the process of selecting and buying systems. The diversity of CDSSs, coupled with research obstacles, marketplace limitations, and legal impediments, has thwarted comparative outcome studies and reduced the availability of reliable information and advice for purchasers. We review these limitations and recommend several comparative studies, which were conducted in phases; studies conducted in phases and focused on limited outcomes of safety, efficacy, and implementation in varied clinical settings. Additionally, we recommend the increased availability of guidance tools to assist purchasers with evidence-based purchases. Transparency is necessary in purchasers' reporting of system defects and vendors' disclosure of marketing conflicts of interest to support methodologically sound studies. Taken together, these measures can foster the evolution of evidence-based tools that, in turn, will enable and empower system purchasers to make wise choices and improve the care of patients. PMID:25665704

  6. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-01-01

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  7. Building a knowledge translation platform in Malawi to support evidence-informed health policy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joshua; Mitambo, Collins; Matanje-Mwagomba, Beatrice; Khan, Shiraz; Kachimanga, Chiyembekezo; Wroe, Emily; Mwape, Lonia; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chindebvu, Getrude; van Schoor, Vanessa; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; Panisset, Ulysses; Kathyola, Damson

    2015-12-08

    With the support of the World Health Organization's Evidence-Informed Policy Network, knowledge translation platforms have been developed throughout Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and Asia to further evidence-informed national health policy. In this commentary, we discuss the approaches, activities and early lessons learned from the development of a Knowledge Translation Platform in Malawi (KTPMalawi). Through ongoing leadership, as well as financial and administrative support, the Malawi Ministry of Health has strongly signalled its intention to utilize a knowledge translation platform methodology to support evidence-informed national health policy. A unique partnership between Dignitas International, a medical and research non-governmental organization, and the Malawi Ministry of Health, has established KTPMalawi to engage national-level policymakers, researchers and implementers in a coordinated approach to the generation and utilization of health-sector research. Utilizing a methodology developed and tested by knowledge translation platforms across Africa, a stakeholder mapping exercise and initial capacity building workshops were undertaken and a multidisciplinary Steering Committee was formed. This Steering Committee prioritized the development of two initial Communities of Practice to (1) improve data utilization in the pharmaceutical supply chain and (2) improve the screening and treatment of hypertension within HIV-infected populations. Each Community of Practice's mandate is to gather and synthesize the best available global and local evidence and produce evidence briefs for policy that have been used as the primary input into structured deliberative dialogues. While a lack of sustained initial funding slowed its early development, KTPMalawi has greatly benefited from extensive technical support and mentorship by an existing network of global knowledge translation platforms. With the continued support of the Malawi Ministry of Health and the

  8. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro.

  9. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  10. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: further support for a distinct entity and evidence for a genetic defect.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, M; Moch, H; Brunner, F; Brunner, W; Burger, H R; Kiss, D; Wegmann, W; Dalquen, P; Oberholzer, M; Thiel, G

    1995-02-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis was first described in 1979 by Mihatsch, who was reporting three such cases. We report here four additional cases as well as two family investigations. Our findings support the association of karyomegaly and interstitial nephritis as a distinct entity. Typical clinical features are asymptomatic progressive renal failure in the third decade of life and recurrent infections, mostly of the upper respiratory tract. Histologic alterations consist of markedly enlarged and hyperchromic nuclei in many tubular epithelial cells throughout the nephron accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the surrounding atrophic tubules. Karyomegaly is not limited to the kidneys. In one case, autopsy revealed karyomegaly in epithelial and mesenchymal cells of many other organs. However, no association of karyomegaly with further histologic damage is evident except in the kidneys. Because of the familial clustering, karyomegalic interstitial nephritis seems to be an inherited disease. Examination of the nuclear proliferation-associated structures proliferating cell nuclear antigen/cyclin, Ki 67, and p53 suggests an inhibition of mitosis in karyomegalic cells. The finding of the same HLA haplotype, A9/B35, in four of six HLA-typed cases suggests the possibility of a genetic defect on chromosome 6, which is inherited and linked to the HLA locus.

  11. Empirically Supported Treatments in Psychotherapy: Towards an Evidence-Based or Evidence-Biased Psychology in Clinical Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs) movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM) perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented. PMID:21833197

  12. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  13. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  14. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  15. 76 FR 42077 - Claim-Related Documents or Supporting Evidence Not of Record

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... file. DATES: The proposed rule published at 74 FR 58232 on November 12, 2009, is withdrawn as of July... misplacement or destruction within 18 months from the asserted date of submission.'' 74 FR 58232 (Nov. 12, 2009... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN33 Claim-Related Documents or Supporting Evidence Not of Record...

  16. Supporting Evidence-Based Practice in Schools with an Online Database of Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Bowen, Natasha K.; Bowen, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of multidisciplinary recommendations to use evidence-based interventions in schools and a growing knowledge base of such practices, most schools are not using empirically supported interventions. On the basis of a careful analysis of barriers to the implementation of the best researched programs, an online, free, and publicly available…

  17. Promoting Evidence-Based Practices: The Adoption of a Prevention Support System in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, A. K.; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Prevention support systems (PSSs) are designed to help communities implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Little is known about the factors that influence their adoption. In this article, we examined adoption of a PSS for substance abuse prevention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO)[R] among staff in two community coalitions with varying levels…

  18. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  19. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  20. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  1. Addressing Interpersonal Violence in the School Context: Awareness and Use of Evidence-Supported Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was completed by 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America. This article addresses the research-practice gap in the delivery of mental health services in the school setting by examining the extent to which evidence-supported school violence intervention programs (ESPs) are known and used by…

  2. 43 CFR 3712.2-2 - Evidence necessary to support a request for publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence necessary to support a request for publication. 3712.2-2 Section 3712.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Proceedings...

  3. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  4. A Scaffolding Framework to Support the Construction of Evidence-Based Arguments among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Glazewski, Krista D.; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach in which students in small groups engage in an authentic, ill-structured problem, and must (1) define, generate and pursue learning issues to understand the problem, (2) develop a possible solution, (3) provide evidence to support their solution, and (4) present their solution and the…

  5. [Evidence in support of Florence Nightingale's theories. 100 years after her death].

    PubMed

    Zapico Yáñez, Florentina

    2010-05-01

    This article has been written to pay homage to Florence Nightingale as a pioneer and beacon for scientific curiosity which should serve as the nursing professional's guide for fine praxis. For this purpose, the author studied the evidence regarding Ms Nightingale's supposed theories; these have been arranged into four large groups in order to make those findings which support her theories easier to understand.

  6. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1206 - Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence supporting entitlement to disability benefits. 831.1206 Section 831.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1206...

  9. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David

    2004-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  10. Priming word order by thematic roles: no evidence for an additional involvement of phrase structure.

    PubMed

    Pappert, Sandra; Pechmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that studied the priming of word order in German. Experiment 1 demonstrated priming of the order of case-marked verb arguments. However, order of noun phrases and order of thematic roles were confounded. In Experiment 2, we therefore aimed at disentangling the impact of these two possible factors. By using primes that differed from targets in phrase structure but were parallel with regard to the order of thematic roles, we nevertheless found priming demonstrating the critical impact of thematic roles. Experiment 3 replicated the priming effects from Experiments 1 and 2 within participants and revealed no evidence for a modulation of priming by phrase structure. Consequently, our findings suggest that word order priming crucially depends on the structural outline of thematic roles rather than on the linearization of phrases.

  11. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    PubMed

    Raschke, E

    2001-11-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface warming over nearly the entire globe is already considered by a large fraction of our society to be result of this additional greenhouse effect. Complete justification of this assumption is, however, not yet possible, because there are still too many unknowns in our knowledge of participating processes and in our modeling capabilities.

  12. Additive Effects of Repetition and Predictability during Comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Shannon; Parker, Dan; Morini, Giovanna; Lau, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that neural responses to words during sentence comprehension are sensitive to both lexical repetition and a word’s predictability in context. While previous research has often contrasted the effects of these variables (e.g. by looking at cases in which word repetition violates sentence-level constraints), little is known about how they work in tandem. In the current study we examine how recent exposure to a word and its predictability in context combine to impact lexical semantic processing. We devise a novel paradigm that combines reading comprehension with a recognition memory task, allowing for an orthogonal manipulation of a word’s predictability and its repetition status. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we show that word repetition and predictability have qualitatively similar and additive effects on the N400 amplitude. We propose that prior exposure to a word and predictability impact lexical semantic processing in an additive and independent fashion. PMID:24905459

  13. Stabilization of solid-supported phospholipid multilayer against water by gramicidin addition.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Bae; Kim, Yongdeok; An, Hyeun Hwan; Kim, Hee-Soo; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2014-03-20

    It was demonstrated that hydrophobicity of solid supported planar dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) phospholipid multilayer can be greatly increased by incorporating a transmembrane protein, gramicidin, into the DPPC membrane. The contact angle of deionized water droplet on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane increased from 0° (complete wetting) without gramicidin to 55° after adding 15 mol % gramicidin. The increased hydrophobicity of the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane allowed the membrane to remain stable at the air/water interface as well as underwater. The Au nanoparticles deposited on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane reproduced the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak after being kept underwater or in phosphate-buffered saline solution for 5 days, attesting to the membrane stability in an aqueous environment. The enhanced underwater stability of the lipid multilayer substantially broadens the potential application of the lipid multilayer which includes biosensing, enzymatic fuel cell, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate.

  14. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  15. 24 CFR 906.41 - Additional supporting documentation for acquisition of non-public housing for homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional supporting documentation... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC...

  16. Recurrence of achondrogenesis type 2 in sibs: Additional evidence for germline mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Jessica M; Putnam, Angelica R; Sangle, Nikhil; Lowichik, Amy; Rose, Nancy C; Opitz, John M

    2010-07-01

    Achondrogenesis Type II (ACG2) is a lethal skeletal disorder caused by a dominant mutation in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Familial cases have been reported, suggesting both germline and somatic mosaicism. We report on two pregnancies from the same couple with gross, radiologic, and microscopic findings of ACG2. Molecular analysis of the second infant demonstrated heterozygosity for a c.2303G > A transition (p.Gly768Asp) in exon 33 of the COL2A1 gene. Although this mutation could not be proven by molecular studies in the first infant, identical findings in two affected pregnancies support germline mosaicism as the cause of ACG2 in this family. PMID:20583175

  17. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Fretheim, Atle; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs? PMID:20018102

  18. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs? PMID:20018102

  19. Determinants of contrast in the signal-key procedure: Evidence against additivity theory.

    PubMed

    Williams, B A; Heyneman, N

    1981-03-01

    Two experiments are reported that challenge the interpretation of previous results with the signal-key procedure, in which the discriminative stimuli are located on a response key different from the key associated with the operant response requirement. Experiment 1 replicated the procedure of Keller (1974), and found that contrast effects on the operant key occurred reliably for only one of four subjects. High rates to the signal key initially occurred for only one subject, but modifications of the procedure produced substantial rates to the signal key for all subjects. In all cases, however, signal-key behavior was greatly reduced by the addition of a changeover delay which prevented reinforcement within 2 seconds of the last peck to the signal key, suggesting that signal-key pecking was maintained primarily by adventitious reinforcement. Experiment 2 modified the signal-key procedure by using three response keys, so that the discriminative stimuli on the signal key controlled different responses during all phases of training. With this modification, reliable contrast effects on the operant key occurred for all subjects, suggesting that the failure to find contrast in previous studies has been due to the confounding of changes in the discrimination requirements with changes in relative rate of reinforcement. The results challenge the additivity theory of contrast, and suggest that "elicited" behavior plays a minor role, if any, in the determination of contrast effects in multiple schedules.

  20. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  1. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed. PMID:26411443

  2. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds; Haffner; Tufte

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of approximately 1x10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne less, similar0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S ii]/[N ii], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply approximately 10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  3. Convergent lines of evidence support CAMKK2 as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, X-J; Li, M; Huang, L; Steinberg, S; Mattheisen, M; Liang, G; Donohoe, G; Shi, Y; Chen, C; Yue, W; Alkelai, A; Lerer, B; Li, Z; Yi, Q; Rietschel, M; Cichon, S; Collier, D A; Tosato, S; Suvisaari, J; Rujescu, Dan; Golimbet, V; Silagadze, T; Durmishi, N; Milovancevic, M P; Stefansson, H; Schulze, T G; Nöthen, M M; Chen, C; Lyne, R; Morris, D W; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Zhang, D; Dong, Q; Moyzis, R K; Stefansson, K; Sigurdsson, E; Hu, F; Su, B; Gan, L

    2014-07-01

    Genes that are differentially expressed between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls may have key roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We analyzed two large-scale genome-wide expression studies, which examined changes in gene expression in schizophrenia patients and their matched controls. We found calcium/calmodulin (CAM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is significantly downregulated in individuals with schizophrenia in both studies. To seek the potential genetic variants that may regulate the expression of CAMKK2, we investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CAMKK2 and the expression level of CAMKK2. We found one SNP, rs1063843, which is located in intron 17 of CAMKK2, is strongly associated with the expression level of CAMKK2 in human brains (P=1.1 × 10(-6)) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (the lowest P=8.4 × 10(-6)). We further investigated the association between rs1063843 and schizophrenia in multiple independent populations (a total of 130 623 subjects) and found rs1063843 is significantly associated with schizophrenia (P=5.17 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found the T allele of rs1063843, which is associated with lower expression level of CAMKK2, has a higher frequency in individuals with schizophrenia in all of the tested samples, suggesting rs1063843 may be a causal variant. We also found that rs1063843 is associated with cognitive function and personality in humans. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that CAMKK2 participates in a highly interconnected PPI network formed by top schizophrenia genes, which further supports the potential role of CAMKK2 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Taken together, these converging lines of evidence strongly suggest that CAMKK2 may have pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:23958956

  4. Non-genetic data supporting genetic evidence for the eastern wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Two schools of thought dominate the molecular-genetics literature on Canis spp. (wolves) in the western Great Lakes region of the US and Canada: (1) they are hybrids between Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and Canis latrans (Coyote), or (2) they are hybrids between the Gray Wolf and Canis lycaon (Eastern Wolf). This article presents 3 types of non-genetic evidence that bears on the controversy and concludes that all 3 support the second interpretation.

  5. [DECIDE: developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence].

    PubMed

    Parmelli, Elena; Amato, Laura; Saitto, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Healthcare systems are offered with a wide range of technologies and services, but they have to cope with decreasing resources and the uncertainty about what is effective and more appropriate. Making decisions about health care interventions is complex. Decisions should be informed by the best available evidence, being comprehensive to take into account all the relevant aspects (e.g. efficacy, safety, equity, costs), and taken within a limited time period. DECIDE is a project funded by the European Community that, using the GRADE methodology, aims at implementing strategies to enhance dissemination and communication of scientific evidence to support on-time evidence-based decision making in clinical practice and healthcare policies. Communication strategies are developed in order to address different target audiences, trying to meet their information needs. One key target are policy makers and managers who are responsible for coverage decision making. PMID:24326703

  6. Determinants of Community Coalition Ability to Support Evidence-Based Programs

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of coalition functioning predict a coalition's ability to promote high-quality implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs). The study involved 62 Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions in Pennsylvania measured annually from 2003 to 2007. Findings indicate that the communities with higher levels of poverty and longer existing coalitions are related to lower support for high-quality EBP implementation. Several aspects of coalition functioning—including higher levels of funding; leadership strength; board efficiency; strong internal and external relationships; and fidelity to the CTC model—significantly predicted support for high-quality EBP implementation. Earlier measurements of coalition functioning (2003–2004 and 2005–2006) predicted EBP implementation (2007) more strongly than concurrent coalition assessments (2007). The discussion focuses on how coalitions and technical assistance providers can improve coalition support for the implementation of EBPs. PMID:20352332

  7. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  8. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  9. Salicylate elimination diets in children: is food restriction supported by the evidence?

    PubMed

    Gray, Paul E A; Mehr, Sam; Katelaris, Constance H; Wainstein, Brynn K; Star, Anita; Campbell, Dianne; Joshi, Preeti; Wong, Melanie; Frankum, Brad; Keat, Karuna; Dunne, Geraldine; Dennison, Barbara; Kakakios, Alyson; Ziegler, John B

    2013-06-17

    A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural disturbances (17/74) including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We could find no peer-reviewed evidence to support the efficacy of salicylate elimination diets in managing these diseases. We do not prescribe these diets, and in a survey of European and North American food allergy experts, only 1/23 respondents used a similar diet for eczema, with none of the respondents using salicylate elimination to treat ADHD. A high proportion (31/66) of children suffered adverse outcomes, including nutritional deficiencies and food aversion, with four children developing eating disorders. We could find no published evidence to support the safety of these diets in children. While this uncontrolled study does not prove a causal relationship between salicylate elimination diets and harm, the frequency of adverse events appears high, and in the absence of evidence of safety or efficacy, we cannot recommend the use of these diets in children.

  10. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  11. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  12. Clinical decision support and acute low back pain: evidence-based order sets.

    PubMed

    Forseen, Scott E; Corey, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for visits to physicians in the ambulatory care setting. Estimated medical expenditures related to low back pain have increased disproportionately relative to the more modest increase in the prevalence of self-reported low back pain in the past decade. The increase in spine care expenditures has not been associated with improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based order templates presented in this article are designed to assist practitioners through the process of managing patients with acute low back pain. A logical method of choosing, developing, and implementing clinical decision support interventions is presented that is based on the best available scientific evidence. These templates may be reasonably expected to improve patient care, decrease inappropriate imaging utilization, reduce the inappropriate use of steroids and narcotics, and potentially decrease the number of inappropriate invasive procedures. PMID:23025864

  13. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 15: Engaging the public in evidence-informed policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address strategies to inform and engage the public in policy development and implementation. The importance of engaging the public (both patients and citizens) at all levels of health systems is widely recognised. They are the ultimate recipients of the desirable and undesirable impacts of public policies, and many governments and organisations have acknowledged the value of engaging them in evidence-informed policy development. The potential benefits of doing this include the establishment of policies that include their ideas and address their concerns, the improved implementation of policies, improved health services, and better health. Public engagement can also be viewed as a goal in itself by encouraging participative democracy, public accountability and transparency. We suggest three questions that can be considered with regard to public participation strategies. These are: 1. What strategies can be used when working with the mass media to inform the public about policy development and implementation? 2. What strategies can be used when working with civil society groups to inform and engage them in policy development and implementation? 3. What methods can be used to involve consumers in policy development and implementation? PMID:20018105

  14. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  15. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  16. Force That Increases at Larger Distance Has Some Psychological and Astronomical Evidence Supporting its Existence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    2011-09-01

    Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.

  17. Supporting evidence-based medicine: a survey of U.S. medical librarians.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Wu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify medical librarians' roles in supporting evidence-based medicine (EBM) practice; determine whether medical librarians' work settings, work experiences, or job titles made a difference in their EBM responsibilities; and find out medical librarians' perceptions of their roles in EBM practice. An online survey was distributed to U.S. medical librarians. The results showed that medical librarians had positive perceptions of their EBM-related responsibilities, which were diverse and specific. Their work experience, work settings, and job title categories related to some of their EBM responsibilities, as well as the nature of some of the responsibilities. PMID:22040243

  18. Molecular phylogenetic evidence supports a new family of octocorals and a new genus of Alcyoniidae (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea)

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Catherine S.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Molecular phylogenetic evidence indicates that the octocoral family Alcyoniidae is highly polyphyletic, with genera distributed across Octocorallia in more than 10 separate clades. Most alcyoniid taxa belong to the large and poorly resolved Holaxonia–Alcyoniina clade of octocorals, but members of at least four genera of Alcyoniidae fall outside of that group. As a first step towards revision of the family, we describe a new genus, Parasphaerasclera gen. n., and family, Parasphaerascleridae fam. n., of Alcyonacea to accommodate species of Eleutherobia Pütter, 1900 and Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758 that have digitiform to digitate or lobate growth forms, completely lack sclerites in the polyps, and have radiates or spheroidal sclerites in the colony surface and interior. Parasphaerascleridae fam. n. constitutes a well-supported clade that is phylogenetically distinct from all other octocoral taxa. We also describe a new genus of Alcyoniidae, Sphaerasclera gen. n., for a species of Eleutherobia with a unique capitate growth form. Sphaerasclera gen. n. is a member of the Anthomastus–Corallium clade of octocorals, but is morphologically and genetically distinct from Anthomastus Verrill, 1878 and Paraminabea Williams & Alderslade, 1999, two similar but dimorphic genera of Alcyoniidae that are its sister taxa. In addition, we have re-assigned two species of Eleutherobia that have clavate to capitate growth forms, polyp sclerites arranged to form a collaret and points, and spindles in the colony interior to Alcyonium, a move that is supported by both morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. PMID:24223488

  19. Chemical and particle-size evidence for addition of fine dust to soils of the midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Jacobs, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    Significant long-term atmospheric dust additions to soils are well documented in many parts of the world, but not in the midwestern United States. We investigated elemental mass fluxes associated with soil development in late Wisconsinan loess in Illinois and Minnesota, using Zr as a stable index element. Positive mass fluxes of Al, Fe, and Ti can most plausibly be explained by additions to these soils of fine far-traveled dust, with higher Al/Zr, Fe/Zr, and Ti/Zr ratios than the coarser locally derived loess. High-resolution particle-size analyses support this explanation. The proposed dust influx will complicate efforts to quantify weathering processes in these soils. Far-traveled dust influx could have occurred simultaneously with the final phase of local loess deposition, and/or later, in the Holocene. Depending on the timing of dust influx, many other soils of the region may have been affected by it.

  20. Evidence does not support absorption of intact solid lipid nanoparticles via oral delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiongwei; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and simulated mixed micelles (SMMs) to intestinal mucus, but no evidence of penetration of integral nanocarriers. Both SLNs and SMMs exhibit significant cellular uptake, but fail to penetrate cell monolayers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that nanocarriers mainly concentrate on the surface of the monolayers, and no evidence of penetration of intact vehicles can be obtained. The mucous layer acts as a barrier to the penetration of both SLNs and SMMs. Both bile salt-decoration and SMM formulation help to strengthen the interaction with biomembranes. It is concluded that evidence does not support absorption of intact SLNs via oral delivery.Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and

  1. Molecular archeological evidence in support of the repeated loss of a papillomavirus gene

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that, in addition to gene gain, the loss of genes may be an important evolutionary mechanism for many organisms. However, gene loss is often associated with an increased mutation rate, thus quickly erasing evidence from the genome. The analysis of evolutionarily related sequences can provide empirical evidence for gene loss events. This paper analyzes the sequences of over 300 genetically distinct papillomaviruses and provides evidence for a role of gene loss during the evolution of certain papillomavirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the viral E6 gene was lost at least twice. Despite belonging to distant papillomaviral genera, these viruses lacking a canonical E6 protein may potentially encode a highly hydrophobic protein from an overlapping open reading frame, which we designate E10. Evolutionary pressure working on this alternative frame, may explain why, despite having lost the E6 open reading frame between 20 and 60 million years ago, evidence of an E6-like protein is conserved. PMID:27604338

  2. Molecular archeological evidence in support of the repeated loss of a papillomavirus gene.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that, in addition to gene gain, the loss of genes may be an important evolutionary mechanism for many organisms. However, gene loss is often associated with an increased mutation rate, thus quickly erasing evidence from the genome. The analysis of evolutionarily related sequences can provide empirical evidence for gene loss events. This paper analyzes the sequences of over 300 genetically distinct papillomaviruses and provides evidence for a role of gene loss during the evolution of certain papillomavirus genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the viral E6 gene was lost at least twice. Despite belonging to distant papillomaviral genera, these viruses lacking a canonical E6 protein may potentially encode a highly hydrophobic protein from an overlapping open reading frame, which we designate E10. Evolutionary pressure working on this alternative frame, may explain why, despite having lost the E6 open reading frame between 20 and 60 million years ago, evidence of an E6-like protein is conserved. PMID:27604338

  3. An evidence-based approach to perioperative nutrition support in the elective surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith R; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Taylor, Beth; McClave, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    In surgical practice, great attention is given to the perioperative management of the elective surgical patient with regard to surgical planning, stratification of cardiopulmonary risk, and postoperative assessment for complication. However, growing evidence supports the beneficial role for implementation of a consistent and literature-based approach to perioperative nutrition therapy. Determining nutrition risk should be a routine component of the preoperative evaluation. As with the above issues, this concept begins with the clinician's first visit with the patient as risk is assessed and the severity of the surgical insult considered. If the patient is an appropriate candidate for benefit from preoperative support, a plan for initiation and reassessment should be implemented. Once appropriate nutrition end points have been achieved, special consideration should be given to beneficial practices the immediate day preceding surgery that may better prepare the patient for the intervention from a metabolic standpoint. In the operating room, consideration should be given to the potential placement of enteral access during the index operation as well as judicious and targeted intraoperative resuscitation. Immediately following the intervention, adequate resuscitation and glycemic control are key concepts, as is an evidence-based approach to the early advancement of an enteral/oral diet in the postoperative patient. Through the implementation of perioperative nutrition therapy plans in the elective surgery setting, outcomes can be improved. PMID:24009248

  4. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX. Objective: To review the evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Patients and methods: English-language databases were searched in September 2009 for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the ability of rFVIIa to restore hemostasis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Results: Eight RCTs involving 256 hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factors, also known as inhibitors, were identified. The evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa in these patients was weak with regard to dose, clinical setting, mode of administration, efficacy, and adverse events, given the limited sample size of each RCT and the heterogeneity of the studies. Conclusion: The authors suggest that rFVIIa therapy in hemophilic patients with inhibitors should be based on the individual’s ability to generate thrombin and form a clot, and not on the patient’s weight alone. Therefore, assays for thrombin generation, such as whole-blood thromboelastography, have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of these patients. PMID:20689697

  5. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    PubMed Central

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research. PMID:16917647

  6. No evidence of nanodiamonds in Younger–Dryas sediments to support an impact event

    PubMed Central

    Daulton, Tyrone L.; Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America, disappearance of Clovis paleoindian lithic technology, and abrupt Younger–Dryas (YD) climate reversal of the last deglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere remain an enigma. A controversial hypothesis proposes that one or more cometary airbursts/impacts barraged North America ≈12,900 cal yr B.P. and caused these events. Most evidence supporting this hypothesis has been discredited except for reports of nanodiamonds (including the rare hexagonal polytype) in Bølling–Ållerod-YD-boundary sediments. The hexagonal polytype of diamond, lonsdaleite, is of particular interest because it is often associated with shock pressures related to impacts where it has been found to occur naturally. Unfortunately, previous reports of YD-boundary nanodiamonds have left many unanswered questions regarding the nature and occurrence of the nanodiamonds. Therefore, we examined carbon-rich materials isolated from sediments dated 15,818 cal yr B.P. to present (including the Bølling–Ållerod-YD boundary). No nanodiamonds were found in our study. Instead, graphene- and graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates are ubiquitous in all specimens examined. We demonstrate that previous studies misidentified graphene/graphane-oxide aggregates as hexagonal diamond and likely misidentified graphene as cubic diamond. Our results cast doubt upon one of the last widely discussed pieces of evidence supporting the YD impact hypothesis. PMID:20805511

  7. Extracting physician group intelligence from electronic health records to support evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Kohane, Isaac S

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine employs expert opinion and clinical data to inform clinical decision making. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to complement these sources of evidence with information about physician "group intelligence" that exists in electronic health records. Specifically, we measured laboratory test "repeat intervals", defined as the amount of time it takes for a physician to repeat a test that was previously ordered for the same patient. Our assumption is that while the result of a test is a direct measure of one marker of a patient's health, the physician's decision to order the test is based on multiple factors including past experience, available treatment options, and information about the patient that might not be coded in the electronic health record. By examining repeat intervals in aggregate over large numbers of patients, we show that it is possible to 1) determine what laboratory test results physicians consider "normal", 2) identify subpopulations of patients that deviate from the norm, and 3) identify situations where laboratory tests are over-ordered. We used laboratory tests as just one example of how physician group intelligence can be used to support evidence based medicine in a way that is automated and continually updated.

  8. Building an evidence-based multitiered system of supports for high-risk youth and communities.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Beverly E; Mihalic, Sharon F; Sigel, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment. However, actually implementing this approach at a neighborhood level has remained a challenge and an ongoing research gap especially in high-risk communities. This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered evidence-based approach, implemented with fidelity, could conservatively result in a 30 to 40% reduction in problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Integrating scientific evidence to support telehomecare development in a remote region.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Duplantie, Julie; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Lamothe, Lise; Légaré, France; Labrecque, Michel

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to understand how different types of knowledge have influenced the decision making process regarding the implementation of telehomecare in the organization of regional healthcare services in the Province of Quebec (Canada). A case study was conducted in order to explore how scientific evidence was integrated in the decision-making processes regarding the implementation of a telehomecare system in the Gaspésie-Magdalene Islands Health Region. A total of 14 semistructured interviews were completed with key organizational decision makers (regional managers, organization managers, healthcare professionals, and technological managers). Two researchers independently carried out data analysis, encouraging iterations and validation with study participants. The Gaspésie-Magdalene Islands Telehomecare Project is based on a technological solution named Intelligent Distance Patient Monitoring and constitutes a relevant example of the evolution of an e-health solution. Indeed, the first reports of the experiment influenced decision makers to continue the deployment of the solution. Decision makers from all groups agreed on the importance of using past experience to avoid pitfalls and ensure an optimal decision-making process. They highlighted the importance of knowledge translation between sites as well as within sites. Knowledge translation played an important part in the success of the project. Efficient strategies to transfer evidence to organizational decision making have been identified such as an endusers forum, where researchers provide support by sharing evidence with end-users and actively participate in knowledge translation. PMID:19292630

  10. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. A critical review of Early Supported Discharge for stroke patients: from evidence to implementation into practice.

    PubMed

    Mas, Miquel Àngel; Inzitari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    After an acute stroke, a multidimensional approach based on multidisciplinary work and rehabilitation is required in order to promote functional independence and social reinsertion and to maintain medical stability. These activities are usually developed in the hospital setting as a continuum of the acute phase, but hospitalization is resource consuming and resources are limited. Early Support Discharge strategies base postacute care and rehabilitation at home after an early discharge planning and represent possible alternatives to conventional hospitalization. Recent evidence suggests that Early Supported Discharge might be superior to hospitalization from both the clinical-functional and the economic viewpoints. Moreover, home-based rehabilitation might potentiate important determinants of effectiveness, such as patient's motivation and goal-directed rehabilitation. However, hitherto produced evidence and recommendations show a number of limitations related to the organization models, the inclusion/exclusion criteria, and the questionable applicability of results to any healthcare setting worldwide. In this article, we critically review different methodological and organizational aspects of the available studies. For example in the definition of the target population, based mainly on residual disability and medical stability, we suggest that other relevant aspects, such as premorbid functional status, cognitive function, and previous institutionalization, should be better defined. Focusing on the outcomes, we suggest that, besides strong outcomes such as global functioning, surrogate outcomes, such as physical function, could help to refine the specific interventions. Finally, considering that the majority of studies were conducted in northern Europe, further studies are needed to test the implementation of Early Supported Discharge in different regions.

  12. The Significance of Ongoing Teacher Support in Earth Science Education Programs: Evidence from the GLOBE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuel, B.; Korbak, C.; Shear, L.

    2003-12-01

    study, SRI researchers used the data on student data reporting activity from different partners to identify candidate sites for case studies, where we might investigate the nature of follow-up activities provided by successful partners more closely. We worked to select 2 regional partners that had evidence of high percentages of teachers trained that reported data and that also offered follow-up to teachers. Case study researchers conducted observations within 2-3 active GLOBE schools supported by each regional partner organization and interviewed teachers, principals, and partner staff. On the basis of our observation data and transcripts from interviews, we compiled profiles of schools' implementation and analyzed the core activities of each regional partner. Researchers found that keys to promoting successful implementation in one partnership were: one partnership were: close alignment with state mathematics and science initiatives; mentors that helped teachers by modeling inquiry in GLOBE and by assisting with equipment set-up and curriculum planning; and allowing room for schools to adopt diverse goals for GLOBE. In the second partnership, keys to success included a strategic approach to developing funding for the program; a focus on integration of culturally-relevant knowledge into teacher preparation; follow-up support for teachers; and use of GLOBE as an opportunity to investigate local evidence of climate change. Both partner organizations were challenged by funding limitations that prevented them from providing as much follow-up support as they believe is necessary.

  13. Identifying Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A Guide to the Selection of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One component of the recently required State Systemic Improvement Plan (SSIP) for State Departments of Education calls for the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This report provides six steps to guide the process of selecting evidence based practices (EBP): (1) Begin with the End in Mind--Determine Targeted Outcomes;…

  14. Evidence Supports the Use of Soy Protein to Promote Cardiometabolic Health and Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Paul, Greg; Mendelson, Garry J

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs. PMID:26400436

  15. Evidence Supports the Use of Soy Protein to Promote Cardiometabolic Health and Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Paul, Greg; Mendelson, Garry J

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs.

  16. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Anđić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on α-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.

  17. Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Much of diabetes care needs to be carried out by patients between office visits with their health care providers. Yet, many patients face difficulties carrying out these tasks. In addition, many adults with diabetes cannot count on effective support from their families and friends to help them with their self-management. Peer support programmes are a promising approach to enhance social and emotional support, assist patients in daily management and living with diabetes and promote linkages to clinical care. This background paper provides a brief overview of different approaches to mobilize peer support for diabetes self-management support, discusses evidence to date on the effectiveness of each of these models, highlights logistical and evaluation issues for each model and concludes with a discussion of directions for future research in this area. PMID:19293400

  18. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD. PMID:27106567

  19. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.

  20. Cisapride: a review of the evidence supporting its use in premature infants with feeding intolerance.

    PubMed

    Premji, S S; Wilson, J; Paes, B; Gray, S

    1997-10-01

    A systematic computerized search of all databases was performed to review the scientific evidence in support of the efficacy of cisapride in reducing feeding intolerance in premature infants. Reference lists from these articles were used to identify relevant scientific literature to address important aspects of the use of cisapride. Three open prospective, uncontrolled studies were found. All studies reported improved clinical outcomes as evidenced by decreased gastric residuals, decreased incidence of vomiting, increased feeding volume, decrease in all reflux parameters measured, and increased weight gain. These observational studies reflect the current state of knowledge and have important research and clinical implications because of the profound effects of feeding intolerance on infant growth and development and on length of stay within NICUs.

  1. Genetic evidence supports linguistic affinity of Mlabri - a hunter-gatherer group in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mlabri are a group of nomadic hunter-gatherers inhabiting the rural highlands of Thailand. Little is known about the origins of the Mlabri and linguistic evidence suggests that the present-day Mlabri language most likely arose from Tin, a Khmuic language in the Austro-Asiatic language family. This study aims to examine whether the genetic affinity of the Mlabri is consistent with this linguistic relationship, and to further explore the origins of this enigmatic population. Results We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation using more than fifty thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed in thirteen population samples from Thailand, including the Mlabri, Htin and neighboring populations of the Northern Highlands, speaking Austro-Asiatic, Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien languages. The Mlabri population showed higher LD and lower haplotype diversity when compared with its neighboring populations. Both model-free and Bayesian model-based clustering analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between the Mlabri and the Htin, a group speaking a Tin language. Conclusion Our results strongly suggested that the Mlabri share more recent common ancestry with the Htin. We thus provided, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence that supports the linguistic affinity of Mlabri, and this association between linguistic and genetic classifications could reflect the same past population processes. PMID:20302622

  2. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk reduction: supporting evidence, conflicting data and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arhant-Sudhir, Kanish; Arhant-Sudhir, Rish; Sudhir, Krishnankutty

    2011-11-01

    1. It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major cardiovascular risk factors. 2. There is evidence that dog owners are less sedentary and have lower blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, attenuated responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and improved survival following myocardial infarction compared with non-pet owners. However, conflicting data exist with regard to the association between pet ownership and each of these risk factors. 3. Numerous non-cardiovascular effects of pet ownership have been reported, largely in the psychosocial domain, but the relationship is complex and can vary with demographic and social factors. 4. A unifying hypothesis is presented, linking improved mood and emotional state to decreased central and regional autonomic activity, improved endothelial function and, thus, lower blood pressure and reduced cardiac arrhythmias. 5. Overall, ownership of domestic pets, particularly dogs, is associated with positive health benefits. PMID:21824172

  3. Support as a complement, intrusion and right--evidence from ageing and disability support service users in Sweden and Australia.

    PubMed

    Laragy, Carmel; Fisher, Karen R; Cedersund, Elisabet; Campbell-McLean, Carolyn

    2011-12-01

    How service users conceptualise their personal support services is under researched, even though this understanding is important for responsive policy development and service implementation. This paper tests the proposition that service users understand formal support in three ways: support is a complement to their other arrangements, an intrusion into their personal life and a right. These three concepts were identified using discourse analysis in a Swedish study of older people wanting in-home support services. To test generalisability of these concepts, they were applied to data from an Australian study of people using disability personal support. The analysis found that the three concepts were core to people's views of their support, although the construction of the concepts differed in the two countries. Service users in Sweden asserted their right to services more forcefully than those in Australia, and they had higher expectations that their support needs would be met. These differences reflect the impact of each country's social policy environment on service users' expectations. The analysis suggests that service users and their families want to control their formal support arrangements to complement their informal care and their life preferences and to minimise the intrusive aspects of formal support. The findings imply that the three concepts have utility for theorising service users' perspectives, informing policy and developing implementation strategies which enhance peoples' quality of life. PMID:21585414

  4. Support as a complement, intrusion and right--evidence from ageing and disability support service users in Sweden and Australia.

    PubMed

    Laragy, Carmel; Fisher, Karen R; Cedersund, Elisabet; Campbell-McLean, Carolyn

    2011-12-01

    How service users conceptualise their personal support services is under researched, even though this understanding is important for responsive policy development and service implementation. This paper tests the proposition that service users understand formal support in three ways: support is a complement to their other arrangements, an intrusion into their personal life and a right. These three concepts were identified using discourse analysis in a Swedish study of older people wanting in-home support services. To test generalisability of these concepts, they were applied to data from an Australian study of people using disability personal support. The analysis found that the three concepts were core to people's views of their support, although the construction of the concepts differed in the two countries. Service users in Sweden asserted their right to services more forcefully than those in Australia, and they had higher expectations that their support needs would be met. These differences reflect the impact of each country's social policy environment on service users' expectations. The analysis suggests that service users and their families want to control their formal support arrangements to complement their informal care and their life preferences and to minimise the intrusive aspects of formal support. The findings imply that the three concepts have utility for theorising service users' perspectives, informing policy and developing implementation strategies which enhance peoples' quality of life.

  5. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the "Ancient Asexual" Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola.

    PubMed

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of "ancient asexuals". PMID:27608044

  6. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the “Ancient Asexual” Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola

    PubMed Central

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of “ancient asexuals”. PMID:27608044

  7. Evidence Supporting the Uptake and Genomic Incorporation of Environmental DNA in the "Ancient Asexual" Bdelloid Rotifer Philodina roseola.

    PubMed

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Hinz, Claus; Ahlrichs, Wilko H

    2016-09-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that bdelloid rotifers regularly undergo horizontal gene transfer, apparently as a surrogate mechanism of genetic exchange in the absence of true sexual reproduction, in part because of their ability to withstand desiccation. We provide empirical support for this latter hypothesis using the bdelloid Philodina roseola, which we demonstrate to readily internalize environmental DNA in contrast to a representative monogonont rotifer (Brachionus rubens), which, like other monogononts, is facultative sexual and cannot withstand desiccation. In addition, environmental DNA that was more similar to the host DNA was retained more often and for a longer period of time. Indirect evidence (increased variance in the reproductive output of the untreated F1 generation) suggests that environmental DNA can be incorporated into the genome during desiccation and is thus heritable. Our observed fitness effects agree with sexual theory and also occurred when the animals were desiccated in groups (thereby acting as DNA donors), but not individually, indicating the mechanism could occur in nature. Thus, although DNA uptake and its genomic incorporation appears proximally related to anhydrobiosis in bdelloids, it might also facilitate accidental genetic exchange with closely related taxa, thereby maintaining higher levels of genetic diversity than is otherwise expected for this group of "ancient asexuals".

  8. Additive effects of glyburide and antidepressants in the forced swimming test: evidence for the involvement of potassium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Todd, K; Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Kouadio, F

    1996-08-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests that the modulatory effects of antidepressant drugs (ADS) on neuronal excitability, via the inhibition of K+ channels, may be the final common pathway of pharmacological action. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that combining the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glyburide with a variety of ADS would produce an additive effect and decrease the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test (FST). Glyburide (GLY, IP, 30 and 50 mg/kg) and subactive doses of ADS were administered 45 and 30 min, respectively, prior to behavioral testing. Results showed that when combined with GLY, ADS whose main pharmacological effect is one of 5-HT uptake blockade (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) were more effective in decreasing the amount of time mice were immobile, than when these drugs were administered alone. Some noradrenaline uptake inhibiting ADS (desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline) were also significantly more effective in decreasing immobility time when combined with GLY than when administered alone. Pretreatment with GLY was found to have no effect on the dopamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and out of the atypical ADS tested (trazodone, mianserine and iprindole), only coadministration with iprindole decreased the immobility time. Only the specific MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide was observed to have an antiimmobility effect when combined with GLY. Neither MAO-B specific (RO 16 6491) nor mixed MAO inhibitors (nialamide and pargyline) interacted with GLY to produce antiimmobility effects. These results corroborate and extend our previous report of the ADS enhancing effects of quinine in the same behavioral model, and suggest that the additive effects of quinine and GLY on ADS in FST are a result of K+ channel blockade.

  9. Anaesthetic management of obese parturients: what is the evidence supporting practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Va, Eley; Aaj, van Zundert; J, Lipman; Lk, Callaway

    2016-09-01

    Increasing rates of obesity in western populations present management difficulties for clinicians caring for obese pregnant women. Various governing bodies have published clinical guidelines for the care of obese parturients. These guidelines refer to two components of anaesthetic care: anaesthetic consultation in the antenatal period for women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 and the provision of early epidural analgesia in labour. These recommendations are based on the increased incidence of obstetric complications and the predicted risks and difficulties in providing anaesthetic care. The concept behind early epidural analgesia is logical-site the epidural early, use it for surgical anaesthesia and avoid general anaesthesia if surgery is required. Experts support this recommendation, but there is weak supporting evidence. It is known that the management of labour epidurals in obese women is complicated and that women with extreme obesity require higher rates of general anaesthesia. Anecdotally, anaesthetists view and apply the early epidural recommendation inconsistently and the acceptability of early epidural analgesia to pregnant women is variable. In this topic review, we critically appraise these two practice recommendations. The elements required for effective implementation in multidisciplinary maternity care are considered. We identify gaps in the current literature and suggest areas for future research. While prospective cohort studies addressing epidural extension ('top-up') in obese parturients would help inform practice, audit of local practice may better answer the question "is early epidural analgesia beneficial to obese women in my practice?". PMID:27608337

  10. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  11. A Comparison of Types of Support for Lower-Skill Workers: Evidence for the Importance of Family Supportive Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Lori A.; Pichler, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    The work-family literature to date does not offer a clear picture in terms of the relative importance of different types of supports for balancing work and family demands. Grounded in conservation or resources theory, we develop an integrative model relating multiple forms of social support, both formal (i.e., work-life benefit use) and informal…

  12. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  13. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  14. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure.

  15. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  16. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  17. First long-term evidence supporting endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Muhs, Bart E; Dardik, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The traditional method of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms with open surgical repair has been steadily replaced by endovascular repair, thought to be a more minimally invasive approach. It is not known, however, whether the endovascular approach is truly less invasive for operative physiology; in addition, this approach has a different spectrum of complications. As such, it is uncertain whether elective endovascular repair of nonruptured aortic aneurysms reduces long-term morbidity and mortality compared with traditional open approaches. In this article, the authors evaluate a recent publication investigating long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with either endovascular or open repair, and discuss the results in the context of current evidence. PMID:23570352

  18. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  19. Intracranial volume and dementia: some evidence in support of the cerebral reserve hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tate, D F; Neeley, E S; Norton, M C; Tschanz, J T; Miller, M J; Wolfson, L; Hulette, C; Leslie, C; Welsh-Bohmer, K A; Plassman, B; Bigler, Erin D

    2011-04-18

    The brain reserve hypothesis has been posited as being one important mediating factor for developing dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence for this hypothesis is mixed though different methodologies have made these findings difficult to interpret. We examined imaging data from a large cohort (N=194) of mixed dementia patients and controls, 65years old and older from the Cache County, Utah Study of Memory and Aging for evidence of the brain reserve hypothesis using total intracranial volume (TICV) as a quantitative measure of pre-morbid brain size and a vicarious indicator of reserve. A broader spectrum of non-demented elderly control subjects from previous studies was also included for comparison (N=423). In addition, non-parametric Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were performed to model group heterogeneity and identify any subgroups of patients where TICV might be an important predictor of dementia. Parametrically, no main effect was found for TICV when predicting a dementia diagnosis; however, the CART analysis did reveal important TICV subgroups, including a sex differential wherein ε4 APOE allele presence in males and low TICV predicted AD classification. TICV, APOE, and other potential mediator/moderator variables are discussed in the context of the brain reserve hypothesis.

  20. Evolution of clinical practice guidelines: evidence supporting expanded use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Robert W; Dean, Bonnie B

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the primary factor underlying increased spending on pharmaceuticals has been the rising utilization of medications, rather than increases in unit drug price. This study examined the evolution of clinical practice guidelines to assess possible reasons for the rising drug volume. Clinical practice guidelines from 1970 to the present were reviewed for the six most prevalent treatable medical conditions/risk factors listed as priority areas by the Institute of Medicine. We searched the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, PubMed and Medline databases, and Web sites of relevant national organizations for US clinical practice guidelines published through January 2005. Information pertaining to the therapeutic regimen (eg, the frequency and duration of recommended treatment, when treatment should be initiated, the patient population for whom the guideline was intended) was abstracted and entered into evidence tables. Changes in guidelines were distributed across three themes that recommended evidence-based increases in medication use, including: (1) changes in the size of the treatable population; (2) changes in the number and type of recommended pharmaceutical therapeutic options, including movement from monotherapy to combination therapy, treatment of comorbidities, and use of newer types of medicines; and (3) changes in the therapeutic regimen, including a shift from episodic care to preventive and chronic care. Many of these changes point to an important, but not often noticed, addition of secondary prevention of disease effects to the objectives of medical care. These trends are likely to continue with important economic, clinical, and policy ramifications.

  1. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  2. Further evidence supporting a role for gs signal transduction in severe malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Fry, Andrew E; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Diakite, Mahamadou; Green, Angela; Richardson, Anna; Jallow, Muminatou; Sisay-Joof, Fatou; Pinder, Margaret; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E; Haldar, Kasturi; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2010-04-01

    With the functional demonstration of a role in erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, implications in the aetiology of common conditions that prevail in individuals of African origin, and a wealth of pharmacological knowledge, the stimulatory G protein (Gs) signal transduction pathway presents an exciting target for anti-malarial drug intervention. Having previously demonstrated a role for the G-alpha-s gene, GNAS, in severe malaria disease, we sought to identify other important components of the Gs pathway. Using meta-analysis across case-control and family trio (affected child and parental controls) studies of severe malaria from The Gambia and Malawi, we sought evidence of association in six Gs pathway candidate genes: adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A) and 2B (ADORA2B), beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1), adenylyl cyclase 9 (ADCY9), G protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3), and regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2). Our study amassed a total of 2278 cases and 2364 controls. Allele-based models of association were investigated in all genes, and genotype and haplotype-based models were investigated where significant allelic associations were identified. Although no significant associations were observed in the other genes, several were identified in ADORA2A. The most significant association was observed at the rs9624472 locus, where the G allele (approximately 20% frequency) appeared to confer enhanced risk to severe malaria [OR = 1.22 (1.09-1.37); P = 0.001]. Further investigation of the ADORA2A gene region is required to validate the associations identified here, and to identify and functionally characterize the responsible causal variant(s). Our results provide further evidence supporting a role of the Gs signal transduction pathway in the regulation of severe malaria, and request further exploration of this pathway in future studies.

  3. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  4. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  5. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  6. The Look AHEAD Study: A Description of the Lifestyle Intervention and the Evidence Supporting It

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, designed to determine whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. The study began in 2001 and is scheduled to conclude in 2012. A total of 5,145 participants, with a mean age of 60 years and body mass index of 36.0 kg/m2, have been randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention or to enhanced usual care condition (i.e., Diabetes Support and Education). This article describes the lifestyle intervention and the empirical evidence to support it. The two principal intervention goals are to induce a mean loss ≥ 7% of initial weight and to increase participants’ moderately-intense physical activity to ≥ 175 minutes a week. For the first 6 months, participants attend one individual and three group sessions per month and are encouraged to replace two meals and one snack a day with liquid shakes and meal bars. From months 7−12, they attend one individual and two group meetings per month and continue to replace one meal per day (which is recommended for the duration of the program). Starting at month 7, more intensive behavioral interventions, as well as weight loss medication, are available from a toolbox, designed to help participants with limited weight loss. In years 2−4, treatment is provided mainly on an individual basis and includes at least one on-site visit per month and a second contact by telephone, mail, or e-mail. Short-term (6−8 weeks) refresher groups and motivational campaigns also are offered three times yearly to help participants reverse small weight gains. After year 4, participants are offered monthly individual visits, as well as one refresher group and one campaign a year. The intervention is delivered by a multi-disciplinary team that includes medical staff who monitor participants at risk of hypoglycemic episodes. The study's evidence-based protocol should be

  7. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  8. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  9. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  10. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  11. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  12. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  13. Skin tears: a review of the evidence to support prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Catherine R; Fletcher, Kathleen R

    2007-03-01

    Physiological changes that occur as part of the aging process put the elderly at risk for developing skin tears. Lack of consistent care in the management of skin tears in the authors' community sparked a literature search to determine best evidence for the management of skin tears. Medline and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies and systematic reviews on skin tear prevention and treatment. The literature suggested that the greatest number of skin tears occurs among the elderly (65 years and older). Factors reported to be associated with the occurrence of skin tears in addition to age include immobility and a history of skin tears. In the absence of systematic risk factor research, clinicians continue to report that all variables that may be associated with these wounds must be considered when assessing the elderly. Several small studies suggest that most skin tears occur on the extremities and seasonal incidence variations also have been reported. Despite consistent sample-size limitations, the results of controlled clinical studies and case series consistently suggest that education and implementation of prevention protocols reduce the incidence of skin tears in extended care facilities by almost 50%. Studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skin tear treatments are limited but when appropriate care is provided most skin tears can be expected to heal after 7 to 21 days depending on the severity of the wound. A combination of skin protection, preventive measures, and treatments that facilitate moist wound healing appear to be most effective. Risk factor and epidemiological studies as well as research to validate the existing skin tear classification system and improve clinician ability to provide evidence-based risk assessments, preventive care, and treatment are needed.

  14. New molecular evidence supports the species status of Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (Aves, Picidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Azevedo, Lorena; Aleixo, Alexandre; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Vallinoto, Marcelo; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena

    2013-01-01

    Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (Celeus obrieni) is the only species of the genus Celeus endemic to Brazil. The description of this taxon as a subspecies of the Rufous-headed Woodpecker (Celeus spectabilis) was based on a single specimen. While C. obrieni and C. spectabilis are now considered separate species based on morphological and limited molecular evidence, no study has critically tested the reciprocal monophyly and degree of evolutionary independence between these taxa with several specimens. Herein, fragments of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of three recently-collected specimens of C. obrieni were analyzed to evaluate the degree of evolutionary differentiation of this taxon with respect to C. spectabilis. The results confirm the reciprocal monophyly between the specimens of C. obrieni and C. spectabilis. The genetic divergence values for the two taxa also support their classification as independent species, given that they are greater than the values recorded among other closely-related but separate species of the same genus. Estimates of the divergence time between C. obrieni and C. spectabilis indicate that cladogenesis occurred in the mid-Pleistocene, during a period of major climatic fluctuations and landscape change, consistent with the hypothesis of a corridor of open bamboo dominated forests and woodland stretching. PMID:23885201

  15. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented. PMID:25932012

  16. Radiocarbon evidence for the substrates supporting methane formation within northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J.P.; Bauer, J.E.; Glaser, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Bogs and fens from northern Minnesota produce large quantities of CH{sub 4}, which may be either emitted to the atmosphere or stored in below-ground reservoirs. The identity of the organic materials that support CH{sub 4} production has been uncertain, but we present evidence that a significant fraction of surface emission and below-ground CH{sub 4} is derived from recently fixed organic compounds. First, the CH{sub 4} emitted from both bogs and fens has a {sup 14}C signature equivalent to contemporary values for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Second, in flooded fens rates of CH{sub 4} emission are linearly related to rates of CO{sub 2} exchange to the {delta}{sup 13}C of emitted CH{sub 4}. Third, peat-porewaters as deep as several meters below the surface contain mixtures of CH{sub 4} derived from both modern and older organic substrates. The source of the modern organic substrates is most likely dissolved organic compounds produced from the decay of recently produced litter, roots and root exudation products and transported into deeper layers of the peat. These data indicate that CH{sub 4} emissions are closely linked to the living vegetation and hydrology of northern peatlands and less dependent on the lability and decomposition of peat within the deeper layers of the catotelm.

  17. Is there evidence to support the need for routine surgeon presence on trauma patient arrival?

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2006-05-01

    The trauma center certification requirements of the American College of Surgeons include the expectation that, whenever possible, general surgeons be routinely present at the emergency department arrival of seriously injured patients. The 2 historical factors that originally prompted this requirement, frequent exploratory laparotomies and emergency physicians without trauma training, no longer exist in most modern trauma centers. Research from multiple centers and in multiple varying formats has not identified improvement in patient-oriented outcomes from early surgeon involvement. Surgeons are not routinely present during the resuscitative phase of Canadian and European trauma care, with no demonstrated or perceived decrease in the quality of care. American trauma surgeons themselves do not consistently believe that their use in this capacity is either necessary or an efficient distribution of resources. There is not compelling evidence to support the assumption that trauma outcomes are improved by the routine presence of surgeons on patient arrival. Research is necessary to clarify which trauma patients require either emergency or urgent unique expertise of a general surgeon during the initial phase of trauma management. Individual trauma centers should be permitted the flexibility necessary to perform such research and to use such findings to refine and focus their secondary triage criteria. PMID:16631973

  18. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    DOE PAGES

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observedmore » by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.« less

  19. Evidence of three maternal lineages in Near Eastern sheep supporting multiple domestication events.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Susana; Uzun, Metehan; Arranz, Juan-José; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; San Primitivo, Fermín; Bayón, Yolanda

    2005-10-22

    The variability of mtDNA was analysed in local sheep breeds reared throughout Turkey, for which a fragment of the D-loop region and the complete cytochrome b were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses performed independently for the D-loop and the Cyt b gene revealed three clearly separated clusters indicating three major maternal lineages, two of which had been previously described as types B and A. The new type, C, was present in all the breeds analysed and showed considerable mtDNA variability. Divergence time was obtained on the basis of Cyt b gene and was estimated to be around 160,000-170,000 years ago for lineages B and A, whereas the divergence of lineage C proved to have occurred earlier (between 450,000 and 750,000 years ago). These times greatly predate domestication and suggest that the origin of modern sheep breeds was more complex than previously thought and that at least three independent sheep domestication events occurred. Our results, together with archaeological information and the current wild sheep populations in the Near East region support the high importance of this area in the sheep domestication process. Finally, the evidence of a third maternal lineage has important implications regarding the history of modern sheep.

  20. Evidence of High Electrocatalytic Activity of Molybdenum Carbide Supported Platinum Nanorafts

    SciTech Connect

    Elbaz, Lior; Phillips, Jonathan; Artyushkova, Kateryna; More, Karren Leslie; Brosha, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable new supported metal catalyst structure on Mo2C substrates, ‘rafts’ of platinum consisting of less than 6 atoms, was synthesized and found to be catalytically active electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction. A novel catalytic synthesis method: Reduction-Expansion-Synthesis of Catalysts (RES-C), from rapid heating of dry mixture of solid precursors of molybdenum, platinum and urea in an inert gas environment, led to the creation of unique platinum Nanorafts on Mo2C. The Pt Nanorafts offer a complete utilization of the Pt atoms for electrocatalysis with no “hidden” atoms. This structure is strongly affected by its interaction with the substrate as was observed by XPS. In this work, we show for the first time, evidence of electrocatalytic activity with such small clusters of non-crystalline Pt atoms as catalysts for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical half-cell characterization shows that this structure permit more efficient utilization of platinum, with mass activity conservatively measured to be 50% that of platinum particles generated using traditional approaches. These novel material may dramatically enhance stability relative to the commercial Pt/carbon catalysts.

  1. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-06-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  2. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-10-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4) non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  3. On The Observability Of Turbulent Transport Rates By Argo: Supporting Evidence From An Inversion Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  4. Supporting evidence-based health care in crises: what information do humanitarian organizations need?

    PubMed

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Harris, Claire

    2011-03-01

    In crisis situations, there is an enormous burden of disease and very limited resources. To achieve the best possible health outcomes in these situations and ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, knowledge from health research needs to be translated into practice. We investigated what information from health research was needed by humanitarian aid workers in crisis settings and how it could be best provided. Semistructured interviews were conducted by telephone with 19 humanitarian aid workers from a range of organizations around the world and the results analyzed thematically. Participants identified a clear and currently unmet need for access to high-quality health research to support evidence-based practice in crisis situations. They emphasized that research into delivery of health care was potentially more valuable than research into the effectiveness of particular clinical interventions and highlighted the importance of including contextual information to enable the relevance of the research to be assessed. They suggested that providers of health research information and humanitarian aid organizations work together to develop these resources.

  5. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  7. The Agoudal (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco) Shattered Limestone: Petrographical and Geochemical Studies and Additional Evidence of Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kerni, H.; Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Marjanac, T.

    2016-08-01

    Agoudal impact structure shattered limestone and breccia are well studied and described using petrographical observations and geochemical analyses, and a new discovery of the magnesiwustite mineral as a further evidence of impact event.

  8. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  9. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  10. Supporting Replication and Scale-Up of Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs: Assessing the Implementation Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Del Grosso, Patricia; Supplee, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners have expressed a growing interest in the use of interventions with scientific evidence of effectiveness. Reproducing positive effects shown in research, however, requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. There is growing recognition across disciplines of the importance of implementation research to guide adoption, replication, and scale-up of evidence-based interventions. We evaluate the state of the knowledge base supporting replication and scale-up of evidence-based programs by reviewing information on implementation included in the research literature on 22 home visiting programs that have or are building an evidence base. We used the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation to assess programs. PMID:25033117

  11. Free Recall Learning of Hierarchically Organised Lists by Adults with Asperger's Syndrome: Additional Evidence for Diminished Relational Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The "Task Support Hypothesis" (TSH, Bowler et al. Neuropsychologia 35:65-70 1997) states that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show better memory when test procedures provide support for retrieval. The present study aimed to see whether this principle also applied at encoding. Twenty participants with high-functioning ASD and 20…

  12. Formula food-reducing diets:A new evidence-based addition to the weight management tool box

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, A R

    2014-01-01

    evidence for improved vitamin D status and maintained bone health in elderly obese people with osteoarthritis but more research is needed. Rapid initial weight loss was feared to be followed by rapid weight regain. However, provided initial weight loss is delivered in parallel with an intense education programme about nutrition, cooking, shopping and lifestyle for long-term maintenance; and where long-term support is provided, subsequent weight maintenance after VLCDs and LCDs has been shown to be possible. A recent literature review identified high-protein diets, obesity drugs and partial use of formula meal replacements as methods which can result in statistically significantly greater weight maintenance after initial weight loss with VLCDs or LCDs. Anxiety about serious adverse side effects seems to be unfounded although users need to be aware of both minor and more serious, though very infrequent, adverse events, such as gallstones and gallbladder disease. PMID:25663817

  13. New sedimentological evidence supporting a catastrophic meltwater discharge event along the Beaufort margin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotsko, S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Keigwin, L. D.; Mendenhall, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, a cruise on the USCGC Healy mapped the Beaufort margin from Barrow, AK into the Amundsen Gulf using a towed CHIRP subbottom profiler and a hull-mounted Knudsen CHIRP subbottom profiler to study the deglaciation of the margin. Sediment cores were also acquired. New grain size analyses for three sediment cores will be presented. These records help constrain the flooding events captured in the existing grain size data from JPC 15, just east of the Mackenzie trough. This core shows evidence of multiple ice rafted debris events that were likely sourced from the retreat of the Amundsen ice stream. These layers have peaks in grain size around ~20 microns compared to the ~5 micron average for the rest of the core. The grain size peaks correlate to the high amplitude reflectors observed in the seismic CHIRP data. Similar reflectors are observed in the seismic data from two of the new core locations, one in the Mackenzie trough and one east of the trough. The seismic data from these stations also record a thick sediment package that is ~7 meters thick at its depocenter. This layer is interpreted to record a massive meltwater discharge event that entered the Arctic via the Mackenzie River. Oxygen isotope data from JPC 15 support an event at this location based on the covarying benthic and planktonic records. In our conceptual model, the pulses of freshwater from the Amundsen Gulf likely freshened the margin sufficiently that the major discharge event was then able to push the system over the edge. This catastrophic glacial lake draining out the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort Sea and export out of the Arctic into the North Atlantic caused diminished meridional overturning circulation - slowing of the conveyor belt thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, potentially caused the Younger Dryas cold period.

  14. Support for Crater Count Chronometry and Evidence for Obliquity-driven Ice Deposition on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2007-10-01

    In December 2006, Malin et al. (Science) reported discovery of small Martian craters forming on Mars in the last 7 years. Diameters are 10 to 20 m for best detections. The formation rate for these craters is within a factor 2-3 of the rates I've used in the isochron system I developed at PSI (2005 Icarus) - which is within the uncertainty limits of factor 2-4 that I have quoted for the system. This supports the conclusion that order-of-magnitude ages can be measured for young, kilometer-scale Martian landforms, by counting small craters. If Malin et al. are right, the method can be refined to considerable precision in the future, by better measurement of small crater production rates. I have applied this dating system to tongue-shaped flows and debris aprons east of Hellas. These apparently involve flow of ice or ice/soil mixtures (Costard et al. 2002 Science). Surface features at lateral topographic scales of 10-20m and 3-6m depth consistently give ages of a few My to a few 10s My on the flow units, and older ages outside the flow units. This is true whether Hartmann, Malin, or Neukum cratering data are used. These ages are just in the range of the last few cycles of high obliquity (Laskar et al. 2002 Nature). Strikingly, the ice features are exactly in one of the two moderate-latitude regions with unusually high ice deposition at high obliquity, according to global climate models by Forget (2007 LPSC, private communication). I conclude that crater count chronometry is viable and we have evidence of localized high rates of ice deposition, and possible water release, on mid-latitude Mars within the last few tens of My.

  15. Large scale brain functional networks support sentence comprehension: evidence from both explicit and implicit language tasks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zude; Fan, Yuanyuan; Feng, Gangyi; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sentences are comprehended via widespread brain regions in the fronto-temporo-parietal network in explicit language tasks (e.g., semantic congruency judgment tasks), and through restricted temporal or frontal regions in implicit language tasks (e.g., font size judgment tasks). This discrepancy has raised questions regarding a common network for sentence comprehension that acts regardless of task effect and whether different tasks modulate network properties. To this end, we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects' fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks.

  16. The Relationship Between College Zoology Students' Religious Beliefs and Their Ability to Objectively View the Scientific Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Anne; Baldwin, Beatrice

    An anonymous 12-item, multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 218 southern college, introductory zoology students prior to and following a study of evolutionary theory to assess their understanding and acceptance of the credibility of the evidence supporting the theory. Key topics addressed were the history of evolutionary thought, basic…

  17. Supporting the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, David E.; Kola, Lenore A.; Ronis, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Significant barriers exist to the implementation of evidence-based practices into routine mental health and substance abuse settings. This paper discusses the role and function of technical assistance centers to help support the implementation process using, as a guide, the experience of the Ohio Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Coordinating…

  18. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis. PMID:27561888

  19. Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Internalizing Problems: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Ty, Sophie V.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) has a large evidence base for preventing and addressing externalizing problem behavior, but there is little research examining its effects on internalizing problems, such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of internalizing problems in today's children and youth,…

  20. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis.

  1. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  2. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  3. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  4. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  5. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  6. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, C L; Chiang, Y C; Cui, Y; Chen, J

    2001-01-01

    The CCR4-NOT complex is involved in the regulation of gene expression both positively and negatively. The repressive effects of the complex appear to result in part from restricting TBP access to noncanonical TATAA binding sites presumably through interaction with multiple TAF proteins. We provide here genetic evidence that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a role in transcriptional elongation. First, defects in CCR4-NOT components as well as overexpression of the NOT4 gene elicited 6-azauracil (6AU) and mycophenolic acid sensitivities, hallmarks of transcriptional elongation defects. A number of other transcription initiation factors known to interact with the CCR4-NOT complex did not elicit these phenotypes nor did defects in factors that reduced mRNA degradation and hence the recycling of NTPs. Second, deletion of ccr4 resulted in severe synthetic effects with mutations or deletions in the known elongation factors RPB2, TFIIS, and SPT16. Third, the ccr4 deletion displayed allele-specific interactions with rpb1 alleles that are thought to be important in the control of elongation. Finally, we found that a ccr4 deletion as well as overexpression of the NOT1 gene specifically suppressed the cold-sensitive phenotype associated with the spt5-242 allele. The only other known suppressors of this spt5-242 allele are factors involved in slowing transcriptional elongation. These genetic results are consistent with the model that the CCR4-NOT complex, in addition to its known effects on initiation, plays a role in aiding the elongation process. PMID:11404327

  7. Evidence to support IL-13 as a risk locus for psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Flynn, Edward; Ho, Pauline; Salah, Salma; Warren, Richard B; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Coates, Laura; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Anthony W; Kane, David; Korendowych, Eleanor; McHugh, Neil; FitzGerald, Oliver; Packham, Jonathan; Morgan, Ann W; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Bruce, Ian N; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls. Methods Two SNPs (rs20541 and rs1800925) mapping to the IL-13 gene were genotyped in 1057 PsA and 778 type I PsV patients using the Sequenom genotyping platform. Genotype frequencies were compared to those of 5575 healthy controls. Additional analyses were performed in phenotypic subgroups of PsA (type I or II PsV and in those seronegative for rheumatoid factor). Results Both SNPs were found to be highly associated with susceptibility to PsA (rs1800925 ptrend = 6.1×10−5 OR 1.33, rs20541 ptrend = 8.0×10−4 OR 1.27), but neither SNP was significantly associated with susceptibility to PsV. Conclusions This study confirms that the effect of IL-13 risk locus is specific for PsA, thus highlighting a key biological pathway that differentiates PsA from PsV. The identification of markers that differentiate the two diseases raises the possibility in future of allowing screening of PsV patients to identify those at risk of developing PsA. PMID:21349879

  8. Type, Content, and Source of Social Support Perceived by Women during Pregnancy: Evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Moni; Sibley, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Specific and contextualized data on social support during distinct health events are needed to improve social support interventions. This study identified the type, content, and source of social support perceived by women during pregnancy. In-depth interviews with 25 women, aged 18-49 years, living in Matlab, Bangladesh, were conducted. The findings demonstrated that women perceived, the receipt of eight distinct types of support. The four most frequently-mentioned types included: practical help with routine activities, information/advice, emotional support and assurance, as well as the provision of resources and material goods. Sources varied by type of support and most frequently included-—mothers, mothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, and husbands. Examples depicting the content of each type of support revealed culturally-specific issues that can inform community-based social support interventions. PMID:21608426

  9. Addition of a Decision Point in Evidence-Based Practice Process Steps to Distinguish EBP, Research and Quality Improvement Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2015-06-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741--6787. PMID:25773966

  10. Addition of a Decision Point in Evidence-Based Practice Process Steps to Distinguish EBP, Research and Quality Improvement Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2015-06-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741--6787.

  11. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  12. Building Your Program. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    "Building Your Program" is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, and program leaders think through and develop Supported Education. The first part of this booklet gives you background information about the Supported Education model. Specific information about your role in implementing and sustaining Supported Education…

  13. Human Functioning, Supports, Assistive Technology, and Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of assistive technology (AT) in the context of three current international trends in the field of intellectual disability (ID) that are significantly impacting the delivery of services and supports to persons with ID: the provision of systems of supports based on the individual's assessed support needs, the increased…

  14. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  15. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a

  16. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  17. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of âgood causeâ for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780...- ) Evidence Other Evidence Requirements § 404.780 Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits...

  18. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of âgood causeâ for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780...- ) Evidence Other Evidence Requirements § 404.780 Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits...

  19. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  20. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  1. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Van, Henricus L; Dekker, Jack; Koelen, Jurrijn; Kool, Simone; van Aalst, Gerda; Hendriksen, Marielle; Peen, Jaap; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in adherence and outcome. About half of the early nonresponders refused the additional medication. However, no clear effect of medication addition on ultimate outcome could be demonstrated. In total, 37% of the patients achieved remission. The study suggested that randomization of patients does not induce a great influence on outcome. It might be warranted to continue an initially ineffective psychotherapy for depression, because a considerable number of patients do have a pattern of delayed response.

  2. 38 CFR 10.44 - Evidence required to support claim of mother or father.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outlined in section 601 of the Act, as amended, includes stepmothers, stepfathers, mothers and fathers... evidence of dependency required from a natural mother or father, a claim of a stepmother or...

  3. 38 CFR 10.44 - Evidence required to support claim of mother or father.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlined in section 601 of the Act, as amended, includes stepmothers, stepfathers, mothers and fathers... evidence of dependency required from a natural mother or father, a claim of a stepmother or...

  4. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  5. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  6. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  7. Active Support: A Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Practice Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Jeffery P.; Sturmey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have evaluated active support in agencies for persons with developmental disabilities to increase staff assistance and service user engagement. A systematic review identified two studies in which researchers reported three experimental evaluations of active support. Only one experiment showed a clear functional relationship between…

  8. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  9. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems

  10. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of child, teacher, and peer reports of teacher-student support.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hughes, Jan N; Kwok, Oi-Man; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of measures of teacher-student support in a sample of 709 ethnically diverse 2nd- and 3rd-grade academically at-risk students. Confirmatory factor analysis investigated the convergent and discriminant validities of teacher, child, and peer reports of teacher-student support and child conduct problems. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the measures. Peer reports accounted for the largest proportion of trait variance and nonsignificant method variance. Child reports accounted for the smallest proportion of trait variance and the largest method variance. A model with 2 latent factors provided a better fit to the data than a model with 1 factor, providing further evidence of the discriminant validity of measures of teacher-student support. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  11. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  12. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice. PMID:24720156

  13. [Online information service: the library support for evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Markulin, Helena; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    It frequently happens that physicians do not have adequate skills or enough time for searching and evaluating evidence needed in their everyday practice. Medical librarian can serve as a mediator in enabling physicians to utilize the potential offered by contemporary evidence-based medicine. The Central Medical Library (CML) at University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, designed a web-based information service aimed at the promotion of evidence-based practice in the Croatian medical community. The users can ask for a help in finding information on their clinical problems. A responsible librarian will analyse the problem, search information resources and evaluate the evidence. The answer is returned to the user by an e-mail. In the 2008-2012 period 166 questions from 12 clinical fields were received and most of them (36.1%) came from internal medicine doctors. The share of treatment-related questions was 70.5%. In the setting of underdeveloped ICT infrastructure and inadequate EBM resources availability, such information service can help in transfer of scientific evidence into the everyday clinical practice.

  14. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline. PMID:24576369

  15. Elderly demand for family-based care and support: evidence from a social intervention strategy.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Tjerbo, Trond

    2013-12-06

    This paper examines the influence of the national health insurance scheme on elderly demand for family-based care and support. It contributes to the growing concern on the rapid increase in the elderly population globally using micro-level social theory to examine the influence the health insurance has on elderly demand for family support. A qualitative case study approach is applied to construct a comprehensive and thick description of how the national health insurance scheme influences the elderly in their demand for family support.Through focused interviews and direct observation of six selected cases, in-depth information on primary carers, living arrangement and the interaction between the health insurance as structure and elders as agents are analyzed. The study highlights that the interaction between the elderly and the national health insurance scheme has produced a new stratum of relationship between the elderly and their primary carers. Consequently, this has created equilibrium between the elderly demand for support and support made available by their primary carers. As the demand of the elderly for support is declining, supply of support by family members for the elderly is also on the decline.

  16. Molecular and Merrifield supported chiral diamines for enantioselective addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to ketones.

    PubMed

    Calvillo-Barahona, Mercedes; Cordovilla, Carlos; Genov, Miroslav N; Martínez-Ilarduya, Jesús M; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-10-28

    Chiral 1,2-ethylenediamines have been previously reported as active catalysts in the enantioselective addition reactions of ZnR2 to either methyl- or trifluoromethyl-ketones. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of different catalysts are described herein and lead to a dramatic effect in their catalytic activity. From these findings, we demonstrate the selective reactivity of the ligands used in the addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to methyl- and trifluoromethyl-ketones offering an enantioselective access either to chiral non-fluorinated alcohols or to chiral fluorinated tertiary alcohols. Considering the importance of the chiral trifluoromethyl carbinol fragment in several biologically active compounds, we have extended the scope of the addition reaction of ZnEt2 to several trifluoromethylketones catalyzed by (R,R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives. This work explores a homogeneous approach that provides excellent yields and very high ee and the use of a heterogenized tail-tied ligand affording moderate ee, high yields and allowing an easier handling and recycling.

  17. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  18. Message generalizations that support evidence-based persuasive message design: specifying the evidentiary requirements.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based persuasive message design can be informed by dependable research-based generalizations about the relative persuasiveness of alternative message-design options. Five propositions are offered as specifying what constitutes the best evidence to underwrite such generalizations: (1) The evidence should take the form of replicated randomized trials in which message features are varied. (2) Results should be described in terms of effect sizes and confidence intervals, not statistical significance. (3) The results should be synthesized using random-effects meta-analytic procedures. (4) The analysis should treat attitudinal, intention, and behavioral assessments as yielding equivalent indices of relative persuasiveness. (5) The replications included in research syntheses should not be limited to published studies or to English-language studies.

  19. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M

    1989-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT), affirmed as GRAS within the USA since 1961, was evaluated as 'ADI not specified' by JECFA in 1985. Within the EEC, GT has been permitted temporarily as a food additive (E413), without an ADI, since 1974; a decision regarding its permanent status must be reached before the end of 1988. This review collates the dietary, toxicological, immunological and chemical data available and presents the pre-requisite data concerning the 'Need' and low levels of utilization of GT.

  1. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  2. The Conceptualization, Integration, and Support of Evidence-Based Interventions in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Domitrovich, Celene E.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this issue break the mold of the traditional stage model of the development and testing of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within the confines of highly controlled studies (Onken, Blaine, & Battjes, 1997). Although this approach has merits, the need for EBIs in school settings has outpaced their deployment. The authors of these…

  3. Social Stories[TM]: Does the Research Evidence Support the Popularity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The use of Social Stories[TM] appears to be popular among educational psychologists (EPs) and other children's services professionals as an intervention for enhancing the social functioning of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This article explores and evaluates the research evidence upon which this apparent popularity is based.…

  4. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  5. Connecting Research to Practice: Searching for Evidence to Support Favorable Student Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenos, Jeanne; Trick, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Educators have reported feeling stressed, overwhelmed, or demoralized when undesirable student behaviors are coupled with other instructional and programmatic barriers. Although helpful resources abound, it is not always easy to connect research to practice. Teachers can benefit from evidence-based practice (EBP), which basically involves reading…

  6. Education Resources Needed to Support the Teaching of Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Eldon; Gallon, Steve; Porter, John

    2007-01-01

    The Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center surveyed addiction educators, providers and policy makers in Northwest states and Hawaii to define teaching resources and barriers in the teaching of evidence-based practices for the preparation of addiction professionals. The top three teaching resource needs were example student…

  7. Is There Evidence to Support the Use of Social Skills Interventions for Students with Emotional Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners advocate for the use of social skills interventions for students with emotional disabilities because significant social skills deficits are common among these students. Yet contemporary practices must be vetted for empirical evidence of their efficacy and effectiveness to ensure students are provided appropriate…

  8. An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; May, Michael E.; Chitiyo, George

    2012-01-01

    The use of SWPBS has increased quite rapidly across schools. This is happening against a backdrop of enthusiasm among policymakers, researchers and practitioners about the use of evidence-based practices in school settings. As SWPBS continues to attract the interest of school personnel it is necessary to look at this approach and examine its…

  9. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  10. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  11. Supporting employees' work-family needs improves health care quality: Longitudinal evidence from long-term care.

    PubMed

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Kelly, Erin L; Bacic, Janine; DePasquale, Nicole; Hurtado, David; Kossek, Ellen; Sembajwe, Grace

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from U.S.-based employees in 30 long-term care facilities. Analysis of semi-structured interviews from 154 managers informed quantitative analyses. Quantitative data include 1214 employees' scoring of their supervisors and their organizations on family supportiveness (individual scores and aggregated to facility level), and three outcomes: (1), care quality indicators assessed at facility level (n = 30) and collected monthly for six months after employees' data collection; (2), employees' dichotomous survey response on having additional off-site jobs; and (3), proportion of employees with additional jobs at each facility. Thematic analyses revealed that managers operate within the constraints of an industry that simultaneously: (a) employs low-wage employees with multiple work-family challenges, and (b) has firmly institutionalized goals of prioritizing quality of care and minimizing labor costs. Managers universally described providing work-family support and prioritizing care quality as antithetical to each other. Concerns surfaced that family-supportiveness encouraged employees to work additional jobs off-site, compromising care quality. Multivariable linear regression analysis of facility-level data revealed that higher family-supportive supervision was associated with significant decreases in residents' incidence of all pressure ulcers (-2.62%) and other injuries (-9.79%). Higher family-supportive organizational climate was associated with significant decreases in all falls (-17.94%) and falls with injuries (-7.57%). Managers' concerns about additional jobs were not entirely unwarranted: multivariable logistic regression of employee-level data revealed that among employees with children, having family-supportive supervision was associated with significantly higher likelihood of additional off-site jobs (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.08-1.99), but family-supportive organizational climate was associated with lower likelihood

  12. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity.

  13. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  14. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  15. Development of reasoning: Behavioral evidence to support reinforcement over cognitive control accounts.

    PubMed

    Badger, Julia R; Shapiro, Laura R

    2010-06-01

    Abstract Speed's theory makes two predictions for the development of analogical reasoning. Firstly, young children should not be able to reason analogically due to an undeveloped PFC neural network. Secondly, category knowledge enables the reinforcement of structural features over surface features, and thus the development of sophisticated, analogical, reasoning. We outline existing studies that support these predictions and highlight some critical remaining issues. Specifically, we argue that the development of inhibition must be directly compared alongside the development of reasoning strategies in order to support Speed's account.

  16. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, N. P.; Myburgh, N. G.; Nel, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1997, South Africa has been developing and implementing food-based dietary guidelines for people aged >6 years. The complexity of the population, which contains different ethnic groups, as well as the rapid urbanization that is taking place, means that food-based dietary guidelines need to consider both overnutrition and undernutrition. The initial guidelines did not include guidance on sugar, and the Department of Health was not prepared to approve them until appropriate guidance on sugar was included. This paper summarizes the evidence available for such a guideline and the nature of that evidence. Other low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Africa, may face a similar dilemma and might learn from our experience. PMID:14576892

  17. Additive effects of lithium and antidepressants in the forced swimming test: further evidence for involvement of the serotoninergic system.

    PubMed

    Nixon, M K; Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Colombel, M C

    1994-06-01

    In the mouse forced swimming test (FST) pretreatment with a subactive dose of lithium (1 mEq/kg), given IP 45 min before the test, facilitated the antidepressant activity of iprindole, fluoxetine, and moclobemide (given IP 30 min before the test). These antidepressants (ADS) were not active alone in the FST in this study. Moreover, when subactive lithium was combined with a wide range of ADS, each given at subactive doses, those ADS with serotoninergic properties (e.g. imipramine, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, trazodone, mianserin, and moclobemide) significantly reduced immobility times. ADS acting primarily on noradrenaline (NA) or dopamine (DA) systems (desipramine, maprotiline, viloxazine, and bupropion) did not significantly decrease immobility when given in combination with lithium. This was also the case for RO 16 6491 [a reversible, B specific monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)], nialamide, and pargyline (both irreversible, mixed MAOIs). The anti-immobility effect of iprindole in combination with lithium suggests either a direct or indirect action on the serotonin (5HT) system by this ADS whose mechanism of action remains obscure. These results, using an animal behavioral model of depression and combining our present knowledge of the acute action of various ADS, support the hypothesis that the potentiation by lithium of ADS is via direct 5HT mechanisms, indirectly via a NA/5HT link, and/or by second messenger systems. Lithium may also facilitate the expression of antidepressant activity of ADS not active by themselves in the FST.

  18. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  19. Meniscal Scaffolds - Preclinical Evidence to Support their Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Perdisa, Francesco; Gostynska, Natalia; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach. PMID:26157531

  20. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  1. An Evidence Based Approach to Designing Medical Support for Long Duration, Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, S. D.; McGrath, T. L.; Bauman, D. K.; Wu, J. H.; Barsten, K. N.; Barr, Y. R.; Kerstman, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements under NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). The goal of the ExMC element is to address the risk of the "inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crewmember." This poster highlights the evidence-based approach that the ExMC element has taken to address this goal, and the ExMC element's current areas of interest.

  2. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. PMID:27401481

  3. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  4. Dronedarone: evidence supporting its therapeutic use in the treatment of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Renee M; Olshansky, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dronedarone, a benzofuran derivative with a structure similar to amiodarone, has been developed as a potential therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation. Aim: To review the published evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of dronedarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Evidence review: Available evidence suggests that dronedarone 400 mg orally twice daily can lengthen the time to and decrease the overall recurrence of atrial fibrillation compared with placebo. Dronedarone may reduce risk of mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. Patients with atrial fibrillation receiving dronedarone had improved ventricular rate control compared with patients receiving placebo. Dronedarone is associated with few serious adverse events except, notably, in patients with decompensated heart failure. Place in therapy: Dronedarone may have a role in rate and rhythm control for patients with atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone can reduce unique, but potentially serious, end points in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite this, the exact role of dronedarone in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation continues to emerge. It remains uncertain if dronedarone should be considered a primary treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation. Dronedarone should not be administered to patients with decompensated heart failure. Conclusion: Dronedarone is a unique drug that may serve a key role to treat patients with atrial fibrillation. PMID:21042542

  5. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  6. Education, Income and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. We make two contributions. First, we present a conceptual model, which has been lacking in the…

  7. Family Carers' Experiences Using Support Services in Europe: Empirical Evidence from the EUROFAMCARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamura, Giovanni; Mnich, Eva; Nolan, Mike; Wojszel, Beata; Krevers, Barbro; Mestheneos, Liz; Dohner, Hanneli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the experiences of family carers of older people in using support services in six European countries: Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. Design and Methods: Following a common protocol, data were collected from national samples of approximately 1,000 family carers per country and clustered into…

  8. Making the Grade: Assessing the Evidence for Integrated Student Supports. Publication #2014-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Integrated student supports (ISS), sometimes referred to as integrated student services, represents an emerging field of practice that aims to address persistent disparities in educational achievement and attainment. ISS is a school-based approach to promoting students' academic achievement and educational attainment by coordinating a seamless…

  9. Who Supports the English-Only Movement? Evidence for Misconceptions About Latino Group Vitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Using vitality theory as a framework, investigates whether support for English-only policies among Anglo-Americans is related to perceptions about growing Latino group vitality and the presence of Spanish in the linguistic landscape. Conducted a telephone survey in Santa Barbara, California. Found Anglo-Americans' perceptions of growing latino…

  10. Teacher Support and Engagement in Math and Science: Evidence from the High School Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Supportive teacher-student relationships are associated with increased levels of engagement and higher levels of achievement. Yet, studies also show that higher achieving students typically receive the most encouragement. Moreover, many studies of teacher-student relationships pertain to elementary and middle school students; by the time students…

  11. Transition of Youth and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties: An Evidence-Supported Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hewitt B., Ed.; Unruh, Deanne K., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive professional handbook will help transition specialists, general and special educators, school psychologists, and administrators support youth and young adults in setting goals and achieving positive outcomes across employment, education, and community settings. Through up-to-date research and in-depth analyses of five successful…

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of Relocation Support. Some Evidence from the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Adrian R.; Saunders, Mark N. K.

    1998-01-01

    Review of research on employee relocation in the United Kingdom and North America identified barriers to relocation and types of personal and financial support provided by organizations. Force-field analysis assessed the relationship between barriers and organizational interventions, particularly in UK local government agencies. (SK)

  13. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  14. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  15. The Use of Prompting as an Evidence-Based Strategy to Support Children with ASD in School Settings in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dervla

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the use of prompting as an evidence-based strategy to support children with autism to develop their language, communication and social interactions skills. The literature is reviewed using a three-ringed, evidence-based practice model to support evaluation of the use of prompting. The article outlines considerations about the…

  16. 20 CFR 418.2250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.2250 Section 418.2250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? We will follow the...

  17. Evidence supporting the importance of terrestrial carbon in a large-river food web.

    PubMed

    Zeug, Steven C; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2008-06-01

    Algal carbon has been increasingly recognized as the primary carbon source supporting large-river food webs; however, many of the studies that support this contention have focused on lotic main channels during low-flow periods. The flow variability and habitat-heterogeneity characteristic of these systems has the potential to significantly influence food web structure and must be integrated into models of large-river webs. We used stable-isotope analysis and IsoSource software to model terrestrial and algal sources of organic carbon supporting consumer taxa in the main channel and oxbow lakes of the Brazos River, Texas, USA, during a period of frequent hydrologic connectivity between these habitat types. Standardized sampling was conducted monthly to collect production sources and consumer species used in isotopic analysis. Predictability of hydrologic connections between habitat types was based on the previous 30 years of flow data. IsoSource mixing models identified terrestrial C3 macrophytes (riparian origin) as the primary carbon source supporting virtually all consumers in the main channel and most consumers in oxbow lakes. Small-bodied consumers (<100 mm) in oxbow lakes assimilated large fractions of algal carbon whereas this pattern was not apparent in the main channel. Estimates of detritivore trophic positions based on delta15N values indicated that terrestrial material was likely assimilated via invertebrates rather than directly from detritus. High flows in the river channel influenced algal standing stock, and differences in the importance of terrestrial and algal production sources among consumers in channel vs. oxbow habitats were associated with patterns of flooding. The importance of terrestrial material contradicts the findings of recent studies of large-river food webs that have emphasized the importance of algal carbon and indicates that there can be significant spatial, temporal, and taxonomic variation in carbon sources supporting consumers in

  18. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  19. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  20. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    thought to be ~ coeval with the Sundance Fm- is significantly offset from this newer NA path, but a larger inclination error for this unit would produce a better agreement. Thus, pending more precise estimates of inclination error from these units, middle-late Jurassic sedimentary rocks from NA do support the existence of a MUTO (Monster Unknown True polar wander Occurrence) during Jurassic time.

  1. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  2. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value. PMID:22823420

  3. In Vitro Evidence Supports Membrane Alanyl Aminopeptidase N as a Receptor for a Plant Virus in the Pea Aphid Vector

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Lucas B.; Liu, Sijun; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect-borne plant viruses cause significant agricultural losses and jeopardize sustainable global food production. Although blocking plant virus transmission would allow for crop protection, virus receptors in insect vectors are unknown. Here we identify membrane alanyl aminopeptidase N (APN) as a receptor for pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) coat protein (CP) in the gut of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, using a far-Western blot method. Pulldown and immunofluorescence binding assays and surface plasmon resonance were used to confirm and characterize CP-APN interaction. PEMV virions and a peptide comprised of PEMV CP fused to a proline-rich hinge (-P-) and green fluorescent protein (CP-P-GFP) specifically bound to APN. Recombinant APN expressed in Sf9 cells resulted in internalization of CP-P-GFP, which was visualized by confocal microscopy; such internalization is an expected hallmark of a functional gut receptor. Finally, in assays with aphid gut-derived brush border membrane vesicles, binding of CP-P-GFP competed with binding of GBP3.1, a peptide previously demonstrated to bind to APN in the aphid gut and to impede PEMV uptake into the hemocoel; this finding supports the hypothesis that GBP3.1 and PEMV bind to and compete for the same APN receptor. These in vitro data combined with previously published in vivo experiments (S. Liu, S. Sivakumar, W. O. Sparks, W. A. Miller, and B. C. Bonning, Virology 401:107–116, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2010.02.009) support the identification of APN as the first receptor in a plant virus vector. Knowledge of this receptor will provide for technologies based on PEMV-APN interaction designed to block plant virus transmission and to suppress aphid populations. IMPORTANCE A significant proportion of global food production is lost to insect pests. Aphids, in addition to weakening plants by feeding on their sap, are responsible for transmitting about half of the plant viruses vectored by insects. Growers

  4. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  5. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities.

  6. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  7. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-22

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  8. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  9. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  10. Synthetic Cannabinoids-Further Evidence Supporting the Relationship Between Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of synthetic mind-altering compounds, also known as "new psychoactive substances," is increasing globally at an alarming rate. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are among the most commonly used new psychoactive substances. They are usually purchased as marijuana-like drugs, marketed as herbal blends and perceived as risk-free by inexperienced users. Yet, contrary to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, SCs may lead to severe health consequences, including anxiety, tachycardia, hallucinations, violent behavior, and psychosis. This review focuses on the latest (2010-2015) evidence of psychotic symptoms induced by ingestion of products containing SCs. Reports suggesting that SCs may either exacerbate previously stable psychotic symptoms (in vulnerable individuals) or trigger new-onset psychosis (in individuals with no previous history of psychosis) are reviewed. Pharmacology and toxicology of these compounds are discussed, with particular reference to their psychoactive effects. PMID:26970364

  11. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education.

  12. Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kawashima, Tatsunori; Kameo, Koji; Minoshima, Kayo; Aguilar, Yolanda M; Wani, Ryoji; Kawahata, Hodaka; Sowa, Kohki; Nagai, Takaya; Kase, Tomoki

    2011-03-10

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system during the Pliocene warm period (PWP; 3-5 million years ago) may have existed in a permanent El Niño state with a sharply reduced zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that during the PWP, when global mean temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were similar to those projected for near-term climate change, ENSO variability--and related global climate teleconnections-could have been radically different from that today. Yet, owing to a lack of observational evidence on seasonal and interannual SST variability from crucial low-latitude sites, this fundamental climate characteristic of the PWP remains controversial. Here we show that permanent El Niño conditions did not exist during the PWP. Our spectral analysis of the δ(18)O SST and salinity proxy, extracted from two 35-year, monthly resolved PWP Porites corals in the Philippines, reveals variability that is similar to present ENSO variation. Although our fossil corals cannot be directly compared with modern ENSO records, two lines of evidence suggest that Philippine corals are appropriate ENSO proxies. First, δ(18)O anomalies from a nearby live Porites coral are correlated with modern records of ENSO variability. Second, negative-δ(18)O events in the fossil corals closely resemble the decreases in δ(18)O seen in the live coral during El Niño events. Prior research advocating a permanent El Niño state may have been limited by the coarse resolution of many SST proxies, whereas our coral-based analysis identifies climate variability at the temporal scale required to resolve ENSO structure firmly.

  13. A Theory of Sex Differences in Technical Aptitude and Some Supporting Evidence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2011-11-01

    In this article, I present a theory that explains the origin of sex differences in technical aptitudes. The theory takes as proven that there are no sex differences in general mental ability (GMA), and it postulates that sex differences in technical aptitude (TA) stem from differences in experience in technical areas, which is in turn based on sex differences in technical interests. Using a large data set, I tested and found support for four predictions made by this theory: (a) the construct level correlation between technical aptitude and GMA is larger for females than males, (b) the observed and true score variability of technical aptitude is greater among males than females, (c) at every level of GMA females have lower levels of technical aptitude, and (d) technical aptitude measures used as estimates of GMA for decision purposes would result in underestimation of GMA levels for girls and women. Given that GMA carries the weight of prediction of job performance, the support found for this last prediction suggests that, for many jobs, technical aptitude tests may underpredict the job performance of female applicants and employees. Future research should examine this question.

  14. What Is the Evidence to Support the Use of Therapeutic Gardens for the Elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Mark B.; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Murphy, Pamela F.; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S.; Halling, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging. PMID:22707959

  15. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion. PMID:23330970

  16. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion.

  17. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  18. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M

    2013-08-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

  19. Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C.; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B.; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J. Edward; Frieman, Matthew B.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans. PMID:22993147

  20. Knowledge brokering: An innovative model for supporting evidence-informed practice in respiratory care

    PubMed Central

    Hoens, Alison M; Reid, W Darlene; Camp, Pat G

    2013-01-01

    The process of adopting research findings in the clinical setting is challenging, regardless of the area of practice. One strategy to facilitate this process is the use of knowledge brokering. Knowledge brokers (KBs) are individuals who work to bridge the gap between researchers and knowledge users. In the health care setting, KBs work closely with clinicians to facilitate enhanced uptake of research findings into clinical practice. They also work with researchers to ensure research findings are translatable and meaningful to clinical practice. The present article discusses a KB’s role in a respiratory care setting. Working closely with both researchers and clinicians, the KB has led teams in the process of conceptualizing, developing, testing, disseminating and evaluating several projects related to respiratory care, including projects related to mobility in critical care settings and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inspiratory muscle training; and the use of incentive spirometry in postsurgical populations. The KB role has provided an important communication link between researcher and knowledge user that has facilitated evidence-informed practice to improve patient care. PMID:23936885

  1. Does the evidence support the case for mental health courts? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Honegger, Laura N

    2015-10-01

    Mental health courts divert offenders with mental illness away from incarceration in return for participation in monitored mental health treatment. Since their inception in the late 1990 s, the proliferation of these problem-solving courts has outpaced the research on their effectiveness. A review of the literature was conducted, yielding 20 articles from peer-reviewed journals. Mental health courts were evaluated for their ability to improve psychiatric symptoms, connect individuals with behavioral health services, improve overall quality of life, and reduce recidivism rates. A majority of articles reported favorable recidivism outcomes for participants, with few evaluating their impact on therapeutic outcomes. At the present time, mental health courts represent an emerging practice, but have not yet reached the level of an evidence-based model. Existing studies of mental health courts suffer from methodological limitations, specifically, a lack of experimental design, use of nonrepresentative samples, and assessment over short timeframes. Moreover, the inherently idiosyncratic nature of these courts and the variance in reporting of court-specific eligibility criteria make cross-article comparison more difficult. It is recommended that future mental health court research examine the impact of available community services, as well as consider the effect of criminogenic risk factors, on therapeutic and recidivism outcomes.

  2. Accumulating evidence supports a taste component for free fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2011-09-26

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA.

  3. Is there sufficient evidence to support intervention to manage shoulder arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Tai Kie, Andrew; Hanusch, Birgit; Kulkarni, Rohit; Rees, Jonathan; Rangan, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Background We explore the nature, extent and validity of research studies concerning the management of shoulder arthritis to identify whether current management recommendations are adequate. Methods A full electronic search for relevant studies published between 2002 and 2012 was performed. The search focused on level 1 and level 2 studies. Full texts of selected articles were retrieved and assessed for quality against validated criteria. Results Four hundred and eleven studies were identified on the initial search and screened. Sixteen studies were selected for inclusion in the review. The studies identified were unable to provide a clear indication of best intervention for shoulder arthritis. The inclusion of a range of shoulder pathologies in some studies and the diversity in outcome measures used made it difficult for systematic reviews to effectively pool data. Better outcomes have been shown with total shoulder replacement over hemiarthroplasty for shoulder osteoarthritis; however, primary studies were often of limited quality. Sparse evidence is available for all other interventions, regardless of whether operative or non-operative. Conclusions The present review highlights the need for standardization of outcome assessment following treatment of shoulder arthritis. More rigorous and robust primary studies are needed to guide clinical practice on the best interventions for arthritis of the shoulder. PMID:27583004

  4. Evidence does not support a role for gallic acid in Phragmites australis invasion success.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Li, Mei; Allman, Joshua; Bergosh, Robert G; Posner, Mason

    2013-02-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to be responsible for the invasive success of nonnative genotypes of Phragmites australis in North America. We have been unable to confirm previous reports of persistent high concentrations of gallic acid in the rhizosphere of invasive P. australis, and of high concentrations of gallic acid and gallotannins in P. australis rhizomes. The half-life of gallic acid in nonsterile P. australis soil was measured by aqueous extraction of soils and found to be less than 1 day at added concentrations up to 10,000 μg g(-1). Furthermore, extraction of P. australis soil collected in North Carolina showed no evidence of gallic acid, and extractions of both rhizomes and leaves of samples of four P. australis populations confirmed to be of invasive genotype show only trace amounts of gallic acid and/or gallotannins. The detection limits were less than 20 μg gallic acid g(-1) FW in the rhizome samples tested, which is approximately 0.015 % of the minimum amount of gallic acid expected based on previous reports. While the occurrence of high concentrations of gallic acid and gallotannins in some local populations of P. australis cannot be ruled out, our results indicate that exudation of gallic acid by P. australis cannot be a primary, general explanation for the invasive success of this species in North America.

  5. Child-rearing and adult leukemia: Epidemiologic evidence in support of competing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.G. ); Severson, R.K. . Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study); Heuser, L. )

    1988-05-01

    The hypothesis that lack of child-rearing increases the risk of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults was examined in a case-control study in western Washington State. Among 159 study subjects over age 50 in 1985, there were 76 cases of ANLL and 83 controls. The crude odds ratio associated with lack of child-rearing was 1.8, with a 95% confidence range of 0.7 to 5.0. The average total number of children ever living with cases was 2.6 and with controls was 3.1 (p = 0.06). The mean total number of years living with a child, or children, under age 18 was 17.6 in cases and 20.2 in controls (p = 0.05). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for age, smoking, race, income, and sex. The data provide evidence that cases of ANLL were less likely to ever have had children and that fewer years were spent rearing children than were spent by controls. The hypothesis was based on the competing stem cell'' theory of hematopoietic ontogeny. If valid, then exposure to children would increase exposure to infection, leading to increased lymphocytic stem cell turnover, and decreased non-lymphocytic stem cell turnover. This, in turn, may reduce risk of ANLL in adults. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Accumulating Evidence Supports a Taste Component for Free Fatty Acids in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA. PMID:21557960

  7. Blobs versus bars: psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision.

    PubMed

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Meese, Tim S; Mullen, Kathy T

    2013-01-02

    The classic hypothesis of Livingstone and Hubel (1984, 1987) proposed two types of color pathways in primate visual cortex based on recordings from single cells: a segregated, modular pathway that signals color but provides little information about shape or form and a second pathway that signals color differences and so defines forms without the need to specify their colors. A major problem has been to reconcile this neurophysiological hypothesis with the behavioral data. A wealth of psychophysical studies has demonstrated that color vision has orientation-tuned responses and little impairment on form related tasks, but these have not revealed any direct evidence for nonoriented mechanisms. Here we use a psychophysical method of subthreshold summation across orthogonal orientations for isoluminant red-green gratings in monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions to differentiate between nonoriented and orientation-tuned responses to color contrast. We reveal nonoriented color responses at low spatial frequencies (0.25-0.375 c/deg) under monocular conditions changing to orientation-tuned responses at higher spatial frequencies (1.5 c/deg) and under binocular conditions. We suggest that two distinct pathways coexist in color vision at the behavioral level, revealed at different spatial scales: one is isotropic, monocular, and best equipped for the representation of surface color, and the other is orientation-tuned, binocular, and selective for shape and form. This advances our understanding of the organization of the neural pathways involved in human color vision and provides a strong link between neurophysiological and behavioral data.

  8. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  9. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S; Bunch, Ted E; Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Kennett, James P; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K; Kinzie, Charles R; Wolbach, Wendy S

    2012-03-27

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  10. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes.

    PubMed

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote-dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote-dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote.

  11. Evidence from Central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israde-Alcántaraa, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bunch, Ted E.; Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Kennett, James P.; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Stanley, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  12. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S.; Bunch, Ted E.; Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Kennett, James P.; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Wolbach, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  13. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote–dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote–dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote. PMID:24101990

  14. Mobile DNA and the TE-Thrust hypothesis: supporting evidence from the primates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are increasingly being recognized as powerful facilitators of evolution. We propose the TE-Thrust hypothesis to encompass TE-facilitated processes by which genomes self-engineer coding, regulatory, karyotypic or other genetic changes. Although TEs are occasionally harmful to some individuals, genomic dynamism caused by TEs can be very beneficial to lineages. This can result in differential survival and differential fecundity of lineages. Lineages with an abundant and suitable repertoire of TEs have enhanced evolutionary potential and, if all else is equal, tend to be fecund, resulting in species-rich adaptive radiations, and/or they tend to undergo major evolutionary transitions. Many other mechanisms of genomic change are also important in evolution, and whether the evolutionary potential of TE-Thrust is realized is heavily dependent on environmental and ecological factors. The large contribution of TEs to evolutionary innovation is particularly well documented in the primate lineage. In this paper, we review numerous cases of beneficial TE-caused modifications to the genomes of higher primates, which strongly support our TE-Thrust hypothesis. PMID:21627776

  15. Evidence-based support for the all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decade there has been a need to respond and recover from various types of emergencies including mass casualty events (MCEs), mass toxicological/chemical events (MTEs), and biological events (pandemics and bio-terror agents). Effective emergency preparedness is more likely to be achieved if an all-hazards response plan is adopted. Objectives To investigate if there is a relationship among hospitals' preparedness for various emergency scenarios, and whether components of one emergency scenario correlate with preparedness for other emergency scenarios. Methods Emergency preparedness levels of all acute-care hospitals for MCEs, MTEs, and biological events were evaluated, utilizing a structured evaluation tool based on measurable parameters. Evaluations were made by professional experts in two phases: evaluation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) followed by a site visit. Relationships among total preparedness and different components' scores for various types of emergencies were analyzed. Results Significant relationships were found among preparedness for different emergencies. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for biological events correlated with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Strong correlations were found between training and drills with preparedness for all investigated emergency scenarios. Conclusions Fundamental critical building blocks such as SOPs, training, and drill programs improve preparedness for different emergencies including MCEs, MTEs, and biological events, more than other building blocks, such as equipment or knowledge of personnel. SOPs are especially important in unfamiliar emergency scenarios. The findings support the adoption of an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness. PMID:23098065

  16. Internet Interventions to Support Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cotterez, Alex; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-hour means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Results Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Conclusion Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. PMID:24332469

  17. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Rebecca L.; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches. PMID:18591667

  18. Field evidence that ecosystem service projects support biodiversity and diversify options.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Rebecca L; Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-07-01

    Ecosystem service approaches to conservation are being championed as a new strategy for conservation, under the hypothesis that they will broaden and deepen support for biodiversity protection. Where traditional approaches focus on setting aside land by purchasing property rights, ecosystem service approaches aim to engage a much wider range of places, people, policies, and financial resources in conservation. This is particularly important given projected intensification of human impacts, with rapid growth in population size and individual aspirations. Here we use field research on 34 ecosystem service (ES) projects and 26 traditional biodiversity (BD) projects from the Western Hemisphere to test whether ecosystem service approaches show signs of realizing their putative potential. We find that the ES projects attract on average more than four times as much funding through greater corporate sponsorship and use of a wider variety of finance tools than BD projects. ES projects are also more likely to encompass working landscapes and the people in them. We also show that, despite previous concern, ES projects not only expand opportunities for conservation, but they are no less likely than BD projects to include or create protected areas. Moreover, they do not draw down limited financial resources for conservation but rather engage a more diverse set of funders. We also found, however, that monitoring of conservation outcomes in both cases is so infrequent that it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of either ES or BD approaches. PMID:18591667

  19. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  20. Evidence to Support Karyotypic Variation of the Mosquito, Anopheles peditaeniatus in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Choochote, Wej

    2011-01-01

    Eight isoline colonies of Anopheles peditaeniatus Leicester (Diptera: Culicidae) were established from wild-caught females collected from buffalo-baited traps at 8 localities in Thailand. They showed 2 types of X (X2, X3) and 4 types of Y (Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5) chromosomes based on the number and amount of major block(s) of heterochromatin present in the heterochromatic arm, and were tentatively designated as Forms B (X2, X3, Y2), C (X3, Y3), D (X3, Y4) and E (X2, X3, Y5). Form B was found in Nan, Ratchaburi, and Chumphon provinces; Form C was obtained in Chon Buri province; Form D was recovered in Kamphaeng Phet province; and Form E was acquired in Chiang Mai, Udon Thani, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. Crossing studies among the 8 isoline colonies, which were representative of 4 karyotypic forms of An. peditaeniatus, revealed genetic compatibility in providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2-generations, thus suggesting the conspecific nature of these karyotypic forms. These results were supported by the very low intraspecific sequence variations (0.0 – 1.1%) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI and COII) of the 4 forms. PMID:21521137

  1. Ascorbic acid-induced crosslinking of lens proteins: evidence supporting a Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Ortwerth, B J; Olesen, P R

    1988-08-31

    The incubation of calf lens extracts with 20 mM ascorbic acid under sterile conditions for 8 weeks caused extensive protein crosslinking, which was not observed with either 20 mM sorbitol or 20 mM glucose. While no precipitation was observed, ascorbic acid did induce the formation of high-molecular-weight protein aggregates as determined by Agarose A-5m chromatography. Proteins modified by ascorbic acid bound strongly to a boronate affinity column, however, crosslinked proteins were present mainly in the unbound fraction. These observations suggest that the cis-diol groups of ascorbic acid were present in the primary adduct, but were either lost during the crosslinking reaction or sterically hindered from binding to the column matrix. The amino acid composition of the ascorbic acid-modified proteins was identical to controls except for a 15% decrease in lysine. Amino acid analysis after borohydride reduction, however, showed a 25% decrease in lysine, a 7% decrease in arginine and an additional peak which eluted between phenylalanine and histidine. Extensive browning occurred during the ascorbic acid-modification reaction. This resulted in protein-bound chromophores with a broad absorption spectrum from 300 to 400 nm, and protein-bound fluorophores with excitation/emission maxima of 350/450 nm. A 4 week incubation of dialyzed crude lens extract with [1-14C]ascorbic acid showed increased incorporation for 2 weeks, followed by a decrease over the next 2 weeks as crosslinking was initiated. The addition of cyanoborohydride to the reaction mixture completely inhibited crosslinking and increased [1-14C]ascorbic acid incorporation to a plateau value of 180 nmol per mg protein. Amino acid analysis showed a 50% loss of lysine, and 8% decrease in arginine and the presence of a new peak which eluted slightly earlier than methionine. These data are consistent with the non-enzymatic glycation of lens proteins by either ascorbic acid or an oxidation product of ascorbic acid via

  2. Evidence of a third ADPKD locus is not supported by reanalysis of designated PKD3 families

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Binu M.; Consugar, Mark B.; Lee, Moonnoh Ryan; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Heyer, Christina M.; Rossetti, Sandro; Kubly, Vickie J.; Hopp, Katharina; Torres, Vicente E.; Coto, Eliecer; Clementi, Maurizio; Bogdanova, Nadja; de Almeida, Edgar; Bichet, Daniel G.; Harris, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations to PKD1 and PKD2 are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The absence of apparent PKD1/PKD2 linkage in five published European or North American families with ADPKD suggested a third locus, designated PKD3. Here we re-evaluated these families by updating clinical information, re-sampling where possible, and mutation screening for PKD1/PKD2. In the French-Canadian family we identified PKD1: p.D3782_V3783insD, with misdiagnoses in two individuals and sample contamination explaining the lack of linkage. In the Portuguese family, PKD1: p.G3818A segregated with the disease in 10 individuals in three generations with likely misdiagnosis in one individual, sample contamination, and use of distant microsatellite markers explaining the linkage discrepancy. The mutation, PKD2: c.213delC, was found in the Bulgarian family, with linkage failure attributed to false positive diagnoses in two individuals. An affected son but not the mother, in the Italian family had the nonsense mutation, PKD1: p.R4228X, which appeared de novo in the son; with simple cysts probably explaining the mother’s phenotype. No likely mutation was found in the Spanish family, but the phenotype was atypical with kidney atrophy in one case. Thus, re-analysis does not support the existence of a PKD3 in ADPKD. False positive diagnoses by ultrasound in all resolved families shows the value of mutation screening, but not linkage, to understand families with discrepant data. PMID:23760289

  3. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 7: Finding systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Systematic reviews are increasingly seen as a key source of information in policymaking, particularly in terms of assisting with descriptions of the impacts of options. Relative to single studies they offer a number of advantages related to understanding impacts and are also seen as a key source of information for clarifying problems and providing complementary perspectives on options. Systematic reviews can be undertaken to place problems in comparative perspective and to describe the likely harms of an option. They also assist with understanding the meanings that individuals or groups attach to a problem, how and why options work, and stakeholder views and experiences related to particular options. A number of constraints have hindered the wider use of systematic reviews in policymaking. These include a lack of awareness of their value and a mismatch between the terms employed by policymakers, when attempting to retrieve systematic reviews, and the terms used by the original authors of those reviews. Mismatches between the types of information that policymakers are seeking, and the way in which authors fail to highlight (or make obvious) such information within systematic reviews have also proved problematic. In this article, we suggest three questions that can be used to guide those searching for systematic reviews, particularly reviews about the impacts of options being considered. These are: 1. Is a systematic review really what is needed? 2. What databases and search strategies can be used to find relevant systematic reviews? 3. What alternatives are available when no relevant review can be found? PMID:20018114

  4. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  5. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco's history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the "Teotihuacan corridor

  6. Genetic Evidence Supports the Multiethnic Character of Teopancazco, a Neighborhood Center of Teotihuacan, Mexico (AD 200-600)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Manzanilla, Linda R.; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció; Montiel, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Multiethnicity in Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, is supported by foreign individuals found in the neighborhood center as well as by the diversity observed in funerary rituals at the site. Studies of both stable and strontium isotopes as well as paleodietary analysis, suggest that the population of Teopancazco was composed by three population groups: people from Teotihuacan, people from nearby sites (Tlaxcala-Hidalgo-Puebla), and people from afar, including the coastal plains. In an attempt to understand the genetic dynamics in Teopancazco we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis based on mtDNA. Our results show that the level of genetic diversity is consistent with the multiethnicity phenomenon at the neighborhood center. Levels of genetic diversity at different time periods of Teopancazco’s history show that multiethnicity was evident since the beginning and lasted until the collapse of the neighborhood center. However, a PCA and a Neighbor-Joining tree suggested the presence of a genetically differentiated group (buried at the Transitional phase) compared to the population from the initial phase (Tlamimilolpa) as well as the population from the final phase (Xolalpan) of the history of Teopancazco. Genetic studies showed no differences in genetic diversity between males and females in the adult population of Teopancazco, this data along with ample archaeological evidence, suggest a neolocal post-marital pattern of residence in Teopancazco. Nevertheless, genetic analyses on the infant population showed that the males are significantly more heterogeneous than the females suggesting a possible differential role in cultural practices by sex in the infant sector. Regarding interpopulation analysis, we found similar indices of genetic diversity between Teopancazco and heterogeneous native groups, which support the multiethnic character of Teopancazco. Finally, our data showed a close genetic relationship between Teopancazco and populations from the

  7. Evidence from Solanum tuberosum in support of the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.F.; Doong, R.L.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Key branchpoint enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DS) and chorismate mutase (CM), have previously been shown to exist as separate compartmentalized isozymes in the chloroplasts and cytosol of tobacco, sorghum and spinach. Although additional examples of plants containing these isozyme pairs are accumulating, some studies in the literature report the presence of only the single plastidic DS or CM enzyme. Such apparent exceptions contradict the universality of pathway organization existing in higher plants that is implied by the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis. Since potato (Solanum tuberosum) exemplifies a case where only a single species of both DS and CM have been reported, we selected this system for further analysis. The DS-Mn and DS-Co isozyme pair, exhibiting all of the differential properties described in Nicotiana silvestris, have now been identified in S. tuberosum. Likwise, partial purification via DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two isozymes of CM in disks excised from tubers of S. tuberosum. The differential regulatory properties of these isozymes were comparable to the CM-1 and CM-2 isozymes of N. silvestris.

  8. Investigation of appropriate sanitization frequency for rodent caging accessories: evidence supporting less-frequent cleaning.

    PubMed

    Schondelmeyer, Curtis W; Dillehay, Dirck L; Webb, Sonji K; Huerkamp, Michael J; Mook, Deborah M; Pullium, Jennifer K

    2006-11-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that sanitization of caging accessories (for example, filter tops and wire-bar lids) should be done every 2 wk. In this study we tested the hypothesis that organic contamination measured by the presence of ATP associated with organic material (measured with luciferase test swabs) and the number of bacterial colony-forming units (as determined by use of replicate organism detection and counting plates) on caging accessories did not differ significantly at 2 wk versus several months of use. The study evaluated 4 groups: mouse and rat ventilated and static wire-bar cages with or without filter tops (n = 10 per group). The cages were evaluated at several time points from 2 wk to 6 mo. For every cage type, ATP levels did not differ significantly between 14 and 90 d and, in most cases, between 14 and 180 d. In addition the number of bacterial colonies did not differ significantly between 14 and 120 d (and, in some cases, between 14 and 180 d). This study provides data relevant to establishing a validated frequency for sanitization of rodent caging accessories while controlling, and potentially decreasing, costs associated with sanitization.

  9. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  10. Altered γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission in major depressive disorder: a critical review of the supporting evidence and the influence of serotonergic antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD’s underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD. This review includes an evaluation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data, as well as data on the expression and function of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA neuron-specific cell markers, such as parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin, and the GABAA and GABAB receptors in clinical MDD populations. We explore a potential role for glial pathology in MDD-related reductions in GABA concentrations, and evidence of a connection between neurosteroids, GABA neurotransmission, and hormone-related mood disorders. Additionally, we investigate the effects of GABAergic pharmacological agents on mood, and demonstrate that these compounds have complex effects that do not universally support the idea that reduced GABA neurotransmission is at the root of MDD. Finally, we discuss the connections between serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and show that two serotonin-focused antidepressants – the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine – modulate GABA neurotransmission in opposing ways, despite both being effective MDD treatments. Altogether, this review demonstrates that there are large gaps in our understanding of the relationship between GABA physiology and MDD, which must be remedied with more data from well

  11. Altered γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission in major depressive disorder: a critical review of the supporting evidence and the influence of serotonergic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD's underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD. This review includes an evaluation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy data, as well as data on the expression and function of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA neuron-specific cell markers, such as parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin, and the GABAA and GABAB receptors in clinical MDD populations. We explore a potential role for glial pathology in MDD-related reductions in GABA concentrations, and evidence of a connection between neurosteroids, GABA neurotransmission, and hormone-related mood disorders. Additionally, we investigate the effects of GABAergic pharmacological agents on mood, and demonstrate that these compounds have complex effects that do not universally support the idea that reduced GABA neurotransmission is at the root of MDD. Finally, we discuss the connections between serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and show that two serotonin-focused antidepressants - the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine - modulate GABA neurotransmission in opposing ways, despite both being effective MDD treatments. Altogether, this review demonstrates that there are large gaps in our understanding of the relationship between GABA physiology and MDD, which must be remedied with more data from well-controlled empirical

  12. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    genes for markers of epidermal stem and progenitor cells were β1-integrin (ITGB1), tumor protein p63 (TP63), keratin-14 (KRT14), Notch-1 (NOTCH1), Leu-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-expressing (LGR5), and musashi-1 (MSI1). All genes were detected in the rumen tissue; ITGB1 was increased in EH compared with R. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunohistochemistry revealed that both R and EH rumen tissue had proliferating cells within the stratum basale of the rumen epidermis at the time of analysis. The EH diet resulted in an additive effect on cell proliferation. The percentage of cells in the stratum basale synthesizing DNA in preparation for mitosis nearly doubled (23.8±2.4% for EH vs. 14.7±2.0% for R) compared with calves fed R. This work represents the first attempt at characterizing rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells. We demonstrated the relative abundance and existence of potential markers in rumen tissue and showed a rumen epidermal proliferative response to the extrinsic stimulus of nutrient concentration in the form of diet. PMID:27372582

  13. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to...

  14. 20 CFR 418.1255 - What kind of major life-changing event evidence will you need to support your request for us to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence will you need to support your request for us to use a more recent tax year? 418.1255 Section 418...-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross... for us to use a more recent tax year? (a) If your spouse died and we do not have evidence of the...

  15. 20 CFR 418.1255 - What kind of major life-changing event evidence will you need to support your request for us to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evidence will you need to support your request for us to use a more recent tax year? 418.1255 Section 418...-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross... for us to use a more recent tax year? (a) If your spouse died and we do not have evidence of the...

  16. Effects of Web-Based Support on Early Head Start Home Visitors' Use of Evidence-Based Intervention Decision Making and Growth in Children's Expressive Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Anderson, Rawni; Howard, Waylon; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the efficacy of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language-promoting…

  17. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    PubMed

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings.

  18. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate.

  19. Linkage of Type 2 Diabetes on Chromosome 9p24 in Mexican Americans: Additional Evidence from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES)

    PubMed Central

    Farook, Vidya S.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Puppala, Sobha; Schneider, Jennifer; Chittoor, Geetha; Hu, Shirley L.; Winnier, Deidre A.; Norton, Luke; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Cole, Shelley A.; Carless, Melanie; Göring, Harald H.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Lehman, Donna M.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease and is more prevalent in certain ethnic groups such as the Mexican Americans. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage analysis to localize T2DM susceptibility loci in Mexican Americans. Methods We used the phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,122 Mexican American individuals (307 families) who participated in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed, using the variance components approach. Data from two additional Mexican American family studies, the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), were combined with the VAGES data to test for improved linkage evidence. Results After adjusting for covariate effects, T2DM was found to be under significant genetic influences (h2 = 0.62, P = 2.7 × 10−6). The strongest evidence for linkage of T2DM occurred between markers D9S1871 and D9S2169 on chromosome 9p24.2-p24.1 (LOD = 1.8). Given that we previously reported suggestive evidence for linkage of T2DM at this region in SAFDGS also, we found the significant and increased linkage evidence (LOD = 4.3, empirical P = 1.0 × 10−5, genome-wide P = 1.6 × 10−3) for T2DM at the same chromosomal region when we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of the VAGES data combined with SAFHS and SAFDGS data. Conclusion Significant T2DM linkage evidence was found on chromosome 9p24 in Mexican Americans. Importantly, the chromosomal region of interest in this study overlaps with several recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) involving T2DM related traits. Given its overlap with such findings and our own initial T2DM association findings in the 9p24 chromosomal region, high throughput sequencing of the linked chromosomal region could identify the potential causal T2DM genes. PMID:24060607

  20. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 9: Assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Differences between health systems may often result in a policy or programme option that is used in one setting not being feasible or acceptable in another. Or these differences may result in an option not working in the same way in another setting, or even achieving different impacts in another setting. A key challenge that policymakers and those supporting them must face is therefore the need to understand whether research evidence about an option can be applied to their setting. Systematic reviews make this task easier by summarising the evidence from studies conducted in a variety of different settings. Many systematic reviews, however, do not provide adequate descriptions of the features of the actual settings in which the original studies were conducted. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review to a specific setting. These are: 1. Were the studies included in a systematic review conducted in the same setting or were the findings consistent across settings or time periods? 2. Are there important differences in on-the-ground realities and constraints that might substantially alter the feasibility and acceptability of an option? 3. Are there important differences in health system arrangements that may mean an option could not work in the same way? 4. Are there important differences in the baseline conditions that might yield different absolute effects even if the relative effectiveness was the same? 5. What insights can be drawn about options, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation? Even if there are reasonable grounds for concluding that the impacts of an option might differ in a specific setting, insights can almost always be drawn from a systematic review about possible options, as well as approaches to the

  1. Review of the scientific evidence to support environmental risk assessment of shale gas development in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prpich, George; Coulon, Frédéric; Anthony, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the development of shale gas resources using hydraulic fracturing techniques is increasing worldwide despite concerns about the environmental risks associated with this activity. In the United Kingdom (UK), early attempts to hydraulically fracture a shale gas well resulted in a seismic event that led to the suspension of all hydraulic fracturing operations. In response to this occurrence, UK regulators have requested that future shale gas operations that use hydraulic fracturing should be accompanied by a high-level environmental risk assessment (ERA). Completion of an ERA can demonstrate competency, communicate understanding, and ultimately build trust that environmental risks are being managed properly, however, this assessment requires a scientific evidence base. In this paper we discuss how the ERA became a preferred assessment technique to understand the risks related to shale gas development in the UK, and how it can be used to communicate information between stakeholders. We also provide a review of the evidence base that describes the environmental risks related to shale gas operations, which could be used to support an ERA. Finally, we conclude with an update of the current environmental risks associated with shale gas development in the UK and present recommendations for further research. PMID:26627123

  2. Review of the scientific evidence to support environmental risk assessment of shale gas development in the UK.

    PubMed

    Prpich, George; Coulon, Frédéric; Anthony, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the development of shale gas resources using hydraulic fracturing techniques is increasing worldwide despite concerns about the environmental risks associated with this activity. In the United Kingdom (UK), early attempts to hydraulically fracture a shale gas well resulted in a seismic event that led to the suspension of all hydraulic fracturing operations. In response to this occurrence, UK regulators have requested that future shale gas operations that use hydraulic fracturing should be accompanied by a high-level environmental risk assessment (ERA). Completion of an ERA can demonstrate competency, communicate understanding, and ultimately build trust that environmental risks are being managed properly, however, this assessment requires a scientific evidence base. In this paper we discuss how the ERA became a preferred assessment technique to understand the risks related to shale gas development in the UK, and how it can be used to communicate information between stakeholders. We also provide a review of the evidence base that describes the environmental risks related to shale gas operations, which could be used to support an ERA. Finally, we conclude with an update of the current environmental risks associated with shale gas development in the UK and present recommendations for further research.

  3. Reach target selection in humans using ambiguous decision cues containing variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting each target choice.

    PubMed

    Coallier, Émilie; Kalaska, John F

    2014-12-01

    Human subjects chose between two color-coded reach targets using multicolored checkerboard-like decision cues (DCs) that presented variable amounts of conflicting sensory evidence supporting both target choices. Different DCs contained different numbers of small squares of the two target colors. The most ambiguous DCs contained nearly equal numbers of squares of both target colors. The subjects reached as soon as they selected a target after the appearance of the DC ("choose-and-go" task). The choice behavior of the subjects showed many similarities to prior studies using other stimulus properties (e.g., visual motion coherence, brightness), including progressively longer response times and higher target-choice error rates for more ambiguous DCs. However, certain trends in their choice behavior could not be fully captured by simple drift-diffusion models. Allowing the subjects to view the DCs for a period of time before presenting the targets ("match-to-sample" task) resulted in much shorter response times overall, but also revealed a reluctance of subjects to commit to a decision about the predominant color of the more ambiguous DCs during the initial extended observation period. Model processing and simulation analyses suggest that the subjects might adjust the dynamics of their decision-making process on a trial-to-trial basis in response to the variable level of ambiguous and conflicting evidence in different DCs between trials.

  4. Targeting cultural changes supportive of the healthiest lifestyle patterns. A biosocial evidence-base for prevention of obesity.

    PubMed

    Booth, David A; Booth, Phil

    2011-02-01

    This paper argues that the rise in obesity can be slowed only by universal education based on a type of evidence that does not yet exist. On top of literacy and numeracy, people need the ability to preempt the fattening effect of a decrease in habitual physical activity by altering familiar patterns of eating, drinking and exercise in ways that are both maintainable within the individual's social and physical environment and also effective at decreasing weight to the asymptote for each sustained change. Hence the prevention of obesity requires locally valid evidence on which changes to specific customary habits actually do avoid unhealthy fattening. Interventions need to focus on antecedents to individuals' common lapses from the healthy changes in these customs. Yet no research has been funded into the public's descriptions of feasible changes that cause a step down in weight, let alone into the environmental conditions for individuals' maintenance of those changes. As a result, public health policies on obesity lack scientific basis. When will a start be made on systematic identification of cultural supports to readily executed patterns of lifestyle behaviour which improve health to extents that have been directly measured?

  5. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  6. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one.

  7. 20 CFR 404.780 - Evidence of “good cause” for exceeding time limits on accepting proof of support or application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limits on accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. 404.780 Section 404.780 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... accepting proof of support or application for a lump-sum death payment. (a) When evidence of good cause...

  8. Gateway Effects: Why the Cited Evidence Does Not Support Their Existence for Low-Risk Tobacco Products (and What Evidence Would).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carl V

    2015-05-21

    It is often claimed that low-risk drugs still create harm because of "gateway effects", in which they cause the use of a high-risk alternative. Such claims are popular among opponents of tobacco harm reduction, claiming that low-risk tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco) cause people to start smoking, sometimes backed by empirical studies that ostensibly support the claim. However, these studies consistently ignore the obvious alternative causal pathways, particularly that observed associations might represent causation in the opposite direction (smoking causes people to seek low-risk alternatives) or confounding (the same individual characteristics increase the chance of using any tobacco product). Due to these complications, any useful analysis must deal with simultaneity and confounding by common cause. In practice, existing analyses seem almost as if they were designed to provide teaching examples about drawing simplistic and unsupported causal conclusions from observed associations. The present analysis examines what evidence and research strategies would be needed to empirically detect such a gateway effect, if there were one, explaining key methodological concepts including causation and confounding, examining the logic of the claim, identifying potentially useful data, and debunking common fallacies on both sides of the argument, as well as presenting an extended example of proper empirical testing. The analysis demonstrates that none of the empirical studies to date that are purported to show a gateway effect from tobacco harm reduction products actually does so. The observations and approaches can be generalized to other cases where observed association of individual characteristics in cross-sectional data could result from any of several causal relationships.

  9. Heme oxygenase (HO-1). Evidence for electrophilic oxygen addition to the porphyrin ring in the formation of alpha-meso-hydroxyheme.

    PubMed

    Wilks, A; Torpey, J; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1994-11-25

    Previous studies have established that reaction of the rat heme-heme oxygenase complex with H2O2 proceeds normally to give verdoheme, whereas reaction of the complex with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid yields a ferryl (FeIV = O) species and a protein radical but no verdoheme. The heme-heme oxygenase complex is shown here to react regiospecifically with ethyl hydroperoxide to give alpha-meso-ethoxyheme. Formation of this product exactly parallels the formation of alpha-meso-hydroxyheme in the normal reaction supported by cytochrome P450 reductase/NADPH or H2O2. These results rule out a nucleophilic mechanism for the alpha-meso-hydroxylation catalyzed by heme oxygenase and indicate that it involves electrophilic (or possibly radical) addition of the distal oxygen of iron-bound peroxide (FeIII-OOH) to the porphyrin ring.

  10. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  11. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  12. New developmental evidence supports a homeotic frameshift of digit identity in the evolution of the bird wing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The homology of the digits in the bird wing is a high-profile controversy in developmental and evolutionary biology. The embryonic position of the digits cartilages with respect to the primary axis (ulnare and ulna) corresponds to 2, 3, 4, but comparative-evolutionary morphology supports 1, 2, 3. A homeotic frameshift of digit identity in evolution could explain how cells in embryonic positions 2, 3, 4 began developing morphologies 1, 2, 3. Another alternative is that no re-patterning of cell fates occurred, and the primary axis shifted its position by some other mechanism. In the wing, only the anterior digit lacks expression of HoxD10 and HoxD12, resembling digit 1 of other limbs, as predicted by 1, 2, 3. However, upon loss of digit 1 in evolution, the most anterior digit 2 could have lost their expression, deceitfully resembling a digit 1. To test this notion, we observed HoxD10 and HoxD12 in a limb where digit 2 is the most anterior digit: The rabbit foot. We also explored whether early inhibition of Shh signalling in the embryonic wing bud induces an experimental homeotic frameshift, or an experimental axis shift. We tested these hypotheses using DiI injections to study the fate of cells in these experimental wings. Results We found strong transcription of HoxD10 and HoxD12 was present in the most anterior digit 2 of the rabbit foot. Thus, we found no evidence to question the use of HoxD expression as support for 1, 2, 3. When Shh signalling in early wing buds is inhibited, our fate maps demonstrate that an experimental homeotic frameshift is induced. Conclusion Along with comparative morphology, HoxD expression provides strong support for 1, 2, 3 identity of wing digits. As an explanation for the offset 2, 3, 4 embryological position, the homeotic frameshift hypothesis is consistent with known mechanisms of limb development, and further proven to be experimentally possible. In contrast, the underlying mechanisms and experimental plausibility of an

  13. Subunit–subunit interactions are critical for proton sensitivity of ROMK: Evidence in support of an intermolecular gating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Qiang; MacGregor, Gordon G.; Dong, Ke; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The tetrameric K channel ROMK provides an important pathway for K secretion by the mammalian kidney, and the gating of this channel is highly sensitive to changes in cytosolic pH. Although charge–charge interactions have been implicated in pH sensing by this K channel tetramer, the molecular mechanism linking pH sensing and the gating of ion channels is poorly understood. The x-ray crystal structure KirBac1.1, a prokaryotic ortholog of ROMK, has suggested that channel gating involves intermolecular interactions of the N- and C-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. Here we studied channel gating behavior to changes in pH using giant patch clamping of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing WT or mutant ROMK, and we present evidence that no single charged residue provides the pH sensor. Instead, we show that N–C- and C–C-terminal subunit–subunit interactions form salt bridges, which function to stabilize ROMK in the open state and which are modified by protons. We identify a highly conserved C–C-terminal arginine–glutamate (R-E) ion pair that forms an intermolecular salt bridge and responds to changes in proton concentration. Our results support the intermolecular model for pH gating of inward rectifier K channels. PMID:16446432

  14. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  15. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  16. Electric transport of a single-crystal iron chalcogenide FeSe superconductor: Evidence of symmetry-breakdown nematicity and additional ultrafast Dirac cone-like carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, K. K.; Tanabe, Y.; Urata, T.; Oguro, H.; Heguri, S.; Watanabe, K.; Tanigaki, K.

    2014-10-01

    An SDW antiferromagnetic (SDW-AF) low-temperature phase transition is generally observed and the AF spin fluctuations are considered to play an important role for the superconductivity pairing mechanism in FeAs superconductors. However, a similar magnetic phase transition is not observed in FeSe superconductors, which has caused considerable discussion. We report on the intrinsic electronic states of FeSe as elucidated by electric transport measurements under magnetic fields using a high quality single crystal. A mobility spectrum analysis, an ab initio method that does not make assumptions on the transport parameters in a multicarrier system, provides very important and clear evidence that another hidden order, most likely the symmetry broken from the tetragonal C4 symmetry to the C2 symmetry nematicity associated with the selective d -orbital splitting, exists in the case of superconducting FeSe other than the AF magnetic order spin fluctuations. The intrinsic low-temperature phase in FeSe is in the almost compensated semimetallic states but is additionally accompanied by Dirac cone-like ultrafast electrons ˜104cm2(VS) -1 as minority carriers.

  17. Characteristics and fate of the spermatozoa of Inachus phalangium (Decapoda, Majidae): description of novel sperm structures and evidence for an additional mechanism of sperm competition in Brachyura.

    PubMed

    Rorandelli, Rocco; Paoli, Francesco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mercati, David; Giusti, Fabiola

    2008-03-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive anatomy of the spider crab Inachus phalangium are investigated utilizing light and electron microscopy. Spermatozoal ultrastructure reveals the presence of a glycocalyx in the peripheral region of the periopercular rim, never recorded before in crustacean sperm cells. Sperm cell morphological traits such as semi-lunar acrosome shape, centrally perforate and flat operculum, and absence of a thickened ring, are shared only with Macropodia longirostris, confirming a close phylogenetic relationship of these species and their separation from the other members of the family Majidae. Spermatozoa are transferred to females inside spermatophores of different sizes, but during ejaculate transfer, larger spermatophores might be ruptured by tooth-like structures present on the ejaculatory canal of the male first gonopod, releasing free sperm cells. Such a mechanism could represent the first evidence of a second form of sperm competition in conflict with sperm displacement, the only mechanism of sperm competition known among Brachyura, enabling paternity for both dominant and smaller, non-dominant, males. In addition, we propose several hypotheses concerning the remote and proximal causes of the existence of large seminal receptacles in females of I. phalangium. Among these, genetically diverse progeny, reduction of sexual harassment and phylogenetic retention seem the most plausible, while acquisition of nutrients from seminal fluids, demonstrated in other arthropods, and suggested by previous studies, could be discarded on the basis of the presented data.

  18. Evaluation of Organizational Readiness in Clinical Settings for Social Supporting Evidence-Based Information Seeking Behavior after Introducing IT in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Alaei, Safollah; Panahi, Sohaila Sadat Ghazavi Shariat; Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The health sector of Iran has endeavored to encourage physicians and medical students to use research findings in their practice. Remarkable changes have occurred, including: holding computer skills courses, digital library workshops for physicians and students, and establishing websites in hospitals. The findings showed that a small number of the participants completely agreed that they were supported by supervisors and colleagues to use evidence-based information resources in their clinical decisions. Health care organizations in Iran need other organizational facilitators such as social influences, organizational support, leadership, strong organizational culture, and climate in order to implement evidence-based practice. PMID:25839913

  19. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  20. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain.

  1. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain. PMID:27026717

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, N; Futamura, T; Bergen, S E; Iwayama, Y; Ishima, T; Sellgren, C; Ekman, C J; Jakobsson, J; Pålsson, E; Kakumoto, K; Ohgi, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Landén, M; Hashimoto, K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n=54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n=40). Subsequently, post-mortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD. PMID:26782057

  3. Problem-Based Learning and Argumentation: Testing a Scaffolding Framework to Support Middle School Students' Creation of Evidence-Based Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Glazewski, Krista D.; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Students engaged in problem-based learning (PBL) units solve ill-structured problems in small groups, and then present arguments in support of their solution. However, middle school students often struggle developing evidence-based arguments (Krajcik et al., "J Learn Sci" 7:313-350, 1998). Using a mixed method design, the researchers examined the…

  4. 20 CFR 418.2250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.2250 Section 418.2250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Premiums Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.2250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? We will follow the...

  5. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? When you request that we use a more recent tax year...

  6. 20 CFR 418.1250 - What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request that we use a more recent tax year? 418.1250 Section 418.1250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1250 What evidence will you need to support your request that we use a more recent tax year? When you request that we use a more recent tax year...

  7. Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron

  8. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Wang, Guo-Song; Li, Qing-Qing; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos' phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1-10, ED10-20 and ED20-27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1-10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10-20, liver tissue during ED1-10, ED20-27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10-20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation.

  9. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Ping; Liu, He-He; Liu, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Wang, Guo-Song; Li, Qing-Qing; Wang, Ding-Min-Cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos' phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1-10, ED10-20 and ED20-27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1-10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10-20, liver tissue during ED1-10, ED20-27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10-20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation. PMID:26354761

  10. Evidence in duck for supporting alteration of incubation temperature may have influence on methylation of genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xi-ping; Liu, He-he; Liu, Jun-ying; Zhang, Rong-ping; Wang, Guo-song; Li, Qing-qing; Wang, Ding-min-cheng; Li, Liang; Wang, Ji-wen

    2015-01-01

    Incubation temperature has an immediate and long-term influence on the embryonic development in birds. DNA methylation as an important environment-induced mechanism could serve as a potential link between embryos’ phenotypic variability and temperature variation, which reprogrammed by DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTS) and Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins (MBPS) 3&5 (MBD3&5). Five genes in DNMTS and MBPS gene families were selected as target genes, given their important role in epigenetic modification. In this study, we aimed to test whether raising incubation temperature from 37.8°C to 38.8°C between embryonic days (ED) 1–10, ED10–20 and ED20–27 have effect on DNA methylation and whether DNMTS, MBPS play roles in thermal epigenetic regulation of early development in duck. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that increased incubation temperature by 1°C has remarkably dynamic effect on gene expression levels of DNMTS and MBPS. Slight changes in incubation temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of target genes in breast muscle tissue during ED1–10, especially for DNMT1, DNMT3A and MBD5. In addition, higher temperature significantly increased enzyme activities of DNMT1 in leg muscle during ED10–20, liver tissue during ED1–10, ED20–27 and DNMT3A in leg muscle and breast muscle tissue during ED10–20. These results suggest that incubation temperature has an extended effect on gene expression levels and enzyme activities of DNMTS and MBPS, which provides evidence that incubation temperature may influence DNA methylation in duck during early developmental stages. Our data indicated that DNMTS and MBPS may involved in thermal epigenetice regulation of embryos during the early development in duck. The potential links between embryonic temperature and epigenetic modification need further investigation PMID:26354761

  11. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  12. Electronic Clinic Journaling: The Use of Weblogs to Support Evidence-Based Practice in Doctor of Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neldon, Gayle B.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a strategy for the provision of high quality health care. The use of journals to document clinical experiences and reflection has been used in speech-language pathology as well as nursing and psychology. This study uses qualitative analysis to study what AuD students learn about evidence-based practice from writing…

  13. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme. PMID:25439699

  14. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme.

  15. High Biomass Polar Forests During the Permian: Evidence from the Buckley Formation, Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica Supports Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Newly discovered fossil forests in the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTM) are composed of 74 in situ stumps. They are surrounded by impressions of leaves of the gymnosperm Glossopteris and record monospecific stands of glossopterids. The stumps allow reconstruction of the height, density, and basal area of trees growing at 75 degrees S and provide a unique glimpse of a high latitude forest flourishing less than a million years before the end-Permian extinction event. The forests occur in two closely spaced beds (LP1, LP2) of the upper Buckley Formation at Lamping Peak (LP); the wood has been replaced by magnetite. Roots extending outward from the stumps and leaf mats recorded by densely packed impressions of Glossopteris leaves indicate that the stumps are in growth position. Stumps exposed in cross section have radiating roots than penetrate shallowly beneath the stump-bearing horizons. Both LP1 and LP2 contain stumps of diverse sizes, ranging from a few to 75 cm in diameter, reflecting young to old trees. Mean diameters at ground line (dgl) are 20.9cm (LP1) and 39.2cm (LP2). These mean diameters correspond to maximum tree heights of 15.4m (LP1) and 24.6m and are comparable to or greater than other high latitude fossil forests. Tree densities (trees/hectare; t/ha) are 2505 t/ha (LP1 and 1185 (LP2), which are within the range of densities of stands of old growth in deepwater swamps of the southeastern US and of old growth in the Smokies and greater than densities of trees in forests in Costa Rica. Basal areas (m2/ha), a measure of tree abundance that is independent of forest maturity, are 65 m2/ha (LP1) and 85 m2/ha (LP2), which are within the range of some modern forests and greater than others. Although fossil forest biomasses are not known, trend of basal area vs biomass of modern forests suggest high biomass given the basal areas of the fossil forests. The forests support with geologic evidence climate models indicating high temperatures and high CO2 levels

  16. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Carlson, Susan E; Griffin, Ian; Anderson, Diane; Hay, William W; Robins, Sandra; Neu, Josef; Georgieff, Michael K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Fenton, Tanis R

    2016-02-01

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm and high-risk newborn infants. The future systematic reviews that will ultimately provide the underpinning for guideline development will be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL). To accomplish the objectives of this first phase, the Pre-B Project organizers established 4 working groups (WGs) to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications for preterm infants, 2) clinical and practical issues in enteral feeding of preterm infants, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards of infant feeding. Each WG was asked to 1) develop a series of topics relevant to their respective themes, 2) identify questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process conducted by the EAL, and 3) develop a research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This article is a summary of the reports from the 4 Pre-B WGs. PMID:26791182

  17. The Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: Evidence from a Prospective Study in Chinese Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yanjie; ZHU, Lili; YUAN, Fang; KANG, Lixia; JIA, Zhen; CHEN, Dongming; ZHANG, Ping; FENG, Zhanchun

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the levels of social support in patients with postoperative esophageal carcinoma and potential effect of social support on generic and EC-specific quality of life. Methods: Overall, 803 Chinese patients with EC were recruited in the high-incidence region- Linzhou in Henan, China for the observation study. We obtained data on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), disease-specific score of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-OES18 (The QLQ-OES18), and social support evaluation score at home visits by a specially trained research team. Results: Aging and low education were negatively predicted total social support scores. A significant correlation (P = 0.000, 9 = 0.000) was found between QOL physical function and either the subjective or the objective dimensions in social supportive system. OES18 eating difficulty was significantly associated with objective support including family intimacy, friendship and community support (P = 0.016, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The social support team should endorse quality care as integrating community-care management in post-esophagus recovery and meet the need of individual health quality of life. The elders, educational levels and rural farmers are significant to challenge the social supportive delivery in the current model of esophagus cancer care. PMID:26811811

  18. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  19. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain are...

  20. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  1. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain are...

  2. 20 CFR 10.501 - What medical evidence is necessary to support continuing receipt of compensation benefits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER... and must include objective findings in support of its conclusions. Subjective complaints of pain...

  3. Evidence-based and occupational perspective of effective interventions for older clients that remediate or support improved driving performance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda A; Arbesman, Marian

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of person-related interventions on driving ability in older adults, this literature review was completed as a part of the Evidence-Based Literature Review Project of the American Occupational Therapy Association. Nineteen articles were incorporated into the systematic review and include interventions in the following areas: visual, cognitive, and motor; educational; passengers; and medical. The results provide inconclusive evidence for the use of interventions such as the Useful Field of View training, home exercise programs, and passenger interactions. Conclusive evidence shows that older adults respond positively to programs stressing self-awareness of driving skills and that some medical interventions affect the ability to drive. Despite limitations, the studies reviewed provide useful information that deserves further exploration. Reading the literature provides therapists with knowledge that might improve client care. Learning about cutting-edge interventions and educating peers and students about evidence-based interventions may lead to safer community mobility for older adults.

  4. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  5. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, K A; Shikany, J M; Keating, K D; Allison, D B

    2013-08-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: (i) human trials, (ii) ≥ 3 weeks duration, (iii) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs and (iv) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons' diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  6. Regulators as agents: modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Davies, G J; Kendall, G; Soane, E; Li, J; Rocks, S A; Jude, S R; Pollard, S J T

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with 'aggressor' personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with 'avoider' personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the 'aggressor' personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the 'avoider' personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power.

  7. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    PubMed

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B, D and C virus infections among children and pregnant women in Moldova: additional evidence supporting the need for routine hepatitis B vaccination of infants.

    PubMed

    Drobeniuc, J; Hutin, Y J; Harpaz, R; Favorov, M; Melnik, A; Iarovoi, P; Shapiro, C N; Woodruff, B A

    1999-12-01

    Rates of acute hepatitis B are high in Moldova, but the prevalence of chronic infection is unknown. In 1994, we surveyed children and pregnant women, collected demographic information, and drew blood for laboratory testing. Among the 439 children (mean age, 5 years), the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 17.1 and 6.8%, respectively. Among the 1098 pregnant women (mean age, 26 years), 52.4% were anti-HBc-positive and 9.7% were HBsAg-positive. Of the HBsAg-positive pregnant women, 35.6% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 18.3% had antibodies to hepatitis D virus. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 1.4% in children and 2.3% in pregnant women. The high HBeAg prevalence among HBsAg-positive pregnant women and the high anti-HBc prevalence among children indicate that both perinatal and early childhood transmission contribute to the high hepatitis B virus endemicity in Moldova.

  9. Effect of CeO₂ addition to Al₂O₃ supports for Pt catalysts on the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Church, Tamara L; Minett, Andrew I; Harris, Andrew T

    2013-06-01

    A series of Pt catalysts supported on Al₂O₃ that was doped with different amounts of CeO₂ was developed, characterized, and tested in the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol to H₂. Catalyst 3Pt/3CeAl, which bore 3 wt% Pt on a support that contained 3 wt % CeO₂, showed the highest carbon conversion to gas (85%) and the highest H₂ yield (80%) for a feedstock of 1 wt% glycerol in water at 240 °C and 40 bar. A CeO₂/Al₂O₃ support with only 1 wt% Pt also showed high H₂ selectivity and carbon conversion to gas, as well as a much lower CH₄ yield than the benchmark 3Pt/Al catalyst, clearly demonstrating that doping the support with 3 wt% CeO2 improved the APR of glycerol. H₂ chemisorption results showed that the highest metal dispersion (58%) and active surface area (4.3 m(2)g(-1)) were achieved for the support that contained 3 wt% CeO₂, and this effect appeared to be primarily responsible for the high H₂ yield and carbon conversion to gas. No CO was observed in the product gas; therefore, this gas could potentially be used directly in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Thus, including CeO₂ in the Al₂O₃ catalyst support enhanced both the activity and selectivity towards H₂ of a Pt catalyst for the APR of glycerol.

  10. Current Evidence for Extracorporeal Liver Support Systems in Acute Liver Failure and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial (nonbiological) extracorporeal liver support devices aim to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins to restore and preserve hepatic function and mitigate or limit the progression of multiorgan failure while hepatic recovery or liver transplant occurs. The following beneficial effects have been documented: improvement of jaundice, amelioration of hemodynamic instability, reduction of portal hypertension, and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. The only randomized prospective multicenter controlled trial to show an improvement in transplant-free survival was for high-volume plasmapheresis. Biological (cell-based) extracorporeal liver support systems aim to support the failing liver through detoxification and synthetic function and warrant further study for safety and benefit. PMID:27339682

  11. Evidence-based development and evaluation of mobile cognitive support apps for people on the autism spectrum: methodological conclusions from two R+D projects.

    PubMed

    Gyori, Miklos; Stefanik, Krisztina; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence confirms that mobile digital devices have key potentials as assistive/educational tools for people with autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this paper is to outline key aspects of development and evaluation methodologies that build on, and provide systematic evidence on effects of using such apps. We rely on the results of two R+D projects, both using quantitative and qualitative methods to support development and to evaluate developed apps (n=54 and n=22). Analyzing methodological conclusions from these studies we outline some guidelines for an 'ideal' R+D methodology but we also point to important trade-offs between the need for best systematic evidence and the limitations on development time and costs. We see these trade-offs as a key issue to be resolved in this field. PMID:26294453

  12. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a mimetic radiation in Peruvian poison frogs supports a Müllerian mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2001-01-01

    Examples of Müllerian mimicry, in which resemblance between unpalatable species confers mutual benefit, are rare in vertebrates. Strong comparative evidence for mimicry is found when the colour and pattern of a single species closely resemble several different model species simultaneously in different geographical regions. Todemonstrate this, it is necessary to provide compelling evidence that the putative mimics do, in fact, form a monophyletic group. We present molecular phylogenetic evidence that the poison frog Dendrobates imitator mimics three different poison frogs in different geographical regions in Peru. DNA sequences from four different mitochondrial gene regions in putative members of a single species are analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. The resulting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that the different populations of D.imitator form a monophyletic group. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in amphibians in which a single species mimics different sympatric species in different geographical regions. PMID:11747559

  13. Evaluating the Evidence Base of Shared Story Reading to Promote Literacy for Students with Extensive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Test, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed published literature to determine the level of evidence for using shared story reading to promote literacy. Shared story reading was defined as a practice used to access age-appropriate literature through reader-listener interaction in which a story is read aloud and student interaction with the reader and the story is…

  14. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  15. Supporting Use of Evidence in Argumentation through Practice in Argumentation and Reflection in the Context of SOCRATES Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanou, Kalypso; Constantinou, Costas P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how students used evidence in argumentation while they engaged in argumentive and reflective activities in the context of a designed learning environment. A Web-based learning environment, SOCRATES, was developed, which included a rich data base on the topic of climate change. Sixteen 11th graders, working with…

  16. Beyond ROC Curvature: Strength Effects and Response Time Data Support Continuous-Evidence Models of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Chad; Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A classic question in the recognition memory literature is whether retrieval is best described as a continuous-evidence process consistent with signal detection theory (SDT), or a threshold process consistent with many multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. Because receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) based on confidence ratings are…

  17. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  18. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  19. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  20. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  1. 27 CFR 53.182 - Supporting evidence required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required in case of tax-paid articles used for further manufacture. 53.182 Section 53.182 Alcohol, Tobacco... articles used for further manufacture. (a) Evidence to be submitted by claimant. No claim for credit or... material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, a second article manufactured...

  2. Evidence on Inclusion and Support for Learners with Disabilities in Mainstream Schools in South Africa: Off the Policy Radar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pather, Sulochini

    2011-01-01

    Since the move towards inclusion in line with international trends and South Africa's attempts to address issues of marginalisation and discrimination amongst all learners, including those with special needs and disabilities, it has become evident on perusal of various research studies and reviews that there is an obsession with how far we have…

  3. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a mimetic radiation in Peruvian poison frogs supports a Müllerian mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2001-12-01

    Examples of Müllerian mimicry, in which resemblance between unpalatable species confers mutual benefit, are rare in vertebrates. Strong comparative evidence for mimicry is found when the colour and pattern of a single species closely resemble several different model species simultaneously in different geographical regions. Todemonstrate this, it is necessary to provide compelling evidence that the putative mimics do, in fact, form a monophyletic group. We present molecular phylogenetic evidence that the poison frog Dendrobates imitator mimics three different poison frogs in different geographical regions in Peru. DNA sequences from four different mitochondrial gene regions in putative members of a single species are analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. The resulting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that the different populations of D.imitator form a monophyletic group. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in amphibians in which a single species mimics different sympatric species in different geographical regions.

  4. Rhizolith evidence in support of a late Holocene sea-level highstand at least 0.5 m higher than present at Key Biscayne, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froede, Carl R., Jr.

    2002-03-01

    R. Fairbridge and F. Shepard proposed different sea-level curves for the late Holocene. South Florida, as a tectonically stable platform, provides a key locale from which late Quaternary sea-level measurements have been attempted. Previous studies supporting Holocene sea-level curves have focused on mangrove peat deposits, barrier ridges, and archaeological sites. However, in situ biological indicators provide the best evidence in support of varying sea-level positions during the late Holocene. The northeastern side of Key Biscayne, Florida, has two areas of rock reef where rhizoliths (i.e., fossilized root casts) are exposed within the intertidal zone. They have previously been interpreted as the fossilized roots of a former black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest. However, the morphology, size, orientation, and areal extent of the rhizoliths is best understood if they are interpreted as the former root casts of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum). This interpretation would constitute in situ biological evidence of a late Holocene sea-level position at least 0.5 m higher than at present. Previously published 14C dating of the calcareous paste inside the rhizoliths suggests that they formed 1 2 k.y. before present. This corresponds to a higher than present sea-level highstand supported by independent evidence from other areas in south Florida.

  5. SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed Policymaking in health 6: Using research evidence to address how an option will be implemented

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. After a policy decision has been made, the next key challenge is transforming this stated policy position into practical actions. What strategies, for instance, are available to facilitate effective implementation, and what is known about the effectiveness of such strategies? We suggest five questions that can be considered by policymakers when implementing a health policy or programme. These are: 1. What are the potential barriers to the successful implementation of a new policy? 2. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes among healthcare recipients and citizens? 3. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary behavioural changes in healthcare professionals? 4. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary organisational changes? 5. What strategies should be considered in planning the implementation of a new policy in order to facilitate the necessary systems changes? PMID:20018113

  6. A Learning Collaborative Supporting the Implementation of an Evidence-Informed Program, the “4Rs and 2Ss for Children with Conduct Difficulties and their Families”

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Tricia N.; McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Rotko, Lauren; Fuss, Ashley; McKay, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study the authors examine factors associated with the successful implementation and plans for continued use of an evidence-informed intervention, the 4Rs and 2Ss Program for Strengthening Families, in a sample of 29 New York State, Office of Mental Health licensed child mental health clinics. A learning collaborative (LC) approach was used as a vehicle for supporting training and implementation of the program. The PRISM theoretical framework (Feldstein & Glasgow, 2008) was used to guide the data analysis. Data were analyzed using a multi-phase iterative process, identifying influences on implementation at multiple levels: the program (intervention), the external environment, implementation and sustainability infrastructure, and recipient characteristics. Clinics that were more proactive evidenced staff with advanced organizational skills were able to take advantage of the trainings and supports offered by the LC and fared better in their ability to adopt the intervention. The ability to adapt the intervention to the specific constraints of the clinics was a strong influence on continued use following the end of the LC. These preliminary results suggest that the supports provided by the LC are useful in consolidating information about the process of implementing evidence-informed interventions in community mental health settings. The impact of these supports is also based on their interactions with specific clinic contextual factors. PMID:25491005

  7. Supportive housing: an evidence-based intervention for reducing relapse among low income adults in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Collard, Carol S; Lewinson, Terri; Watkins, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Within the ranks of the homeless are individuals coping with substance addiction and/or chronic physical or mental disability. Their special needs often pose significant barriers to successfully re-integrate into society. For these individuals, simply securing a roof overhead may not be an adequate solution. Supportive housing combines housing with access to on-site social services to assist persons coping with disabling physical and behavioral health conditions. This study examined whether an association could be found between length of residency in supportive housing and subjective well-being. For the purposes of this study, subjective well-being was measured by length of sobriety, self-efficacy, and employment.

  8. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online

    PubMed Central

    Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence

  9. Clinical and radiological evidence to support superficial parotidectomy as the treatment of choice for chronic parotid sialadenitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Amin, M A; Bailey, B M; Patel, S R

    2001-10-01

    We present a retrospective series of 23 consecutive parotidectomies, over a 10-year period (1989-1999) for 22 patients with chronic sialadenitis unresponsive to conservative measures. There were 10 male and 12 female patients. Mean age was 52 years (range 12-72), and mean duration of symptoms 4.5 years (range 8 months-30 years). All patients had preoperative sialography and 2 had computed tomography to exclude a neoplasm. A complete superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was done in all cases. Fifteen patients developed temporary facial nerve weakness postoperatively and 7 developed Frey's syndrome. There were no cases of permanent facial nerve palsy. Nineteen patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms and 3 patients had mild persisting symptoms that did not necessitate any further treatment. Histologically there was evidence of sialadenosis in one case and benign lymphoepithelial lesion in another; the others showed evidence of chronic sialadenitis of varying degrees of severity. Fifteen patients had postoperative sialograms, of which 11 showed evidence of some filling of residual parotid gland parenchyma and in 8 patients there was filling of a normal-looking accessory lobe. In this series, superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was safe and effective, with minimal long-term complications, for most patients with chronic parotid sialadenitis that was unresponsive to conservative measures and, in some patients, it allowed some preservation of function. The potential damage to the facial nerve and the cosmetic problems associated with a total or near-total parotidectomy were avoided.

  10. Parallel inhibition of active force and relaxed fiber stiffness by caldesmon fragments at physiological ionic strength and temperature conditions: additional evidence that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is an essential intermediate for force generation.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, T; Chalovich, J M; Yu, L C; Brenner, B

    1995-01-01

    Previously we showed that stiffness of relaxed fibers and active force generated in single skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle are inhibited in parallel by actin-binding fragments of caldesmon, an actin-associated protein of smooth muscle, under conditions in which a large fraction of cross-bridges is weakly attached to actin (ionic strength of 50 mM and temperature of 5 degrees C). These results suggested that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is essential for force generation. The present study provides evidence that this is also true for physiological ionic strength (170 mM) at temperatures up to 30 degrees C, suggesting that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is generally required for force generation. In addition, we show that the inhibition of active force is not a result of changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics but apparently results from selective inhibition of weak cross-bridge binding to actin. Together with our previous biochemical, mechanical, and structural studies, these findings support the proposal that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is an essential intermediate on the path to force generation and are consistent with the concept that isometric force mainly results from an increase in strain of the attached cross-bridge as a result of a structural change associated with the transition from a weakly bound to a strongly bound actomyosin complex. This mechanism is different from the processes responsible for quick tension recovery that were proposed by Huxley and Simmons (Proposed mechanism of force generation in striated muscle. Nature. 233:533-538.) to represent the elementary mechanism of force generation. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7647245

  11. The Consequences of International Comparisons for Public Support of K-12 Education: Evidence from a National Survey Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Poppe, Emily S. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Candidates for public office in the United States frequently justify their positions on education policy priorities by stating the need to strengthen the nation's economic competitiveness against new global challengers. In this article, the authors investigate the consequences of this form of policy motivation for attitudes toward and support of…

  12. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  13. Living kidney donors and their family caregivers: developing an evidence-based educational and social support website

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura A.; Bahreman, Nasreen; Hayat, Matthew J.; Hoey, Frank; Rajasekaran, Geetha; Segev, Dorry L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although graft and patient survival rates for living kidney donation are improved, some healthcare providers question whether volunteer donors and their informal caregivers are fully informed of the donation process and the risks involved. Donors and their family caregivers have reported that they receive limited information about the predonation and donor recovery process. Offering web-based information and social support is one way to address this gap. Strategy Living kidney donor candidates and their family caregivers participating in the Living Donor Information Network for Caregiving (LINC) have access to a variety of online informational resources and a social support discussion forum throughout their living kidney donation experience. Strategies in the development and implementation of an online information and social-support resource are presented. Conclusions Use of the LINC website for information and support may assist health care providers in identifying potential barriers in the current donation process and provide direction for enhancing knowledge and confidence among donors and family caregivers. PMID:22878067

  14. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  15. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  16. The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

  17. Evidence of the Need To Support the Development of On-Line Collaborative Skills: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Laura April; Sclater, Jennifer

    This study examined the relationship between the quality of intra-group online collaboration among groups of undergraduate learners on the quality of products produced. The quality of online collaboration was assessed by the instructor and Teaching Assistant with the computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) process assessment tool. The…

  18. Nurture Growth: Professional Development Rooted in Evidence Supports Teaching and Learning. NCREL's Learning Point. Volume 6, Number 4, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Michele, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This issue focuses attention on research-based tools and professional development, illustrating how they come together in ways that support better teaching and improved learning. In the feature article, "Bringing the Picture of Classroom Instruction into Focus," author Jessica Johnson introduces a new classroom survey tool developed in partnership…

  19. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program. Working Paper #09-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This paper examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  20. Identifying Conditions That Support Causal Inference in Observational Studies in Education: Empirical Evidence from within Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallberg, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…

  1. The Importance of Social Interaction and Support for Women Learners: Evidence from Family Literacy Programs. Research Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Although many women value and benefit from social interaction in adult education and family literacy, these social dimensions are often treated as tangential or inconsequential. Utilizing data from two studies of family literacy programs in Pennsylvania, this study examined how family literacy programs provide a supportive social space for women…

  2. Young Infants' Actions Reveal Their Developing Knowledge of Support Variables: Converging Evidence for Violation-of-Expectation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Violation-of-expectation (VOE) tasks have revealed substantial developments in young infants' knowledge about support events: by 5.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released against but not on a surface; and by 6.5 months, infants expect an object to fall when released with 15% but not 100% of its bottom on a surface. Here we…

  3. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  4. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  5. Evidence supporting primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statins: Gaps between updated clinical results and actual practice.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Eric; Ferrières, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The use of pharmacological lipid-lowering intervention in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia and known cardiovascular disease or diabetes/chronic kidney disease is well established. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend immediate initiation of drugs in adjunct to lifestyle intervention in these patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. In these clinical settings, statins are generally chosen as the first-choice drug intervention, in consideration of the robust evidence showing a reduction in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In contrast, primary prevention with statins, even in the subset of patients at high-risk of cardiovascular events, is not well implemented. This might be related to a lack of public awareness regarding the actual risk associated with prolonged exposure to high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and uncertainties in the clinical evidence coming from the earliest trials in this patient subset. However, recent observational studies suggest that lowering LDL-C earlier in life and for a longer duration can substantially decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Moreover, results from recent well-conducted large meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that primary prevention with statins reduced all-cause mortality by 14% and MACE by > 20% - findings similar to those observed for the use of statins in secondary prevention. Recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol emphasize that primary prevention using high-dose statins in individuals with LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL induces a benefit in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction that clearly exceeds the potential for adverse effects. We aim in this review to discuss the new data that advocate the use of statins in primary prevention earlier and more frequently, putting the efficacy evidence into

  6. Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Nüesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T.; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  7. Noncoding sequences from the slowly evolving chloroplast inverted repeat in addition to rbcL data do not support gnetalean affinities of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, V; Bobrova, V; Pahnke, J; Troitsky, A; Antonov, A; Martin, W

    1996-02-01

    We developed PCR primers against highly conserved regions of the rRNA operon located within the inverted repeat of the chloroplast genome and used these to amplify the region spanning from the 3' terminus of the 23S rRNA gene to the 5' terminus of the 5S rRNA gene. The sequence of this roughly 500-bp region, which includes the 4.5S rRNA gene and two chloroplast intergenic transcribed spacer regions (cpITS2 and cpITS3), was determined from 20 angiosperms, 7 gymnosperms, and 16 ferns (21,700 bp). Sequences for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) from the same or confamilial genera were analyzed in both separate and combined data sets. Due to the low substitution rate in the inverted repeat region, noncoding sequences in the cpITS region are not saturated with substitutions, in contrast to synonymous sites in rbcL, which are shown to evolve roughly six times faster than noncoding cpITS sequences. Several length polymorphisms with very clear phylogenetic distributions were detected in the data set. Results of phylogenetic analyses provide very strong bootstrap support for monophyly of both spermatophytes and angiosperms. No support for a sister group relationship between Gnetales and angiosperms in either cpITS or rbcL data was found. Rather, weak bootstrap support for monophyly of gymnosperms studied and for a basal position for the aquatic angiosperm Nymphaea among angiosperms studied was observed. Noncoding sequences from the inverted repeat region of chloroplast DNA appear suitable for study of land plant evolution.

  8. [Addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Vinko; Espinoza, Mauricio; Torres, Javier; Abarca, Juan; Montes, José Miguel; Luppi, Mario; Concha, Andrés; Reynolds, Enrique; Laporte, Alberto; Canals, Claudio; Vial, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    A subgroup of patients infected with the Hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. We report a 24 years old male with HPS that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ECLS technique. Precise criteria have been developed to predict which patients should be considered for this treatment.

  9. Narrative and evidence. How can case studies from the history of science support claims in the philosophy of science?

    PubMed

    Kinzel, Katherina

    2015-02-01

    A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.

  10. The impact of mental health evidence on support for capital punishment: are defendants labeled psychopathic considered more deserving of death?

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Colwell, Lori H; Desforges, Donna M; Fernandez, Krissie

    2005-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (Hare, 1991, 2003) in capital murder cases, where it has been introduced to support prosecution claims that a defendant represents a "continuing threat to society". Although widely presumed to have a prejudicial impact (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2004), little is known about how the lay public reacts to data derived from ostensibly stigmatizing assessment instruments such as the PCL-R. The present study examined the effect of psychopathy data on layperson attitudes by having 203 undergraduates review a capital murder case where the results of the defendant's psychological evaluation were experimentally manipulated. When expert testimony described the defendant as psychopathic, a much larger percentage of participants supported a death sentence (60%) than when testimony indicated that he was psychotic (30%) or not mentally disordered (38%). Interestingly, participant ratings of how psychopathic they perceived the defendant to be--regardless of the testimony condition to which they had been assigned--also predicted support for a death sentence. Given the limited probative value of the PCL-R in capital cases and the prejudicial nature of the effects noted in this study, we recommend that forensic examiners avoid using it in these trials.

  11. Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabel; Montgomery, Sean A; Barker, Michael S; Macfarlane, Terry D; Conran, John G; Catalán, Pilar; Rieseberg, Loren H; Rudall, Paula J; Graham, Sean W

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about species-level genetic diversity in flowering plants outside the eudicots and monocots, and it is often unclear how to interpret genetic patterns in lineages with whole-genome duplications. We addressed these issues in a polyploid representative of Hydatellaceae, part of the water-lily order Nymphaeales. We examined a transcriptome of Trithuria submersa for evidence of recent whole-genome duplication, and applied transcriptome-derived microsatellite (expressed-sequence tag simple-sequence repeat (EST-SSR)) primers to survey genetic variation in populations across its range in mainland Australia. A transcriptome-based Ks plot revealed at least one recent polyploidization event, consistent with fixed heterozygous genotypes representing underlying sets of homeologous loci. A strong genetic division coincides with a trans-Nullarbor biogeographic boundary. Patterns of 'allelic' variation (no more than two variants per EST-SSR genotype) and recently published chromosomal evidence are consistent with the predicted polyploidization event and substantial homozygosity underlying fixed heterozygote SSR genotypes, which in turn reflect a selfing mating system. The Nullarbor Plain is a barrier to gene flow between two deep lineages of T. submersa that may represent cryptic species. The markers developed here should also be useful for further disentangling species relationships, and provide a first step towards future genomic studies in Trithuria. PMID:26612464

  12. Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabel; Montgomery, Sean A; Barker, Michael S; Macfarlane, Terry D; Conran, John G; Catalán, Pilar; Rieseberg, Loren H; Rudall, Paula J; Graham, Sean W

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about species-level genetic diversity in flowering plants outside the eudicots and monocots, and it is often unclear how to interpret genetic patterns in lineages with whole-genome duplications. We addressed these issues in a polyploid representative of Hydatellaceae, part of the water-lily order Nymphaeales. We examined a transcriptome of Trithuria submersa for evidence of recent whole-genome duplication, and applied transcriptome-derived microsatellite (expressed-sequence tag simple-sequence repeat (EST-SSR)) primers to survey genetic variation in populations across its range in mainland Australia. A transcriptome-based Ks plot revealed at least one recent polyploidization event, consistent with fixed heterozygous genotypes representing underlying sets of homeologous loci. A strong genetic division coincides with a trans-Nullarbor biogeographic boundary. Patterns of 'allelic' variation (no more than two variants per EST-SSR genotype) and recently published chromosomal evidence are consistent with the predicted polyploidization event and substantial homozygosity underlying fixed heterozygote SSR genotypes, which in turn reflect a selfing mating system. The Nullarbor Plain is a barrier to gene flow between two deep lineages of T. submersa that may represent cryptic species. The markers developed here should also be useful for further disentangling species relationships, and provide a first step towards future genomic studies in Trithuria.

  13. Empirical evidence supporting frequent cryptic speciation in epiphyllous liverworts: a case study of the Cololejeunea lanciloba complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Heinrichs, Jochen; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Schneider, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species are frequently recovered in plant lineages, and considered an important cause for divergent of morphological disparity and species diversity. The identification of cryptic species has important implications for the assessment of conservation needs of species aggregates. The mechanisms and processes of the origin of cryptic species diversity are still poorly understand based on the lack of studies especially in context of environment factors. Here we explored evidence for cryptic species within the epiphyllous liverworts Cololejeunea lanciloba complex based on two loci, the plastid trnL-F region and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. Several analytic approaches were employed to delimit species based on DNA sequence variation including phylogenetic reconstruction, statistical parsimony networks analysis and two recently introduced species delimitation criteria: Rosenberg's reciprocal monophyly and Rodrigo's randomly distinct. We found evidence for thirteen genetically distinct putative species, each consisting of more than one haplotype, rather than four morphologically-circumscribed species. The results implied that the highly conserved phenotypes are not congruent with the genetic differentiation, contributing to incorrect assessments of the biodiversity of epiphyllous liverworts. We hypothesize that evolution of cryptic species recovered may be caused by selection of traits critical to the survival in epiphyllous habitats combined with limited developmental options designed in the small body.

  14. How do living arrangements and intergenerational support matter for psychological health of elderly parents? Evidence from Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Long, Giang Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Living arrangements and family support for older persons have become an increasingly important policy concern in developing and rapidly aging Asia. Formulating a sound elderly care policy for the region will benefit from empirically examining how living arrangements, particularly coresidence, and intergenerational exchanges of financial, instrumental, and emotional support are associated with old-age psychological health. This study analyzes data from nationally representative aging surveys in Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand for 2011-2012 to offer a comparative perspective from Southeast Asia where various kinship systems coexist. Results suggest that coresidence with a child of culturally preferred gender significantly improves the emotional health of Vietnamese and Thai elders but with different implications. In Vietnam, living with a married son is more beneficial to parents' psychological wellbeing than living with other children. In Thailand, coresidence regardless of the child's gender improves old-age psychological wellbeing but living with a daughter brings greater benefits than living only with son. Evidence points to the importance of understanding the dominant kinship system that may shape normative filial expectations and gender role expectations within the family. In Vietnam and Thailand, the positive association holds even after intergenerational support is controlled, suggesting that the value of culturally preferred coresidence goes beyond practical functions. In Myanmar, there are almost no significant differences in psychological wellbeing among elderly across various living arrangements, except between coresidence and network living arrangements. For all settings, we do not find evidence in support of network family arrangements as a complete substitute for coresidence in terms of promoting old-age psychological wellbeing after filial support is controlled. Our study highlights important cultural nuances for theorizing the nature of the

  15. Acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of copper, zinc, and nickel to Pimephales promelas: Evidence of more-than-additive effect.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Natalie R; Hoang, Tham C; O'Brien, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    Metal mixture toxicity has been studied for decades. However, the results are not consistent, and thus ecological risk assessment and regulation of mixtures has been difficult. The objective of the present study was to use a systematic experimental design to characterize the toxicity of binary-metal mixture of Cu, Zn, and Ni to Pimephales promelas, typically to determine whether the effect of these binary-metal mixtures on P. promelas is more-than-additive. Standard 96-h toxicity tests were conducted with larval P. promelas based on US Environmental and Protection Agency methods to determine metal mixture effects. All experiments were conducted in synthetic moderately hard water with no addition of dissolved organic matter. Three different effect analysis approaches, the MixTox model, the Finney model, and the toxic unit method, were used for comparison. The results indicate that the toxicity of Cu+Zn, Cu+Ni, and Zn+Ni mixtures to P. promelas was more-than-additive. Among the 3 mixtures, the effect of the Cu+Ni mixture was the most profound. The results of the present study are useful for applications to models such as the metal mixture biotic ligand model. More research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of metal mixtures.

  16. A.T. Still's Osteopathic Lesion Theory and Evidence-Based Models Supporting the Emerged Concept of Somatic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liem, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, coined the original idea of lesion based on the obstruction of flow of body fluids, but primarily referring to bony structures and more precisely to the spine. Throughout the 20th century, this idea was shaped and developed into the concept of somatic dysfunction, a term that is familiar to both US-trained osteopathic physicians and foreign-trained osteopaths and has been an essential cornerstone of osteopathic practice and teaching. The present historical narrative review offers an overview of the evolution of Still's original lesion concept, major evidence-based models of somatic dysfunction that attempt to explain the clinical findings, and a critique of the concept. PMID:27669069

  17. Is EBE theory supported by the evidence? Is it androcentric? A reply to Peplau et al. (1998)

    PubMed

    Bem, D J

    1998-04-01

    In their critique of the author's Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, 1996), L. A. Peplau, L. D. Garnets, L. R. Spalding, T. D. Conley, and R. C. Veniegas (1998) challenge his reading of the evidence concerning the antecedents of sexual orientation; they also contend that the theory neglects women's experiences. In reply, the author argues that L. A. Peplau et al. have misunderstood the critical antecedent variable of the theory and, hence, have misidentified the particular empirical findings that would serve to confirm or disconfirm its central contentions. The author also argues that the sex differences they cite are not relevant to the theory, whereas an important sex difference they do not cite is actually anticipated by it. PMID:9577244

  18. Medication errors in paediatric care: a systematic review of epidemiology and an evaluation of evidence supporting reduction strategy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marlene R; Robinson, Karen A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Rinke, Michael L; Pronovost, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although children are at the greatest risk for medication errors, little is known about the overall epidemiology of these errors, where the gaps are in our knowledge, and to what extent national medication error reduction strategies focus on children. Objective To synthesise peer reviewed knowledge on children's medication errors and on recommendations to improve paediatric medication safety by a systematic literature review. Data sources PubMed, Embase and Cinahl from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2005, and 11 national entities that have disseminated recommendations to improve medication safety. Study selection Inclusion criteria were peer reviewed original data in English language. Studies that did not separately report paediatric data were excluded. Data extraction Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and for data extraction, and screened all national medication error reduction strategies for relevance to children. Data synthesis From 358 articles identified, 31 were included for data extraction. The definition of medication error was non‐uniform across the studies. Dispensing and administering errors were the most poorly and non‐uniformly evaluated. Overall, the distributional epidemiological estimates of the relative percentages of paediatric error types were: prescribing 3–37%, dispensing 5–58%, administering 72–75%, and documentation 17–21%. 26 unique recommendations for strategies to reduce medication errors were identified; none were based on paediatric evidence. Conclusions Medication errors occur across the entire spectrum of prescribing, dispensing, and administering, are common, and have a myriad of non‐evidence based potential reduction strategies. Further research in this area needs a firmer standardisation for items such as dose ranges and definitions of medication errors, broader scope beyond inpatient prescribing errors, and prioritisation of implementation of medication error reduction strategies. PMID:17403758

  19. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  20. A Review of the Evidence to Support Influenza Vaccine Introduction in Countries and Areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Gina; McPherson, Michelle; Partridge, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a) public health priority, (b) disease burden, (c) efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d) other inventions, (e) economic and financial issues, (f) vaccine presentation, (g) supply availability and (h) programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Methodology/Principal Findings Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90%) coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34), vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27) and public health priority (n = 27) were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%), in the elderly (24%) and in children (17%). Few studies (2%) addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. Conclusions/Significance The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies