Science.gov

Sample records for additional survey effort

  1. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  2. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  3. Summary of NDE of Additive Manufacturing Efforts in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor; Parker, Bradford; Hodges, Kenneth; Burke, Eric; Taminger, Karen

    2014-01-01

    (1) General Rationale for Additive Manufacturing (AM): (a) Operate under a 'design-to-constraint' paradigm, make parts too complicated to fabricate otherwise, (b) Reduce weight by 20 percent with monolithic parts, (c) Reduce waste (green manufacturing), (e) Eliminate reliance on Original Equipment Manufacturers for critical spares, and (f) Extend life of in-service parts by innovative repair methods; (2) NASA OSMA NDE of AM State-of-the-Discipline Report; (3) Overview of NASA AM Efforts at Various Centers: (a) Analytical Tools, (b) Ground-Based Fabrication (c) Space-Based Fabrication; and (d) Center Activity Summaries; (4) Overview of NASA NDE data to date on AM parts; and (5) Gap Analysis/Recommendations for NDE of AM.

  4. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  5. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    EPA Science Inventory

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  6. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  7. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  8. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  9. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional survey jobs. 532.315 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.315 Additional survey jobs. (a... add to the required survey jobs the specialized survey jobs listed below opposite the industry...

  10. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness. PMID:25915134

  11. DOD Health Care. Additional Efforts Needed To Verify Physicians' Qualifications. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to assure that its physicians are qualified to perform their assigned duties are discussed. Five sections include: introduction; additional actions needed to help assure that military physicians have proper qualifications; hospital credentialing and privileging systems needed to comply with DOD…

  12. Brief survey of advanced accelerator R and D efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B

    1985-05-01

    It is apparent that if higher energy accelerators are to be built for a reasonable cost, higher accelerating gradients will be required, and most efforts have been devoted to achieving such gradients. It must also be kept in mind, however, that higher gradients will require higher peak powers from whatever power source is used. The peak powers required are reduce if the wavelength of the accelerating radiation is reduced. If useful luminosity is to be achieved high average power is also needed. Average power is reduced if the beam emittances can be reduced and smaller interacting spots generated. The average power is also reduced if bunches containing larger numbers of particles are employed, but these numbers are limited by the beamstrahlung (synchrotron radiation) at the interaction point. Considerable progress has been made in understanding these questions, but much still remains to be studied. As an introduction to this subject, the limits on accelerating fields are examined as a function of wavelength and attempt to place the different schemes on such a plot. The constraints applied by beamstrahlung considerations and their influence on the choice of mechanisms are then examined.

  13. Vertical cable surveys deliver additional seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Texaco and a Norwegian seismic firm have patented a new system for deploying hydrophones on vertical cables for offshore surveys. The system was used in Texaco North Sea UK Ltd.`s Strathspey field during the summer. The new technique was introduced in the article, ``Peaceful use for war technology,`` published in Texaco UK`s Agenda monthly news magazine, October 1995. That article is summarized here. Using technology developed by the US Navy for antisubmarine warfare, the vertical-cable survey relies on hydrophones attached at regular intervals vertically along cables secured to the ocean floor and held taut by a buoy. The shooting vessel fires the airguns in a pattern over a large area on the surface, over and around the cables. The cables are then moved to a new location and the process is repeated, up to six times in the Strathspey application described here.

  14. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  15. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  16. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or ‘tape and stick’ ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the inter-comparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to quantify relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from different ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as enumerate the effort and cost in completing the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Three different traditional (“stick and tape”) survey techniques were used, including a variant using map-grade GPS. Complete topographic/bathymetric surveys were attempted at each site using separate rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR, boat-based echo-sounding (w/ ADCP), traditional airborne LiDaR, and imagery-based spectral methods. Separate, georectified aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Preliminary results from the surveys highlight that no single technique works across the full range of conditions where stream habitat surveys are needed. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete quantification of habitat conditions in rivers.

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of Proposed Additions to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of Proposed Additions to Captain's Quarters B, Navy Yard Washington, Civil Engineer's Office September 25 1868.' Photocopy of original drawing on file at Naval Station Public Works Department, Washington, D. C. - Navy Yard, Quarters B, East Side of Drill Field, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Random sample community-based health surveys: does the effort to reach participants matter?

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Antoine; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuna, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Conducting health surveys with community-based random samples are essential to capture an otherwise unreachable population, but these surveys can be biased if the effort to reach participants is insufficient. This study determines the desirable amount of effort to minimise such bias. Design A household-based health survey with random sampling and face-to-face interviews. Up to 11 visits, organised by canvassing rounds, were made to obtain an interview. Setting Single-family homes in an underserved and understudied population in North Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Participants Of a probabilistic sample of 2200 household addresses, 30 corresponded to empty lots, 74 were abandoned houses, 625 households declined to participate and 265 could not be reached and interviewed within 11 attempts. Analyses were performed on the 1206 remaining households. Primary outcome Each household was asked if any of their members had been told by a doctor that they had high blood pressure, heart disease including heart attack, cancer, diabetes, anxiety/ depression, obesity or asthma. Responses to these questions were analysed by the number of visit attempts needed to obtain the interview. Results Return per visit fell below 10% after four attempts, below 5% after six attempts and below 2% after eight attempts. As the effort increased, household size decreased, while household income and the percentage of interviewees active and employed increased; proportion of the seven health conditions decreased, four of which did so significantly: heart disease 20.4–9.2%, high blood pressure 63.5–58.1%, anxiety/depression 24.4–9.2% and obesity 21.8–12.6%. Beyond the fifth attempt, however, cumulative percentages varied by less than 1% and precision varied by less than 0.1%. Conclusions In spite of the early and steep drop, sustaining at least five attempts to reach participants is necessary to reduce selection bias. PMID:25510887

  19. Survey of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics efforts carried out in the frame of Mars exploration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynier, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is a survey of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics data related to Mars entry. The survey includes the studies carried out in the frame of projects aiming at preparing exploration missions involving entry probes into Mars atmosphere and the efforts have been concentrated on the aerothermodynamics developments. Russian (including former Soviet Union), European and NASA aerothermodynamics developments for preparing such missions have been accounted for. If a focus has been dedicated to the flight data gathered during Viking and Mars Pathfinder entries, the experimental and numerical activities carried out for the different projects have been also considered. The emphasis has been put on the post-flight analysis of flight experiments. The objective of the activity has been to develop a database of the developments performed for Mars entry that will be of interest for the preparation of future missions and for testing new models related to radiative transfer, and chemical kinetics schemes based on a state-to-state approach.

  20. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  1. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  2. 5 CFR 532.315 - Additional survey jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Specialized industry Specialized survey jobs Grade Aircraft Electronics Mechanic WG-11 Aircraft Structures... Electronics Electronics Mechanic WG-11 Industrial Electronic Controls Repairer WG-10 Electronic Test Equipment... Equipment Mechanic WG-10 Shipbuilding Electronics Mechanic WG-11 Electrician, Ship WG-10 Pipefitter, Ship...

  3. Initial Efforts toward Mission-Representative Imaging Surveys from Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Plice, Laura; Ippolito, Corey; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton; Lee, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Numerous researchers have proposed the use of robotic aerial explorers to perform scientific investigation of planetary bodies in our solar system. One of the essential tasks for any aerial explorer is to be able to perform scientifically valuable imaging surveys. The focus of this paper is to discuss the challenges implicit in, and recent observations related to, acquiring mission-representative imaging data from a small fixed-wing UAV, acting as a surrogate planetary aerial explorer. This question of successfully performing aerial explorer surveys is also tied to other topics of technical investigation, including the development of unique bio-inspired technologies.

  4. Gender Differences in Beliefs on the Returns to Effort: Evidence from the World Values Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisman, Raymond; O'Neill, Maura

    2009-01-01

    We study gender differences in attitudes in the role of luck versus hard work in achieving success using data from the World Values Survey. Women are consistently more likely to report that success is a matter of luck. We consider several potential explanations: workplace discrimination, religion, household responsibilities, and political…

  5. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey Utilization of Aerial Sensors for Emergency Response Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Remote Sensing Division has a Coastal Mapping program and a Airport Survey program and research and development that support both programs. NOAA/NGS/RSD plans to acquire remotely sensed data to support the agency's homeland security and emergency response requirements.

  6. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  7. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  8. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  9. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  10. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. 42.09-30 Section 42.09-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in §...

  11. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  12. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  14. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  15. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25,...

  16. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  17. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  18. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  19. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  20. On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

  1. Trends in College Binge Drinking during a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1933-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Kuo, Meichun; Seibring, Mark; Nelson, Toben F.; Lee, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed students at colleges that had participated in college alcohol surveys between 1993-99 to examine trends in binge drinking, related problems, and prevention efforts. Binge drinking rates remained constant, with shifts in drinking behavior among subgroups. Immoderate drinking and harm among drinkers increased. More students lived in…

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Effort versus Reward: Preparing Samples for Fungal Community Characterization in High-Throughput Sequencing Surveys of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zewei; Schlatter, Dan; Kennedy, Peter; Kinkel, Linda L.; Kistler, H. Corby; Nguyen, Nhu; Bates, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Next generation fungal amplicon sequencing is being used with increasing frequency to study fungal diversity in various ecosystems; however, the influence of sample preparation on the characterization of fungal community is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of four procedural modifications to library preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The following treatments were considered: 1) the amount of soil used in DNA extraction, 2) the inclusion of additional steps (freeze/thaw cycles, sonication, or hot water bath incubation) in the extraction procedure, 3) the amount of DNA template used in PCR, and 4) the effect of sample pooling, either physically or computationally. Soils from two different ecosystems in Minnesota, USA, one prairie and one forest site, were used to assess the generality of our results. The first three treatments did not significantly influence observed fungal OTU richness or community structure at either site. Physical pooling captured more OTU richness compared to individual samples, but total OTU richness at each site was highest when individual samples were computationally combined. We conclude that standard extraction kit protocols are well optimized for fungal HTS surveys, but because sample pooling can significantly influence OTU richness estimates, it is important to carefully consider the study aims when planning sampling procedures. PMID:25974078

  4. Effort versus Reward: Preparing Samples for Fungal Community Characterization in High-Throughput Sequencing Surveys of Soils.

    PubMed

    Song, Zewei; Schlatter, Dan; Kennedy, Peter; Kinkel, Linda L; Kistler, H Corby; Nguyen, Nhu; Bates, Scott T

    2015-01-01

    Next generation fungal amplicon sequencing is being used with increasing frequency to study fungal diversity in various ecosystems; however, the influence of sample preparation on the characterization of fungal community is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of four procedural modifications to library preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The following treatments were considered: 1) the amount of soil used in DNA extraction, 2) the inclusion of additional steps (freeze/thaw cycles, sonication, or hot water bath incubation) in the extraction procedure, 3) the amount of DNA template used in PCR, and 4) the effect of sample pooling, either physically or computationally. Soils from two different ecosystems in Minnesota, USA, one prairie and one forest site, were used to assess the generality of our results. The first three treatments did not significantly influence observed fungal OTU richness or community structure at either site. Physical pooling captured more OTU richness compared to individual samples, but total OTU richness at each site was highest when individual samples were computationally combined. We conclude that standard extraction kit protocols are well optimized for fungal HTS surveys, but because sample pooling can significantly influence OTU richness estimates, it is important to carefully consider the study aims when planning sampling procedures. PMID:25974078

  5. An experimental survey of additives for improving dehydrogenation properties of magnesium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengshang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei

    2015-03-01

    The use of a wide range of additives has been known as an important method for improving hydrogen storage properties of MgH2. There is a lack of a standard methodology, however, that can be used to select or compare the effectiveness of different additives. A systematic experimental survey was carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. MgH2 with various additives were prepared by using a high-energy-high-pressure planetary ball milling method and characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The results showed that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Additives such as Al, In, Sn, Si showed minor effects on the kinetics of the dehydrogenation of MgH2, while exhibiting moderate thermodynamic destabilizing effects. In combination, MgH2 with both kinetic and thermodynamic additives, such as the MgH2-In-TiMn2 system, exhibited a drastically decreased dehydrogenation temperature.

  6. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets - a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  7. A brief survey of sensing for metal-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryant K.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Nassar, Abdalla R.; Dickman, Corey J.; Hall, Benjamin T.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose - Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (PBFAM) of metal components has attracted much attention, but the inability to quickly and easily ensure quality has limited its industrial use. Since the technology is currently being investigated for critical engineered components and is largely considered unsuitable for high volume production, traditional statistical quality control methods cannot be readily applied. An alternative strategy for quality control is to monitor the build in real time with a variety of sensing methods and, when possible, to correct any defects as they occur. This article reviews the cause of common defects in powder bed additive manufacturing, briefly surveys process monitoring strategies in the literature, and summarizes recently-developed strategies to monitor part quality during the build process. Design/methodology/approach - Factors that affect part quality in powder bed additive manufacturing are categorized as those influenced by machine variables and those affected by other build attributes. Within each category, multiple process monitoring methods are presented. Findings - A multitude of factors contribute to the overall quality of a part built using PBFAM. Rather than limiting processing to a pre-defined build recipe and assuming complete repeatability, part quality will be ensured by monitoring the process as it occurs and, when possible, altering the process conditions or build plan in real-time. Recent work shows promise in this area and brings us closer to the goal of wide-spread adoption of additive manufacturing technology. Originality/value - This work serves to introduce and define the possible sources of defects and errors in metal-based PBFAM, and surveys sensing and control methods which have recently been investigated to increase overall part quality. Emphasis has been placed on novel developments in the field and their contribution to the understanding of the additive manufacturing process.

  8. An Online Survey of Cigarette Use in College Students: Using Demographic Information to Influence Health Education, Prevention and Intervention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie; Fiala, Kelly Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the demographic characteristics of undergraduate smokers and non-smokers at a mid-sized, Mid-Atlantic university using an online survey. Five hundred ten students (77.7% response rate) participated. Data analysis revealed major, year, and athlete status were related to smoking, while gender and age were…

  9. A Survey of U.S.-Based Efforts To Research and Conserve Biological Diversity in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Janet N.

    The increasing loss of biological diversity, resulting from the loss of genetic diversity, the extinction of species, and the destruction of ecosystems, constitutes a crisis of global proportions. The resources being committed to its resolution are relatively small. This document summarizes a survey of U.S.-based organizations involved in…

  10. Effortful control as predictor of adolescents' psychological and physiological responses to a social stress test: the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; Riese, Harriëtte; Ormel, Johan

    2011-05-01

    Effortful control is thought to foster adaptive action in defensive contexts and may thereby protect individuals against anxious inhibition and focus on their own distress. We examined if effortful control predicted adolescents' perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and control as well as autonomic (heart rate [HR]) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) responses during social stress. The data came from a focus sample of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a prospective population study of Dutch adolescents (N = 715, 50.9% girls; mean age = 16.11, SD = 0.59), who participated in a laboratory session including a social stress task (public speaking and mental arithmetic). Perceived and physiological stress measures were assessed before, during, and after the social stress task. Effortful control was measured using various questionnaires and informants, as well as by means of a reaction time (RT) task assessing response inhibition. Overall, adolescents with high questionnaire-based effortful control tended to feel more relaxed, pleasant, and in control during the laboratory session than adolescents with lower levels of control and had stronger HR responses to the stress test. Adolescent girls with high inhibitory control as measured by the RT task also had strong HR responses, but inhibitory control was associated with high rather than low perceived arousal. Our results suggest that both questionnaire and RT measures of effortful control predict strong HR responses to challenging situations, but associational patterns diverge with regard to perceived stress measures. PMID:23786703

  11. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  12. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  13. Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a

  14. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  15. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  16. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). Conclusions First, extensive

  17. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  18. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  19. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  20. A survey of z > 5.7 quasars in the sloan digital sky survey. 4. discovery of seven additional quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiao-Hui; Strauss, Michael A.; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; onley, Jennifer L.D; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Kim, J.Serena; Vestergaard, Marianne; Young, Jason E.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W.N.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Barentine, J.C.; Brinkmann, J.; Brewington, Howard J.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U. Observ. /Johns Hopkins U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Davis /LLNL, Livermore /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Apache Point Observ. /Tokyo U., ICRR /Mt. Suhora Observ., Cracow /Fermilab /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2005-12-01

    We present the discovery of seven quasars at z > 5.7, selected from {approx}2000 deg{sup 2} of multicolor imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new quasars have redshifts z from 5.79 to 6.13. Five are selected as part of a complete flux-limited sample in the SDSS Northern Galactic Cap; two have larger photometric errors and are not part of the complete sample. One of the new quasars, SDSS J1335+3533 (z = 5.93), exhibits no emission lines; the 3-{sigma} limit on the rest-frame equivalent width of Ly{alpha} + NV line is 5 {angstrom}. It is the highest redshift lineless quasar known, and could be a gravitational lensed galaxy, a BL Lac object or a new type of quasar. Two new z > 6 quasars, SDSS 1250+3130 (z = 6.13) and SDSS J1137+3549 (z = 6.01), show deep Gunn-Peterson absorption gaps in Ly{alpha}. These gaps are narrower the complete Gunn-Peterson absorption troughs observed among quasars at z > 6.2 and do not have complete Ly{beta} absorption.

  1. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  2. Survey of the anticoccidial feed additive nicarbazin (as dinitrocarbanilide residues) in poultry and eggs.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Campbell, Katrina; O'Keeffe, Michael; Capurro, Emiliana; Kennedy, Glenn; Elliott, Christopher T

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the occurrence of dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, in poultry produced in Ireland during 2002-2004. Liver (n = 736) and breast muscle samples (n = 342) were tested. DNC residues were found in 40 and 26% of liver and breast muscle samples at levels greater than 12.5 and 5 microg kg(-1), respectively. DNC residues were found at >200 microg kg(-1) in 12 and 0% of liver and muscle samples, respectively. Samples of breast muscle (n = 217) imported from 11 countries were also tested for DNC residues. A lower incidence of DNC residues (6%) was found in imported breast muscle. Egg samples (n = 546) were tested and DNC residues were found in nine samples, with levels ranging between 14 and 122 microg kg(-1). Analysis of poultry, carried out as part of official food inspection in the period 2004-2006, indicated a reduction in the number of broiler liver samples containing DNC at >200 microg kg(-1), to approximately 7%. Low levels of DNC residues continue to be found in <2% of egg samples. PMID:17957540

  3. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives. PMID:24036138

  4. An Evaluation of Bias in the 2007 National Household Education Surveys Program: Results from a Special Data Collection Effort. NCES 2009-029

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kerckhove, Wendy; Montaquila, Jill M.; Carver, Priscilla R.; Brick, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) is a random digit dialing (RDD) survey program developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The surveys are designed to help NCES collect data directly from households about important education topics.…

  5. Upgrade to MODFLOW-GUI; addition of MODPATH, ZONEBDGT, and additional MODFLOW packages to the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-96 Graphical-User Interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winston, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes enhancements to a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for MODFLOW-96, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modular, three-dimensional, finitedifference ground-water flow model, and MOC3D, the USGS three-dimensional, method-ofcharacteristics solute-transport model. The GUI is a plug-in extension (PIE) for the commercial program Argus ONEe. The GUI has been modified to support MODPATH (a particle tracking post-processing package for MODFLOW), ZONEBDGT (a computer program for calculating subregional water budgets), and the Stream, Horizontal-Flow Barrier, and Flow and Head Boundary packages in MODFLOW. Context-sensitive help has been added to make the GUI easier to use and to understand. In large part, the help consists of quotations from the relevant sections of this report and its predecessors. The revised interface includes automatic creation of geospatial information layers required for the added programs and packages, and menus and dialog boxes for input of parameters for simulation control. The GUI creates formatted ASCII files that can be read by MODFLOW-96, MOC3D, MODPATH, and ZONEBDGT. All four programs can be executed within the Argus ONEe application (Argus Interware, Inc., 1997). Spatial results of MODFLOW-96, MOC3D, and MODPATH can be visualized within Argus ONEe. Results from ZONEBDGT can be visualized in an independent program that can also be used to view budget data from MODFLOW, MOC3D, and SUTRA. Another independent program extracts hydrographs of head or drawdown at individual cells from formatted MODFLOW head and drawdown files. A web-based tutorial on the use of MODFLOW with Argus ONE has also been updated. The internal structure of the GUI has been modified to make it possible for advanced users to easily customize the GUI. Two additional, independent PIE?s were developed to allow users to edit the positions of nodes and to facilitate exporting the grid geometry to external programs.

  6. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  7. 2009 National Survey of First-Year Seminars: Ongoing Efforts to Support Students in Transition. Research Reports on College Transitions No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Findings from the ninth triennial administration of the National Survey of First-Year Seminars, describing the nature and extent of first-year seminars on American college campuses. Drawn from a broad sample of colleges and universities from every institutional type, control, and size, the survey addresses topics including seminar characteristics…

  8. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  9. Quit Surfing and Start "Clicking": One Professor's Effort to Combat the Problems of Teaching the U.S. Survey in a Large Lecture Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Teaching an introductory survey course in a typical lecture hall presents a series of related obstacles. The large number of students, the size of the room, and the fixed nature of the seating tend to maximize the distance between instructor and students. That distance then grants enrolled students enough anonymity to skip class too frequently and…

  10. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  11. Utilizing hunter harvest effort to survey for wildlife disease: a case study of West Nile virus in greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Franson, J. Christian; Budeau, David A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are highly susceptible to infection with West Nile virus (WNV), with substantial mortality reported in wild populations and in experimentally infected birds. Although sage-grouse are hunted throughout much of their range, they have also recently been considered for protection under the Endangered Species Act. We used blood samples collected on filter-paper strips during the 2006–2010 Oregon, USA, annual sage-grouse hunt to survey for specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that indicate a previous infection with WNV. During this period, hunters submitted 1,880 blood samples from sage-grouse they harvested. Samples obtained were proportional for all 12 Oregon sage-grouse hunting units. Laboratory testing of 1,839 samples by the WNV epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) followed by plaque reduction neutralization test on bELISA-positive samples yielded 19 (1%) and 1 (0.05%) positive samples, respectively. These data provided early baseline information for future comparisons regarding the prevalence of WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies in sage-grouse in Oregon. This methodology may provide other states where sage-grouse (or other species) populations are hunted and where WNV constitutes a species conservation concern with a viable option to track the relative prevalence of the virus in populations.

  12. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  13. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  14. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  15. An Automated Software Package for the KISS Objective-Prism Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies. II. Recent Additions and Project Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1996-05-01

    We present an update on the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) project. KISS is a wide-field survey for extragalactic emission-line objects being carried out with the Burrell Schmidt at Kitt Peak. While we are utilizing the classical objective-prism technique to find strong-lined star-forming galaxies and AGNs, the use of CCD detectors and automated reduction software promise to make KISS a powerful tool for the study of activity in galaxies. We are currently completing our first survey strip (100 square degrees). The data consist of deep (to B = 20) objective-prism images, deep direct images in both B and V, and small-format photometric calibration images of each field. The KISS reduction package was designed to run under the IRAF image processing environment, and will eventually grow to be a complete IRAF package. Tasks added to the package over the past year include precise astrometry and photometry modules. The astrometry routines utilize the HST Guide Star Catalog to perform a full plate solution on the direct image of each Schmidt field, and then assign accurate equatorial coordinates to each object in the field. The photometry module performs aperture photometry on the direct images for all objects in the KISS database catalog, and provides routines to transfer the photometry calibration from the small-format images taken under photometric conditions to the large-format survey images. Extensive tests and modifications have also been carried out on the pre-existing software described by Herrero & Salzer (1995) in order to better fine-tune the reduction procedures and parameter settings. In addition to presenting a complete description of the new software, we describe the current status of the survey and present some preliminary characteristics of the sample. Other members of the KISS project include V. Lipovetsky & A. Kniazev (S.A.O.), T. Boroson (NOAO/USGP), T. Thuan (U. Virginia), J. Moody (BYU), Y. Izotov (Ukrainian Acad. Sci.), and J. Herrero

  16. Would You Recommend Your Institution's Effort-Reporting Process to Others? Determining Best Practices in Effort-Reporting Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-reporting compliance at higher education institutions was examined to discern best practices from those that would recommend their effort-reporting process. Data were derived from a survey of effort administrators--the research administrators responsible for the effort-reporting compliance program at their respective higher education…

  17. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Executive Summary and Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadel, Ben

    Part of a national survey effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted in Wisconsin public schools in 1997 is presented. The core of the survey measures 16 objectives set by CDC as part of its Year 2000 initiative. Additional questions were added specifically for Wisconsin.…

  18. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  19. Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The transition to broadcast digital television(DTV) will provide new television services and the improved picture quality of 'high definition television'. It will also allow some portions of the radiofrequency spectrum used for broadcasting to be returned for public safety and commercial uses. The Congress set December 2006 as the target date for completing the DTV transition and turning the analog broadcast signals. However, this date can be extended if fewer than 85 percent of households in a market are able to receive the digital signals. GAO (General Accounting Office) was asked to assess issues related to the DTV transition.

  20. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  1. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  2. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  5. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  6. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report V, Volume 4 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36), Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37), Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38), Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39), Site Development and Roads (Plant 40), Buildings (Plant 41), Solid Waste Management (Plant 42), and Landfill (Plant 44). Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36) includes all equipment and piping necessary to supply instrument and utility air to the process plants and offsite facilities. Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37) includes the equipment and wiring for: communication throughout the facility; communication between plant data processing systems and offsite computing facilities; and communication with transportation carriers. Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38) provides high purity and low purity nitrogen streams for plant startup and normal operation. Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39) provides purge and flush oils to various plants. Site Development and Roads (Plant 40) provides site leveling, the addition of roads, fencing, and drainage, and the placement of fills, pilings, footings, and foundations for plants. Buildings (Plant 41) provides buildings for equipment and for personnel, including utilities, lighting, sanitary facilities, heating, air conditioning, and ventilation. Solid Waste Management (Plant 42) identifies, characterizes, segregates, and transports the various types of solid wastes to either Landfill (Plant 44) or outside disposal sites. Landfill (Plant 44) provides disposal of both nonhazardous and hazardous solid wastes. Information is included (as applicable) for each of the eight plants described.

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The project cogeneration plant supplies electric power, process steam and treated boiler feedwater for use by the project plants. The plant consists of multiple turbine generators and steam generators connected to a common main steam header. The major plant systems which are required to produce steam, electrical power and treated feedwater are discussed individually. The systems are: steam, steam generator, steam generator fuel, condensate and feedwater deaeration, condensate and blowdown collection, cooling water, boiler feedwater treatment, coal handling, ash handling (fly ash and bottom ash), electrical, and control system. The plant description is based on the Phase Zero design basis established for Plant 31 in July of 1980 and the steam/condensate balance as presented on Drawing 31-E-B-1. Updating of steam requirements as more refined process information becomes available has generated some changes in the steam balance. Boiler operation with these updated requirements is reflected on Drawing 31-D-B-1A. The major impact of updating has been that less 600 psig steam generated within the process units requires more extraction steam from the turbine generators to close the 600 psig steam balance. Since the 900 psig steam generation from the boilers was fixed at 1,200,000 lb/hr, the additional extraction steam required to close the 600 psig steam balance decreased the quantity of electrical power available from the turbine generators. In the next phase of engineering work, the production of 600 psig steam will be augmented by increasing convection bank steam generation in the Plant 3 fired heaters by 140,000 to 150,000 lb/hr. This modification will allow full rated power generation from the turbine generators.

  9. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    PubMed

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. PMID:26209529

  10. Broadband Screening for Interstellar Species: Additional Laboratory Measurements and Interstellar Detection of Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) in Sgr B2(N) Using GBT PRIMOS Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Ryan; Zaleski, D.; Steber, A.; Neill, J.; Muckle, M. T.; Harris, B. J.; Seifert, N.; Pate, B.; Lattanzi, V.; Martinez, O.; McCarthy, M. C.; Remijan, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    As the availability of publicly accessible spectral line surveys from radio astronomy increases, new approaches to the identification of molecules in the interstellar medium are possible. We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify potential matches in the laboratory and radio astronomy spectra. A broadband spectrum of an electrical discharge of CH3CN and H2S contained several matches to unidentified features in the GBT PRIMOS Survey1 of Sgr B2(N) that did not have molecular assignments in the radio astronomy spectral catalogs. These transitions have been assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine (CH3CHNH). The rotational spectrum of the E- and Z-isomers of CH3CHNH have been reported at mm-wave frequencies in 1980 by Lovas et al.2 and then in 1981 by Brown et al.3 The analysis of the rotational spectra of these two isomers has been extended to the microwave frequency region to verify the assignments from the GBT PRIMOS Survey. Combined fits over the range of 8 to 130GHz consisting of data from Lovas et al., broadband CP-FTMW measurements, and cavity double resonance measurements are presented for both isomers. Evidence for the detection of both isomers in Sgr B2(N) is shown along with a discussion of the method of their detection and a brief analysis of possible formation routes. 1. GBT PRIMOS Survey, http://www.cv.nrao.edu aremijan/PRIMOS 2. F.J. Lovas, R.D. Suenram, D.R. Johnson, F.O. Clark, E. Tiemann, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 4964-4972, (1980). 3. R.D. Brown, P.D. Godfrey, D.A. Winkler, Chem. Phys., 59, 243-247, (1981).

  11. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  12. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  13. Promoting Work-Based Learning: Efforts in Connecticut and Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (NASDCTEc) and the Alliance for Excellent Education conducted a survey of State Directors of Career Technical Education (CTE) to gauge state efforts to better connect CTE with a larger college- and career-readiness agenda. Survey questions…

  14. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  15. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  16. Theoretical Foundations and a Research Agenda to Validate Measures of Intercultural Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Sawatzky, Misty; Korn, Randi

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "student effort" is foundational to such commonly used assessments of institutional effectiveness as the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). However, the current measure of student effort omits intercultural effort, which is particularly salient to the academic…

  17. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  18. The Effect of Additional Training on Motor Outcomes at Discharge from Recovery Phase Rehabilitation Wards: A Survey from Multi-Center Stroke Data Bank in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM) and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge. Results Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦) for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node) additional training (the second node), the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node). Conclusions Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge. PMID:24626224

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  20. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  1. The RECONS Effort to Characterize the Highest Proper Motion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, W. C.; Subasavage, J. P.; Henry, T. J.; Williams, C.; Costa, E.; Ianna, P. A.; Mendez, R. A.; RECONS Team

    2001-12-01

    High proper motion is a method used for selecting probable nearby stars. There currently are 601 stars (502 systems) with proper motion faster than 1 arcsec/year (hereafter, the MOTION stars). There are 271 systems known in the northern sky and 231 systems in the southern sky. The predominance of systems in the north is because historically more proper motion surveys have been carried out in northern hemisphere. In the complete MOTION sample, 75 estimated to lie within 25 pc of the Sun, the adopted horizon for NASA's NStars (Nearby Stars) Project. Based on available photometric and parallax observations, we know that MOTION members are primarily late type main sequence stars, with a few white dwarfs and subdwarfs. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that 16 not yet have parallax measurements. In addition, nearly 40 of the systems do not have complete VRI photometry on a standard system. In an effort to understand the complete MOTION sample, and to discover new members of the solar neighborhood, we present both astrometric and photometric results for the MOTION stars from our extensive NOAO Surveys Program known as CTIOPI (CTIO Parallax Investigation). The support of NOAO, CTIO, the NASA-Ames Astrobiology Institute and the NASA's Space Interferometry Mission have been the crucial to the success of this research.

  2. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  3. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24320175

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. Additional psychometric data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and psychometric data for a Spanish version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hispanics comprise the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. Previous work with the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) yielded good validity, but lower test-retest reliability. We report the performance of the Spanish MDAS in a new sample, as well as the performance of the Spanish Revised Dental Beliefs Survey (R-DBS). Methods One hundred sixty two Spanish-speaking adults attending Spanish-language church services or an Hispanic cultural festival completed questionnaires containing the Spanish MDAS, Spanish R-DBS, and dental attendance questions, and underwent a brief oral examination. Church attendees completed the questionnaire a second time, for test-retest purposes. Results The Spanish MDAS and R-DBS were completed by 156 and 136 adults, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the Spanish MDAS was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.60-0.92). The internal reliability of the Spanish R-DBS was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.97), and the test-retest reliability was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.64-0.94). The two measures were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.38, p < 0.001). Participants who do not currently go to a dentist had significantly higher MDAS scores (t = 3.40, df = 106, p = 0.003) as well as significantly higher R-DBS scores (t = 2.21, df = 131, p = 0.029). Participants whose most recent dental visit was for pain or a problem, rather than for a check-up, scored significantly higher on both the MDAS (t = 3.00, df = 106, p = 0.003) and the R-DBS (t = 2.85, df = 92, p = 0.005). Those with high dental fear (MDAS score 19 or greater) were significantly more likely to have severe caries (Chi square = 6.644, df = 2, p = 0.036). Higher scores on the R-DBS were significantly related to having more missing teeth (Spearman's rho = 0.23, p = 0.009). Conclusion In this sample, the test-retest reliability of the Spanish MDAS was higher. The significant relationships between dental attendance and questionnaire scores, as well as the difference in caries

  9. Global efforts in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

    2001-10-01

    A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

  10. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  11. Current Status of the DPOSS Effort at Caltech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odewahn, S. C.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the current status of a three-color survey of fields of the digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Eventually, the DPOSS catalogs will be released to the astronomical community. The final catalog will contain an estimated minimum of 50,000,000 (50 million) galaxies, and over 2,000,000,000 (2 billion) stars, down to the equivalent blue limiting magnitude of 22., and with star-galaxy classifications accurate to 90% or better down to the equivalent blue magnitude of 21. An important addition is a program to collect extensive CCD calibration data in the Gunn gri system with the Palomar 60". This represents a considerable advance over other, currently existing optical sky surveys based on large-format photographic plates. A great variety of scientific projects should become possible using this major data set, including the following: studies of galaxy clustering and of the large-scale structure in the low-redshift universe, as tests of structure formation models; galaxy counts at moderate depth, as a function of magnitudes, colors, and morphology, to be used in tests of galaxy evolution over the past few Gigayears; a search for high redshift (z > 4) quasars, and active galactic nuclei at lower redshifts; mass optical identifications of radio, IR, and x-ray sources; generation of objectively defined catalogs of clusters and groups of galaxies; a search for previously unknown sparse globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies; cataloging of low surface brightness galaxies; a search for objects with peculiar colors or variability; and many others. In particular, we review efforts to perform automatic galaxy classification using artificial neural network image classifiers. This powerful technique is used to map a multivariate photometric parameter space to the revised Hubble system of galaxy classification. We present a new morphological classification approach using Fourier image models to identify barred and ringed spiral systems.

  12. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  13. The AstroHDF Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-09-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

  14. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  15. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  16. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  17. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Effort-Reward Imbalance for Learning Is Associated with Fatigue in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Sanae; Yamano, Emi; Joudoi, Takako; Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawatani, Junko; Takano, Miyuki; Tomoda, Akemi; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Miike, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We examined relationships among fatigue, sleep quality, and effort-reward imbalance for learning in school children. We developed an effort-reward for learning scale in school students and examined its reliability and validity. Self-administered surveys, including the effort reward for leaning scale and fatigue scale, were completed by 1,023…

  1. Differentiating between types and levels of isokinetic knee musculature efforts.

    PubMed

    Almosnino, Sivan; Stevenson, Joan M; Day, Andrew G; Bardana, Davide D; Diaconescu, Elena D; Dvir, Zeevi

    2011-12-01

    This investigation assessed whether a measure of moment curve shape similarity, and a measure quantifying curve magnitude differences, enables differentiation between types (sincere vs. feigned) and levels (maximal vs. submaximal) of effort exerted during isokinetic testing of the knee. Healthy participants (n=37) performed four sets of six concentric knee extension-flexion repetitions on two occasions. The sets consisted of: (1) maximal effort; (2) self-perceived 75% of maximal effort; (3) self-perceived 50% of maximal effort; and (4) a set attempting to feign injury. Average cross-correlation and percent root mean square difference values were computed between moment curves in each direction. Logistic regression was used to derive decision rules for differentiating between maximal and submaximal effort levels; and between sincere and feigned effort types. Using a cutoff criteria corresponding to 100% specificity, maximal effort production could be ascertained with 96% sensitivity within the sample. Feigned efforts, however, could be ascertained with only 31% sensitivity due to overlap with sincere submaximal effort. Using the proposed models, clinicians may be able to ascertain whether maximal efforts were produced during isokinetic knee musculature testing. Additionally, evidence regarding participant's intentions with regard to influencing test results may be gauged, although to a lesser extent. PMID:21925901

  2. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  3. How Does the Effort Spent to Hold a Door Affect Verbal Thanks and Reciprocal Help?

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Glenn R.; Araujo, Helder Filipe; Metke, Michael J.; Shafer, Chris; Damasio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    When someone holds a door for us we often respond with a verbal “thanks.” But given such a trivial favor, our feelings can vary considerably depending on how the door is held. Studies have shown that verbal thanking increases in relation to door-holding effort. However, it is unclear how such a favor can lead to verbal thanks in addition to reciprocal help. We examined how holding a door in an effortful or non-effortful manner relates to verbal thanking and reciprocal helping. We measured: (1) whether participants verbally thanked the experimenter, (2) whether they agreed to help another person by taking a survey, and (3) whether they helped pick up objects (pens) that the door-holder subsequently dropped. Participants in the effortful condition were more likely to offer verbal thanks, to help pick up the pens, and to walk a greater distance to pick them up. Participants who thanked the door-holder, however, were not more likely to provide help. PMID:26617559

  4. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  5. National Geodetic Survey Gravity Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moose, R. E.

    1986-12-01

    In 1966, the U.S. National Gravity Base Network was established through the cooperative efforts of several government agencies and academic institutions involved in nationwide gravity observations. The network was reobserved between 1975 and 1979 by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) using field procedures designed to give high-quality gravity differences. The report discusses the adjustment and the areas where apparent gravity change was observed. NGS plans to densify and maintain this network and to improve the accuracy of the station values by additional high-quality relative ties and by making observations with a new, absolute gravity meter in each of the states.

  6. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  7. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  8. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  9. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  10. Drug Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.; And Others

    Results of a survey of student perceptions of drugs and drug use that was conducted at Bowie State College are presented. Studies that have been conducted on college students' use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the last five years are reviewed, along with additional studies relating to the general population and the following drugs:…

  11. Implementation of softcopy photogrammetric workstations at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalet, C.D.; Lee, G.Y.G.; Ladner, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has provided the Nation with primary quadrangle maps and map products for the last 50 years. The Survey recently completed initial coverage of the conterminous United States and Hawaii at 1:24 000 scale. In Alaska, complete coverage exists at 1:63 360 scale. Effort is underway to build a National Digital Cartographic Data Base (NDCDB) composed of the digital representation of these and other map series. In addition the Survey plans to meet the demand for more current and complete data through the development and promotion of spatial data standards in cooperation with other Federal, State, local and private organizations. -from Authors

  12. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  13. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  14. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  15. Production of imagery-derived maps to aid the Japanese earthquake/tsunami relief effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.; McKeown, Don; Raqueño, Nina; Cavilia, Steve; DeAngelis, Chris; Maitra, Sanjit; Sun, Weihua

    2011-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9 Tohoku earthquake and resulting tsunami struck off the coast of Japan. An estimated over 400,000 persons were displaced from their homes and the damage to the coastline and nearby urban areas was extensive. Additionally, the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused damage to the Fukushima Dai'ichi Nuclear Power Station. As part of the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters", the US Geological Survey coordinated a volunteer effort to aid in the response to the disaster. The goal of the project was to produce maps derived from civilian (NASA Landsat and ASTER) and commercially available (DigitalGlobe and GeoEye), high resolution satellite imagery to be delivered to the Japanese authorities. RIT, as part of our Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response (IPLER) program, was one of the organizations involved in this effort. This paper describes the timeline of the response, the challenges faced in this effort, the workflow developed, and the products that were distributed. Lessons learned from the response will also be described to aid the remote sensing community in preparing for responses to future natural disasters.

  16. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  17. Surveying Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  18. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding. PMID:12753348

  19. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  20. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  1. Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  2. Evaluation and development of an ED management model: an effort to optimize patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kelly S; Pemberton, Meg

    2013-09-01

    In 2008, the emergency department at Mary Washington Hospital was in the midst of a crisis marked by increasing volumes, increasing numbers of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, falling patient satisfaction numbers and a staff dissatisfied with ED leadership. The existing ED model of charge nurses, a nurse manager, and an administrative director was not working. The single nurse manager could not effectively manage the over 200 staff members he/she was assigned. Based upon the findings from the employee satisfaction survey the inability of the nurse managers to properly manage such large numbers of employees was at the core of the issue. Through benchmarking with a similar healthcare system, an evidence based leadership model was identified, developed, and implemented. The model included the addition of six patient care managers with 24-hour coverage in the department, led to a reduced number of direct reports per manager, and an increased connection with employees. The goal was to engage employees in the effort to provide patient centered, quality care. Residual benefits of our change effort improved the patient satisfaction scores as evidenced by meeting organizational goals within 12 months; goal was exceeded in the following year. Additionally, the walk out rate was reduced 75% over 18 months. The correlation between satisfied employees, patient satisfaction, and reduced walk-outs cannot be ignored. Engaged employees positively impact service and quality. PMID:23998226

  3. Suicide Prevention: Efforts To Increase Research and Education in Palliative Care. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Currently, the extent of palliative care instruction varies considerably across and within the three major phases of the physician education and training process. This analysis of current educational efforts in palliative care is based on information obtained from a survey conducted of all United States medical schools, surveys conducted on United…

  4. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  6. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  7. Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

  8. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  9. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  10. How Sixth Graders Perceive Effort and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; Compagnone, Nick

    1995-01-01

    The study described here examined whether using formative assessment would affect middle school physical education students' self-perceptions of effort and skill. Students completed questionnaires about effort and skill following assessment in various activities. Formative assessment did not affect students' self-perceptions. Students believed…

  11. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  12. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  13. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  14. Overview of NASA's Propulsion 21 Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Propulsion 21 technologies contribute to reducing CO2 and NO(x) emissions and noise. Integrated Government/Industry/University research efforts have produced promising initial technical results. Graduate students from 5 partnering universities will benefit from this collaborative research--> educating the future engineering workforce. Phase 2 Efforts scheduled to be completed 3QFY06.

  15. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  16. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  17. Digitised optical sky surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGillivray, H. T.

    1990-12-01

    Contents: 1. The Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. 2. The status of the UKST surveys. 3. A proposal for the construction of a 150/220-cm Schmidt Telescope and processing facilities in China. 4. The measuring machines - a world roundup. 5. Reports from the individual machine groups. 6. A progress report on the APS catalog of POSS I. 7. The ROE/NRL collaborative effort on the COSMOS/UKST survey material. 8. Automated optical identification of IRAS Faint Source Survey Objects. 9. A catalogue of the North Galactic Pole. 10. The need for standard data sets. 11. Programmes on plate calibration. 12. Automated image measuring system. 13. Astronomical image data compression. 14. Opportunities for image compression in astronomy. 15. The Loiano 152 cm telescope CCD images archive. 16. PPM: a reference star catalogue for sky surveys. 17. Announcement: Second Meeting on Digitised Optical Sky Surveys.

  18. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

  19. College Completion: Additional Efforts Could Help Education with Its Completion Goals. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Because of concerns that not enough students who start college are completing a bachelor's degree, and in response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the extent to which students who enroll in a 4-year college complete a bachelor's degree and the factors that affect completion. The study also investigated what…

  20. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  1. The role of physical habitat and sampling effort on estimates of benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness at basin and site scales.

    PubMed

    Silva, Déborah R O; Ligeiro, Raphael; Hughes, Robert M; Callisto, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Taxonomic richness is one of the most important measures of biological diversity in ecological studies, including those with stream macroinvertebrates. However, it is impractical to measure the true richness of any site directly by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of sampling effort on estimates of macroinvertebrate family and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) genera richness at two scales: basin and stream site. In addition, we tried to determine which environmental factors at the site scale most influenced the amount of sampling effort needed. We sampled 39 sites in the Cerrado biome (neotropical savanna). In each site, we obtained 11 equidistant samples of the benthic assemblage and multiple physical habitat measurements. The observed basin-scale richness achieved a consistent estimation from Chao 1, Jack 1, and Jack 2 richness estimators. However, at the site scale, there was a constant increase in the observed number of taxa with increased number of samples. Models that best explained the slope of site-scale sampling curves (representing the necessity of greater sampling effort) included metrics that describe habitat heterogeneity, habitat structure, anthropogenic disturbance, and water quality, for both macroinvertebrate family and EPT genera richness. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering basin- and site-scale sampling effort in ecological surveys and that taxa accumulation curves and richness estimators are good tools for assessing sampling efficiency. The physical habitat explained a significant amount of the sampling effort needed. Therefore, future studies should explore the possible implications of physical habitat characteristics when developing sampling objectives, study designs, and calculating the needed sampling effort. PMID:27165604

  2. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  3. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-12-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  4. Smokers’ and Nonsmokers’ Beliefs About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: Implications for FDA Communication Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release information to the public about harmful constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. To inform these efforts, we sought to better understand how smokers and nonsmokers think about tobacco constituents. Methods: In October 2012, 300U.S. adults aged 18–66 years completed a cross-sectional Internet survey. The questions focused on 20 harmful tobacco constituents that the FDA has prioritized for communicating with the public. Results: Most participants had heard of 7 tobacco constituents (ammonia, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and nicotine), but few participants had heard of the others (e.g., acrolein). Few participants correctly understood that many constituents were naturally present in tobacco. Substances that companies add to cigarette tobacco discouraged people from wanting to smoke more than substances that naturally occur in cigarette smoke (p < .001). Ammonia, arsenic, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde being in cigarettes elicited the most discouragement from smoking. Constituents elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke if respondents were nonsmokers (β = −.34, p < .05), had negative images of smokers (i.e., negative smoker prototypes; β = .19, p < .05), believed constituents are added to tobacco (β = .14, p < .05), or were older (β = .16, p < .05). Conclusions: Our study found low awareness of most tobacco constituents, with greater concern elicited by additives. Efforts to communicate health risks of tobacco constituents should consider focusing on ones that elicited the most discouragement from smoking. PMID:24151139

  5. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period. PMID:24868493

  6. A Multi-Phased Sampling Effort to Characterize a University TRIGA Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.E.; Holm, R.L.

    2006-07-01

    A radiological characterization project was conducted at the University of Illinois (University) TRIGA research nuclear reactor in July 2005 as part of the long-term facility decommissioning project. The characterization effort included multiple survey and sampling techniques designed to assess both contamination of the reactor building and equipment and activation of reactor components and the reactor bio-shield. Radiation measurements included alpha and beta surface contamination measurements, gamma dose rate measurements, and gross gamma radiation measurements. Modeling was conducted based on the field measurements to predict concentrations of activation products in reactor components that were not directly sampled. The sampling effort included collecting removable contamination swipes, concrete samples from the reactor room floor and bio-shield, soil samples from below and around the perimeter of the reactor building, graphite samples from graphite moderator, and metal samples from reactor components. Concrete samples were obtained using an innovative technology that allowed for quick sample collection and analysis. Concrete, soil, graphite, and metal samples were analyzed on-site using liquid scintillation counters and gamma spectroscopy. Additional samples were sent off-site for analysis. (authors)

  7. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps.

    PubMed

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland; Ding, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period. PMID:24868493

  8. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  9. Anticipated effort in imagined self-rotation.

    PubMed

    Macramalla, Steven; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronometric studies provide strong support that mental imagery recruits perceptual processes [Shepard and Cooper, 1982 Mental Images and Their Transformations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. Recent studies suggest that anticipated effort influences perception (Proffitt et al, 2003 Psychological Science 14 106-112). If anticipated effort influences perception and perception supports imagery, then anticipated effort may influence imagery. To examine the role of effort in mental imagery, participants in experiment 1 imagined self-rotation across two conditions of distance. Simulated rotation took 156 ms longer in larger settings, even though the amount of imagined angular rotation was the same in both settings. This finding suggests the start-to-goal arc is incorporated when imagining rotation through a given angle. Experiment 2 replicated the distance effect (232 ms) and added a variable for load. Simulated rotation took 167 ms longer with imaginary heavy loads. The results suggest that both spatial metrics and anticipated effort may play a role in the coding of mental imagery. PMID:19323138

  10. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    recovery observations of a few very faint high-PS objects, and the follow-up observations of recently discovered objects during the outgoing phase of their apparition, down to magnitude 25 or so. Most of these observations were obtained within an accepted DDT proposal of an ESA/ESO team, which gives us access on short notice to the observational capabilities of the 8.2 meter Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The instrument has been used to successfully detect targets fainter than V=25, and provide high-accuracy astrometry which in most cases has been sufficient to remove the impact solutions from the allowed future dynamics of the object. As a main focus of our activities at the ESA NEOCC we are also actively soliciting observations of NEOs by other worldwide observers which are known to have access to the most appropriate facilities for each target (in terms of telescope aperture, camera FoV and/or geographic location). We will also quickly summarize the results of some of these activities. In the second part of this contribution, we will present the result of a focused precovery effort by our team, which led to the identification, measurement and submission of previously unrecognized archival detections of possible impactors, most of which scored particularly high in the PS ranking, but would nevertheless have been unobservable for the imminent future. We will discuss a couple of interesting cases which could be entirely excluded as a risk thanks to the addition of faint detections we located in data from the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and an interesting case of a ''chain of precoveries'' where a first short-arc precovery allowed for the identification of additional observations obtained more than a decade earlier, which in turn lead to the elimination of the impact risk from that object. We will also discuss how a real time access to the data of current surveys like Pan-STARRS can allow almost immediate precovery observations of recently

  11. Extragalactic HI surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  12. Efforts to improve international migration statistics: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kraly, E P; Gnanasekaran, K S

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, the international statistical community has made several efforts to develop standards for the definition, collection and publication of statistics on international migration. This article surveys the history of official initiatives to standardize international migration statistics by reviewing the recommendations of the International Statistical Institute, International Labor Organization, and the UN, and reports a recently proposed agenda for moving toward comparability among national statistical systems. Heightening awareness of the benefits of exchange and creating motivation to implement international standards requires a 3-pronged effort from the international statistical community. 1st, it is essential to continue discussion about the significance of improvement, specifically standardization, of international migration statistics. The move from theory to practice in this area requires ongoing focus by migration statisticians so that conformity to international standards itself becomes a criterion by which national statistical practices are examined and assessed. 2nd, the countries should be provided with technical documentation to support and facilitate the implementation of the recommended statistical systems. Documentation should be developed with an understanding that conformity to international standards for migration and travel statistics must be achieved within existing national statistical programs. 3rd, the call for statistical research in this area requires more efforts by the community of migration statisticians, beginning with the mobilization of bilateral and multilateral resources to undertake the preceding list of activities. PMID:12280924

  13. Effort thrombosis: recognition and management while underway.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P B; MacGillivray, D C; Almond, M D

    1991-10-01

    Effort thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins is an uncommon cause of upper extremity swelling. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder is important in order to minimize the complications of pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic syndrome that can occur with this condition. This can be very challenging while underway or in the field. A sailor who developed effort vein thrombosis while underway on board the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln is presented to review the presentation and management of this disorder, particularly as it applies to active duty military personnel. PMID:1749504

  14. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  15. Effects of Response Effort on Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Glassford, Tyler S; Koerkenmeier, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined response effort during resurgence tests. Six children were trained to place balls in baskets that were placed either close (.0254 m) or far away (1.829 m or .9 m). Resurgence was assessed using a linear strip design, where responses were reinforced on a variable-interval 10-s schedule or put on extinction. During resurgence tests, minimal to low rates of resurgence associated with the greater response effort (i.e., placing a ball in the basket further way) were observed across all six participants, regardless of distance. PMID:27606253

  16. NATIONAL STREAM SURVEY DATABASE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Stream Survey (NSS), conducted in the spring of 1985 and 1986, is one component of the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's National Surface Water Survey. This effort is in support of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. he NSS was a synoptic, spring ...

  17. Survey of MHD plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. J.; Seikel, G. R.; Cutting, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Open-cycle MHD is one of the major R&D efforts in the Department of Energy's program to meet the national goal of reducing U.S. dependence on oil through increased utilization of coal. MHD offers an effective way to use coal to produce electric power at low cost in a highly efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Open-cycle MHD plants are categorized by the MHD combustor oxidizer, its temperature and the method of preheat. The paper discusses MHD baseline plant design, open-cycle MHD plant in the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), early commercial MHD plants, conceptual studies of the engineering test facility, retrofit (addition of an MHD topping cycle to an existing steam plant), and other potential applications and concepts. Emphasis is placed on a survey of both completed and ongoing studies to define both commercial and pilot plant design, cost, and performance.

  18. Survey of holographic security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  19. Survey of numerical electrostimulation models.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick

    2016-06-21

    This paper evaluates results of a survey of electrostimulation models of myelinated nerve. Participants were asked to determine thresholds of excitation for 18 cases involving different characteristics of the neuron, the stimulation waveform, and the electrode arrangement. Responses were received from 7 investigators using 10 models. Excitation thresholds differed significantly among these models. For example, with a 2 ms monophasic stimulus pulse and an electrode/fiber distance of 1 cm, thresholds from the least to greatest value differed by a factor of 8.3; with a 5 μs pulse, thresholds differed by the factor 3.8. Significant differences in reported simulations point to the need for experimental validation. Additional efforts are needed to develop computational models for unmyelinated C-fibers, A-delta fibers, CNS neurons, and CNS Synapses. PMID:27223870

  20. Survey of numerical electrostimulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This paper evaluates results of a survey of electrostimulation models of myelinated nerve. Participants were asked to determine thresholds of excitation for 18 cases involving different characteristics of the neuron, the stimulation waveform, and the electrode arrangement. Responses were received from 7 investigators using 10 models. Excitation thresholds differed significantly among these models. For example, with a 2 ms monophasic stimulus pulse and an electrode/fiber distance of 1 cm, thresholds from the least to greatest value differed by a factor of 8.3; with a 5 μs pulse, thresholds differed by the factor 3.8. Significant differences in reported simulations point to the need for experimental validation. Additional efforts are needed to develop computational models for unmyelinated C-fibers, A-delta fibers, CNS neurons, and CNS Synapses.

  1. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs—such as physical effort or outcome risk—are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive—not physical—effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26586084

  2. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  3. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  4. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  5. Current Environmental Efforts in Ohio School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Timothy Alan

    In an effort to better describe the environmental education needs of the secondary schools in the State of Ohio, this thesis sought to determine whether or not Ohio high schools were incorporating environmental education into their curricula. Educators from 100 randomly selected high schools were administered questionnaires in 1982-83, and again…

  6. Restructuring Schooling: Learning from Ongoing Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Hallinger, Philip, Ed.

    Popular demands for school restructuring are increasingly common. This book is designed for diverse audiences who are interested in school improvement. Chapter 1, "Restructuring: In Search of a Movement" (Joseph Murphy), provides a historical and conceptual framework of restructuring efforts. Chapter 2, "Feeling the Ripples, Riding the Waves"…

  7. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  8. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  9. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  10. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs. PMID:1324990

  11. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  12. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  13. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions.

  14. Ten Ways to Improve NIE Development Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James R.

    The National Institute of Education (NIE) should consider the following observations when implementing curriculum development projects: (1) NIE should support curriculum development in the areas of national need, but more effort should be directed to improving existing instructional materials; (2) NIE-supported materials have not been widely…

  15. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  16. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  18. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  19. Are We Expecting Enough Effort from Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A recent study comparing Asian and American students identified three factors that contribute to superior performance of elementary school children. These are: (1) amount of class time devoted to academics and direct instruction; (2) parent support of academic activities; and (3) student effort. The study and its findings are discussed. (MT)

  20. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  1. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  2. Effort-reward imbalance at work and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Working conditions and employment arrangements make a significant contribution to the burden of cardiovascular disease, in particular in modern societies where mental and emotional demands and threats are becoming widespread. Occupational research has identified health-adverse features of modern work with the help of theoretical models. One such model, effort-reward imbalance, has been developed by this author and his group and has been widely tested in epidemiological and experimental studies. The model claims that stressful experience at work is elicited by a lack of reciprocity between efforts spent at work and rewards received in return, where rewards include money, promotion prospects, job security, and esteem. Results demonstrate elevated risks of coronary heart disease among employees exposed to effort-reward imbalance. Moreover, in ambulatory and experimental investigations, elevated heart rate and blood pressure and altered secretion of stress hormones were observed under these conditions. Although additional scientific evidence is needed, available findings call for practical measures towards improving quality of work, most importantly at the level of single companies and organisations. This conclusion is supported by first results from intervention studies that are guided by this theoretical approach. In view of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to unfavourable working conditions, such efforts are well justified and need to be extended in order to promote healthy work. PMID:20934954

  3. MBA Students' Preparedness for Enterpreneurial Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thandi, Harch; Sharma, Raj

    2004-01-01

    This is a survey of MBA students' preparedness for launching new business initiatives or other entrepreneurial activities. It explores the readiness of the MBA students, estimated on dimensions comprising knowledge, attitude, skills,experience, opportunity and networks. The variation of the postgraduate students' perceptions along these six…

  4. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  5. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  6. Micromechanical Modeling Efforts for Advanced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA Lewis Research Center's in-house efforts in analytical modeling for advanced composites have yielded several computational predictive tools. These are, in general, based on simplified micromechanics equations. During the last 3 years, our efforts have been directed primarily toward developing prediction tools for high temperature ceramic matrix composite (CMC's) materials. These materials are being considered for High Speed Research program applications, specifically for combustor liners. In comparison to conventional materials, CMC's offer several advantages: high specific stiffness and strength, and higher toughness and nonbrittle failure in comparison to monolithic ceramics, as well as environmental stability and wear resistance for both roomtemperature and elevated-temperature applications. Under the sponsorship of the High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP), CMC analytical modeling has resulted in the computational tool Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer (CEMCAN).

  7. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  8. Measures of Effortful Regulation for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2005-01-01

    Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395

  9. Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)

  10. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  11. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  12. Blowout control efforts continue off Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Greenhill Petroleum Corp., Houston, last week stepped up efforts to control a workover blowout in Timbalier Bay field off Lafourche Parish, La. The blowout occurred as Blake Drilling and Workover Co., Belle Chasse, La., was deepening the Gulf of Mexico well. Plans called for abandoning Miocene D-4 sand perforations at 8,683-86 ft and 8,696-8,706 ft and recompleting in Miocene D-6 sand at 8,802-28 ft.

  13. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  14. Business-led efforts to control costs.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1991-07-29

    Business-led initiatives to compare medical quality and prices are becoming commonplace as employers seek ways to cap medical expenses. But employers are meeting with varying degrees of cooperation from hospitals. The tale of two cities' efforts to pry open the secrets of controlling costs provides a vivid contrast in the way purchasers have tried to solve the cost-containment puzzle. PMID:10111874

  15. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  16. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  17. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  18. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account. PMID:17892331

  19. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

    PubMed

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed. PMID:19594247

  20. Context Matters: Practitioner Perspectives on Immunization Delivery Quality Improvement Efforts.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Janet A; Briccetti, Christine; Zook, Kathleen; Gillespie, Catherine W; Gubernick, Ruth S; Moon, Rachel Y; Fu, Linda Y

    2016-08-01

    Uneven adherence to immunization guidelines might leave some communities vulnerable to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. To examine factors related to implementation of immunization delivery best practices, we analyzed responses to monthly surveys and debriefing interviews from 16 diverse pediatric practices engaged in a year-long virtual learning collaborative. The collaborative provided a toolkit, online learning sessions, performance feedback, and conference calls with a quality improvement coach. Participants used iterative plan-do-study-act cycles to implement self-selected changes in immunization practices. Descriptive statistics were applied to quantitative data; qualitative data were analyzed using a framework approach. Impediments to implementing guidelines included difficulties with electronic record systems, rigid management structures, competing priorities, and parental resistance. Facilitators included linkage with regional immunization registries, positive social interactions, and performance feedback. Findings suggest that improving immunization delivery requires not only awareness of recommendations and training in improvement methods but also efforts to ameliorate contextual factors that impede immunization delivery. PMID:26743455

  1. Men’s Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood1

    PubMed Central

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H.; Hynes, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort. PMID:20221306

  2. Commercialization effort in support of electroslag-casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an effort to revive interest in the electroslag casting (ESC) of components in the United States. The ESC process is an extension of a well established electroslag-remelting (ESR) process. Both processes use the electrode of a material that is continuously melted and cast in a water-cooled copper mold. For simple shapes, the mold can be movable, allowing the continuous casting of long lengths. In an effort to revive US industries` interest in ESC, the following approaches were taken: (1) US industries with prior experience in ESC or currently operating an ESR unit were contacted, followed up with telephone conversation, and/or sent copies of prior published reports on the topic, and, in some cases, personal visits were made; (2) with two companies, a potential interest in ESC was worked out by initially conducting ESR; and (3) to further strengthen the industrial interest, the newly developed iron-aluminide alloy, FA-129, was chosen as the material of choice for this study. The two industrial companies that worked with ORNL were Special Metals Corporation (New Hartford, New York) and Precision Rolled Products, Inc. (PRP) [Florham Park, New Jersey]. Even with its advantages, a survey of the industry indicated that ESC technology has a very limited chance of advancement in the United States. However, the processing of rounds and slabs by the ESR process is a well established commercial technology and will continue to expand. 16 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs.

  3. Agricultural safety efforts by county health departments in Wisconsin.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Wilkinson, T L; Skjolaas, C A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to improve the agriculture safety prevention efforts of county health departments in Wisconsin by examining current programs, staffs' perceptions of the farm safety problem, and the need for new resources. METHODS: A survey instrument was completed by a professional staff member of the local health department in each of Wisconsin's 69 counties. RESULTS: Usable responses were obtained from 84% of the counties. Forty-five percent of the responding staff members conducted some agricultural safety and health programs, most often health screenings or group meetings conducted collaboratively with county agricultural Extension agents. There were no major differences in county demographics or other service provision variables between staff members who conducted programs and those who did not. Staff members perceived the largest barriers to better safety as lack of staff time and difficulty getting farmers to attend safety programs. Most failed to place more emphasis on training agricultural workers to permanently correct hazards than on training them to work safely around hazards. However, the staff members ranked safety inspection checklists as the most needed new material and ranked Extension agents and farmers as the most appropriate people to conduct inspections using such checklists. CONCLUSION: County public health professionals want more staff time and new materials to increase the effectiveness of their agricultural safety efforts. Encouraging agricultural workers and family members to identify and correct hazards would be a more effective use of staff time than training people to work safely around hazards. PMID:8837633

  4. State Efforts to Reduce the Paperwork Burden of Categorical Education Programs. Research Report EPRC 4537-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Meredith A.

    An exploratory survey was conducted of efforts made by selected state educational agencies (SEAs) to reduce the administrative and paperwork burden of federal and state categorical programs. SEAs were selected that were known to be making special grants management efforts and lengthy telephone interviews were conducted with the officials who were…

  5. NIST Efforts to Quality-Assure Gunpowder Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Reardon, Michelle R.

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has been promoting the idea of quantitatively determining the additives in smokeless gunpowder using micellar capillary electrophoresis as a means of investigating the criminal use of hand guns and pipe bombs. As a part of this effort, we have evaluated both supercritical fluid and ultrasonic solvent extractions for the quantitative recovery of nitroglycerin (NG), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NnDPA), and ethyl centralite (EC) from gunpowder. Recoveries were evaluated by repeat extraction and matrix spiking experiments. The final extraction protocol provides greater than 95 percent recoveries. To help other researches validate their own analytical method for additive determinations, NIST is exploring the development of a standard reference material, Additives in Smokeless Gunpowder. The evaluated method is being applied to two double-base (NG-containing) powders, one stabilized with diphenylamine and the other with ethyl centralite. As part of this reference material development effort, we are conducting an interlaboratory comparison exercise among the forensic and military gunpowder measurement community.

  6. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  7. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  8. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Update and Additions to the Determination of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Degradation Compounds in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, E.A.; Kish, J.L.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 for the analysis of selected chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water. These compounds were acetochlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. The HPLC/MS method was updated in 2000, and the method detection limits were modified accordingly. Four other degradation compounds also were added to the list of compounds that can be analyzed using HPLC/MS; these compounds were dimethenamid ESA, dimethenamid OXA, flufenacet ESA, and flufenacet OXA. Except for flufenacet OXA, good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for the updated HPLC/MS method in buffered reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the degradation compounds from water samples spiked at 0.20 and 1.0 ?g/L (microgram per liter) ranged from 75 to 114 percent, with relative standard deviations of 15.8 percent or less for all compounds except flufenacet OXA, which had relative standard deviations ranging from 11.3 to 48.9 percent. Method detection levels (MDL's) using the updated HPLC/MS method varied from 0.009 to 0.045 ?g/L, with the flufenacet OXA MDL at 0.072 ?g/L. The updated HPLC/MS method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  9. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad

    PubMed Central

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  10. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  11. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  12. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.

    PubMed

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  13. Respiratory effort energy estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Yavari, Ehsan; Young, Jared; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Stickley, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory effort can be harvested to power wearable biosensors and mobile electronic devices. The very first step toward designing a harvester is to estimate available energy and power. This paper describes an estimation of the available power and energy due to the movements of the torso during breathing, using Doppler radar by detecting breathing rate, torso displacement, torso movement velocity and acceleration along the sagittal movement of the torso. The accuracy of the detected variables is verified by two reference methods. The experimental result obtained from a healthy female human subject shows that the available power from circumferential movement can be higher than the power from the sagittal movement. PMID:23365993

  14. Fluctuations in neighbourhood fertility generate variable signalling effort

    PubMed Central

    Taff, Conor C.; Patricelli, Gail L.; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of sexual signalling generally focus on interactions between dyadic pairs, yet communication in natural populations often occurs in the context of complex social networks. The ability to survey social environments and adjust signal production appropriately should be a critical component of success in these systems, but has rarely been documented empirically. Here, we used autonomous recording devices to identify 118 472 songs produced by 26 male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) over two breeding seasons, coupled with detailed surveys of social conditions on each territory. We found strong evidence that common yellowthroat males adjusted their total song production in response to both changes in within-pair social context and changes in the fertility of neighbouring females up to 400 m away. Within the social pair, males drastically reduced their song production when mated, but the magnitude of this reduction depended on both the time of day and on the fertility status of the social mate. By contrast, when fertile females were present on nearby territories, males increased their song output, especially during daytime singing. At this time, it is unclear whether males actively gathered information on neighbouring female fertility or whether the patterns that we observed were driven by changes in social interactions that varied with neighbourhood fertility. Regardless of the mechanism employed, however, subtle changes in the social environment generated substantial variation in signalling effort. PMID:25339717

  15. Overview of the Langley subsonic research effort on SCR configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Thomas, J. D.; Huffman, J. K.; Weston, R. P.; Schoonover, W. E., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances achieved in the subsonic aerodynamics of low aspect ratio, highly swept wing designs are summarized. The most significant of these advances was the development of leading edge deflection concepts which effectively reduce leading edge flow separation. The improved flow attachment results in substantial improvements in low speed performance, significant delay of longitudinal pitch up, increased trailing edge flap effectiveness, and increased lateral control capability. Various additional theoretical and/or experimental studies are considered which, in conjunction with the leading edge deflection studies, form the basis for future subsonic research effort.

  16. Examining One High School's Restructuring Efforts within "Garbage Can" Decision Making Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, John V.

    A study examined decision making within one large urban high school's restructuring efforts, using an emergent qualitative case-study design. Data, collected over a 2-year period, included formal and informal interviews, participant and nonparticipant observations, surveys, and documents. Results of data analysis supported matching the "garbage…

  17. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  18. A National Study of Retention Effort at Institutions with Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Joseph T.; Eddy, John Paul

    1990-01-01

    This survey of accredited Registered Nurse Baccalaureate Degree programs in the United States sought to determine the status of retention efforts at these institutions. Results showed that the presence of retention programs at colleges and universities with nursing programs increased the retention rate significantly. (TE)

  19. Ambiguity about Preparation for Workforce Clouds Efforts to Equip Students for Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Preparing students to succeed in the workforce is increasingly seen as a key to global competitiveness. But employers aren't sending clear-cut answers on what young people need to know and be able to do on the job. In efforts to obtain information about workforce readiness, various agencies sent out surveys to various employers. One such agency is…

  20. From the Grassroots: Case Studies of Eight Rural Self-Development Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Jan L.; And Others

    Grassroots efforts were examined through a survey of 103 self-development projects across the United States, enriched by an indepth study of 8 successful and unsuccessful cases. They were as follows: Revolving Loan Fund, Mankato, Kansas; Orofino Unlimited, Orofino, Idaho; Center for Industry, Rome, Georgia; Windmill Market Farm and Craft Co-op,…

  1. Playing Exergames in the Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation, Passion, Effort, and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' experience, motivation, passion, effort, and perspectives in playing exergames in the classroom using the self-determination theory as the main theoretical framework. One hundred forty preservice teachers participated in the study. A mixed method was used. Data included pre-survey and post-survey…

  2. How Safe? The Status of State Efforts To Protect Children in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    Based on the view that strong state child care licensing policies can influence the quality of child care and thereby enhance children's health and development, this report examines the status of state efforts to improve the quality of child care programs. Almost all data were collected for a 1993 Parenting Magazine survey, and were verified by…

  3. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  4. Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

  5. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  6. Final Technical Report; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING RECRUITMENT EFFORT

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrick, Sharon S.; Vincent, Charles D.

    2007-07-02

    This report provides the summary of a project whose purpose was to support the costs of developing a nuclear engineering awareness program, an instruction program for teachers to integrate lessons on nuclear science and technology into their existing curricula, and web sites for the exchange of nuclear engineering career information and classroom materials. The specific objectives of the program were as follows: OBJECTIVE 1: INCREASE AWARENESS AND INTEREST OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; OBJECTIVE 2: INSTRUCT TEACHERS ON NUCLEAR TOPICS; OBJECTIVE 3: NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMS WEB-SITE; OBJECTIVE 4: SUPPORT TO UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY MATCHING GRANTS AND REACTOR SHARING; OBJECTIVE 5: PILOT PROJECT; OBJECTIVE 6: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING ENROLLMENT SURVEY AT UNIVERSITIES

  7. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Notification Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    To encourage wide use of the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data, especially among the scientific community, special notifications were prepared to inform them about the data's availability, its form, and the procedures for obtaining them. To achieve the widest distribution to the primary audiences of interest, mailings were made to scientists associated with the OSTA Resource Observation Division programs and to scientific and professional societies and journals. Accompanying the notifications to the societies and journals were samples of the HCMM imagery and a description of the image's predominant characteristics. A follow-up survey was completed to determine the effectiveness of the HCMM notifications.

  8. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  9. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  10. Spatial patterns of fishing effort off San Diego: implications for zonal management and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Parnell, P Ed; Dayton, Paul K; Fisher, Rachelle A; Loarie, Cina C; Darrow, Ryan D

    2010-12-01

    The essence of ecosystem-based management is managing human practices to conserve the ecosystem. Ecologists focus on understanding the ecosystem, but there are fundamental information gaps including patterns of human exploitation. In particular, the spatial distribution of fishing effort must be known at the scales needed for ecologically relevant management. Fishing is a primary impact on coastal ecosystems, yet catch distribution at scales relevant to habitats and processes are not well known for many fisheries. Here we utilized photographic time series, logbook records, and angler surveys to estimate the intensity and spatial pattern of commercial and recreational fishing. Effort was clearly aggregated for most types of fishing, the motivating factors for effort distribution varied among areas, and effort was coupled or uncoupled to habitat depending on the area and type of fishing. We estimated that approximately 60% and approximately 74% of private recreational and recreational charter vessel fishing effort, respectively, were concentrated into two small areas that also included approximately 78% of commercial sea urchin effort. Exploitation and effort were considerably greater in one kelp forest, which has important implications for patterns of kelp persistence, productivity, and ecosystem function. Areas subject to the greatest recreational fishing pressure appeared to have lower diversity. Our results indicate that fine-scale patterns of fishing effort and exploitation have profound consequences for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. 'Ecosystem-based management of nearshore ecosystems depends on an understanding of the fine-scale patterns of exploitation. PMID:21265452

  11. Peculiarities of standardization efforts for lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitkamp, Klaus C. H.; Nikowa, Ljuba A.

    1997-12-01

    Lidar, and in particular, differential absorption and scattering lidar or DIAL have today reached a high degree of maturity. It now appears appropriate that efforts be taken in the direction of standardization of the technique and assurance and control of the quality of its results. To this end the German Commission on Air Pollution of VDI and DIN established a working group whose task was to prepare a set of recommendations for the use and operation of lidar systems. This group now completed, as a first result, a guideline for the use of differential absorption and scattering lidar for gas concentration measurements. Peculiarities associated with such a task are presented, and the contents of the draft of the resulting guideline VDI 4210 Part 1 are discussed.

  12. National Virtual Observatory Efforts at SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Deponte, J.; Evans, I.; Harris, M.; Lowe, S.; McDowell, J. C.; Noble, M. S.

    The National Virtual Observatory (NVO) project is an effort to federate astronomical resources, to provide seamless access to heterogeneous data at various centers throughout the world, and make them appear to the user as a homogeneous set. The NVO will reduce the user's need to obtain, recall and manage details such as passwords, band coverage, instrument specificity and access methodologies for each archive site in order to get and analyze data. The project will employ Grid technology and distributed computing techniques to manage enormous data volumes and processing needs. At the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), we are developing a small scale prototype implementation of the NVO paradigm. This demonstration will illustrate the directions being pursued toward this goal by allowing a user to request data from various resources, display the returned data, and interactively perform analysis on that data.

  13. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  14. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  15. VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

  16. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  17. Brief report: Peer group influences and adolescent internalizing problems as mediated by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. PMID:25863002

  18. "Suntelligence" Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  19. SinoProbe: China's new effort to explore the crust and upper mantle beneath continental China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.; Zeng, L.; Klemperer, S. L.; Liu, M.; Gao, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sinoprobe is a new and ambitious effort funded by the Chinese government to study the composition, structure, and evolution of the crust and upper mantle beneath continental China, to survey large-scale mineralization and energy resources, and to improve the understanding of earth structures need for better assessment and mitigation of geohazards. The initial phase of Sinoprobe is a 5-year (2008-2012) experimental program that includes eight technical components: 1) a magnetotellurics observational network, 2) seismic imaging along selected profiles across China, 3) targeted studies of mineral resources, 4) a geochemical observatory, 5) continental scientific drilling, 6) stress and strain measurements, 7) geodynamic modeling, and 8) data integration and data infrastructure development. The full-scale Sinoprobe will be launched in 2012, upon successful completion of the current exploratory phase. In addition to provide the critical information for mineral and energy resources and geohazards mitigation, Sinoprobe aspires to accelerate geosciences research and education in China. Sinoprobe is managed by the Ministry of Land and Resources, and led by the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences.

  20. High-resolution and LIDAR imaging support to the Haiti earthquake relief effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.; van Aardt, Jan; McKeown, Don; Casterline, May; Faulring, Jason; Raqueño, Nina; Basener, Bill; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program (WASP) is an imaging system designed, built, and operated by the RIT Center for Imaging Science. The system consists of four cameras: a high resolution color camera and SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR cameras. When flown with our corporate partners, Kucera International, the imaging system is combined with a high-resolution LIDAR. This combination provides a full-spectrum, multimodal data collection platform unique to RIT. Under funding by the World Bank, the WASP system was used to image over 250 sq. mi. in Haiti (approximately 15,000 visible and 45,000 infrared frames) from January 21 - 27, 2010 in support of the earthquake relief efforts. Priorities of collection were the area surrounding Port au Prince, the city of Leogane, several other badly damaged towns, and, at the request of the USGS, a high resolution LIDAR collection over the fault line. The imagery was used in the field by disaster relief workers and by collaborators at the University of Buffalo and ImageCat, Inc. to perform building damage and road network trafficability assessments. Additionally, large area mosaics and semi-automatic processing algorithms were developed for value-added product development. In particular, a methodology was developed to extract the locations of blue tarps (indicative of displaced persons) from the images. All imagery was made available to the public through outlets such as Google Earth, the University of Buffalo, the US Geological Survey, the United Nations, and other sites.

  1. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health. PMID:24990431

  2. Survey Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  3. The Right to Read Effort in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Joseph S., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    The federal Right to Read program is funding five school-based reading programs for the third consecutive year in Ohio. In addition to money, Right to Read provides technical assistance and materials to each site. Ball State University coordinates Ohio's team. Dr. Joseph Nemeth is the federally appointed technical assistant for Ohio's five…

  4. Are Evaluation Activities Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    The casual approach to evaluation, the interface of evaluation and research, and various approaches subsumed within evaluation are addressed, and the dimensions that determine the worth of engaging in evaluation activities are examined. Additionally, a statement about the state-of-the-art in regard to the technology of conducting evaluation…

  5. Altering Effort Costs in Parkinson's Disease with Noninvasive Cortical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Salimpour, Yousef; Mari, Zoltan K.

    2015-01-01

    noninvasive cortical stimulation. In addition to reducing effort costs associated with the affected arm, the cortical stimulation also improved clinical motor symptoms of the disease. PMID:26338339

  6. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

  7. Musculoskeletal pain and effort-reward imbalance- a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question. Methods A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180–193, 2001). Results After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one case–control study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively. Conclusions On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on

  8. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  9. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  10. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent

  11. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  12. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  13. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  14. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  15. State of the Art in Off-Line Writer Identification of Handwritten Text and Survey of Writer Identification of Arabic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awaida, Sameh M.; Mahmoud, Sabri A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the state of the art in writer identification and verification of handwritten text. In addition, a special and extensive survey of writer identification and verification of Arabic handwritten text is also included. Different feature extraction techniques are addressed showing the different research groups' efforts as well…

  16. Remote sensing and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Paul

    Remotely sensed images provide emergency response officials and scientists with a unique perspective for assessing damage and targeting relief. These images also offer educators a unique, teachable moment for the classroom. In the classroom, an event such as Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August along the central U.S. Gulf Coast and prompted the flooding of much of New Orleans, Louisiana, can make Earth science relevant in a way that a daily lecture cannot.The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observations and Science (USGS/EROS) is the nation's central clearinghouse for visual, satellite, and land-surface data. EROS also is the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's organization for data distribution. When first responders expressed an urgent need for information to help determine the best way to save stranded homeowners in New Orleans—by either boat or truck, depending on how deep the floodwaters were—the EROS Emergency Response Team collated the data necessary to create a bathymetric map of the city.

  17. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  18. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  19. Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature

  20. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  1. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  4. Effort and Displeasure in People Who Are Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Matthen, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort helps explain why people who are hard of hearing are prone to fatigue and social withdrawal. However, a one-factor model that cites only effort due to hardness of hearing is insufficient as there are many who lead happy lives despite their disability. This article explores other contributory factors, in particular motivational arousal and pleasure. The theory of rational motivational arousal predicts that some people forego listening comprehension because they believe it to be impossible and hence worth no effort at all. This is problematic. Why should the listening task be rated this way, given the availability of aids that reduce its difficulty? Two additional factors narrow the explanatory gap. First, we separate the listening task from the benefit derived as a consequence. The latter is temporally more distant, and is discounted as a result. The second factor is displeasure attributed to the listening task, which increases listening cost. Many who are hard of hearing enjoy social interaction. In such cases, the actual activity of listening is a benefit, not a cost. These people also reap the benefits of listening, but do not have to balance these against the displeasure of the task. It is suggested that if motivational harmony can be induced by training in somebody who is hard of hearing, then the obstacle to motivational arousal would be removed. This suggests a modified goal for health care professionals. Do not just teach those who are hard of hearing how to use hearing assistance devices. Teach them how to do so with pleasure and enjoyment. PMID:27355767

  5. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  6. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

  7. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  8. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort in pediatric intensive care].

    PubMed

    Morales, V Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intensive care is a relatively new medical specialty, which has experienced significant technological advances in recent years. These developments have led to a prolongation of the dying process, with additional suffering for patients and their families, creating complex situations, and often causing a painful life extension. The term, limitation of the therapeutic effort refers to the adequacy and/or proportionality of the treatment, trying to avoid obstinacy and futility. The English literature does not talk about limitation of treatments, but instead the terms, withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, are used. The removal or the non-installation of certain life support measures and the absence of CPR are the types of limitation most used. Also, there is evidence of insufficient medical training in bioethics, which is essential, as most doctors in the PICU discuss and make decisions regarding the end of life without the opinion of bioethicists. This article attempts to review the current status of knowledge concerning the limitation of therapeutic efforts to support pediatric clinical work. PMID:26223400

  9. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775

  10. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Brian R; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-11-17

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775

  11. Efforts to Improve Immunization Coverage during Pregnancy among Ob-Gyns

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Carroll, Sarah; Hawks, Debra; McElwain, Cora-Ann; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background. Influenza and Tdap vaccines are vital factors for improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Methods. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted to determine whether the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (ACOG's) efforts to increase ob-gyn use of their immunization toolkits and vaccination administration were successful. Pre- and postintervention questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 1,500 ACOG members between August 2012 and July 2015. Results. Significantly more postintervention survey ob-gyns reported that they received the immunization toolkits than preintervention survey ob-gyns (84.5% versus 67.0%, p < .001). The large majority of ob-gyns from both surveys (76.9% versus 78.9%) reported that they offered or planned to offer influenza vaccinations to their patients for the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 flu seasons. Postintervention survey respondents were significantly more likely than preintervention survey participants to report that they routinely offer Tdap vaccinations to all patients during pregnancy (76.8% versus 59.3%, p < .001). Conclusion. ACOG's efforts to improve ob-gyn use of immunization toolkits and vaccine administration appear to have been successful in several ways. ACOG's toolkits are an example of an effective intervention to overcome barriers to offering vaccines and help improve influenza and Tdap immunization coverage for pregnant women. PMID:26924918

  12. A Coordinated Effort to Address Space Weather and Environment Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joe; Spann, James F.; Edward, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Gallagher, Dennis; Xapos, Mike; DeGroh, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for coordination of the many aspects of space environments is directly related to our increasing dependence on space assets. An obvious result is that there is a need for a coordinated effort to organize and make accessible the increasing number of space environment products that include space environment models and observations, material testing, and forecasting tools. This paper outlines a concept to establish a NASA-level Applied Spaceflight Environments (ASE) office that will provide coordination and funding for sustained multi-program support in three technical areas; (1) natural environments characterization and modeling, (2) environmental effects on materials and systems, (3) and operational and forecasting space environments modeling. Additionally the ASE office will serve as an entry point of contact for external users who wish to take advantage of data and assets associated with space environments, including space weather.

  13. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  14. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  15. ESR teleradiology survey: results.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different countries in Europe, while the second survey was intended for all practicing radiologist ESR members. While the results of these surveys reported here may provide a wealth of information to better understand the trends in adoption of teleradiology in Europe, they only represent a snapshot at a certain point in time. The rapid development of telecommunication tools as well as a fundamental change in practice and healthcare economics will certainly influence these observations in the upcoming years. These data, however, will provide objective and relevant parameters for supporting the efforts of experts and policy makers in promoting appropriate criteria and guidelines for adequate use of teleradiology in clinical practice. Main Messages • Understand concepts and challenges of teleradiology • Provide insight into current trends and solutions for teleradiology • Compare differences in teleradiolgy strategies between countries in Europe • Establish a reference on statistical data of usage of teleradiology in Europe. PMID:27188379

  16. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  17. Effortful touch with minimum movement: revisited.

    PubMed

    Lederman, S J; Ganeshan, S R; Ellis, R E

    1996-08-01

    The ecological static moment-torque model proposed by C. Carello, P. Fitzpatrick, I. Domaniewicz, T.C. Chan, and M.T. Turvey (1992) does not uniquely explain the perception of rod length by static holding. Guided by a mechanical analysis of the gravitational forces and torques produced in the hand as it statically holds rods of different lengths and materials at different orientations, we offer 2 additional theoretical explanations, the force-torque and weight-percept models. Experiment 1 demonstrates that all 3 models predict perceived rod length with considerable success. Experiment 2 provides clear experimental support for the force-torque and weight-percept models over the static moment-torque model. Experiment 3 pits the former 2 models against each other. Current results favor the weight-percept model. Implications for theories of haptic weight perception and design of a new tactile sensor are also considered. PMID:8830111

  18. Survey of American College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This 8-page booklet is a survey instrument that was sent to randomly selected college and university senior administrators nationwide by the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The 29-item questionnaire is designed to learn more about alcohol and other drug prevention efforts taking place on college campuses. Information…

  19. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  20. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  1. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  2. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

  3. Assessing phosphorus reduction efforts in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    Years of agricultural and urban runoff have resulted in too much phosphorus in northern regions of the Florida Everglades. To deal with this problem, very large constructed wetlands, known as Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been built to strip phosphorus from runoff before the water enters protected Everglades areas. The more than $1 billion STA project currently relies on large areas (cells) of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) to absorb phosphorus as the final stage of treatment. To evaluate how well the treatment cells are functioning, as well as the potential lower limits of treatment, it is essential to have an accurate picture of the inflows, outflows, and background phosphorus levels. Juston and DeBusk made long-term measurements in one of the SAV cells. They found that after total phosphorous levels in the cells reached about 15 micrograms per liter, no more phosphorus removal occurred. They also analyzed inflow and outflow data from the cell and inferred background phosphorus concentrations for eight additional SAV cells. Background concentrations averaged around 16 micrograms per liter. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009294, 2011)

  4. Do People with Schizophrenia Have Difficulty Anticipating Pleasure, Engaging in Effortful Behavior, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Cooper, Kathryn; Fisher, Melissa; Garrett, Coleman; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation deficits are common in schizophrenia, but little is known about underlying mechanisms, or the specific goals that people with schizophrenia set in daily life. Using neurobiological heuristics of pleasure anticipation and effort assessment, we examined the quality of activities and goals of 47 people with and 41 people without schizophrenia, utilizing Ecological Momentary Assessment. Participants were provided cell phones and called four times a day for seven days, and were asked about their current activities and anticipation of upcoming goals. Activities and goals were later coded by independent raters on pleasure and effort. In line with recent laboratory findings on effort computation deficits in schizophrenia, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported engaging in less effortful activities and setting less effortful goals, which were related to patient functioning. In addition, patients showed some inaccuracy in estimating how difficult an effortful goal would be, which in turn was associated with lower neurocognition. In contrast to previous research, people with schizophrenia engaged in activities and set goals that were more pleasure-based, and anticipated goals as being more pleasurable than controls. Thus, this study provided evidence for difficulty with effortful behavior and not anticipation of pleasure. These findings may have psychosocial treatment implications, focusing on effort assessment/effort expenditure. For example, in order to help people with schizophrenia engage in more meaningful goal pursuits, treatment providers may leverage low-effort pleasurable goals by helping patients to break down larger, more complex goals into smaller, lower-effort steps that are associated with specific pleasurable rewards. PMID:25133986

  5. Caffeine increases psychomotor performance on the effort expenditure for rewards task

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Treadway, Michael T.; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that cost/benefit decision-making involves interactions between adenosine and dopamine (DA). In rats, DA depletion decreases willingness to incur effort costs, while adenosine antagonism reverses these effects, likely by increasing DA transmission. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist commonly used to facilitate effortful tasks, and thus may affect decisions involving effort costs in humans. The current study examined acute effects of 200 mg of caffeine on willingness to exert effort for monetary rewards at varying levels of reward value and reward probability, in young adult light caffeine users. Based on previous findings with amphetamine, we predicted that caffeine would increase willingness to exert effort. At separate sessions, 23 healthy normal adults received placebo or 200 mg caffeine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions, then completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). Measures of subjective and cardiovascular effects were obtained at regular intervals. Caffeine produced small but significant subjective and cardiovascular effects, and sped psychomotor performance on the EEfRT. Caffeine did not alter willingness to exert effort, except in high cardiovascular responders to caffeine, in whom it decreased willingness to exert effort. These results were contrary to our predictions, but consistent with rodent studies suggesting that moderate doses of caffeine alone do not affect effort, but rather only influence effort in the context of DA antagonism. Our results demonstrate that psychomotor speeding and decisional effects on the EEfRT are dissociable, providing additional evidence for the EEfRT as a specific measure of effort-based decision-making. This study provides a starting point for exploring contributions of the adenosine system to motivation in humans. PMID:22750066

  6. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M

    2015-09-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. PMID:26089350

  7. Power to detect trends in abundance of secretive marsh birds: effects of species traits and sampling effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steidl, Robert J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized protocols for surveying secretive marsh birds have been implemented across North America, but the efficacy of surveys to detect population trends has not been evaluated. We used survey data collected from populations of marsh birds across North America and simulations to explore how characteristics of bird populations (proportion of survey stations occupied, abundance at occupied stations, and detection probability) and aspects of sampling effort (numbers of survey routes, stations/route, and surveys/station/year) affect statistical power to detect trends in abundance of marsh bird populations. In general, the proportion of survey stations along a route occupied by a species had a greater relative effect on power to detect trends than did the number of birds detected per survey at occupied stations. Uncertainty introduced by imperfect detection during surveys reduced power to detect trends considerably, but across the range of detection probabilities for most species of marsh birds, variation in detection probability had only a minor influence on power. For species that occupy a relatively high proportion of survey stations (0.20), have relatively high abundances at occupied stations (2.0 birds/station), and have high detection probability (0.50), ≥40 routes with 10 survey stations per route surveyed 3 times per year would provide an 80% chance of detecting a 3% annual decrease in abundance after 20 years of surveys. Under the same assumptions but for species that are less common, ≥100 routes would be needed to achieve the same power. Our results can help inform the design of programs to monitor trends in abundance of marsh bird populations, especially with regards to the amount of sampling effort necessary to meet programmatic goals.

  8. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  9. Redshift surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Present-day understanding of the large-scale galaxy distribution is reviewed. The statistics of the CfA redshift survey are briefly discussed. The need for deeper surveys to clarify the issues raised by recent studies of large-scale galactic distribution is addressed.

  10. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  11. Enhancing peer cultures of academic effort and achievement in early adolescence: promotive effects of the SEALS intervention.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jill V; Farmer, Thomas W; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success (SEALS) intervention. Observational and survey data from teachers (N = 188) and survey data from 6th-graders (N = 2,453) in 36 rural schools across the United States were analyzed. Results indicated that in SEALS versus matched control schools, social prominence was more favorably associated with effort and school valuing, and peer group injunctive norms were more supportive of effort and achievement. Findings indicate that aspects of peer cultures respond to the school context and provide evidence of the efficacy of the SEALS model. PMID:23647418

  12. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. College Experiences Survey: Methodological Summary. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesRoches, David; Hall, John; Santos, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the factors associated with college persistence and attrition, the Survey Research Center at Princeton University, with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, is conducting the College Student Attrition Project. As part of that project, Mathematica Policy Research conducted the College Experiences Survey.…

  16. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  19. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  20. Environmental gap analysis to prioritize conservation efforts in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Barnekow Lillesø, Jens-Peter; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions. PMID:25855968

  1. Environmental Gap Analysis to Prioritize Conservation Efforts in Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions. PMID:25855968

  2. The Need For Ongoing Surveys About Physician Practice Costs.

    PubMed

    Berk, Marc L

    2016-09-01

    Physicians continue to be the subject of many survey efforts asking them about a wide range of issues including training, retirement plans, satisfaction with practice, practice organization, and practice costs. The resources dedicated to the collection of different types of data have changed over time. Collection efforts have both expanded and contracted. Here I discuss this phenomenon for several types of physician surveys, with particular focus on the reduction in ongoing survey efforts about physician practice costs. The diminution of efforts to collect information about these costs represents an important challenge since the lack of timely, high-quality data could impair the correct calculation of reimbursement rates. PMID:27605646

  3. The Influence of Mark-Recapture Sampling Effort on Estimates of Rock Lobster Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kordjazi, Ziya; Frusher, Stewart; Buxton, Colin; Gardner, Caleb; Bird, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters) were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day) and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days). The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery. PMID:26990561

  4. The Influence of Mark-Recapture Sampling Effort on Estimates of Rock Lobster Survival.

    PubMed

    Kordjazi, Ziya; Frusher, Stewart; Buxton, Colin; Gardner, Caleb; Bird, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters) were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day) and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days). The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery. PMID:26990561

  5. Test Anxiety and Effort-Toward-Comprehension in Sentence Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedl, John J., Jr.; Bartlett, James

    Using an effort toward comprehension paradigm developed by P. M. Auble, J. J. Franks, and S. A. Soraci, Jr. (1979), the worry component of state test anxiety was related to long-term memory for sentence encoding conditions that involved comprehension, but low effort (embedded-cue) and comprehension-high effort (post-cue). A noncomprehension…

  6. A Measure of Local Effort, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gerald

    Three lengthy tables and four charts present information on the 1981-82 planned tax effort of each of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts and 67 counties. The tax effort, or "equalized mills," equals each district's budgeted taxes divided by its projected 1981 market value. The report gives a brief illustration of how the tax effort helps…

  7. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 1511.011-73 Section 1511.011-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of Effort,...

  8. American Reform Efforts: German Professional Education after World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Profiles the reeducation and denazification efforts aimed at the training of doctors, lawyers, teachers, and engineers. The efforts espoused few radical innovations and generally supported a return to the well-regarded conditions of the Weimar Republic. These efforts laid the foundation for later reforms in the 1960s. (MJP)

  9. Student Self-Concept and Effort: Gender and Grade Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2011-01-01

    Students' self-concept and effort in schoolwork are known to have significant influences on essential academic outcomes, but self-concept and effort may decline as students grow up. Students from 16 schools in Sydney (N = 2200) were asked to rate on two self-concept components (competency and affect) and effort in schoolwork. Based on measures…

  10. Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

  11. White Dwarfs for Calibrating the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Wester, William; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Fix, Mees B.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Gulledge, Deborah J.; McDonald, Christopher P.; Allam, Sahar S.; James, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is surveying some 5000 square degrees in the southern hemisphere in the grizY filter system using the new Dark Energy Camera. In order to verify meeting photometric calibration requirements, we are obtaining imaging of several hundred white dwarfs (confirmed and candidates) to select nearly 100 or more hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs for spectroscopy in the DES footprint. The spectra that are obtained will be extracted and used to derive synthetic spectra that can be compared with DES measurements from imaging in each of the DES grizY filters. This comparison should be able to verify and help calibrate the survey to a level better than 2% photometrically and to better than 0.5% in colors. We will discuss the observational and modeling effort required to develop a well-characterized DAs sample and present some preliminary results. This set would form the basis of a larger set of southern hemisphere survey calibration stars, and additionally serve as a legacy calibration set in the upcoming era of the LSST survey and the giant segmented mirror observatories. These stars will be used to establish and monitor the color zero points for the DES photometric system and can be used to search for systematic errors in the color zero points over the DES footprint. These stars will also be used as some of the primary standards for the DES photometric system which will allow nightly atmospheric monitoring during DES operations.

  12. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    , dealing with difficult situations, working with alumni). Through the Association for Women Geoscientists, we have offered annual one-hour lunch discussions at AGU and GSA meetings on issues facing women chairs and deans. Focusing on a different topic each year, these discussions include sharing good solutions, problem solving on various case scenarios, and so forth. In addition, the Building Strong Geoscience Departments program has offered workshops on different aspects of building strong geoscience departments, distributed reports, and made a variety of materials that would be useful to geoscience chairs available on their website. These programs and resources should continue and build to provide more continuity within departments and to increase a broader experience base of faculty. One of the greatest resources for chairs is to have personal connections with other chairs (via these programs), who can be called upon for advice, ideas, or general support. The sense of collective community could act in a powerful way to inspire and encourage more innovations and creative solutions to promote stronger departments.

  13. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  16. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson A.; Lima, Daniela A.; Vieira, Gabriella F.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Pereira, Danielle A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training) effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR) and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age) × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002). There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking. PMID:26647751

  17. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  18. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  19. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  20. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only.

  2. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness. PMID:25642722

  3. Coworker incivility and incivility targets' work effort and counterproductive work behaviors: the moderating role of supervisor social support.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenji; Jex, Steve M

    2012-04-01

    This study addresses the relationships between coworker incivility and both work effort and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). It was expected that employees who experienced high levels of incivility from their coworkers would report reductions in work effort and higher levels of CWBs. Also, based on the emotion-centered model of work behaviors (Spector & Fox, 2002), it was expected that negative emotions would mediate the relationships between coworker incivility and both work effort and CWBs. Finally, we examined supervisor social support as a moderator of relationships between negative emotions and both work effort and CWBs. Two hundred nine full-time university employees completed a two-wave survey over a two-month time period. Results supported the hypothesized mediated relationships. It was also found that supervisor social support moderated the relationship between negative emotions and work effort but not the relationship between negative emotions and CWBs. Study implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:22352293

  4. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  5. Feeling the force: returning haptic signals influence effort inference during motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Osu, R; Naito, E

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is known to automatically optimize effort expenditure during motor coordination, such that for example, during bimanual braking of a bicycle, a well-oiled brake will automatically be used more than a corroded, heavy brake. But how does our brain infer the effort expenditure? All previous motor coordination models have believed that the effort in a task is known precisely to our brain, solely from the motor commands it generates. Here we show that this belief is incorrect. Through experiments and simulation we exhibit that in addition to the motor commands, the returning haptic signals play a crucial role in the inference of the effort during a force sharing task. Our results thus elucidate a previously unknown sensory-motor association that has major ramifications for our understanding of motor coordination and provides new insights into how sensory modifications due to ergonomics, stroke and disease can affect motor coordination in humans. PMID:24026052

  6. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice. PMID:24212041

  7. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  8. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  10. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  11. Three decades of longlining in Bimini, Bahamas, reveals long-term trends in lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae) catch per unit effort.

    PubMed

    Kessel, S T; Hansell, A C; Gruber, S H; Guttridge, T L; Hussey, N E; Perkins, R G

    2016-06-01

    In Bimini, Bahamas, the consistent employment of longlines, beginning in 1982, provided a rare opportunity to explore population trends for large resident sharks. This study assessed three shallow water longline survey periods at this location; 1982-1989, 1992-2002 and 2003-2014, with the aim of determining trends in annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) for an IUCN listed near-threatened species, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. A general additive model (GAM) was used to analyse the non-linear annual CPUE values over the entire 32-year research period. The GAM displayed high variability of annual CPUE, with a peak value of 0·026 N. brevirostris per hook day (hooks day(-1) ) in 2000. The temporal pattern of CPUE indicated an abundance trend with a complete cycle, from trough to trough, occurring over a period of approximately 18 years. The 1982-1989 survey period saw the highest proportion of mature individuals (19·8%) and the smallest average pre-caudal length (LPC ; 124·8 cm). The 1992-2002 survey period had the highest average annual CPUE (0·018 hooks day(-1) ), while the 2003-2014 research period saw largest average LPC size (134·8 cm) and the lowest average CPUE values (0·009 hooks day(-1) ) of the entire research period. The long-term trend identified in this study provides a baseline for future assessment. PMID:27245624

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  15. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    PubMed

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-03-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. PMID:26867944

  16. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  17. Intersection of effort and risk: ethological and neurobiological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mike A.; Thomé, Alexander; Cowen, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards. PMID:24223535

  18. Cognitive Spare Capacity as an Index of Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Everyday listening may be experienced as effortful, especially by individuals with hearing loss. This may be due to internal factors, such as cognitive load, and external factors, such as noise. Even when speech is audible, internal and external factors may combine to reduce cognitive spare capacity, or the ability to engage in cognitive processing of spoken information. A better understanding of cognitive spare capacity and how it can be optimally allocated may guide new approaches to rehabilitation and ultimately improve outcomes. This article presents results of three tests of cognitive spare capacity:1. Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIR) test2. Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT)3. Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST)Results show that noise reduces cognitive spare capacity even when speech intelligibility is retained. In addition, SWIR results show that hearing aid signal processing can increase cognitive spare capacity, and CSCT and AIST results show that increasing load reduces cognitive spare capacity. Correlational evidence suggests that while the effect of noise on cognitive spare capacity is related to working memory capacity, the effect of load is related to executive function. Future studies should continue to investigate how hearing aid signal processing can mitigate the effect of load on cognitive spare capacity, and whether such effects can be enhanced by developing executive skills through training. The mechanisms modulating cognitive spare capacity should be investigated by studying their neural correlates, and tests of cognitive spare capacity should be developed for clinical use in conjunction with developing new approaches to rehabilitation. PMID:27355773

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  1. Yield of claims data and surveys for determining colon cancer screening among health plan members.

    PubMed

    Pignone, Michael; Scott, Tracy L; Schild, Laura A; Lewis, Carmen; Vázquez, Raquel; Glanz, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Screening can reduce incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer but has been underutilized. Efforts to increase screening depend on accurate data about screening status. We sought to evaluate the independent and combined yield of claims and direct survey for identifying colorectal cancer screening among average-risk health plan beneficiaries. Participants were Aetna members ages between 52 and 80 years from 32 primary care practices in Florida and Georgia participating in the Communicating Health Options through Information and Cancer Education study. Main outcomes were the proportion of average-risk patients who were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening based on claims data and the estimated additional yield of survey data for patients with no evidence of screening in their claims history. Of 4,020 average-risk members identified, claims data indicated that 1,066 (27%) had recent colorectal cancer screening. Among the 1,269 average-risk members with no evidence of screening by claims data who returned surveys, 498 (39%) reported being up-to-date with screening. Combining claims data and survey data and accounting for survey nonresponse, we estimate that 47% to 59% of member patients were actually up-to-date with screening, an additional yield of 20 to 32 percentage points. We conclude that, among health plan members, the combination of claims data and survey information had substantially higher yield than claims data alone for identifying colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19273480

  2. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  3. Receipt of reward leads to altered estimation of effort

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Wannig, Aurel; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Effort and reward jointly shape many human decisions. Errors in predicting the required effort needed for a task can lead to suboptimal behavior. Here, we show that effort estimations can be biased when retrospectively reestimated following receipt of a rewarding outcome. These biases depend on the contingency between reward and task difficulty and are stronger for highly contingent rewards. Strikingly, the observed pattern accords with predictions from Bayesian cue integration, indicating humans deploy an adaptive and rational strategy to deal with inconsistencies between the efforts they expend and the ensuing rewards. PMID:26460026

  4. Characterization of reward and effort mechanisms in apathy.

    PubMed

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Veromann, Kai-Riin; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Lo Sterzo, Elena; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common but poorly understood condition with a wide societal impact observed in several brain disorders as well as, to some extent, in the normal population. Hence the need for better characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The processes by which individuals decide to attribute physical effort to obtain rewards might be particularly relevant to relate to apathy traits. Here, we designed two paradigms to assess individual differences in physical effort production and effort-based decision-making and their relation to apathy in healthy people. Apathy scores were measured using a modified version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, suitable for use in a non-clinical population. In the first study, apathy scores were correlated with the degree to which stake (reward on offer) and difficulty level impacts on physical effort production. Individuals with relatively high apathy traits showed an increased modulation of effort while more motivated individuals generally exerted greater force across different levels of stake. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this behavior, we designed a second task that allows independent titration of stake and effort levels for which subjects are willing to engage in an effortful response to obtain a reward. Our results suggest that apathy traits in the normal population are related to the way reward subjectively affects the estimation of effort costs, and more particularly manifest as decreased willingness to exert effort when rewards are small, or below threshold. The tasks we introduce here may provide useful tools to further investigate apathy in clinical populations. PMID:24747776

  5. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  6. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex. PMID:27482074

  7. Understanding Policy Implementation: District-Level Leaders' Perceptions of Reading Policy Implementation Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Charles Dana

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating the complex, multi-directional relationships inherent to public education has become a focal point of reform research. This study investigated the perceptions held by district-level leaders regarding the Colorado Department of Education's efforts to facilitate the successful implementation of reading policy. In addition, it…

  8. Unconscious Reward Cues Increase Invested Effort, but Do Not Change Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijleveld, Erik; Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2010-01-01

    While both conscious and unconscious reward cues enhance effort to work on a task, previous research also suggests that conscious rewards may additionally affect speed-accuracy tradeoffs. Based on this idea, two experiments explored whether reward cues that are presented above (supraliminal) or below (subliminal) the threshold of conscious…

  9. Treatment of Pica Using a Pica Exchange Procedure with Increasing Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a pica exchange procedure were evaluated on the pica of a female with severe mental retardation. A BAB design revealed that the pica exchange procedure was effective at reducing the occurrence of pica. In addition, the pica exchange procedure was effective throughout six increasingly more difficult response effort conditions.…

  10. 48 CFR 1552.211-73 - Level of effort-cost-reimbursement term contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracts without fee, cost-sharing contracts, cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF) contracts, cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts (CPIF), and cost-plus-award-fee contracts (CPAF). Level of Effort—Cost-Reimbursement Term Contract... additional effort shall not result in any increase in the fixed fee, if any. If this is a...

  11. 48 CFR 1552.211-73 - Level of effort-cost-reimbursement term contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contracts without fee, cost-sharing contracts, cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF) contracts, cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts (CPIF), and cost-plus-award-fee contracts (CPAF). Level of Effort—Cost-Reimbursement Term Contract... additional effort shall not result in any increase in the fixed fee, if any. If this is a...

  12. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  13. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  14. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  15. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  16. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  17. An International Survey of Aquaponics Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Love, David C.; Fry, Jillian P.; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S.; Frederick, J. Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture. PMID:25029125

  18. An international survey of aquaponics practitioners.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Fry, Jillian P; Genello, Laura; Hill, Elizabeth S; Frederick, J Adam; Li, Ximin; Semmens, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponics, a combination of fish farming and soilless plant farming, is growing in popularity and gaining attention as an important and potentially more sustainable method of food production. The aim of this study was to document and analyze the production methods, experiences, motivations, and demographics of aquaponics practitioners in the United States (US) and internationally. The survey was distributed online using a chain sampling method that relied on referrals from initial respondents, with 809 respondents meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of respondents were from the US (80%), male (78%), and had at least a high school degree (91%). The mean age of respondents was 47±13 years old. Most respondents (52%) had three years or less of aquaponics experience. Respondents typically raised tilapia or ornamental fish and a variety of leafy green vegetables, herbs, and fruiting crops. Respondents were most often motivated to become involved in aquaponics to grow their own food, for environmental sustainability reasons, and for personal health reasons. Many respondents employed more than one method to raise crops, and used alternative or environmentally sustainable sources of energy, water, and fish feed. In general, our findings suggest that aquaponics is a dynamic and rapidly growing field with participants who are actively experimenting with and adopting new technologies. Additional research and outreach is needed to evaluate and communicate best practices within the field. This survey is the first large-scale effort to track aquaponics in the US and provides information that can better inform policy, research, and education efforts regarding aquaponics as it matures and possibly evolves into a mainstream form of agriculture. PMID:25029125

  19. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  2. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  3. Effect of Social Influence on Effort-Allocation for Monetary Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Treadway, Michael T.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals’ decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making. PMID:25961725

  4. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  5. The Mental Effort Requirement of Cumulative Rehearsal: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the mental effort requirement of cumulative rehearsal and spontaneous utilization of the strategy by three groups of children (mean ages 7.6, 8.7, and 11.5 years). Results showed that the mental effort requirement of strategy use may influence children's strategy selection on memory tasks. (Author/CI)

  6. Group Diffusion of Cognitive Effort as a Determinant of Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanar, Leo R.; Pryor, John B.

    The tendency for individuals to reduce their own efforts when others are available to respond has been called "social loafing." Social loafing has been found also to characterize collective endeavors on tasks considered cognitively efffortful. To test the hypothesis that reduced cognitive effort related to the presence of a coacting group would…

  7. Report on the Vocational Education Effort in Iowa, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Career Education Advisory Council, Des Moines.

    This report was designed to measure the effort expended during 1971 toward implementing programs to meet the needs of citizens of Iowa and to supply the State Board of Public Instruction with data, information, and advice to improve career education efforts in the state. Data were obtained primarily from statistics available by the State…

  8. International coordination of A+M data efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janev, Ratko; Becker, Kurt; Clark, Robert; Lister, Graeme; Niemax, Kay

    1998-07-01

    A summary of the discussions at the ICAMDATA panel on international coordination of atomic and molecular (A+M) data efforts is presented. The status of databases and the needs for coordination of data generation, compilation and assessment efforts in the areas of spectrochemistry, low-temperature plasma applications, plasma processing of materials, lighting industry and fusion energy research are specifically addressed.

  9. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts....

  10. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  11. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  12. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  13. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  14. Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

    1993-01-22

    This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

  15. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  16. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  17. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  18. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in any... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  19. KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ provides data for management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkainen, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ is a computer program that establishes control over project efforts to assure management of meeting a specified completion date. With the appropriate input data, KOPE computes the starting and completion dates, the manning level for each activity, and the composite manning level for the program.

  20. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices. PMID:25373107

  1. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subcontracting research and development effort. 35.009 Section 35.009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since...

  2. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  3. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  4. 12 CFR 918.7 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of effort. 918.7 Section 918.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.7 Maintenance of effort. Notwithstanding the limits...

  5. 34 CFR 300.203 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 300.203 Section 300.203 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.203 Maintenance of effort....

  6. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  7. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  8. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  9. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  10. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... not covered by the act, who may reasonably be expected to have openings in work suitable for him; (4... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work....

  11. Current Reform Efforts in Mathematics Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    The current reform effort in mathematics education has its roots in the decade of the 1980's and the national reports that focused attention on an impending crisis in education, particularly in mathematics and science. Within this context, dozens of individual reform efforts have been initiated in recent years. Many have focused on the development…

  12. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  13. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of Effort (APR 2010) The contractor hereby certifies that costs for work to be performed under this contract and... that any and all work performed under this contract shall be directly and exclusively for the use...

  14. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  15. 48 CFR 2052.216-70 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 2052.216-70 Section 2052.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.216-70 Level of effort. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(a)...

  16. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan-environmental impact statement (plan-EIS) or a watershed plan-environmental assessment (plan-EA) will...

  17. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  18. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  19. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  20. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  1. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  2. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  3. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law....

  4. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  5. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts, 1960-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960's. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  6. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  7. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and development effort. 35.009 Section 35.009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the selection of R&D contractors is substantially based...

  8. 42 CFR 441.180 - Maintenance of effort: General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: General rule. 441.180 Section 441.180 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.180 Maintenance of effort: General rule. FFP is available only if the State maintains...

  9. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.165 Section 35.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a...

  10. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Level of effort. 1511.011-73 Section 1511.011-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of...

  11. Student Organizations and Institutional Diversity Efforts: A Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James

    2010-01-01

    American higher education has become focused on increasing access and success for traditionally underrepresented populations. Despite the myriad of institutional efforts, attention has not been given to the role of student organizations in supporting these efforts. This article looks at the role campus student organizations can play within campus…

  12. The Number Of Health Information Exchange Efforts Is Declining, Leaving The Viability Of Broad Clinical Data Exchange Uncertain.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Lin, Sunny C; Jha, Ashish K

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of health information exchange (HIE), in which clinical data are electronically linked to patients in many different care settings, is a top priority for policy makers. To drive HIE, community and state efforts were federally funded to broadly engage providers in exchanging data in ways that improved patient care. To assess the current landscape, we conducted a national survey of community and state HIE efforts soon after federal funding ended. We found 106 operational HIE efforts that, as a group, engaged more than one-third of all US providers in 2014. However, the number of operational HIE efforts is down from 119 in 2012, representing the first decline observed since the tracking of these efforts began in 2006. Only half of operational efforts reported being financially viable, and all efforts reported a variety of barriers to continuation. These findings raise important questions about whether the current vision for HIE efforts will allow for the broad exchange of clinical data, or whether alternative approaches would be more successful. PMID:27385245

  13. 40 CFR 80.68 - Compliance surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance surveys. 80.68 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.68 Compliance surveys. (a)(1) Beginning January 1, 2007, the compliance surveys for NOX emissions performance under this section shall cease to...

  14. 40 CFR 80.68 - Compliance surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance surveys. 80.68 Section 80...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.68 Compliance surveys. (a)(1) Beginning January 1, 2007, the compliance surveys for NOX emissions performance under this section shall cease to...

  15. NASA Facts, Why Survey from Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    In this NASA publication, the technology behind the art of high-altitude surveying is explained in language understood by high school students. The principles behind ground-based surveys are first explained, then several diagrams are utilized in the explanation of photographic surveys. Additional information is provided concerning the use of…

  16. 10 CFR 35.652 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 35.652 Section 35.652 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.652 Radiation surveys. (a) In addition to the survey requirement in § 20.1501 of...

  17. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  18. Predicting preschool effortful control from toddler temperament and parenting behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years of age, and three temperament groups were formed: inhibited, exuberant, and low reactive. At 4.5 years of age, children's effortful control was measured from parent-report and observational measures. Results indicated that parental behavior and emotional tone appear to be especially influential on exuberant children's effortful control development. Exuberant children whose mothers used commands and prohibitive statements with a positive emotional tone were more likely to be rated higher on parent-reported effortful control 2.5 years later. When mothers conveyed redirections and reasoning-explanations in a neutral tone, their exuberant children showed poorer effortful control at 4.5 years. PMID:23814350

  19. Anger and effortful control moderate aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour. PMID:26042460

  20. Global patterns of introduction effort and establishment success in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M; Sol, Daniel; Duncan, Richard P; Lockwood, Julie L

    2004-01-01

    Theory suggests that introduction effort (propagule size or number) should be a key determinant of establishment success for exotic species. Unfortunately, however, propagule pressure is not recorded for most introductions. Studies must therefore either use proxies whose efficacy must be largely assumed, or ignore effort altogether. The results of such studies will be flawed if effort is not distributed at random with respect to other characteristics that are predicted to influence success. We use global data for more than 600 introduction events for birds to show that introduction effort is both the strongest correlate of introduction success, and correlated with a large number of variables previously thought to influence success. Apart from effort, only habitat generalism relates to establishment success in birds. PMID:15801588

  1. Causal Analysis of ISO/TS16949 Efforts in Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakuan, Norhayati; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Norfian Alifiah, Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Shari; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2014-06-01

    The principal aim of this study is to determine the impact of ISO/TS16949 efforts on total quality management (TQM) and the ISO/TS16949 efforts relationship in Malaysian automotive industry. A survey method was employed to collect data using English version for Malaysian respondents. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis empirically verified and validated the underlying items of TQM, ISO/TS16949 and organizational performance. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed model. Data analysis revealed that TQM implementations have a strong and positive impact on organizational performance through direct relationship as well as through a mediating role of ISO/TS16949 efforts. From the research findings, it is viable to recommend that ISO/TS16949 should be incorporated with philosophy and methods of TQM to achieve better performance. This study proved to be valuable to academic researchers as well as automotive practitioners. It systematically analyzes the mediating effect of ISO/TS16949 efforts on TQM and organizational performance relationship.

  2. Activities of information retrieval in Daicel Corporation : The roles and efforts of information retrieval team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Towako

    In order to stabilize and improve quality of information retrieval service, the information retrieval team of Daicel Corporation has given some efforts on standard operating procedures, interview sheet for information retrieval, structured format for search report, and search expressions for some technological fields of Daicel. These activities and efforts will also lead to skill sharing and skill tradition between searchers. In addition, skill improvements are needed not only for a searcher individually, but also for the information retrieval team totally when playing searcher's new roles.

  3. 2013 mask industry survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  4. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. PMID:27374255

  5. Improving collaboration by standardization efforts in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative genome-scale reconstruction endeavors of metabolic networks would not be possible without a common, standardized formal representation of these systems. The ability to precisely define biological building blocks together with their dynamic behavior has even been considered a prerequisite for upcoming synthetic biology approaches. Driven by the requirements of such ambitious research goals, standardization itself has become an active field of research on nearly all levels of granularity in biology. In addition to the originally envisaged exchange of computational models and tool interoperability, new standards have been suggested for an unambiguous graphical display of biological phenomena, to annotate, archive, as well as to rank models, and to describe execution and the outcomes of simulation experiments. The spectrum now even covers the interaction of entire neurons in the brain, three-dimensional motions, and the description of pharmacometric studies. Thereby, the mathematical description of systems and approaches for their (repeated) simulation are clearly separated from each other and also from their graphical representation. Minimum information definitions constitute guidelines and common operation protocols in order to ensure reproducibility of findings and a unified knowledge representation. Central database infrastructures have been established that provide the scientific community with persistent links from model annotations to online resources. A rich variety of open-source software tools thrives for all data formats, often supporting a multitude of programing languages. Regular meetings and workshops of developers and users lead to continuous improvement and ongoing development of these standardization efforts. This article gives a brief overview about the current state of the growing number of operation protocols, mark-up languages, graphical descriptions, and fundamental software support with relevance to systems biology. PMID:25538939

  6. Improving Collaboration by Standardization Efforts in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative genome-scale reconstruction endeavors of metabolic networks would not be possible without a common, standardized formal representation of these systems. The ability to precisely define biological building blocks together with their dynamic behavior has even been considered a prerequisite for upcoming synthetic biology approaches. Driven by the requirements of such ambitious research goals, standardization itself has become an active field of research on nearly all levels of granularity in biology. In addition to the originally envisaged exchange of computational models and tool interoperability, new standards have been suggested for an unambiguous graphical display of biological phenomena, to annotate, archive, as well as to rank models, and to describe execution and the outcomes of simulation experiments. The spectrum now even covers the interaction of entire neurons in the brain, three-dimensional motions, and the description of pharmacometric studies. Thereby, the mathematical description of systems and approaches for their (repeated) simulation are clearly separated from each other and also from their graphical representation. Minimum information definitions constitute guidelines and common operation protocols in order to ensure reproducibility of findings and a unified knowledge representation. Central database infrastructures have been established that provide the scientific community with persistent links from model annotations to online resources. A rich variety of open-source software tools thrives for all data formats, often supporting a multitude of programing languages. Regular meetings and workshops of developers and users lead to continuous improvement and ongoing development of these standardization efforts. This article gives a brief overview about the current state of the growing number of operation protocols, mark-up languages, graphical descriptions, and fundamental software support with relevance to systems biology. PMID:25538939

  7. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PMID:25089333

  8. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  9. U. S. Geological Survey investigation of Mississippi Embayment area

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, E.E.

    1983-09-01

    Prior to about 1974, most of the work in the Mississippi embayment area by members of the U.S. Geological Survey was motivated by interest in the embayment's paleontologic aspects, stratigraphy, and economic resources, especially ground water. However, an excellent description of the effects of the New Madrid earthquake series was published on the centennial of that 1811-1812 seismicity. During World War II, combined efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines produced a wealth of information about the Little Rock pluton and the process of laterizing exposed nepheline syenite to form bauxite. That project, in a search for additional intrusive bodies at shallow depth, sponsored a reconnaissance aeromagnetic survey along the embayment edge from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Cairo, Illinois. Magnetic anomalies that were identified then are now known to be related to the series of buried plutons aligned along the northwestern margin of the upper Mississippi embayment graben. Later investigations assessed the geochemistry of the more mafic parts of the Little Rock pluton. In 1974, U.S. Geological survey effort, along with that of other federal agencies, state agencies, and academic institutions, was directed toward finding the cause of ongoing seismicity in the upper embayment and toward assessing the related potential effects on persons and property. The purpose of this poster display is to summarize the more significant findings in this area related to (a) the rock sequence, lower crust to surface; (b) the major structural features, including a rift system; (c) the current state of stress; and (d) the present-day seismicity.

  10. Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

  11. Cooperative Efforts: Voluntary Resettlement Agencies and Mutual Assistance Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Migration and Refugee Affairs, New York, NY. Refugee Center.

    In 1983, the Refugee Resource Center conducted a survey of Mutual Assistance Associations (MAA's) and local voluntary resettlement agency affiliates to find out how the two types of organizations worked together to carry out refugee resettlement. According to the survey, the relations between agency affiliates and MAA's generally revolved around…

  12. Using resampling to assess reliability of audio-visual survey strategies for marbled murrelets at inland forest sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Garman, S.L.; Collopy, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) are threatened seabirds that nest in coastal old-growth coniferous forests throughout much of their breeding range. Currently, observer-based audio-visual surveys are conducted at inland forest sites during the breeding season primarily to determine nesting distribution and breeding status and are being used to estimate temporal or spatial trends in murrelet detections. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using audio-visual survey data for such monitoring. We used an intensive field-based survey effort to record daily murrelet detections at seven survey stations in the Oregon Coast Range. We then used computer-aided resampling techniques to assess the effectiveness of twelve survey strategies with varying scheduling and a sampling intensity of 4-14 surveys per breeding season to estimate known means and SDs of murrelet detections. Most survey strategies we tested failed to provide estimates of detection means and SDs that were within A?20% of actual means and SDs. Estimates of daily detections were, however, frequently estimated to within A?50% of field data with sampling efforts of 14 days/breeding season. Additional resampling analyses with statistically generated detection data indicated that the temporal variability in detection data had a great effect on the reliability of the mean and SD estimates calculated from the twelve survey strategies, while the value of the mean had little effect. Effectiveness at estimating multi-year trends in detection data was similarly poor, indicating that audio-visual surveys might be reliably used to estimate annual declines in murrelet detections of the order of 50% per year.

  13. The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J. C.; Gulkis, S.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) began a decade of planned observations to search for signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin with inaugural ceremonies at two sites on October 12, 1992. At Goldstone, California the Sky Survey began executing precisely controlled scanning patterns on the celestial sphere using a new beam waveguide 34m antenna operating at a frequency near 8500 MHz (X-band). At Arecibo, Puerto Rico the Targeted Search began tracking GL615.1A, one of 24 solar-type stars selected for these inaugural observations, using the NAIC 300m radio telescope operating in a band of frequencies centered at 1406 MHz. Since the initiation of the search, the Sky Survey has completed X-band observations of several dozen sky-frames measuring 30(deg) times 1.5(deg) . In addition, observations of selected areas of the galactic plane have been observed in several frequency bands (1400 MHz and 1600 MHz) using a 26m antenna located near the 34m antenna. The Targeted Search has completed the first 200 hours of observations at Arecibo covering some 300 MHz of bandwidth. This paper summarizes the results of the observations to date, including a synopsis of the interference observed at the Goldstone and Arecibo sites, and a discussion of techniques that will be used to improve future observations. The HRMS program is managed by the Ames Research Center in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The results presented in this paper represent the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers at these two institutions as well as the SETI Institute, Silicon Engines Inc., John C. Reykjalin Inc., Sverdrup Technology, Sterling Federal Systems, Cornell University, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the American Astronomical Society, Arecibo Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, the University of Washington, UC Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Innovative Systems, and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  14. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  15. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  16. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  17. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  18. Angler effort and catch within a spatially complex system of small lakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Barada, Tony J.; Schuckman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial layout of waterbodies and waterbody size can affect a creel clerk’s ability to intercept anglers for interviews and to accurately count anglers, which will affect the accuracy and precision of estimates of effort and catch. This study aimed to quantify angling effort and catch across a spatially complex system of 19 small (<100 ha) lakes, the Fremont lakes. Total (±SE) angling effort (hours) on individual lakes ranged from 0 (0) to 7,137 (305). Bank anglers utilized 18 of the 19 lakes, and their mean (±SE) trip lengths (hours) ranged from 0.80 (0.31) to 7.75 (6.75), depending on the waterbody. In contrast, boat anglers utilized 14 of the 19 lakes, and their trip lengths ranged from 1.39 (0.24) to 4.25 (0.71), depending on the waterbody. The most sought fishes, as indexed by number of lakes on which effort was exerted, were anything (17 of 19 lakes), largemouth bassMicropterus salmoides (15 of 19 lakes), and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (13 of 19 lakes). Bluegill Lepomis machrochirus, crappie Pomoxis spp., and largemouth bass were caught most frequently across the lakes, but catch rates varied considerably by lake. Of the 1,138 parties interviewed, most parties (93%) visited a single lake but there were 77 (7%) parties that indicated that they had visited multiple lakes during a single day. The contingent of parties that visited more than one lake a day were primarily (87%) bank anglers.. The number of lake-to-lake connections made by anglers visiting more than one waterbody during a single day was related to catch rates and total angling effort. The greater resolution that was achieved with a lake specific creel survey at Fremont lakes revealed a system of lakes with a large degree of spatial variation in angler effort and catch that would be missed by a coarser, system-wide survey that did not differentiate individual lakes.

  19. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency.

    PubMed

    Minohara, Rin; Wen, Wen; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one's actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on SoA. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of SoA. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable. PMID:27536267

  20. Preventing Substance Abuse by Supporting Families' Efforts with Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Brenna H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, because the resources of most contemporary nuclear families for monitoring and providing alternative incentives are not sufficient to compete with the positive contingencies associated with substance use, communities must support parent's efforts by supplementing them. (LKS)

  1. Grassroots Efforts: If You Plant Them, They Will Grow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a four-tiered framework for the development of advocacy skills among teacher preparation professionals that reflects grassroots advocacy efforts and endorses the value of the physical and health education disciplines.

  2. The Canon Group's effort: working toward a merged model.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, C; Huff, S M; Hersh, W R; Pattison-Gordon, E; Cimino, J J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a representational schema for clinical data for use in exchanging data and applications, using a collaborative approach. DESIGN: Representational models for clinical radiology were independently developed manually by several Canon Group members who had diverse application interests, using sample reports. These models were merged into one common model through an iterative process by means of workshops, meetings, and electronic mail. RESULTS: A core merged model for radiologic findings present in a set of reports that subsumed the models that were developed independently. CONCLUSIONS: The Canon Group's modeling effort focused on a collaborative approach to developing a representational schema for clinical concepts, using chest radiography reports as the initial experiment. This effort resulted in a core model that represents a consensus. Further efforts in modeling will extend the representational coverage and will also address issues such as scalability, automation, evaluation, and support of the collaborative effort. PMID:7895135

  3. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency

    PubMed Central

    Minohara, Rin; Wen, Wen; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of controlling one’s own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one’s actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on SoA. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of SoA. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable. PMID:27536267

  4. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  5. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  7. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  8. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  9. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  10. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  11. Respiratory effort correction strategies to improve the reproducibility of lung expansion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kaifang; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Ding, Kai; Bayouth, John E.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to make measurements of pulmonary function longitudinally. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify change depends on measurement uncertainty. Previously, intrasubject reproducibility of Jacobian-based measures of lung tissue expansion was studied in two repeat prior-RT 4DCT human acquisitions. Difference in respiratory effort such as breathing amplitude and frequency may affect longitudinal function assessment. In this study, the authors present normalization schemes that correct ventilation images for variations in respiratory effort and assess the reproducibility improvement after effort correction.Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 24 patients prior to radiation therapy (RT) were used for this analysis. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. In addition to computing the ventilation maps from end expiration to end inspiration, the authors investigated the effort normalization strategies using other intermediated inspiration phases upon the principles of equivalent tidal volume (ETV) and equivalent lung volume (ELV). Scatter plots and mean square error of the repeat ventilation maps and the Jacobian ratio map were generated for four conditions: no effort correction, global normalization, ETV, and ELV. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2 mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference.Results: The pattern of regional pulmonary ventilation changes as lung volume changes. All effort correction strategies improved reproducibility when changes in respiratory effort were greater than 150 cc (p < 0.005 with regard to the gamma pass rate). Improvement of reproducibility was

  12. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  13. Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

  14. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, Neil R; Reasor, R. Scott; Campbell, Claire L.

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  15. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  16. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity predicts effort expenditure for reward.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David M; Yates, Mark J; Morton, Emma E; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature shows that greater left, relative to right, frontal cortical activity (LFA) is involved in approach-motivated affective states and reflects stable individual differences in approach motivation. However, relatively few studies have linked LFA to behavioral indices of approach motivation. In this study, we examine the relation between LFA and effort expenditure for reward, a behavioral index of approach motivation. LFA was calculated for 51 right-handed participants (55% female) using power spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recorded at rest. Participants also completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT), which presents a series of trials requiring a choice between a low-reward low-effort task and a high-reward high-effort task. We found that individuals with greater resting LFA were more willing to expend greater effort in the pursuit of larger rewards, particularly when reward delivery was less likely. Our findings offer a more nuanced understanding of the motivational significance of LFA, in terms of processes that mitigate the effort- and uncertainty-related costs of pursuing rewarding goals. PMID:25479792

  17. Second language experience modulates word retrieval effort in bilinguals: evidence from pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers often have less language experience compared to monolinguals as a result of speaking two languages and/or a later age of acquisition of the second language. This may result in weaker and less precise phonological representations of words in memory, which may cause greater retrieval effort during spoken word recognition. To gauge retrieval effort, the present study compared the effects of word frequency, neighborhood density (ND), and level of English experience by testing monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers who differed in their age of acquisition of English (early/late). In the experimental paradigm, participants heard English words and matched them to one of four pictures while the pupil size, an indication of cognitive effort, was recorded. Overall, both frequency and ND effects could be observed in the pupil response, indicating that lower frequency and higher ND were associated with greater retrieval effort. Bilingual speakers showed an overall delayed pupil response and a larger ND effect compared to the monolingual speakers. The frequency effect was the same in early bilinguals and monolinguals but was larger in late bilinguals. Within the group of bilingual speakers, higher English proficiency was associated with an earlier pupil response in addition to a smaller frequency and ND effect. These results suggest that greater retrieval effort associated with bilingualism may be a consequence of reduced language experience rather than constitute a categorical bilingual disadvantage. Future avenues for the use of pupillometry in the field of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:24600428

  18. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Listening Effort As Part of an Audiologic Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn; Pendergraft, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated 2 measures of listening effort (a self-report measure and a word recall measure) regarding their suitability for inclusion in a comprehensive audiologic testing protocol. The relationship between the 2 measures was explored, and both measures were examined with regard to validity, sensitivity, and effect on speech intelligibility performance. Method Thirty adults with normal hearing participated. Speech intelligibility performance was evaluated at 4 signal-to-noise ratios by using keywords embedded in both high- and low-context sentences. Listening effort was evaluated at set intervals throughout the speech intelligibility task. Results Results obtained with the 2 measures were consistent with expected changes in listening effort. However, data obtained with the self-report method demonstrated greater sensitivity to these changes. The 2 measures were uncorrelated. Under certain conditions, speech intelligibility performance was more negatively affected when the word recall measure was used. Exploration of additional theoretical and practical considerations supported a conclusion that the self-report measure was preferable for measuring listening effort simultaneously with speech intelligibility. Conclusion The results of this study provide a rationale for preferring the self-report measure of listening effort over the word recall measure when testing audiologic outcomes. PMID:25996680

  19. Building a Science Software Institute: Synthesizing the Lessons Learned from the ISEES and WSSI Software Institute Conceptualization Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idaszak, R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Jones, M. B.; Ahalt, S.; Schildhauer, M.; Hampton, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF, in an effort to support the creation of sustainable science software, funded 16 science software institute conceptualization efforts. The goal of these conceptualization efforts is to explore approaches to creating the institutional, sociological, and physical infrastructures to support sustainable science software. This paper will present the lessons learned from two of these conceptualization efforts, the Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES - http://isees.nceas.ucsb.edu) and the Water Science Software Institute (WSSI - http://waters2i2.org). ISEES is a multi-partner effort led by National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). WSSI, also a multi-partner effort, is led by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI). The two conceptualization efforts have been collaborating due to the complementarity of their approaches and given the potential synergies of their science focus. ISEES and WSSI have engaged in a number of activities to address the challenges of science software such as workshops, hackathons, and coding efforts. More recently, the two institutes have also collaborated on joint activities including training, proposals, and papers. In addition to presenting lessons learned, this paper will synthesize across the two efforts to project a unified vision for a science software institute.

  20. Surface Radiation Survey at the Shepley’s Hill Remediation Site, Devens, Massachusettes

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Giles; C. P. Oertel; L. G. Roybal

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site, near Devens, MA. The technical support included the completion of a radiation survey of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at Shepley’s Hill, Shepley’s Hill landfill cover, and Red Cove areas. The objective of the radiation survey was to assess the ability of the INL backpack sodium iodide spectroscopy (BaSIS) system to detect elevated levels of NORM that may be associated with radon-222 emanation from near surface and subsurface fractures in the area. It is postulated that these fracture zones provide subsurface conduits for the transport of environmental contaminants. As such, location of these fracture sets will proved EPA Region 1 with the means for completing the development of an accurate site conceptual model. The results of the radiological survey show that some of the radiological anomalies correlate with currently mapped rock outcrops; however, not all of the rock outcrops in the surveyed area have been mapped. As such, it is not conclusive that all of the radiological anomalies correspond with surface rock outcrops. EPA Region 1 intends to perform a more comprehensive correlation of the radiation data collected with the BaSIS system with additional data sets such as detailed bedrock structural mapping, 2-dimensional resistivity profiling, and high-resolution topographic mapping. The results of this effort will be used in consideration of designing a potential follow-on effort for mapping of radon.

  1. UNAVCO Data Center Efforts in Data Infrastructures and Integration Capabilities for Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boler, Fran; Wier, Stuart; Meertens, Chuck; McWhirter, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    The UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, archives for preservation and distributes geodesy data and products in the GNSS, InSAR, and LiDAR domains to the scientific and education community. The GNSS data are useful for geodesy, tectonic, volcanologic, ice mass, glacial isostatic adjustment, meteorological and other studies. UNAVCO hosts GNSS data from 2,500 continuously operating stations and 8000 survey-mode observation points around the globe that are operated by over 100 U.S. and international members of the UNAVCO consortium. UNAVCO has an open access data policy and strives to provide catalogs and data access tools to facilitate maximum scientific and societal use of its data holdings. UNAVCO's geodesy holdings represent only a fraction of the data available from thousands of geodetic observation sites, with data hosted at hundreds of globally distributed data centers. These data are valuable for scientific research, education, hazards assessment and monitoring, and emergency management. However, the disparate data holdings structures, access restrictions, metadata encodings, and infrastructures at these numerous data centers represent a significant obstacle to use by scientists, government entities, educators and the public. In an effort to create a unified data and metadata access capability for geodesy data centers in general, UNAVCO, along with several partner U.S.-based geodesy data centers, have designed and implemented software for simplified access called the Geodesy Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC). GSAC is a web services based technology to facilitate the geodesy data discovery and access and is intended to be simple to install and run for most geodesy data centers. The GSAC technology leverages several well-accepted geodesy data and metadata formats, and identifies a relatively small set of required and recommended metadata for the basic installation. Additional optional metadata can be defined at individual data centers. The GSAC services

  2. Efforts Toward an Early Warning Crop Monitor for Countries at Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Magadzire, T.; Galu, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Jayanthi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing crop growing conditions is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. One of the core components of the Group on Earth Observations - Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) targets monitoring Countries at Risk (component 3). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of utilizing remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pest infestation, and climate change in some of the world's most at risk countries. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of Maryland Department of Geography have undertaken efforts to address component 3, by promoting the development of a collaborative Early Warning Crop Monitor (EWCM) that would specifically address Countries at Risk. A number of organizations utilize combinations of satellite earth observations, field campaigns, network partner inputs, and crop modeling techniques to monitor crop conditions throughout the world. Agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) provide agricultural monitoring information and reporting across a broad number of areas at risk and in many cases, organizations routinely report on the same countries. The latter offers an opportunity for collaboration on crop growing conditions among agencies. The reduction of uncertainty and achievement of consensus will help strengthen confidence in decisions to commit resources for mitigation of acute food insecurity and support for resilience and development programs. In addition, the development of a collaborative global EWCM will provide each of the partner agencies with the ability to quickly gather crop condition information for areas where they may not typically work or have access to local networks. Using a framework

  3. Behavioral Modeling of Human Choices Reveals Dissociable Effects of Physical Effort and Temporal Delay on Reward Devaluation

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C.; Kennerley, Steven W.; Saraiva, Ana C.; Penny, Will D.; Bestmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  4. Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage

  5. Sexual orientation change efforts among current or former LDS church members.

    PubMed

    Dehlin, John P; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S; Hyde, Daniel C; Crowell, Katherine A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants. PMID:24635593

  6. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics

  7. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I-II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009-2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004-2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs (2009-2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics, when its

  8. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  9. Farmland Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A 1981 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) study estimated that the nation is converting farmland to non-agricultural uses at the rate of 3 million acres a year. Seeking information on farmland loss in Florida, the state legislature, in 1984, directed establishment of a program for development of accurate data to enable intelligent legislation of state growth management. Thus was born Florida's massive Mapping and Monitoring of Agricultural Lands Project (MMALP). It employs data from the NASA-developed Landsat Earth resources survey satellite system as a quicker, less expensive alternative to ground surveying. The 3 year project involved inventory of Florida's 36 million acres classifying such as cropland, pastureland, citrus, woodlands, wetland, water and populated areas. Direction was assigned to Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) with assistance from the DOT. With the cooperation of the USDA, Soil Conservation Service, DCA decided that combining soil data with the Landsat land cover data would make available to land use planners a more comprehensive view of a county's land potential.

  10. 100-DR-1 radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-28

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted over the surface of the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 100-DR-1 radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the operable unit-specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the operable unit surface area. The survey methodology was based on utilization of USRADS for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near 6 in. and at 3 ft from the surface soil. The purpose of the survey is to identify the location of unidentified subsurface radioactive material areas and any surface contamination associated with these areas. The radiological surveys were conducted using both a digital count rate meter with a NaI detector reporting in counts per minute (CPM) and a dose rate meter reporting micro-Roentgen per hour (uR) connected to a CHEMRAD Tennessee Corp. Series 2000 USRADS. The count rate meter was set for gross counting, i.e., Window ``out``. The window setting allows detection of low, intermediate, and high energy photons. The USRADS equipment is used to record the detector readings verses the location of the readings, generate a map of the survey area, and save the data on computer storage media.

  11. Effort awareness and sense of volition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lafargue, Gilles; Franck, Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Contemporary experimental research has emphasised the role of centrally generated signals arising from premotor areas in voluntary muscular force perception. It is therefore generally accepted that judgements of force are based on a central sense, known as the sense of effort, rather than on a sense of intra-muscular tension. Interestingly, the concept of effort is also present in the classical philosophy: to the French philosopher Maine de Biran [Maine de Biran (1805). Mémoire sur la décomposition de la pensée (Tome III), Vrin, Paris (1963)], the sense of effort is the fundamental component of self-experience, the landmark of the exercise of the will. In the present review, after a presentation of the nature and neurophysiological bases of effort sensation, we will examine its possible involvement in the neurocognitive process of agency. We will further focus on delusions of alien control in schizophrenic patients. Experimental data suggest that these patients have an abnormal awareness of effort caused by cerebral anomalies in the frontal and parietal lobes. PMID:18653358

  12. Spatial habit competes with effort to determine human spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mona J H; Risko, Evan F

    2016-07-01

    Despite the important role that the physical environment plays in shaping human cognition, few studies have endeavoured to experimentally examine the principles underlying how individuals organize objects in their space. The current investigation examines the idea that humans organize objects in their space in order to minimize effort or maximize performance. We devised a novel spatial organization task whereby participants freely arranged objects in the context of a writing task. Critically, we manipulated the frequency with which each object was used and assessed participants' spontaneous placements. In the first set of experiments, participants showed a counterintuitive tendency to match pen pairs with their initial placements rather than placing pens in the less effortful configuration. However, in Experiment 2, where the difference in physical effort between different locations was increased, participants were more likely to reorganize the pens into the less effortful configuration. We begin developing a theory of human spatial organization wherein the observed initial bias may represent a kind of spatial habit formation that competes with effort/performance considerations to shape future spatial organization. PMID:26912422

  13. Efficiency and daily work effort in sugar cane cutters.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Barac-Nieto, M; Maksud, M G

    1977-05-01

    Productivity (metric tons (tonnes)/day), efficiency (kg cane cut/litre Vo2), and effort (percent Vo2 max sustained during an 8-hour workday) have been measured in 54 Colombian sugar cane cutters. In workers who sustained less than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, the effort expended was related to productivity (4 = 0-71) but efficiency and productivity were not significantly correlated. In 16 workers sustaining a greater than 40% Vo2 max during the workday, productivity and effort were not related and efficiency was significantly reduced. Subjects using less than 40% Vo2 max were divided into good, average and poor producers and compared with the men with low efficiencies. In general, these inefficient men had the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low productivity workers (smaller stature, weight and Vo2 max). However, the frequency of good, average, and poor cutters in the inefficient group did not differ from that of the men expending less than 40% of their maximum effort nor was their average productivity different. No obvious reasons for the differences in efficiency and effort of these men were found. PMID:871445

  14. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  15. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Dorothy L.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males in polygynous species of mammals will invest more reproductive effort in mate competition than parental investment. A corollary to this prediction is that males will mount a stress response when their access to mates is threatened. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that males exhibit elevated stress hormones, or glucocorticoids (GCs), when their access to females, or a proxy to this access like dominance rank, is challenged. In contrast, the relationship between stress hormones and paternal effort is less obvious. We report results from a study of wild male chacma baboons indicating that males experienced elevated GC levels during periods of social instability following the immigration of a dominant male. These effects were strongest in males whose mating opportunities were at greatest risk: high-ranking males and males engaged in sexual consortships. Males involved in friendships with lactating females, a form of paternal investment, also experienced high GC levels during these periods of instability. There was a tendency for males with lactating female friends to reduce their time spent in consortships during unstable periods, when the risk of infanticide was high. Thus, even in a highly polygynous mammal, males may have to balance paternal effort with mating effort. Males who invest entirely in mating effort risk losing the infants they have sired to infanticide. Males who invest in paternal care may enhance their offspring's survival, but at the cost of elevated GC levels, the risk of injury, and the loss of mating opportunities. PMID:25620835

  16. Climate data initiative: A geocuration effort to support climate resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin; Tilmes, Curt; Privette, Ana Pinheiro

    2016-03-01

    Curation is traditionally defined as the process of collecting and organizing information around a common subject matter or a topic of interest and typically occurs in museums, art galleries, and libraries. The task of organizing data around specific topics or themes is a vibrant and growing effort in the biological sciences but to date this effort has not been actively pursued in the Earth sciences. In this paper, we introduce the concept of geocuration and define it as the act of searching, selecting, and synthesizing Earth science data/metadata and information from across disciplines and repositories into a single, cohesive, and useful collection. We present the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) project as a prototypical example. The CDI project is a systematic effort to manually curate and share openly available climate data from various federal agencies. CDI is a broad multi-agency effort of the U.S. government and seeks to leverage the extensive existing federal climate-relevant data to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship to support national climate-change preparedness. We describe the geocuration process used in the CDI project, lessons learned, and suggestions to improve similar geocuration efforts in the future.

  17. Status of several Stirling loss characterization efforts and their significance for Stirling space power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA-Lewis and other U.S. Government agencies have supported experimental and analytical programs for the characterization of Stirling cycle engines' thermodynamic losses, with a view to the improvement of Stirling engine design capabilities. The Space Power Demonstrator Engine is noted to have benefited from these efforts; test data and model predictions suggest that even greater performance improvements would be obtainable through additional modifications of engine regenerator and heater hardware.

  18. An Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center's Antenna R&D and Technology Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of antenna research and design efforts being performed at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The following type of antenna research projects are discussed: phased array antennas, thin film ferroelectric reflectarray antenna, microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) based antennas and multi-beam antennas. Project overviews, design issues and research problems for each type of antenna system are covered. Additional topics reviewed included: communication systems of the future and a facility description.

  19. The Door-to-Balloon Alliance for Quality: Who Joins National Collaborative Efforts and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Stern, Amy F.; Cherlin, Emily J.; Wang, Yongfei; Byrd, Jason R.; Linnander, Erika L.; Nazem, Alexander G.; Brush, John E.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Door-to-Balloon (D2B) Alliance is a collaborative effort of more than 900 hospitals aimed at improving D2B times for ST–segment elevation myocardial infarction. Although such collaborative efforts are increasingly used to promote improvement, little is known about the types of health care organizations that enroll and their motivations to participate. Methods To examine the types of hospitals enrolled and reasons for enrollment, a cross-sectional study was conducted of 915 D2B Alliance hospitals and 654 hospitals that did not join the D2B Alliance. Data were obtained from the American Hospital Association’s Annual Survey of Hospitals and a Web-based survey completed by 797 enrolled hospitals (response rate, 87%). Chi-square statistics were used to examine statistical associations, and qualitative data analysis was used to characterize reported reasons for enrolling. Results Hospitals that enrolled in the D2B Alliance were significantly (p values < .05) more likely to be larger, nonprofit (versus for-profit), and teaching (versus nonteaching) hospitals. Earlier- versus later-enrolling hospitals were more likely to have key recommended strategies already in place at the time of enrollment. Improving quality and “doing the right thing” were commonly reported reasons for enrolling; however, hospitals also reported improving market share, meeting regulatory and accreditation requirements, and enhancing reputation as primary reasons for joining. Conclusions The findings highlight the underlying goals of organizations to improve their position in the external environment—including economic, regulatory, accreditation, and professional environments. Designing quality improvement collaborative efforts to appeal to these goals may be an important strategy for enhancing participation and, in turn, increasing the uptake of evidence-based innovations. PMID:19241729

  20. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts. PMID:21388567