Science.gov

Sample records for additional technical challenges

  1. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  2. Sonic Boom Modeling Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the technical challenges in modeling sonic booms. The goal of this program is to develop knowledge, capabilities and technologies to enable overland supersonic flight. The specific objectives of the modeling are: (1) Develop and validate sonic boom propagation model through realistic atmospheres, including effects of turbulence (2) Develop methods enabling prediction of response of and acoustic transmission into structures impacted by sonic booms (3) Develop and validate psychoacoustic model of human response to sonic booms under both indoor and outdoor listening conditions, using simulators.

  3. Crowdsourcing for Challenging Technical Problems - It Works!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering (Wyle) will conduct a one-day business cluster at the 62nd IAC so that IAC attendees will understand the benefits of open innovation (crowdsourcing), review successful results of conducting technical challenges in various open innovation projects, and learn how an organization can effectively deploy these new problem solving tools to innovate more efficiently and effectively. Results from both the SLSD open innovation pilot program and the open innovation workshop conducted by the NASA Human Health and Performance Center will be discussed. NHHPC members will be recruited to participate in the business cluster (see membership http://nhhpc.nasa.gov) and as IAF members. Crowdsourcing may be defined as the act of outsourcing tasks that are traditionally performed by an employee or contractor to an undefined, generally large group of people or community (a crowd) in the form of an open call. The open call may be issued by the organization wishing to find a solution to a particular problem or complete a task, or by an open innovation service provider on behalf of that organization. In 2008, the SLSD, with the support of Wyle, established and implemented pilot projects in open innovation (crowdsourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical challenges. These unsolved technical problems were converted to problem statements, called Challenges by some open innovation service providers, and were then posted externally to seek solutions to these problems. In addition, an open call was issued internally to NASA employees Agency wide (11 Field Centers and NASA HQ) using an open innovation service provider crowdsourcing platform to post NASA challenges from each Center for the others to propose solutions). From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external

  4. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  5. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  6. Additive manufacturing: Overview and NDE challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are capable of producing highly complex and customized parts, without the need for dedicated tooling, and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet there are several challenges that are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Traditional Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods could be utilized in both in-process and post-process applications to help overcome these challenges, although currently there are very few examples of in-situ sensors for monitoring AM processes. This paper gives an overview of AM technology, and discusses the potential benefits and challenges of using NDE in AM applications.

  7. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  8. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  9. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  10. Technical challenges of opening the Atlantic Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, I.G.; Brookes, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The deepwater at and beyond the margins of the UKCS West of Shetland Islands, presents a most demanding set of technical challenges to oilfield development. The paper gives an appreciation of the dominant environmental characteristics, including the complex high currents which affect all activities in the area. The Foinaven and Schiehallion reservoirs are relatively shallow and thin, with large areal extent, necessitating multiple drilling centers. The crudes have relatively low API gravity and low GOR, and the low reservoir temperature presents particular challenges for wax management at the low seabed temperatures. The large wave response motions of floating production and construction/support vessels, combined with the high and variable currents, create difficult conditions for design, tie-in and operation of flowlines, flexible risers and umbilicals. This paper reviews these challenges and the solutions for the selected options of FPSO`s and subsea systems for the Foinaven Development.

  11. Space Station Freedom - Technical and management challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Space Station is reviewed, focusing on the technical and managerial aspects of the program. The optimization of the Space Station configuration, utilization impacts on design, technical aspects of the distribution systems, and the problems of designing for a lifetime of 30 years or more are discussed. In addition, cost reduction studies, testing and verification, determining the assembly sequence, and operational communications and support systems are examined. Managerial aspects of the program include organization, program control, management tools and processes, and the integration of elements from the international partners.

  12. Crowd Sourcing for Challenging Technical Problems and Business Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Crowd sourcing may be defined as the act of outsourcing tasks that are traditionally performed by an employee or contractor to an undefined, generally large group of people or community (a crowd) in the form of an open call. The open call may be issued by an organization wishing to find a solution to a particular problem or complete a task, or by an open innovation service provider on behalf of that organization. In 2008, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), with the support of Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering, established and implemented pilot projects in open innovation (crowd sourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical challenges. These unsolved technical problems were converted to problem statements, also called "Challenges" or "Technical Needs" by the various open innovation service providers, and were then posted externally to seek solutions. In addition, an open call was issued internally to NASA employees Agency wide (10 Field Centers and NASA HQ) using an open innovation service provider crowd sourcing platform to post NASA challenges from each Center for the others to propose solutions). From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external problems or challenges were posted through three different vendors: InnoCentive, Yet2.com and TopCoder. The 20 internal challenges were conducted using the InnoCentive crowd sourcing platform designed for internal use by an organization. This platform was customized for NASA use and promoted as NASA@Work. The results were significant. Of the seven InnoCentive external challenges, two full and five partial awards were made in complex technical areas such as predicting solar flares and long-duration food packaging. Similarly, the TopCoder challenge yielded an optimization algorithm for designing a lunar medical kit. The Yet2.com challenges yielded many new industry and academic contacts in bone

  13. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... Subjects 21 CFR Part 73 Color additives, Cosmetics, Drugs, Medical devices. 21 CFR Part 172 Food...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional absentee voter challenge period. 1230.639... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 1230.639 Additional absentee voter challenge period. (a) Absentee Voter Request List. The...

  15. A Perkins Challenge: Assessing Technical Skills in CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    2009-01-01

    Federal law requires state to develop performance measures and data-collection systems for secondary and postsecondary technical-skill attainment. This poses many challenges, such as defining a technical skills, measurement and when to assess students. In this article, the author outlines various assessment models and looks at the challenges…

  16. Replacing Technically Skilled Workers: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.; Wither, Steven V.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the early 1900s, the United States could either find technically skilled workers based upon their backgrounds or was able to train workers quickly. Farmers, military personnel, and other sources of skilled workers were available to fill the needs of the workforce. These sources of readily available skilled workers are no longer as…

  17. Technical challenges of providing record linkage services for research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Record linkage techniques are widely used to enable health researchers to gain event based longitudinal information for entire populations. The task of record linkage is increasingly being undertaken by specialised linkage units (SLUs). In addition to the complexity of undertaking probabilistic record linkage, these units face additional technical challenges in providing record linkage ‘as a service’ for research. The extent of this functionality, and approaches to solving these issues, has had little focus in the record linkage literature. Few, if any, of the record linkage packages or systems currently used by SLUs include the full range of functions required. Methods This paper identifies and discusses some of the functions that are required or undertaken by SLUs in the provision of record linkage services. These include managing routine, on-going linkage; storing and handling changing data; handling different linkage scenarios; accommodating ever increasing datasets. Automated linkage processes are one way of ensuring consistency of results and scalability of service. Results Alternative solutions to some of these challenges are presented. By maintaining a full history of links, and storing pairwise information, many of the challenges around handling ‘open’ records, and providing automated managed extractions are solved. A number of these solutions were implemented as part of the development of the National Linkage System (NLS) by the Centre for Data Linkage (part of the Population Health Research Network) in Australia. Conclusions The demand for, and complexity of, linkage services is growing. This presents as a challenge to SLUs as they seek to service the varying needs of dozens of research projects annually. Linkage units need to be both flexible and scalable to meet this demand. It is hoped the solutions presented here can help mitigate these difficulties. PMID:24678656

  18. Emerging Water Contaminants: Technical, Legal and Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R. A.; Kresic, N.; Laugier, M. C.; Kavanaugh, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 120 new chemicals are created each year due to ever-improving industry and technology markets. Releases of new contaminants into the environment can occur during production, use and disposal of these chemicals thereby leading to potential contamination of water supply sources. Very few emerging contaminants are regulated. In addition, knowledge gaps regarding emerging contaminants include lack health effects, occurrence (either because these compounds are not measured or because concentrations are below detection limits of readily available analytical techniques) and fate and transport in the environment especially with regards to mobility and persistence. The sources of these compounds are numerous. One source is treated wastewater, which is re-injected into groundwater aquifers for indirect potable reuse purposes. Emerging compounds of concern can be classified in various classes. This presentation will focus on contaminants, which have emerged in the last 10 years including pharmaceuticals (antibiotics/drugs), personal care products (polycyclic musks), pesticides/herbicides, industrial solvents (1,4-dioxane), gasoline additives (MTBE), disinfection byproducts such as NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine), and inorganic compounds such as perchlorate and arsenic. This presentation will present technical, legal and legislative challenges posed by the presence of these contaminants in water. Background information including chemical's history of use, sources in the environments, nationwide occurrence, physical and chemical properties, behavior in the environment and technologies for removal from soil and water will be presented. In addition, case studies on MTBE, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 1,4-dioxane, arsenic and NDMA will be discussed.

  19. Technical challenges involved in supporting the Lambda Point Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrac, D.; Israelsson, U.; Otth, D.; Simmons, L.; Staats, J.; Thompson, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) is one of the instruments included in the U.S. Microgravity Payload Mission 1 planned for one of the Space Shuttle flights in 1992. The objective of the experiment is to measure the heat capacity of liquid helium within a narrow interval around the transition between superfluid and normal helium (the lambda point) with an unprecedented temperature resolution of about 10 to the -10th. Multiple technical challenges are presented in the areas of structural support, safety analysis, and modal frequency tests. This paper describes the technical challenges of JPL's multidisciplinary involvement in support of these experiments in microgravity.

  20. Intelligent Mobility Systems: Some Socio-technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büscher, Monika; Coulton, Paul; Efstratiou, Christos; Gellersen, Hans; Hemment, Drew; Mehmood, Rashid; Sangiorgi, Daniela

    Analysis of socio-technical challenges and opportunities around contemporary mobilities suggests new interpretations and visions for intelligent transport systems. Multiple forms of intelligence are required (but not easily compatible), transport is too narrow a term, and innovation results in new socio-technical systems. An exploration of cumulative, collective and collaborative aspects of mobility systems, allows us to sketch challenges and opportunities in relation to practices of collaboration, communication and coordination, literacies for creativity, comfort and control, citizenship and (lack of) a sense of crisis, concluding with a discussion of methodological implications.

  1. Dynamic treatment regimes: technical challenges and applications

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Daniel J.; Qian, Min; Pelham, William E.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic treatment regimes are of growing interest across the clinical sciences because these regimes provide one way to operationalize and thus inform sequential personalized clinical decision making. Formally, a dynamic treatment regime is a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of clinical intervention. Each decision rule maps up-to-date patient information to a recommended treatment. We briefly review a variety of approaches for using data to construct the decision rules. We then review a critical inferential challenge that results from nonregularity, which often arises in this area. In particular, nonregularity arises in inference for parameters in the optimal dynamic treatment regime; the asymptotic, limiting, distribution of estimators are sensitive to local perturbations. We propose and evaluate a locally consistent Adaptive Confidence Interval (ACI) for the parameters of the optimal dynamic treatment regime. We use data from the Adaptive Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Children with ADHD Trial as an illustrative example. We conclude by highlighting and discussing emerging theoretical problems in this area. PMID:25356091

  2. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  3. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

    2012-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621

  4. TRU partnership: Overview of technical challenges and initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.; Martin, M.R.; Mullin, R.J.; Ball, D.E.; Stewart, D.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been constructed in a geologic salt deposit in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Current plans have the WIPP scheduled to begin permanent emplacement of TRU waste starting in approximately 2000 after completion of a 5-7 year test phase that is scheduled to begin in 1994. The WIPP has prepared a waste acceptance criteria (WAC) that establishes requirements that must be met by waste packages intended for disposal at WIPP. In addition there are other existing criteria (e.g. DOE General Design Criteria 6430.lA), regulations, procedures, guidelines and safety concerns (e.g. ALARA), regarding designing, building and operating radiological waste handling/processing facilities. All of these, along with the desire to minimize each projects total cost, encourage and in some cases dictate the use of new, developing technologies and other innovative technologies and operating philosophies. In the summer of 1990 the TRU Partnership was formed comprising several of the DOE TRU waste generator and storage/disposal sites. This partnership meets approximately quarterly to present the status of each site`s projects and has resulted in the establishment of a list of technical/development needs/challenges and initiatives. The initiatives are discussed in this report.

  5. Delivering multiple independent RIB simultaneously: Technical and operational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, A. C.

    2016-06-01

    ISAC is an ISOL-type facility at which RIB are produced by direct reactions of 480 MeV protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron on thick targets. Like other ISOL-type facilities, ISAC is limited to the production and delivery of a single RIB at any given time. ARIEL, the Advanced Rare-IsotopE Laboratory, will provide for the production and delivery of, ultimately, two additional RIB, the first produced by photofission on actinide targets using electrons from a new superconducting electron linac and the second by direct and indirect reactions with protons from TRIUMFs main cyclotron. This will allow for the simultaneous delivery of three independent RIB to experimental areas at ARIEL and ISAC. The shift from single-user to multi-user operation will introduce significant technical and operational challenges that RIB facilities have not yet had to address. Almost all aspects of facility operation will become more complex as the first RIB from ARIEL targets become available.

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

    2012-02-28

    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  7. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  8. Antibody-Based Protein Multiplex Platforms: Technical and Operational Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, Allison A.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Bailey, Kent R.; Klee, George G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The measurement of multiple protein biomarkers may refine risk stratification in clinical settings. This concept has stimulated development of multiplexed immunoassay platforms that provide multiple, parallel protein measurements on the same specimen. CONTENT We provide an overview of antibody-based multiplexed immunoassay platforms and discuss technical and operational challenges. Multiplexed immunoassays use traditional immunoassay principles in which high-affinity capture ligands are immobilized in parallel arrays in either planar format or on microspheres in suspension. Development of multiplexed immunoassays requires rigorous validation of assay configuration and analytical performance to minimize assay imprecision and inaccuracy. Challenges associated with multiplex configuration include selection and immobilization of capture ligands, calibration, interference between antibodies and proteins and assay diluents, and compatibility of assay limits of quantification. We discuss potential solutions to these challenges. Criteria for assessing analytical multiplex assay performance include the range of linearity, analytical specificity, recovery, and comparison to a quality reference method. Quality control materials are not well developed for multiplexed protein immunoassays, and algorithms for interpreting multiplex quality control data are needed. SUMMARY Technical and operational challenges have hindered implementation of multiplexed assays in clinical settings. Formal procedures that guide multiplex assay configuration, analytical validation, and quality control are needed before broad application of multiplexed arrays can occur in the in vitro diagnostic market. PMID:19959625

  9. The technical challenges of the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Collier, Paul

    2015-01-13

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a 27km circumference hadron collider, built at CERN to explore the energy frontier of particle physics. Approved in 1994, it was commissioned and began operation for data taking in 2009. The design and construction of the LHC presented many design, engineering and logistical challenges which involved pushing a number of technologies well beyond their level at the time. Since the start-up of the machine, there has been a very successful 3-year run with an impressive amount of data delivered to the LHC experiments. With an increasingly large stored energy in the beam, the operation of the machine itself presented many challenges and some of these will be discussed. Finally, the planning for the next 20 years has been outlined with progressive upgrades of the machine, first to nominal energy, then to progressively higher collision rates. At each stage the technical challenges are illustrated with a few examples. PMID:26949802

  10. The NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Project: managing technical challenges.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Matthew P; Townsend, Ronald D; Dooley, David A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately two years after promulgation of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Office of Compensation and Analysis Support selected a contractor team to perform many aspects of the radiation dose reconstruction process. The project scope and schedule necessitated the development of an organization involving a comparatively large number of health physicists. From the initial stages, there were many technical and managerial challenges that required continuous planning, integration, and conflict resolution. This paper identifies those challenges and describes the resolutions and lessons learned. These insights are hopefully useful to managers of similar scientific projects, especially those requiring significant data, technical methods, and calculations. The most complex challenge has been to complete defensible, individualized dose reconstructions that support timely compensation decisions at an acceptable production level. Adherence to applying claimant-favorable and transparent science consistent with the requirements of the Act has been the key to establishing credibility, which is essential to this large and complex project involving tens of thousands of individual stakeholders. The initial challenges included garnering sufficient and capable scientific staff, developing an effective infrastructure, establishing necessary methods and procedures, and integrating activities to ensure consistent, quality products. The continuing challenges include maintaining the project focus on recommending a compensation determination (rather than generating an accurate dose reconstruction), managing the associated very large data and information management challenges, and ensuring quality control and assurance in the presence of an evolving infrastructure. The lessons learned concern project credibility, claimant favorability, project priorities, quality and consistency, and critical

  11. Comparison of Traditional and Innovative Techniques to Solve Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of traditional and innovative techniques to solve technical challenges in food storage technology. The planning for a mission to Mars is underway, and the food storage technology improvements requires that improvements be made. This new technology is required, because current food storage technology is inadequate,refrigerators or freezers are not available for food preservation, and that a shelf life of 5 years is expected. A 10 year effort to improve food packaging technology has not enhanced significantly food packaging capabilities. Two innovation techniques were attempted InnoCentive and Yet2.com and have provided good results, and are still under due diligence for solver verification.

  12. 7 CFR 1230.639 - Additional absentee voter challenge period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum... entity being challenged. Each challenge of a producer vote must be made on a separate sheet of paper...

  13. Planetary Protection Technologies: Technical Challenges for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system, using either in situ analysis or sample return, brings with it special technical challenges in the area of planetary protection. Planetary protection (PP) requires planetary explorers to preserve biological and organic conditions for future exploration and to protect the Earth from potential extraterrestrial contamination that could occur as a result of sample return to the Earth-Moon system. In view of the exploration plans before us, the NASA Solar System Exploration Program Roadmap published in May 2003 identified planetary protection as one of 13 technologies for "high priority technology investments." Recent discoveries at Mars and Jupiter, coupled with new policies, have made this planning for planetary protection technology particularly challenging and relevant.New missions to Mars have been formulated, which present significantly greater forward contamination potential. New policies, including the introduction by COSPAR of a Category IVc for planetary protection, have been adopted by COSPAR in response. Some missions may not be feasible without the introduction of new planetary protection technologies. Other missions may be technically possible but planetary protection requirements may be so costly to implement with current technology that they are not affordable. A strategic investment strategy will be needed to focus on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce the costs of future missions. This presentation will describe some of the potential technological pathways that may be most protective.

  14. Turning Technologies into Businesses- The Challenge for the Technical Entrepreneur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Alexander

    2000-03-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, new businesses based on innovative technology have been the driving force for the US economy. Due to the abundance of early-stage capital, each year, thousands of scientists and engineers receive support to start new, technology-based businesses. However, the transition from technologist to entrepreneur is often difficult. It requires a shift in emphasis from a technology focus to a market focus. We shall discuss the challenges facing the technical entrepreneur in launching a new enterprise, and a variety of resources that are available to help the entrepreneur succeed. Many technologists fall victim to the myth that if you ``build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to your door." To be sure, it is important to base your business on sound technology that offers a clear advantage over current practice, and, if possible, to secure title to the technology, either by obtaining patent protection, or securing an exclusive license. Once that is done, however, the principal concern of the fledgling enterprise is building a business and obtaining the financial resources to enable it to grow. The entrepreneur must develop a clear and compelling business model, that can be communicated to a non-technical investor in a few minutes. This requires a mode of thinking and expression quite different from that commonly used in engineering or scientific discussions. Fortunately, abundant resources are available to help the technologist become a successful entrepreneur. We shall discuss the kinds of assistance that are generally available through local and national programs, and give specific examples based on the activities of the Bay Area Regional Technology Alliance in northern California.

  15. The Challenges of Career and Technical Education Concurrent Enrollment: An Administrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Patricia W.

    2015-01-01

    Career and technical education concurrent enrollment may pose unique challenges in programming and enrollment for program administrators, and this chapter describes the experiences and challenges of a CTE concurrent enrollment administrator.

  16. The Challenge of Change: Report of the Technical Education National Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The document consists of seven papers presented at the First Annual Technical Education Seminar (May, 1974) on the Challenge of Change in Technical Education, conducted by the Technical Education Division of the American Vocational Association. The papers, representative of the many presented at the seminar, have been published to serve as a…

  17. English as an Additional Language: Assumptions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2010-01-01

    The number of pupils who have English as an Additional Language (EAL) in our English schools is increasing with an increased influx of migrants from Europe. This paper investigates how schools are addressing the needs of these children. Using survey and interviews with teachers and paraprofessionals (teaching assistants and bilingual assistants),…

  18. 75 FR 66752 - ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ILP Effectiveness Evaluation 2010; Additional Notice of Multi- Stakeholder..., ``Notice of Interviews, Teleconferences, Regional Workshops And Multi-Stakeholder Technical Conference...

  19. Describing Acupuncture: A New Challenge for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanikas, Marianthe

    1997-01-01

    Considers acupuncture as an increasingly popular alternative medical therapy, but difficult to describe in technical communication. Notes that traditional Chinese medical explanations of acupuncture are unscientific, and that scientific explanations of acupuncture are inconclusive. Finds that technical communicators must translate acupuncture for…

  20. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  1. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    The management of rivers for improving safety, shipping and environment requires conscious effort on the part of river managers. River engineers design hydraulic works to tackle various challenges, from increasing flow conveyance to ensuring minimal water depths for environmental flow and inland shipping. Last year saw the completion of such large scale river engineering in the 'Room for the River' programme for the Dutch Rhine River system, in which several dozen of human interventions were built to increase flood safety. Engineering works in rivers are not completed in isolation from society. Rather, their benefits - increased safety, landscaping beauty - and their disadvantages - expropriation, hindrance - directly affect inhabitants. Therefore river managers are required to carefully defend their plans. The effect of engineering works on river dynamics is being evaluated using hydraulic river models. Two-dimensional numerical models based on the shallow water equations provide the predictions necessary to make decisions on designs and future plans. However, like all environmental models, these predictions are subject to uncertainty. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of the main sources of uncertainty for hydraulic river models. Two of the most important sources are boundary conditions and hydraulic roughness (Warmink et al. 2013). The result of these sources of uncertainty is that the identification of single, deterministic prediction model is a non-trivial task. This is this is a well-understood problem in other fields as well - most notably hydrology - and known as equifinality. However, the particular case of human intervention modelling with hydraulic river models compounds the equifinality case. The model that provides the reference baseline situation is usually identified through calibration and afterwards modified for the engineering intervention. This results in two distinct models, the evaluation of which yields the effect of

  2. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  3. Technical and Vocational Education in the Philippines: Challenges and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pada, Frederick So.

    1992-01-01

    Technical-vocational education increasingly carries the burden of providing the needed labor force for the attainment of an industrialized economy. More collaboration is necessary to implement the best possible programs, strengthen intellectual and development, and promote their relevance to national development. (Author/JOW)

  4. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  5. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  6. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  7. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  8. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  9. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  10. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  12. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  13. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  14. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  15. Technical options for processing additional light tight oil volumes within the United States

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines technical options for processing additional LTO volumes within the United States. Domestic processing of additional LTO would enable an increase in petroleum product exports from the United States, already the world’s largest net exporter of petroleum products. Unlike crude oil, products are not subject to export limitations or licensing requirements. While this is one possible approach to absorbing higher domestic LTO production in the absence of a relaxation of current limitations on crude exports, domestic LTO would have to be priced at a level required to encourage additional LTO runs at existing refinery units, debottlenecking, or possible additions of processing capacity.

  16. When Politeness Is Fatal: Technical Communication and the "Challenger" Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Investigates causes of ambiguities in the discourse resulting in the decision to launch the space shuttle "Challenger." Maintains that the source of that ambiguity was: (1) a social context with great pressure to launch; and (2) inappropriate conversational politeness strategies used to cope with that pressure. Discusses the lessons of the…

  17. Transposable elements in fish functional genomics: technical challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parinov, Serguei; Emelyanov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of several transposable elements in zebrafish opens new frontiers for genetic manipulation in this important vertebrate model. This review discusses transposable elements as mutagenesis tools for fish functional genomics. We review various mutagenesis strategies that were previously applied in other genetic models, such as Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and mouse, that may be beneficial if applied in fish. We also discuss the forthcoming challenges of high-throughput functional genomics in fish. PMID:18047698

  18. Comparison of Traditional and Innovative Techniques to Solve Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although NASA has an adequate food system for current missions, research is required to accommodate new requirements for future NASA exploration missions. The Inadequate Food System risk reflects the need to develop requirements and technologies that will enable NASA to provide the crew with a safe, nutritious and acceptable food system while effectively balancing appropriate resources such as mass, volume, and crew time in exploratory missions. As we go deeper into space or spend more time on the International Space Station (ISS), there will be requirements for packaged food to be stored for 3 5 years. New food packaging technologies are needed that have adequate oxygen and water barrier properties to maintain the foods' quality over this extended shelf life. NASA has been unsuccessful in identify packaging materials that meet the necessary requirements when using several traditional routes including literature reviews, workshops, and internal shelf life studies on foods packaged in various packaging materials. Small Business Innovative Research grants were used for accelerating food packaging materials research with limited success. In order to accelerate the process, a theoretical challenge was submitted to InnoCentive resulting in a partial award. A similar food packaging challenge was submitted to Yet2.com and several potential commercial packaging material suppliers were identified that, at least partially, met the requirements. Comparisons and results of these challenges will be discussed.

  19. Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Due to their all-electrical nature, impedance biosensors have significant potential for use as simple and portable sensors for environmental studies and environmental monitoring. Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Although impedance biosensors have been widely studied in the academic literature, commercial applications have been hindered by several technical limitations, including possible limitations to small analytes, the complexity of impedance detection, susceptibility to nonspecific adsorption, and stability of biomolecule immobilization. Recent research into methods to overcome these obstacles is briefly reviewed. New results demonstrating antibody regeneration atop degenerate (highly doped) Si are also reported. Using 0.2 M KSCN and 10 mM HF for antibody regeneration, peanut protein Ara h 1 is detected daily during a 30 day trial. PMID:25068095

  20. Therapeutic vaccines for chronic diseases: successes and technical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Martin F.; Jennings, Gary T.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic, non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death and disability worldwide and have replaced infectious diseases as the major burden of society in large parts of the world. Despite the complexity of chronic diseases, relatively few predisposing risk factors have been identified by the World Health Organization. Those include smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure as the cause of many of these chronic conditions. Here, we discuss several examples of vaccines that target these risk factors with the aim of preventing the associated diseases and some of the challenges they face. PMID:21893545

  1. Technical challenges and solutions in merging GIESim and JSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikus, John H.; Parisi, Thomas; Valente, Jon; Wassmer, Robert E.

    2005-05-01

    The merger of the GIESim JTIDS simulation with JSAF added tactical communications modeling to JSAF, and posed several challenges that are overviewed along with solutions and lessons learned. Tactical communications play an increasingly critical role in military operations. JSAF is a large multi-forces simulation that is often employed for war-gaming, however JSAF currently does not model tactical communications. Also the merger of the JTIDS/Link-16 capabilities from GIESim with JSAF is a first step toward applying the GIESim rapid communications modeling approach to a large simulation environment. This paper addresses the physical and logical simulation architectures, modifications of HLA interfaces and internal logic, determination of mission goals and scenario development, associated network design, and component integration associated with the GIESim-JSAF merger. Both JSAF and the GIESim JTIDS simulation were modified to allow JSAF to pass a message through the JTIDS simulation. Substantial work was required to make this happen. Perhaps the greatest challenge was that JSAF did not have logic to handle tactical communications at all. Furthermore, JSAF needed to drive platform position updates into the JTIDS simulation so that accurate radio propagation calculations and correct network transmissions would occur. M&S interoperability between JSAF and the JTIDS simulation needed to be demonstrated in a way that tested interoperation and that had a quick impact on an observer. Therefore, an operationally relevant scenario was developed to demonstrate the value of adding communications modeling to JSAF. Current success and future possibilities will be presented.

  2. Technical challenges for the future of high energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFortune, K. N.; Hurd, R. L.; Fochs, S. N.; Rotter, M. D.; Pax, P. H.; Combs, R. L.; Olivier, S. S.; Brase, J. M.; Yamamoto, R. M.

    2007-02-01

    The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multi-generation laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels with current performance approaching 100 kilowatts. This program is one of many designed to harness the power of lasers for use as directed energy weapons. There are many hurdles common to all of these programs that must be overcome to make the technology viable. There will be a in-depth discussion of the general issues facing state-of-the-art high energy lasers and paths to their resolution. Despite the relative simplicity of the SSHCL design, many challenges have been uncovered in the implementation of this particular system. An overview of these and their resolution are discussed. The overall system design of the SSHCL, technological strengths and weaknesses, and most recent experimental results will be presented.

  3. Technical challenges for the future of high energy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N; Hurd, R L; Fochs, S N; Rotter, M D; Pax, P H; Combs, R L; Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Yamamoto, R M

    2007-01-10

    The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multi-generation laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels with current performance approaching 100 kilowatts. This program is one of many designed to harness the power of lasers for use as directed energy weapons. There are many hurdles common to all of these programs that must be overcome to make the technology viable. There will be a in-depth discussion of the general issues facing state-of-the-art high energy lasers and paths to their resolution. Despite the relative simplicity of the SSHCL design, many challenges have been uncovered in the implementation of this particular system. An overview of these and their resolution are discussed. The overall system design of the SSHCL, technological strengths and weaknesses, and most recent experimental results will be presented.

  4. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  5. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  6. Uganda's National Transmission Backbone Infrastructure Project: Technical Challenges and the Way Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulega, T.; Kyeyune, A.; Onek, P.; Sseguya, R.; Mbabazi, D.; Katwiremu, E.

    2011-10-01

    Several publications have identified technical challenges facing Uganda's National Transmission Backbone Infrastructure project. This research addresses the technical limitations of the National Transmission Backbone Infrastructure project, evaluates the goals of the project, and compares the results against the technical capability of the backbone. The findings of the study indicate a bandwidth deficit, which will be addressed by using dense wave division multiplexing repeaters, leasing bandwidth from private companies. Microwave links for redundancy, a Network Operation Center for operation and maintenance, and deployment of wireless interoperability for microwave access as a last-mile solution are also suggested.

  7. The technical challenges of the Solar-Orbiter EUI instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, Jean-Philippe; Rochus, Pierre; Appourchaux, Thierry; Berghmans, David; Harra, Louise; Schühle, Udo; Auchère, Frédéric; Zhukov, Andrei; Renotte, Etienne; Defise, Jean-Marc; Rossi, Laurence; Fleury-Frenette, Karl; Jacques, Lionel; Hochedez, Jean-François; Ben Moussa, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) onboard Solar Orbiter consists of a suite of two high-resolution imagers (HRI) and one dual-band full Sun imager (FSI) that will provide EUV and Lyman-α images of the solar atmospheric layers above the photosphere. The EUI instrument is based on a set of challenging new technologies allowing to reach the scientific objectives and to cope with the hard space environment of the Solar Orbiter mission. The mechanical concept of the EUI instrument is based on a common structure supporting the HRI and FSI channels, and a separated electronic box. A heat rejection baffle system is used to reduce the Sun heat load and provide a first protection level against the solar disk straylight. The spectral bands are selected by thin filters and multilayer mirror coatings. The detectors are 10μm pitch back illuminated CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), best suited for the EUI science requirements and radiation hardness. This paper presents the EUI instrument concept and its major sub-systems. The current developments of the instrument technologies are also summarized.

  8. Dark Energy Camera installation at CTIO: technical challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz A., Freddy; Montane, Andrés.; Tighe, Roberto; Warner, Michael; Abbott, Timothy M.

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a new prime focus, wide-field imager for the V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Instrumentation includes large, five-lens optical corrector mounted on hexapod mechanism for fine adjustment, filters, and a 519 Megapixel camera vessel; all integrated in a cage similar to the existing telescope prime focus structure. Currently Blanco allows a flip of this structure such that the f/8 secondary mirror, mounted on the back of the cage, points towards the primary mirror for Ritchey-Chretien observations. DECam will maintain this capability by attaching the existing F/8 mirror cell to the front of the new cage. Installation of this 8,600 kg instrument required the removal from the telescope of the primary mirror, the removal of the old prime focus assembly, and fine adjustment of large, over-constrained mechanisms followed by reassembly. A large facility shutdown was scheduled for this upgrade and several tools, fixtures, monitoring systems and procedures were developed in order to identify and then recover the optical alignment of the system, to control the distribution of stresses during tuning of the installation and to maintain the balance of the telescope with significant added mass. The final goal has been to maintain high performance of the telescope for both the existing f/8 Ritchey-Chretien focus mounted instruments and the new DECam instrument now in commissioning. The challenges presented in handling large elements, real-time monitoring, alignment, verification and feedback are described.

  9. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  10. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-04-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  11. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  12. PREFACE: Conceptual and Technical Challenges for Quantum Gravity 2014 - Parallel session: Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, P.; Wallet, J.-C.; Amelino-Camelia, G.

    2015-08-01

    The conference Conceptual and Technical Challenges for Quantum Gravity at Sapienza University of Rome, from 8 to 12 September 2014, has provided a beautiful opportunity for an encounter between different approaches and different perspectives on the quantum-gravity problem. It contributed to a higher level of shared knowledge among the quantum-gravity communities pursuing each specific research program. There were plenary talks on many different approaches, including in particular string theory, loop quantum gravity, spacetime noncommutativity, causal dynamical triangulations, asymptotic safety and causal sets. Contributions from the perspective of philosophy of science were also welcomed. In addition several parallel sessions were organized. The present volume collects contributions from the Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity parallel session4, with additional invited contributions from specialists in the field. Noncommutative geometry in its many incarnations appears at the crossroad of many researches in theoretical and mathematical physics: • from models of quantum space-time (with or without breaking of Lorentz symmetry) to loop gravity and string theory, • from early considerations on UV-divergencies in quantum field theory to recent models of gauge theories on noncommutative spacetime, • from Connes description of the standard model of elementary particles to recent Pati-Salam like extensions. This volume provides an overview of these various topics, interesting for the specialist as well as accessible to the newcomer. 4partially funded by CNRS PEPS /PTI ''Metric aspect of noncommutative geometry: from Monge to Higgs''

  13. Cochlear implantation among deaf children with additional disabilities: parental perceptions of benefits, challenges, and service provision.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding satisfaction with service provision, benefits, and challenges of the CI process. This was a mixed-methods study, which included a survey and interviews. Twenty-three families of deaf children with additional disabilities participated in this study, and 17 of these parents participated in in-depth interviews regarding their child's experience with the CI, including benefits and challenges. Interviews were analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. Parent-perceived benefits of cochlear implantation included children's improved sound awareness, communication skills, and greater well-being compared to preimplantation status. However, the majority of families felt that they and their children were not receiving enough services. Major challenges included managing funding; coping with limited availability of specialized services, particularly in rural areas; and continuing concerns about the child's communication, social skills, and academic performance. Results suggest that children with additional disabilities benefit from CIs, but they and their families also face unique challenges that professionals should consider when working with these families. PMID:25225328

  14. Challenge Study: A Project-Based Learning on a Wireless Communication System at Technical High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terasawa, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    The challenge study is a project based learning curriculum at Technical High School aimed at the construction of a wireless communication system. The first period was engineering issues in the construction of an artificial satellite and the second period was a positional locating system based on the general purpose wire-less device--ZigBee device.…

  15. The Student as Translator in the Technical Writing Classroom: The "Challenger" Disaster as Heuristic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kynell, Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates how the tragedy of the 1986 space shuttle "Challenger" provides an example of how communication through memos and letters concerning O-ring problems went awry. Presents some methods by which the technical writing teacher might incorporate this material into their writing curricula. (HB)

  16. Technical support functions in a commercial PET environment: The challenge of a nationwide network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigler, Steven S.; Torres, Steven P.

    2007-08-01

    The short half-life of positron-emitting radionuclides requires a highly distributed network to provide a nationwide supply of radiopharmaceuticals for PET. Such a network creates unique challenges that are previously unknown in the production and delivery of traditional radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Technical support plays a key role in any production process, but is especially critical in a distributed PET production environment. The infrastructure required to provide effective technical support in PET on a nationwide level has not been previously described. This paper describes PETNET's efforts to develop a cost-effective technical support system, including: (a) operations training, (b) real-time support for equipment and process related problems, (c) development of process improvements and (d) technical documentation.

  17. Additive and Interactive Effects of Stimulus Degradation: No Challenge for CDP+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is…

  18. Integration Science and Technology of Silicon-Based Ceramics and Composites:Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic and composite parts starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance for high temperature applications, detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different technical approaches are required for the integration of ceramic to ceramic and ceramic to metal systems. Active metal brazing, in particular, is a simple and cost-effective method to integrate ceramic to metallic components. Active braze alloys usually contain a reactive filler metal (e.g., Ti, Cr, V, Hf etc) that promotes wettability and spreading by inducing chemical reactions with the ceramics and composites. In this presentation, various examples of brazing of silicon nitride to themselves and to metallic systems are presented. Other examples of joining of ceramic composites (C/SiC and SiC/SiC) using ceramic interlayers and the resulting microstructures are also presented. Thermomechanical characterization of joints is presented for both types of systems. In addition, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be presented.

  19. Challenges and technical requirements for multi-beam mask writer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Lee, Ho June; Shin, In Kyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2014-07-01

    Because mask patterning quality of CD uniformity, MTT, registration and smaller assist feature size is important for wafer patterning, the higher exposure dose and complex pattern design will be necessary. It is the reason why the faster and more accurate e-beam mask writer is needed for future design node. Multi-beam mask writer is the most promising new e-beam mask writer technology for future sub-10nm device mask patterning to solve the pattern quality issue and writing time problem. In this report, the technical challenges of multi-beam mask writer are discussed by comparison with problems of current VSB e-beam mask writer. Comparing with e-beam mask writer which has the critical issues of beam size and position control, the application of entirely different methods and techniques of CD and position control is essential for multi-beam mask writer which has new architecture and writing strategy. Using the simulation method, we present the different challenges between VSB and multi-beam mask writer. And there are many important technical requirements to achieve expected specification of multi-beam mask writer. To understand such requirements, the patterning simulation and mathematical calculation are done for analysis. Based on the patterning simulation, the detail technical requirements and issues of multi-beam mask writer are achieved. Consequently, we suggest the direction of multi-beam mask writer development in terms of technical challenges and requirements.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Technical Challenges for a Comprehensive Test Ban: A historical perspective to frame the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 1958 scientists from the Soviet block and the US allies met in Geneva to discuss what it would take to monitor a forerunner to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty at the 'Conference of Experts to Study the Possibility of Detecting Violations of a Possible Agreement on Suspension of Nuclear Tests'. Although armed with a limited resume of observations, the conference recommended a multi-phenomenology approach (air sampling, acoustics, seismic and electromagnetic) deployed it a network of 170 sites scattered across the Northern Hemisphere, and hypothesized a detection threshold of 1kt for atmospheric tests and 5kt for underground explosions. The conference recommendations spurred vigorous debate, with strong disagreement with the stated detection hypothesis. Nevertheless, the technical challenges posed lead to a very focused effort to improve facilities, methodologies and, most importantly, research and development on event detection, location and identification. In the ensuing 50 years the various challenges arose and were eventually 'solved'; these included quantifying yield determination to enter a Limited Threshold Test Ban, monitoring broad areas of emerging nuclear nations, and after the mid-1990s lowering the global detection threshold to sub-kiloton levels for underground tests. Today there is both an international monitoring regime (ie, the International Monitoring System, or IMS) and a group of countries that have their own national technical means (NTM). The challenges for the international regime are evolving; the IMS has established itself as a very credible monitoring system, but the demand of a CTBT to detect and identify a 'nuclear test' of diminished size (zero yield) poses new technical hurdles. These include signal processing and understanding limits of resolution, location accuracy, integration of heterogeneous data, and accurately characterizing anomalous events. It is possible to extrapolate past technical advances to predict what

  2. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  3. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  4. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  5. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  6. Additive and interactive effects of stimulus degradation: no challenge for CDP+.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is able to simulate additive effects in these conditions. In the current article, it is shown that the connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate these effects because its nonlexical route is thresholded. The authors present a series of simulations showing that CDP+ can not only simulate the precise dissociation observed by O'Malley and Besner but more generally can produce additive effects for a wide range of parameter combinations and different sets of items. The nonlexical route of CDP+ was not modified post hoc to deal with the effects of stimulus quality, but it had been thresholded for principled reasons before it was known that these effects existed. Together, the effects of stimulus quality on word frequency do not challenge CDP+ but rather provide unexpected support for its architecture and processing dynamics. PMID:19210104

  7. Additional Proposed Indicators for the U.S. EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Technical Document (External Peer Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced their proposal for additional indicators to be added to the EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment (ROE): Technical Document. These Additional Proposed Indicators (see Downloads/Related Links) were released for both independent external peer review and for an a...

  8. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  9. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  10. Technical challenges in metatranscriptomic studies applied to the bacterial communities of freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pascault, Noémie; Loux, Valentin; Derozier, Sandra; Martin, Véronique; Debroas, Didier; Maloufi, Selma; Humbert, Jean-François; Leloup, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Metatranscriptome analysis relates to the transcriptome of microbial communities directly sampled in the environment. Accessing the mRNA pool in natural bacterial communities presents some technical challenges such as the RNA extraction, rRNA depletion, and the choice of the high-throughput sequencing technique. The lack of technical details in scientific articles is a major problem to correctly obtained mRNA from a microbial community and thus the corresponding sequencing data. In our study, we present the methodological procedure that was developed in order to access to the metatranscriptome of the microbial communities during two cyanobacterial blooms successively occurring in a freshwater eutrophic lake. Each procedure step was detailed and discussed with regard to the choices and difficulties encountered and to the recent literature. Finally, the two major limits for metatranscriptomic approaches targeting bacterial communities from natural environments were (i) the removal of rRNA in order to increase the putative mRNA reads number after sequencing, and (ii) for most of the bacterial communities living in natural environments, the lack of reference genomes in databases that leads to the non-assignation of numerous reads. Once these challenges overcome, we managed to access putative mRNA of dominant species, i.e. cyanobacteria (from 6 to 72 % of mRNA assigned), and of the surrounding bacteria (from 1 to 5 % of mRNA assigned). PMID:25216965

  11. Deep Vadose Zone Remediation: Technical and Policy Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Achieving Cleanup Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Lee, Michelle H.

    2013-02-24

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches.

  12. Technical Challenges for Big Data in Biomedicine and Health: Data Sources, Infrastructure, and Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, J. H.; Sun, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To review technical and methodological challenges for big data research in biomedicine and health. Methods We discuss sources of big datasets, survey infrastructures for big data storage and big data processing, and describe the main challenges that arise when analyzing big data. Results The life and biomedical sciences are massively contributing to the big data revolution through secondary use of data that were collected during routine care and through new data sources such as social media. Efficient processing of big datasets is typically achieved by distributing computation over a cluster of computers. Data analysts should be aware of pitfalls related to big data such as bias in routine care data and the risk of false-positive findings in high-dimensional datasets. Conclusions The major challenge for the near future is to transform analytical methods that are used in the biomedical and health domain, to fit the distributed storage and processing model that is required to handle big data, while ensuring confidentiality of the data being analyzed. PMID:25123720

  13. Ultrasound Guidance for Technically Challenging Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Refill: Three Cases and Procedure Description.

    PubMed

    Maneyapanda, Mithra B; Chang Chien, George C; Mattie, Ryan; Amorapanth, Prin; Reger, Christopher; McCormick, Zachary L

    2016-09-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a common treatment used to reduce spasticity due to neurologic disorders and injuries. A variety of factors can increase the difficulty of ITB pump refill. Excess subcutaneous fat overlying the pump, spasticity, suboptimal positioning, pump rotation or inversion, and scar formation over the reservoir fill port can create challenges during pump refill. As a result, multiple unsuccessful attempts at accessing the reservoir fill port can be painful and increase the risk of infection, particularly when repeat skin puncture is required. Blind attempts to refill a pump in challenging cases may also result in subcutaneous injection or pocket fill, resulting in a potentially fatal baclofen withdrawal syndrome. We describe 3 successful ITB pump refills in technically challenging cases when using ultrasound guidance. This represents an innovative approach to using ultrasound guidance to facilitate ITB refill in adults with intractable spasticity. We present these new clinical data with a literature review of potential complications related to inaccurate pump refill procedures and discuss the utility of ultrasound guidance for preventing such adverse events. PMID:27003203

  14. Technical challenges and future direction for high-efficiency metal hydride thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Patrick A.; Corgnale, Claudio; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore; Hardy, Bruce; Sheppard, Drew; Buckley, Craig; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in thermal energy storage (TES) systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, which allow for continuous operation when sunlight is unavailable. Thermochemical energy storage materials have the advantage of much higher energy densities than latent or sensible heat materials. Furthermore, thermochemical energy storage systems based on metal hydrides have been gaining great interest for having the advantage of higher energy densities, better reversibility, and high enthalpies. However, in order to achieve higher efficiencies desired of a thermal storage system by the US Department of Energy, the system is required to operate at temperatures >600 °C. Operation at temperatures >600 °C presents challenges including material selection, hydrogen embrittlement and permeation of containment vessels, appropriate selection of heat transfer fluids, and cost. Herein, the technical difficulties and proposed solutions associated with the use of metal hydrides as TES materials in CSP applications are discussed and evaluated.

  15. Technical Challenges in the Development of a NASA Synthetic Vision System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrah, Steve; Arthur, J. J., III

    2002-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Synthetic Vision Systems Project is developing display system concepts to improve pilot terrain/situation awareness by providing a perspective synthetic view of the outside world through an on-board database driven by precise aircraft positioning information updating via Global Positioning System-based data. This work is aimed at eliminating visibility-induced errors and low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents, as well as replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. Synthetic vision research and development activities at NASA Langley Research Center are focused around a series of ground simulation and flight test experiments designed to evaluate, investigate, and assess the technology which can lead to operational and certified synthetic vision systems. The technical challenges that have been encountered and that are anticipated in this research and development activity are summarized.

  16. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  17. Home telemonitoring of vital signs--technical challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Celler, Branko G; Sparks, Ross S

    2015-01-01

    The telemonitoring of vital signs from the home is an essential element of telehealth services for the management of patients with chronic conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, or poorly controlled hypertension. Telehealth is now being deployed widely in both rural and urban settings, and in this paper, we discuss the contribution made by biomedical instrumentation, user interfaces, and automated risk stratification algorithms in developing a clinical diagnostic quality longitudinal health record at home. We identify technical challenges in the acquisition of high-quality biometric signals from unsupervised patients at home, identify new technical solutions and user interfaces, and propose new measurement modalities and signal processing techniques for increasing the quality and value of vital signs monitoring at home. We also discuss use of vital signs data for the automated risk stratification of patients, so that clinical resources can be targeted to those most at risk of unscheduled admission to hospital. New research is also proposed to integrate primary care, hospital, personal genomic, and telehealth electronic health records, and apply predictive analytics and data mining for enhancing clinical decision support. PMID:25163076

  18. Thermal Energy for Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization: Technical Challenges and Technology Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Pierce E. C.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Heller, Richard S.; Gustafson, Robert; Stern, Ted; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen production from lunar raw materials is critical for sustaining a manned lunar base but is very power intensive. Solar concentrators are a well-developed technology for harnessing the Sun s energy to heat regolith to high temperatures (over 1375 K). The high temperature and potential material incompatibilities present numerous technical challenges. This study compares and contrasts different solar concentrator designs that have been developed, such as Cassegrains, offset parabolas, compound parabolic concentrators, and secondary concentrators. Differences between concentrators made from lenses and mirrors, and between rigid and flexible concentrators are also discussed. Possible substrate elements for a rigid mirror concentrator are selected and then compared, using the following (target) criteria: (low) coefficient of thermal expansion, (high) modulus of elasticity, and (low) density. Several potential lunar locations for solar concentrators are compared; environmental and processing-related challenges related to dust and optical surfaces are addressed. This brief technology survey examines various sources of thermal energy that can be utilized for materials processing on the lunar surface. These include heat from nuclear or electric sources and solar concentrators. Options for collecting and transporting thermal energy to processing reactors for each source are examined. Overall system requirements for each thermal source are compared and system limitations, such as maximum achievable temperature are discussed.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors – potential and technical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheng; Xu, Heping; Meyers, Arlen D.; Musani, Ali I.; Wang, Luowei; Tagg, Randall; Barqawi, Al B.; Chen, Yang K.

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizer followed by local illumination with visible light of specific wavelength(s). In the presence of oxygen molecules, the light illumination of photosensitizer can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently the generation of cytotoxic species. The quantity and location of PDT-induced cytotoxic species determine the nature and consequence of PDT. Much progress has been seen in both basic research and clinical application in recent years. Although the majority of approved PDT clinical protocols have primarily been used for the treatment of superficial lesions of both malignant and non-malignant diseases, interstitial PDT for the ablation of deep-seated solid tumors are now being investigated worldwide. The complexity of the geometry and non-homogeneity of solid tumor pose a great challenge on the implementation of minimally invasive interstitial PDT and the estimation of PDT dosimetry. This review will discuss the recent progress and technical challenges of various forms of interstitial PDT for the treatment of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of solid tumors. PMID:18642969

  20. International Socio-Technical Challenges for Geological Disposal (InSOTEC): Project Aims and Preliminary Results - 12236

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmans, Anne; Schroeder, Jantine; Simmons, Peter; Barthe, Yannick; Meyer, Morgan; Sundqvist, Goeran; Martell, Merixell; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2012-07-01

    InSOTEC is a social sciences research project which aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in radioactive waste management and, in particular, in the design and implementation of geological disposal. It currently investigates and analyses the most striking socio-technical challenges to implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste in 14 national programs. A focus is put on situations and issues where the relationship between the technical and social components is still unstable, ambiguous and controversial, and where negotiations are taking place in terms of problem definitions and preferred solutions. Such negotiations can vary from relatively minor contestation, over mild commotion, to strong and open conflicts. Concrete examples of socio-technical challenges are: the question of siting, introducing the notion of reversibility / retrievability into the concept of geological disposal, or monitoring for confidence building. In a second stage the InSOTEC partners aim to develop a fine-grained understanding of how the technical and the social influence, shape, build upon each other in the case of radioactive waste management and the design and implementation of geological disposal. How are socio-technical combinations in this field translated and materialized into the solutions finally adopted? With what kinds of tools and instruments are they being integrated? Complementary to providing better theoretical insight into these socio-technical challenges/combinations, InSOTEC aims to provide concrete suggestions on how to address these within national and international contexts. To this end, InSOTEC will deliver insights into how mechanisms for interaction between the technical community and a broad range of socio-political actors could be developed. (authors)

  1. Technical and Pedagogical Challenges Faced by Faculty and Students in Computer-Based Distance Education in Higher Education in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, James H.; Nasseh, Bizhan

    1999-01-01

    This study reports faculty members' and students' responses to the technological and pedagogical challenges they faced in completing computer-based distance education. Topics include the need for adequate faculty training, the need for adequate student training, and the need for technical support available 24 hours a day. (Author/LRW)

  2. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  3. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  4. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  5. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  6. The Changing Role of Vocational and Technical Education and Training (VOTEC). Women in Vocational and Technical Education: Changes and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Changes in the vocational and technical education (VTE) opportunities available for women in Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) member countries in response to changing labor markets and job skill requirements were discussed at a June 1994 meeting of experts. The discussions focused on the following issues: gender differences…

  7. Technical assistance for health in non-conflict fragile states: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Janet

    2009-10-01

    The paper examines how best technical assistance (TA) for health might be implemented in post-conflict fragile states. It does so in the light of current development trends such as harmonization and alignment and moves towards aid instruments that favour country-led approaches. A number of key issues are addressed. The first of these considers which core principles for ethical TA might apply in post-conflict fragile states; the second reviews thematic challenges, such as the need to balance 'good enough governance' with effective attention to equity, rights and working with local health capacity. A third area for discussion is how best to plan for, and implement, long-term health TA inputs in often volatile and insecure environments, while a fourth topic is the engagement of civil society in rebuilding health systems and service delivery post-conflict. Attention to gender issues in post-conflict fragile states, including the importance of acknowledging and acting upon women's roles in peacekeeping and maintenance, the necessity to apply and sustain more gender equitable approaches to health in such contexts and how TA might facilitate such participation, represents the fifth issue for debate. PMID:19957309

  8. Applications and technical challenges of fluorescence in situhybridization in stem cell research

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Chu, Lisa W.; Murnane, John P.; Weier,Jingly F.

    2003-07-02

    Stem cell research, maintenance and manipulations have advanced significantly in recent years, and we now witness successful clinical applications of stem therapies. However, challenges in regard to karyotypic stability and the ploidy status of stem cell lines have been addressed only marginally. Our approach to develop technology to address these highly relevant issues is based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using non-isotopically labeled DNA probes. As a single cell analysis technique, FISH is expected to be applicable to a variety of cells and tissues including interphase and metaphase cell preparations as well as tissue sections and biopsy material. Over the last decade, our laboratories generated a large number of probes and probe sets for the molecular cytogenetic analyses of stem cells derived from different species. These probes and the introduction of Spectral Imaging bring us close to be able to perform a comprehensive karyotype analysis of single interphase cell nuclei. It should furthermore be possible to couple cytogenetic investigations of the cellular genotype with analysis of gene expression. This report summarizes our technical achievements relevant to stem cell research, and outlines plans for future research and developments.

  9. Passive solar addition to therapeutic pre-school. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This project consisted of designing and constructing a passive solar system on a new classroom addition to the Peanut Butter and Jelly Therapeutic Pre-School in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the applicability of solar space heating systems to large institutional buildings, and to demonstrate the energy and cost savings available through the use of such systems. Preliminary estimates indicated that the passive solar systems will provide about 90 percent of the heating and cooling needs for the new classroom addition to the school.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities: Two Weeks of Teaching Technical Communication at Suzhou University, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Daniel; Jablonski, John

    2001-01-01

    Relates the authors' experience teaching technical writing for two weeks at Suzhou University in China. Discusses activities; examines four technical writing textbooks purchased there; and offers suggestions about how technical communication might be established as a separate academic discipline in Chinese universities. Discusses technical…

  11. Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and a Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Reko; Arimonu, Maxwell Onyenwe

    2016-01-01

    Technical education, as enshrined in the Nigerian national policy on education, is concerned with qualitative technological human resources development directed towards a national pool of skilled and self reliant craftsmen, technicians and technologists in technical and vocational education fields. In Nigeria, the training of technical personnel…

  12. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone... approving the designation of user fee status for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport was signed...

  13. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  14. [Technic of fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland: coagulation inhibiting and stabilizing additives].

    PubMed

    Schröder, F; Poley, F

    1988-04-01

    In the fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland by the moistening of cannule and syringe with heparin or citric sodium rather disadvantages for the evaluation are the result. Artificial changes are most clearly to be seen in heparin. ACD-buffer does indeed not bring about any artefacts, does, however, also not show any provable advantages. In the fine needle biopsy the additives mentioned are entirely avoidable. PMID:3388921

  15. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  16. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  17. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing the Hawaiian Scientific and Technical Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In searching for dark skies, persistently clear weather, and minimal atmospheric interference, astronomical observing sites are generally located in remote, mountainous locations, and usually far from large communities. Such locations often have weak economies, and shallow workforce pools in the technical and administrative areas generally needed by the observatories. This leads to a problem, and an opportunity, for both the observatories and their local communities. Importing employees from far away locations is costly, leads to high turnover, and deprives the community of economic benefits and the sense of fealty with the observatories that would naturally result if local people occupied these comparatively good paying jobs. While by no means unique, the observatories on Mauna Kea Hawai`i are a clear example of this dual dilemma. This presentation will report findings from a model workforce needs assessment survey of all the Mauna Kea observatories, which has establish likely annual staffing requirements in several categories of technological and administrative support, including the educational entrance requirements. Results indicated that through 2023, 80% of observatory job openings on Hawai`i Island will be in technology and administration. Furthermore, the vast majority of these jobs will require only a two-year or four-year college degree in a relevant field as an entrance requirement. Efforts to realign the existing resources to better meet these common needs will be discussed, including the highly successful partnership between County of Hawai`i Workforce Development Board, the Mauna Kea observatories, the local K-12 systems, Hawai`i Community College, the University of Hawai`i Hilo, and a number of informal education and workplace experience programs. This collaboration has resulted in no fewer than three, interlocked, community programs have stepped up to meet this challenge to the benefit of both the local community and the observatories.

  18. Quality Career/Technical Programs Prepare Students to Succeed in a New, More Challenging Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Quality career/technical education and its role in school improvement was a primary theme of the 2008 "High Schools That Work" ("HSTW") Staff Development Conference. This newsletter covers crucial topics in quality CTE (career and technical education), including assessing the quality and effectiveness of CT programs, preparing students to succeed…

  19. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  20. Multiscale cartilage biomechanics: technical challenges in realizing a high-throughput modelling and simulation workflow

    PubMed Central

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Bennetts, Craig; Davis, Sean; Reddy, Akhil; Sibole, Scott

    2015-01-01

    and interpretation of the results. This study aims to summarize various strategies to address the technical challenges of post-processing-based simulations of cartilage and chondrocyte mechanics with the ultimate goal of establishing the foundations of a high-throughput multiscale analysis framework. At the joint–tissue scale, rapid development of regional models of articular contact is possible by automating the process of generating parametric representations of cartilage boundaries and depth-dependent zonal delineation with associated constitutive relationships. At the tissue–cell scale, models descriptive of multicellular and fibrillar architecture of cartilage zones can also be generated in an automated fashion. Through post-processing, scripts can extract biphasic mechanical metrics at a desired point in the cartilage to assign loading and boundary conditions to models at the lower spatial scale of cells. Cell deformation metrics can be extracted from simulation results to provide a simplified description of individual chondrocyte responses. Simulations at the tissue–cell scale can be parallelized owing to the loosely coupled nature of the feed-forward approach. Verification studies illustrated the necessity of a second-order data passing scheme between scales and evaluated the role that the microscale representative volume size plays in appropriately predicting the mechanical response of the chondrocytes. The tools summarized in this study collectively provide a framework for high-throughput exploration of cartilage biomechanics, which includes minimally supervised model generation, and prediction of multiscale biomechanical metrics across a range of spatial scales, from joint regions and cartilage zones, down to that of the chondrocytes. PMID:25844153

  1. The little photometer that could: technical challenges and science results from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Dunnuck, Jeb

    2011-09-01

    The Kepler spacecraft launched on March 7, 2009, initiating NASA's first search for Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Since launch, Kepler has announced the discovery of 17 exoplanets, including a system of six transiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-11, and the first confirmed rocky planet, Kepler-10b, with a radius of 1.4 that of Earth. Kepler is proving to be a cornucopia of discoveries: it has identified over 1200 candidate planets based on the first 120 days of observations, including 54 that are in or near the habitable zone of their stars, and 68 that are 1.2 Earth radii or smaller. An astounding 408 of these planetary candidates are found in 170 multiple systems, demonstrating the compactness and flatness of planetary systems composed of small planets. Never before has there been a photometer capable of reaching a precision near 20 ppm in 6.5 hours and capable of conducting nearly continuous and uninterrupted observations for months to years. In addition to exoplanets, Kepler is providing a wealth of astrophysics, and is revolutionizing the field of asteroseismology. Designing and building the Kepler photometer and the software systems that process and analyze the resulting data to make the discoveries presented a daunting set of challenges, including how to manage the large data volume. The challenges continue into flight operations, as the photometer is sensitive to its thermal environment, complicating the task of detecting 84 ppm drops in brightness corresponding to Earth-size planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  2. Recent advances in SEMATECH's mask blank development program, the remaining technical challenges, and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Frank; Kearney, Patrick; Kadaksham, Arun J.; Wurm, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    film for the device. In addition to the increase in complexity of the mask, introduction of EUVL requires infrastructure development of new substrate, mask blank, and finished reticle inspection tools and techniques for handling and storage of a mask without a pellicle. This paper will highlight recent advances in the ability to produce pilot line quality EUV mask blanks to meet the near-term requirements and review the existing technology gaps which must be closed to extend the current capability to meet HVM needs. A special focus will be put on substrate and mask blank defect densities; other process and infrastructure challenges will also be discussed.

  3. Large Scale Terrestrial Modeling: A Discussion of Technical and Conceptual Challenges and Solution Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Aljazzar, T.; Kollet, S.; Maxwell, R.

    2012-04-01

    hydraulic characteristics, land cover, geology, hydraulic conductivity, and atmospheric parameters. For example, to simulate the Luanhe catchment for one year at one hour time step, the number of input and output files approach 108 files based on the most simple implementation of parallel I/O. Storage requirements quickly approach terabytes in production simulations, while single data files often exceed available memory. Handling these large data sets in terms of pre-/post-processing and visualization demands considerable computing resources and new data analysis tools. The difficulties will increase considerably at even finer lateral spatial resolution and longer simulation times, which will be required in the discussed studies and are planned at 100m and 101 years. In this article we present in detail the main challenges and technical issues inherent in simulating the interaction between land surface, subsurface and climate parameters of catchments at the basin scale. We also suggest approaches to overcome some of the discussed difficulties.

  4. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  5. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  6. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  7. Different Names, Similar Challenges: What's Behind the Rumored Merger of Instructional Design and Technical Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Considers similarities and examples of collaboration between the disciplines of instructional design and technical communication. Topics include productivity measures; job titles; interactive communication programs; and examples from the corporate world and from the academic world. (LRW)

  8. Technical challenges in 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the prostate—A single-institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Michelle; Boonsirikamchai, Piyaporn; Matin, Surena; Troncoso, Patricia; Ma, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is the only technique that is currently available in the clinical practice to provide the metabolic status of prostate tissue at the cellular level with a great potential to improve the clinical patient care. Increasing the field strength from 1.5 to 3 T can theoretically provide proportionately higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improve spectral separation between prostatic metabolite peaks. The technique, however, has been limited to a few academic institutions that are equipped with a team of experts primarily due to due to serious technical challenges in optimizing the spectral quality. High quality shimming is key to the successful MRSI acquisition. Without optimization of the increased field inhomogeneity and radiofrequency (RF) dielectric effect at 3 T, the spectral peak broadening and residual signal from the periprostatic fat tissue may render the overall spectra non-diagnostic. The purpose of this technical note is to present the practical steps of successful acquisition of 3 T MRSI and to address several important technical challenges in minimizing the effect of the increased magnetic field and RF field inhomogeneity in order to obtain highest possible spectral quality based on our initial experience in using 3 T MRSI prototype software. PMID:25202660

  9. Technical challenges in 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the prostate-A single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Choi, Haesun; Underwood, Michelle; Boonsirikamchai, Piyaporn; Matin, Surena; Troncoso, Patricia; Ma, Jingfei

    2014-08-01

    The magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is the only technique that is currently available in the clinical practice to provide the metabolic status of prostate tissue at the cellular level with a great potential to improve the clinical patient care. Increasing the field strength from 1.5 to 3 T can theoretically provide proportionately higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improve spectral separation between prostatic metabolite peaks. The technique, however, has been limited to a few academic institutions that are equipped with a team of experts primarily due to due to serious technical challenges in optimizing the spectral quality. High quality shimming is key to the successful MRSI acquisition. Without optimization of the increased field inhomogeneity and radiofrequency (RF) dielectric effect at 3 T, the spectral peak broadening and residual signal from the periprostatic fat tissue may render the overall spectra non-diagnostic. The purpose of this technical note is to present the practical steps of successful acquisition of 3 T MRSI and to address several important technical challenges in minimizing the effect of the increased magnetic field and RF field inhomogeneity in order to obtain highest possible spectral quality based on our initial experience in using 3 T MRSI prototype software. PMID:25202660

  10. Globalization, Critical Post-Colonialism and Career and Technical Education in Africa: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goura, Tairou

    2012-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is central to political discourses and educational concerns as a means for economic development, poverty alleviation, youth employment, and social mobility. Yet, there is an intriguing contradiction between this consideration and the real attention dedicated to…

  11. Challenges and Rewards of Teaching Intercultural Communication in a Technical Writing Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based projects immerse technical writing students in intercultural communication, addressing local needs and shaping documents in human terms. Students at a South Texas university work to establish communication with clients in a city-county health department to create effective documents and disseminate family health legislation. To…

  12. Towards Quality Technical Vocational Education and Training (Tvet) Programmes in Nigeria: Challenges and Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayonmike, Chinyere Shirley; Okwelle, P. Chijioke; Okeke, Benjamin Chukwumaijem

    2015-01-01

    Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is widely recognized as a vital driving force for the socio-economic growth and technological development of nations. In achieving the goals and objectives of TVET in Nigeria, the quality of the programme needs to be improved and sustained. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the challenges…

  13. Blurring Boundaries between Technical Communication and Engineering: Challenges of a Multidisciplinary, Client-based Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojahn, Patricia; Dyke, Julie; Riley, Linda Ann; Hensel, Edward; Brown, Stuart C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a study of the authors' initial semester matching technical communication students with teams of engineers in a capstone, client-based experience. Notes incredible growth in students' abilities to discuss design, teamwork, and client projects within the pre- and post-surveys. Concludes that there is the potential in moving toward a more…

  14. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  15. Current status and future challenges for controlling malaria with the sterile insect technique: technical and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Vreysen, Marc J B; Dupé, Sandrine; Lees, Rosemary S; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Gouagna, Louis-Clement; Chhem, Rethy

    2014-04-01

    The intolerable burden of malaria, when faced with high levels of drug resistance, increasing insecticide resistance and meagre resources at the national level, remains a great public health challenge to governments and the research/control community. Efficient control methods against the vectors of malaria are desperately needed. Control strategies for malaria that integrate the transfer of sterile sperm by released males to wild virgin females with other control tactics are currently being developed, and optimised mass-rearing, irradiation and release techniques are being validated in several field sites. However, the success of this strategy as part of wider pest control or health management programmes strongly depends on gaining public understanding and acceptance. Here we attempt to review what progress has been made and the remaining challenges surrounding the use of the sterile insect technique against malaria from technical and social perspectives. PMID:24295892

  16. Technical paper contest for women 1992. Space challenges: Earth and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orans, Robin (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Two of the major concerns of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA ARC) Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) are that recruitment of women scientists, engineers, and technicians needs to increase and that barriers to advancement need to be removed for improved representation of women in middle and upper management and scientific positions. One strategy that addressed this concern was the ACW sponsorship of a Technical Paper Contest for Women at Ames Research Center. Other sponsors of the Contest were the Ames Equal Opportunity Council and the Ames Contractor Council. The Technical Paper Contest for Women greatly increased the visibility of both the civil service women and the women who work for contractors at Ames. The women had the opportunity to hone their written and oral presentation skills. Networking among Ames women increased.

  17. Interpreting science in informal settings: Opportunities and challenges for technical communicators

    SciTech Connect

    Machen, J.

    1992-08-01

    The increasing trend toward interpreting science in informal settings offers new opportunities for explaining science and new opportunities for technical communicators in terms of career and service, but this trend also demands that communicators wear new hats, learn new skills, relinquish conventional ideas about how information should be presented, become more involved with their audiences, and place increased emphasis on testing the effectiveness of their work.

  18. Interpreting science in informal settings: Opportunities and challenges for technical communicators

    SciTech Connect

    Machen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing trend toward interpreting science in informal settings offers new opportunities for explaining science and new opportunities for technical communicators in terms of career and service, but this trend also demands that communicators wear new hats, learn new skills, relinquish conventional ideas about how information should be presented, become more involved with their audiences, and place increased emphasis on testing the effectiveness of their work.

  19. Technical Challenges for the Head-on Collisions and Extraction at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Napoly, O.; Delferriere, O.; Durante, M.; Payet, J.; Rippon, C.; Uriot, D.; Balhan, B.; Borburgh, J.; Goddard, B.; Kuroda, S.; Iwashita, Y.; del Carmen Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Dadoun, O.; Rimbault, C.; Sabbi, G.; Keller, L.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; Tzenov, S.; /Daresbury /Manchester U.

    2007-08-14

    An interaction region with head-on collisions is considered as an alternative to the baseline ILC configuration. Progress in the final focus optics design includes engineered large bore superconducting final doublet magnets and their 3D magnetic integration in the detector solenoids. Progress on the beam separation optics is based on technical designs of electrostatic separator and special extraction quadrupoles. The spent beam extraction is realized by a staged collimation scheme relying on realistic collimators.

  20. Technical challenges in using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model disease

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Krishanu; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Reprogramming of human somatic cells uses readily accessible tissue, such as skin or blood, to generate embryonic-like induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This procedure has been applied to somatic cells from patients who are classified into a disease group, thus creating ‘disease-specific’ iPSCs. Here we examine the challenges and assumptions in creating a disease model from a single cell of the patient. Both the kinetics of disease onset and progression as well as the spatial localization of disease in the patient’s body are challenges to model construction. New tools in genetic modification, reprogramming, biomaterials, and animal models can be used to address these challenges. PMID:19951687

  1. Hybrid imaging worldwide-challenges and opportunities for the developing world: a report of a Technical Meeting organized by IAEA.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Mariani, Guliano

    2013-05-01

    The growth in nuclear medicine, in the past decade, is largely due to hybrid imaging, specifically single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Introduction and use of hybrid imaging has been growing at a fast pace. This has led to many challenges and opportunities to the personnel dealing with it. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) keeps a close watch on the trends in applications of nuclear techniques in health by many ways, including obtaining inputs from member states and professional societies. In 2012, a Technical Meeting on trends in hybrid imaging was organized by IAEA to understand the current status and trends of hybrid imaging using nuclear techniques, its role in clinical practice, and associated educational needs and challenges. Perspective of scientific societies and professionals from all the regions of the world was obtained. Heterogeneity in value, educational needs, and access was noted and the drivers of this heterogeneity were discussed. This article presents the key points shared during the technical meeting, focusing primarily on SPECT-CT and PET-CT, and shares the action plan for IAEA to deal with heterogeneity as suggested by the participants. PMID:23561459

  2. 5 CFR 919.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 919.735 Section 919.735 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  3. 5 CFR 919.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 919.830 Section 919.830 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? (a) You as a...

  4. 5 CFR 919.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 919.830 Section 919.830 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? (a) You as a...

  5. 5 CFR 919.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 919.735 Section 919.735 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  6. 5 CFR 919.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 919.830 Section 919.830 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? (a) You as a...

  7. 5 CFR 919.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 919.735 Section 919.735 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  8. 5 CFR 919.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 919.830 Section 919.830 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? (a) You as a...

  9. 5 CFR 919.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 919.735 Section 919.735 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  10. 5 CFR 919.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 919.735 Section 919.735 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  11. 5 CFR 919.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 919.830 Section 919.830 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? (a) You as a...

  12. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  13. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Arce, Francisco; Constant, Louay; Loughran, David S.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research show that high school dropouts are more likely than graduates to commit crimes, abuse drugs and alcohol, have children out of wedlock, earn low wages, be unemployed, and suffer from poor health. The ChalleNGe program, currently operating in 27 states, is a residential program coupled with post-residential mentoring that seeks…

  14. Technical Approach for the Development of DOE Building America Builders Challenge Technology Information Packages (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. R.; Anderson, R.

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a challenge to the homebuilding industry to build 220,000 high-performance homes by 2012. To qualify, homes must meet the requirements of a performance path, prescriptive path, or participating in a partner program.

  15. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. PMID:26059074

  16. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Exploring challenges, creating opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepic, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program offers researchers access to the world's largest collection of aerospace information. An overview of Program activities, products and services, and new directions is presented. The R&D information cycle is outlined and specific examples of the NASA STI Program in practice are given. Domestic and international operations and technology transfer activities are reviewed and an agenda for the STI Program NASA-wide is presented. Finally, the incorporation of Total Quality Management and evaluation metrics into the STI Program is discussed.

  17. Effect of different feed ingredients and additives on IPEC-J2 cells challenged with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, F; Speiser, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2016-08-01

    The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used as an in vitro model to assess effects of additives on the adhesion and cell toxic effects of a F4-positive (ETEC) and a F4-negative Escherichia coli (DSM 2840) strain. Bacterial adhesion was examined using flow cytometry in IPEC-J2 cells infected with bacteria stained with 5,6-carboxymethyl fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was performed to characterize the impact on IPEC-J2 monolayer integrity. The feed additives were prepared as aqueous extract and tested in different dilutions and incubation times. The F4-positive ETEC strain had a high adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells and reduced TEER shortly after the in vitro infection. The nonpathogenic E. coli strain DSM 2840 showed only low adhesion capacity and no TEER impairment. Infection with ETEC with added test extracts showed a reduction of bacterial adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells by an autolyzed yeast product (p < 0.05). Bovine colostrum, an additive containing thyme extract and an organic acid mix did not interfere with the ETEC adherence. The TEER decrease of the IPEC-J2 monolayer after ETEC infection was not affected by the added substances. In conclusion, interference with epithelial adhesion might be a protective mechanism of the tested yeast extract, indicating that the cell culture model might be suitable as screening tool to complement in vivo challenge trials with piglets. PMID:26275434

  18. Technical challenge of the design of a joint service weapon concept

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The challenges involved in the design of a long-range conventional cruise missile weapon system for the Air Force and Navy are discussed. Launch platforms, range, cost, configuration options, body shape, wing type, propulsion, weapon bay, and manufacturing process tradeoffs are examined. The family of missiles approach is found to be the most cost effective and the only solution that meets all the requirements.

  19. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  20. Endoscopic and Keyhole Endoscope-assisted Neurosurgical Approaches: A Qualitative Survey on Technical Challenges and Technological Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature reflects a resurgence of interest in endoscopic and keyhole endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches as alternatives to conventional microsurgical approaches in carefully selected cases. The aim of this study was to assess the technical challenges of neuroendoscopy, and the scope for technological innovations to overcome these barriers. Materials and Methods All full members of the Society of British Neurosurgeons (SBNS) were electronically invited to participate in an online survey. The open-ended structured survey asked three questions; firstly, whether the surgeon presently utilises or has experience with endoscopic or endoscope-assisted approaches; secondly, what they consider to be the major technical barriers to adopting such approaches; and thirdly, what technological advances they foresee improving safety and efficacy in the field. Responses were subjected to a qualitative research method of multi-rater emergent themes analysis. Results Three clear themes emerged: 1) surgical approach and better integration with image-guidance systems (20%), 2) intra-operative visualisation and improvements in neuroendoscopy (49%), and 3) surgical manipulation and improvements in instruments (74%). Discussion The analysis of responses to our open-ended survey revealed that although opinion was varied three major themes could be identified. Emerging technological advances such as augmented reality, high-definition stereo-endoscopy, and robotic joint-wristed instruments may help overcome the technical difficulties associated with neuroendoscopic approaches. Conclusions Results of this qualitative survey provide consensus amongst the technology end-user community such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be defined. Systems integrating these advances could improve the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches. PMID:24533591

  1. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  2. Contaminating fat in pericardial suction blood: a clinical, technical and scientific challenge.

    PubMed

    Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Stroke and diffuse brain damage after cardiac surgery are too common. It is important to find means to reduce the incidence in view of future competition to surgery from less invasive procedures. Stroke is fairly well defined in clinical terms and with several identified mechanisms. Diffuse brain damage is less well defined and more complex in nature. One suggested mechanism is from cerebral fat microembolization of retrieved pericardial suction blood (PSB). The present study aimed to describe a simple method to measure fat content of PSB, how experimental artefacts interfere with the results, and how the unstable character of a fat-blood suspension can be used to design a simple fat-separation system. The quantity of small amounts of fat can be amplified by centrifugation to the tapered tip of a standard glass pipette. The coefficient of variation after repeated experiments was 9.5%. PSB after coronary bypass surgery contained 0.22 +/- 0.04% fat of which 15 +/- 3% was bound to the surface of the plastic collecting bag. Experimentation requires standardized routines. Static incubation, blood-fat mixing routines, and transfer steps of blood samples between syringes induce substantial artefacts from spontaneous density separation and surface-adhesion of fat. Soya oil is a common reference substance replacing human fat in technical laboratory science, but is associated with artefacts of its own. These artefacts cause problems during experimentation but the oil is a good resource in the design of a simple fat-separation system. PMID:15161061

  3. Technical Challenges and Scientific Payoffs of Muon BeamAccelerators for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-09-25

    Historically, progress in particle physics has largely beendetermined by development of more capable particle accelerators. Thistrend continues today with the recent advent of high-luminosityelectron-positron colliders at KEK and SLAC operating as "B factories,"the imminent commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and theworldwide development effort toward the International Linear Collider.Looking to the future, one of the most promising approaches is thedevelopment of muon-beam accelerators. Such machines have very highscientific potential, and would substantially advance thestate-of-the-art in accelerator design. A 20-50 GeV muon storage ringcould serve as a copious source of well-characterized electron neutrinosor antineutrinos (a Neutrino Factory), providing beams aimed at detectorslocated 3000-7500 km from the ring. Such long baseline experiments areexpected to be able to observe and characterize the phenomenon ofcharge-conjugation-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector, and thusprovide an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in science,namely, why the matter-dominated universe in which we reside exists atall. By accelerating muons to even higher energies of several TeV, we canenvision a Muon Collider. In contrast with composite particles likeprotons, muons are point particles. This means that the full collisionenergy is available to create new particles. A Muon Collider has roughlyten times the energy reach of a proton collider at the same collisionenergy, and has a much smaller footprint. Indeed, an energy frontier MuonCollider could fit on the site of an existing laboratory, such asFermilab or BNL. The challenges of muon-beam accelerators are related tothe facts that i) muons are produced as a tertiary beam, with very large6D phase space, and ii) muons are unstable, with a lifetime at rest ofonly 2 microseconds. How these challenges are accommodated in theaccelerator design will be described. Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon

  4. Particles in the Heliosphere: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Next Decade (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of research in solar and space physics is our ability to directly observe the velocity distributions functions and abundances of particles at points in space without disrupting the overall system. This allows us to obtain unique insights into fundamental physical processes including shocks, acceleration, magnetic reconnection, wave-particle interactions, and ion-neutral coupling that are relevant both for heliophysics and for broader plasma applications, including laboratory plasmas and more exotic astrophysical environments. This talk will highlight some of the most exciting scientific challenges in heliophysics related to particles in space, from thermal to relativistic energies, and from neutral gas to highly ionized plasma. Technological advances in instrumentation and spacecraft needed to answer these questions within the next decade will also be examined.

  5. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Advanced Energy Systems: Critical Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic integration technologies dramatically impact the energy landscape due to wide scale application of ceramics in all aspects of alternative energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, gas turbine propulsion systems, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Ceramic integration technologies play a key role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts with multifunctional properties. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various needs, challenges, and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic metal) material www.nasa.gov 45 ceramic-ceramic-systems have been discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) LDI fuel injector and advanced ceramics and composites for gas turbine applications are presented.

  6. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Dresel, P. E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2012-03-21

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment; rather, movement of contamination from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reduce contaminant flux to groundwater. This paper reviews the processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation.

  7. 78 FR 36041 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: RFS Pathways II and Technical Amendments to the RFS 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... RFS2 were published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14670). In this notice, references... the Federal Register on July 25, 2011 (76 FR 44422). Several items in this proposed action will assist... 25, 2010 (75 FR 14670). EPA has issued technical corrections in the past. We have identified...

  8. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  9. 2 CFR 180.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 180.830 Section 180.830 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? (a) You as...

  10. 2 CFR 180.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 180.830 Section 180.830 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

  11. 2 CFR 180.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 180.830 Section 180.830 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.830 Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which...

  12. 2 CFR 180.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 180.735 Section 180.735 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent...

  13. 2 CFR 180.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 180.735 Section 180.735 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB... what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension...

  14. 2 CFR 180.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 180.830 Section 180.830 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? (a) You as...

  15. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  16. Challenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

  17. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  18. Robust Joining and Assembly Technologies for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrityunjay, Singh; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, energy, process, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs require fabrication and manufacturing of complex shaped parts. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by Joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed along with an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technology. Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints will be reported. Current status of various ceramic joining technologies and future prospects for their applications will also be discussed.

  19. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Aerospace and Energy Systems: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic integration technology has been recognized as an enabling technology for the implementation of advanced ceramic systems in a number of high-temperature applications in aerospace, power generation, nuclear, chemical, and electronic industries. Various ceramic integration technologies (joining, brazing, attachments, repair, etc.) play a role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various functionalities. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based LDI fuel injector, high conductivity C/C composite based heat rejection system, solid oxide fuel cells system, ultra high temperature ceramics for leading edges, and ceramic composites for thermostructural applications will be presented. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be discussed.

  20. Technical challenges in the design and construction of the Troll gravity base structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skjaeveland, H.; Knudsen, A.; Nyborg, A.

    1994-12-31

    The Troll gravity base structure (GBS), which currently is under construction, is the largest and tallest offshore concrete structure yet. The platform concept has several novel features. In order to reduce the wave loads from the substructure into the deck frame, a flexible deck connection is used for 2 of the 4 shafts. The Riegel structure at mid height is a new way of reducing the loads in the shafts and the natural periods of the structure. The platform location in the North Sea has some very soft layers of clay. To overcome the poor foundation condition, very deep skirt piles will be used. The Wave phenomenon, dynamic transient response, ringing has been addressed, both through model testing and analytical work. The enormous height of the concrete structure, over 370 meter has been a substantial construction challenge. In order to meet a very tight construction program, innovative methods of prefabrication have been used. In order to optimize the weight and stability of the structure during the floating phases, various concrete densities and strengths have been used.

  1. Remediation of Centre Pier, Port Hope, Ontario: Historical, Logistical, Regulatory and Technical Challenges - 13118

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Case, Glenn; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-07-01

    Centre Pier is a 3.9 ha property owned by the Commissioners of the Port Hope Harbour in the Municipality of Port Hope, Ontario, Canada. It is centrally located on the Port Hope waterfront and is bounded on the west by the Port Hope Harbour, on the east by the Ganaraska River, on the south by Lake Ontario, and on the north by a railway corridor. The property is currently leased by the Commissioners of the Port Hope Harbour to the Cameco Corporation which owns the four onsite building that are used as warehouse space for their uranium conversion facility located on the western side of the Harbour. Remediation of this site forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). Soil impacts include radiological, metals and petroleum hydrocarbons resulting from long term historical industrial use. Radiological impacts in soil extend across most of the site primarily within the upper metre of fill. Metals-contaminated soil is present across the entire site in the underlying fill material. The metals-contaminated fill extends to a maximum depth of 2.0 m below grade at the north end of the site which is underlain by peat. However, the metals-contaminated soil could extend to the top of the bedrock on the remainder of the site. Based on the elevation of the bedrock in the adjacent river and Harbour Basin, the metals-contaminated soil may extend to a depth of 5.6 m or 6.5 m below existing grade. Petroleum-contaminated soil is present on the southeast side of the site, where a storage tank farm was previously located. Challenges include: - The complex history of the site both relating to site use and Pier construction. Pier development began in the 1800's and was undertaken by many different entities. Modifications and repairs were made over the years resulting in several different types of Pier walls and fill that must be considered

  2. Human Resource Development: Technical Education's Challenge. Proceedings of the Annual National Clinic on Technical Education (12th, Spokane, Washington, March 26-28, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Community Coll. District 17, Spokane.

    Speeches and discussions are transcribed in this report, which also includes a listing of the American Technical Education Association (ATEA) committee members, exhibitors, officers, and directory of speakers. Speeches covered "Human Resource Development" by Gene Rutledge; "The Impact of Technical Education on Economic Development--the Mississippi…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual National Clinic on Technical Education (12th, Spokane, Washington, March 26-28, 1975). Human Resource Development: Technical Education's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Gene; And Others

    This report includes the presentations of the speakers appearing before the National Clinic on Technical Education. Topics cover human resource development; the impact of technical education on economic development (in Mississippi); economics of allied health education; manpower implications of environmental protection; manpower needs for…

  4. Single Cell and Metagenomic Assemblies: Biology Drives Technical Choices and Goals (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2011-10-13

    DOE JGI's Tanja Woyke, chair of the Single Cells and Metagenomes session, delivers an introduction, followed by Bigelow Laboratory's Ramunas Stepanauskas on "Single Cell and Metagenomic Assemblies: Biology Drives Technical Choices and Goals" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  5. Single Cell and Metagenomic Assemblies: Biology Drives Technical Choices and Goals (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Stepanauskas, Ramunas [Bigelow Laboratory

    2013-01-22

    DOE JGI's Tanja Woyke, chair of the Single Cells and Metagenomes session, delivers an introduction, followed by Bigelow Laboratory's Ramunas Stepanauskas on "Single Cell and Metagenomic Assemblies: Biology Drives Technical Choices and Goals" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  6. 29 CFR 98.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 98.735 Section 98.735 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.735 Under what conditions do I get an additional...

  7. 29 CFR 98.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 98.735 Section 98.735 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.735 Under what conditions do I get an additional...

  8. 29 CFR 98.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 98.735 Section 98.735 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.735 Under what conditions do I get an additional...

  9. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  10. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, D. I.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  11. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives - A Review.

    PubMed

    Adewole, D I; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-07-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  12. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  13. The Scientific Value and Technical Challenge of Chang'E-4 Landing on the Far-side of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, He; Wu, Xueying; Ma, Jinan; Zhou, Wenyan

    2016-07-01

    The mission of Chang'E-4 probe is landing on the far-side of the moon for the first time in human history. Compared with the near-side, far-side landing has unique scientific value and more challenging technology implementation. The scientific significance of the exploration of far-side of the moon and the technical difficulties and solution approach of the Chang'E-4 were discussed in this paper. In science, the far-side of the Moon is an ideal scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The terrane that records the formation of the primordial crust is located largely on the far-side hemisphere, and there is the largest and oldest recognized impact basin in our Solar System, the South Pole-Aitken basin. In technology, the difficulties mainly includes the analysis of the influence of lunar topography of far-side on the landing descent strategy, the study of relay orbit and operating modes for the relay satellite in the Earth-Moon L2(Lagrange point 2), and the requirement analysis of autonomous management due to the relay communication. It will provide the reference for landing exploration of the far-side of the moon.

  14. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 5, September 16, 1988--December 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  15. 76 FR 22804 - Technical Amendment to List of CBP Preclearance Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin, Ireland AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS... station in Dublin, Ireland. CBP officers at preclearance stations conduct inspections and examinations to.... The Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Ireland...

  16. 76 FR 31823 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport, Dallas, TX AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... revising the list of user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Dallas Love... of user fee status for Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport. This document updates the list of...

  17. Technical challenges of sparing infrahyoid swallowing organs at risk in oropharynx squamous cell cancer treated with IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Lyndon; Tsang, Shirley W.S.; Breen, Stephen L.; Waldron, John N.; Maganti, Manjula; Pintilie, Melania; Dawson, Laura A.; Ringash, Jolie; Huang, Shao Hui; Kim, John

    2014-07-01

    This study reports clinical performance in the sparing of infrahyoid swallowing organs at risk (SWOARs) in oropharynx cancer intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Rates of meeting dose-volume planning goals are reported and compared with geometry-based estimates of what is achievable. This study also develops 3 measures of target-SWOAR geometry and tests their usefulness in providing geometry-based dose-volume planning goals. A total of 50 oropharynx cancer IMRT plans were reviewed. Success rates in meeting institutional dose-volume goals were determined for the glottic larynx (G), postcricoid pharynx (P), and esophagus (E). The following 3 measures of target-SWOAR geometry were investigated as methods of identifying geometry-based planning goals: presence of gross disease in neck levels 3 to 4, target-SWOAR overlap, and a 3-dimensional (3D) measure of target-SWOAR geometry. Locally advanced disease was predominant in this patient population with target volumes overlapping SWOARs in 68% to 98% of cases. Clinical rates of success in meeting dose-volume goals varied by SWOAR (16% to 82%) but compared well with estimated potentially achievable rates in most cases (14% average difference between clinical and potential). Cases grouped by the presence of levels 3 to 4 neck nodes or target-SWOAR overlap did not have significantly different SWOAR doses. Cases grouped using a 3D measure of target-SWOAR geometry differed significantly, providing useful geometry-based planning goals (e.g., mean Glottis dose <45 Gy was achieved 19%, 44%, or 81% of the time in each of 3 groups). This study describes the technical challenge of sparing SWOARs and investigates several potential methods for grouping cases to assist with treatment plan evaluation. Quantifying the 3-D relationship between the targets and SWOARs is a promising way of approaching this complex problem. Data presented in this paper may be useful to evaluate treatment plans using objective geometry

  18. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Final technical report, September 15, 1987--March 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1992-03-06

    The objective of this research was to investigate the reaction mechanism of higher alcohol and aldehyde synthesis from syngas and the role of additives in the synthesis. An in situ IR reaction system and probe molecule technique were developed to study adsorbed species, active sites, and reaction pathway during reaction. The catalysts used for this study included silica-supported Rh, Ru, and Ni. (VC)

  19. Revisiting Technical and Vocational Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Update on Trends, Innovations and Challenges. New Trends in Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchoarena, David; Delluc, Andre

    Differences in historical, political, cultural, and economic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for wide variations in structures, operating conditions, and outcomes in technical and vocational education (TVE). This diversity is associated with glaring disparities, so in examining policy trends and the reconstruction of training systems…

  20. 29 CFR 1471.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1471.735 Section 1471.735 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension §...

  1. 29 CFR 1471.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1471.830 Section 1471.830 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment...

  2. 22 CFR 208.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 208.735 Section 208.735 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.735 Under what conditions do...

  3. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.735 Under what conditions do...

  4. 22 CFR 208.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 208.735 Section 208.735 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.735 Under what conditions do...

  5. 31 CFR 19.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 19.735 Section 19.735 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.735...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 1404.735 Section 1404.735 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.735 Under what conditions do...

  7. 29 CFR 98.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 98.830 Section 98.830 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.830 Under what conditions do I get an...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.830 Under what...

  9. 29 CFR 98.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 98.830 Section 98.830 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.830 Under what conditions do I get an...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 1404.830 Section 1404.830 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.830 Under what...

  11. 22 CFR 208.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 208.830 Section 208.830 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.830 Under...

  12. 31 CFR 19.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 19.830 Section 19.830 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment §...

  13. 22 CFR 208.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 208.830 Section 208.830 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.830 Under...

  14. 29 CFR 98.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 98.830 Section 98.830 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.830 Under what conditions do I get an...

  15. 2 CFR 180.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the proposed debarment is based? 180.830 Section 180.830 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE...

  16. 41 CFR 105-68.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 105-68.830 Section 105-68.830 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  17. 41 CFR 105-68.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 105-68.735 Section 105-68.735 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 105-68.830 Section 105-68.830 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  19. 41 CFR 105-68.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 105-68.830 Section 105-68.830 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  20. 41 CFR 105-68.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 105-68.735 Section 105-68.735 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  1. 41 CFR 105-68.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 105-68.830 Section 105-68.830 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  2. 41 CFR 105-68.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 105-68.735 Section 105-68.735 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  3. 2 CFR 180.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 180.735 Section 180.735 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR...

  4. 41 CFR 105-68.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 105-68.735 Section 105-68.735 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  5. 41 CFR 105-68.830 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which a proposed debarment is based? 105-68.830 Section 105-68.830 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. 41 CFR 105-68.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 105-68.735 Section 105-68.735 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  7. The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 6, December 16, 1988--March 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  9. Technical and physical challenges to achieve a regional simulation at multi-decadal scales: Application to the Bay of Biscay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theetten, Sébastien; Vandermeirsch, Frédéric; Charria, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    With the aim to study the regional impact of the climate change on the ocean dynamics and its impact on ecosystem, we implemented the first 53-year long numerical hydrodynamical regional experiment of the Bay of Biscay with a spatial high resolution of 4 km with the MARS3D code. This configuration is a first step included in an on-going implementation process toward higher resolution configurations (~2 km). MARS3D is a sigma-coordinate code based on primitive equations that uses an ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) scheme on the barotropic part and an efficient time scheme. Technical (parallelization and input/output management) and physical (open boundary conditions and atmospheric forcing) aspects had to be investigated to optimize the numerical experiment and to realize this 53-year long experiment with MARS3D on a dedicated supercomputer. The parallelization is based on a classical domain decomposition method that allows the use of high performance computing resources needed for such long simulations. This parallelization involves the use of MPI and OPENMP technology suitable for the scalar supercomputers. We present some performances of our configuration with respect to the chosen parallelization method and the domain decomposition. We demonstrate that using 768 processors is feasible with MARS3D and that it leads to a good balance between cpu time and elapsed time. Concerning the input/output management, the large amount of output files generated by different processors on a long integration period requires that the calculation task and the input/output management task are evenly distributed. Several strategies, including an innovative strategy that dedicates a set of processors for the calculation and another set of processors for the writing of outputs, have been evaluated for MARS3D and are presented. The numerical experiment requires external forcing fields adapted to open ocean boundaries and ocean-atmosphere interface. The z-coordinate global

  10. Literacy and Children Who Are Blind and Who Have Additional Disabilities--the Challenges for Teachers and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Steve; McLinden, Mike

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an innovative action research project based at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom that involved the professional development of teachers and instruction using specially developed Moon tactile code materials to teach literacy to pupils who are blind and who have additional disabilities. (Contains references.)…

  11. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Kocher, A.; Choct, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics. PMID:25049595

  12. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased

  13. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge. PMID:26122279

  14. Technical Challenges and Opportunities of Centralizing Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ido, Haisam; Burns, Rich

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Science Mission Operations project (SSMO) is performing a technical cost-benefit analysis for centralizing and consolidating operations of a diverse set of missions into a unified and integrated technical infrastructure. The presentation will focus on the notion of normalizing spacecraft operations processes, workflows, and tools. It will also show the processes of creating a standardized open architecture, creating common security models and implementations, interfaces, services, automations, notifications, alerts, logging, publish, subscribe and middleware capabilities. The presentation will also discuss how to leverage traditional capabilities, along with virtualization, cloud computing services, control groups and containers, and possibly Big Data concepts.

  15. ELN implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Drake, David J

    2007-08-01

    Electronic Laboratory Notebooks are becoming foundation platforms within many pharmaceutical companies because of the benefits that they offer to both the business and the scientists alike. Implementing an ELN within an established organisation presents challenges for the project team, both in terms of managing the impact on the scientists and the technical requirements for integration and data management. Implementation of a commercial ELN is not exempt from such challenges, and working with a third party supplier offers both advantages and additional challenges. PMID:17706546

  16. Vicarious Violence on the Screen: A Challenge to Educators and Families. Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 16. [Updated Version].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    This technical bulletin poses questions of concern to law-related educators (LRE) and citizenship educators working to reduce violence among students and the larger community. Maintaining that the sociological implications of violence on television and in video games should be a serious concern to all educators, the bulletin describes the…

  17. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer Continental Shelf Waters AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and Environmental... environmentally sound offshore oil and gas exploration and production in deep and ultra-deep OCS waters. Through... will offer a structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry...

  18. Framing Arguments in a Technical Controversy: Assumptions about Science and Technology in the Decision to Launch the Space Shuttle Challenger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the assumptions about science and technology held by the engineers who attempted to delay the launch of the Challenger Space Shuttle. Reveals three dominant conceptions of science and technology which guided the engineers' persuasive efforts and which appeared to account for why the engineers did not succeed in their attempt to influence…

  19. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  20. Dual modality micro-SPECT and micro-CT for small animal imaging: technical advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaguirre, Enrique W.; Sun, Mingshan; Carver, James; Thompson, Steve; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2005-09-01

    Small animal dual modality microSPECT-micro CT has seen many technological advances during recent years. The design of small animal dual modality scanners is a multidisciplinary field, where several interrelated technological problems must be integrated in a complex instrument. This article describes the general concepts that must be taken into consideration during the design process of dual modality microSPECT- microCT scanners. A description of the contemporary scanner technology is presented using the recently designed dual modality micro SPECT -microCT at the Physics Research Laboratory at UCSF. The technology is described with a simple approach to introduce the reader to the complex process of the dual modality scanner design. This article includes a discussion of current technological challenges that have potential to improve or expand the microSPECT-microCT performance and its applications.

  1. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  2. 2 CFR 180.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 180.735 Section 180.735 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent will not have an...

  3. 2 CFR 180.735 - Under what conditions do I get an additional opportunity to challenge the facts on which the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? 180.735 Section 180.735 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... opportunity to challenge the facts on which the suspension is based? (a) You as a respondent will not have...

  4. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  5. Class 1 Permit Modification Notification Addition of Structures within Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11, Dome 375 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Lechel, Robert A.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to notify the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of a Class 1 Permit Modification to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in November 2010. The modification adds structures to the container storage unit at Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, Pad 11. Permit Section 3.1(3) requires that changes to the location of a structure that does not manage hazardous waste shall be changed within the Permit as a Class 1 modification without prior approval in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (40 CFR), {section}270.42(a)(1). Structures have been added within Dome 375 located at TA-54, Area G, Pad 11 that will be used in support of waste management operations within Dome 375 and the modular panel containment structure located within Dome 375, but will not be used as waste management structures. The Class 1 Permit Modification revises Figure 36 in Attachment N, Figures; and Figure G.12-1 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Descriptions of the structures have also been added to Section A.4.2.9 in Attachment A, TA - Unit Descriptions; and Section 2.0 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Full description of the permit modification and the necessary changes are included in Enclosure 1. The modification has been prepared in accordance with 40 CFR {section}270.42(a)(l). This package includes this letter and an enclosure containing a description of the permit modification, text edits of the Permit sections, and the revised figures (collectively LA-UR-12-22808). Accordingly, a signed certification page is also enclosed. Three hard copies and one electronic copy of this submittal will be delivered to the NMED-HWB.

  6. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 11, March 16, 1990--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to sue chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. (VC)

  7. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 4, June 16, 1988--September 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1988-11-14

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 10, December 16, 1989--March 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  9. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the North Central Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The North Central Regional Advisory Committee (NC RAC) final report provides our assessment of the technical assistance needs of educators in our region. The technical assistance is to be provided by comprehensive centers and directed toward implementing the programs of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and achieving its goals through the use of…

  10. Challenges of Current Social, Economical and Technological Developments and Need for Reforms/Renovations in Training of Teachers in Technical-Vocational Education. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Recent social/economic changes and technological developments are demanding reforms/renovations in the training of technical-vocational teachers in Asia-Pacific countries. Among the changes that have necessitated reform of training for technical-vocational teachers in the Asia-Pacific region are the following: population growth and rapid…

  11. The Challenge of the Future. Future Trends in Adult and Continuing Technical and Vocational Education. An International Symposium (Berlin, Germany, October 16-20, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This report on an international symposium on the strengthening of the development and improvement of vocational education begins with a description of UNEVOC, the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education. Section 2 presents discussions of the following topics: adult and continuing technical and vocational education and its…

  12. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the Northeast Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Northeast Regional Advisory Committee (NE RAC) provides an assessment of the technical assistance needs of educators in the Northeast Region in response to a directive from the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education (ED). The Secretary will use this assessment in establishing 20 comprehensive centers to provide technical assistance to…

  13. Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

  14. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  15. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  16. Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John A.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes can produce highly complex and customized parts without the need for dedicated tooling and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet several challenges are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Among these challenges are metrology issues associated with the measurement and characterization of the metal powders used for AM systems. This article will describe the technical challenges and needs for characterizing metal AM powders, recent research efforts to address those needs, and current work to standardize characterization methods in ASTM and ISO, such as the recently released ASTM F3049, Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes.

  17. Additivity of Factor Effects in Reading Tasks Is Still a Challenge for Computational Models: Reply to Ziegler, Perry, and Zorzi (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    J. C. Ziegler, C. Perry, and M. Zorzi (2009) have claimed that their connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate the data reported by S. O'Malley and D. Besner. Most centrally, they have claimed that the model simulates additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on the time to read aloud when words and nonwords are randomly…

  18. Challenges in the Development of State Assessment Programs that Support Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Linda A.

    This paper addresses the educational, technical, legal, and practical challenges states must confront as they consider the content of the assessment, its technical quality, the capacity of educators and the public to use the results of the assessment, the benefits and additional complications of performance testing, and the overall tension betwen…

  19. Technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    Appropriately applied, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) therapy is an important addition to the clinician's treatment armamentarium. However, GTR therapy is highly technique-sensitive, and failure to understand and manage the subtleties of treatment will significantly diminish therapeutic results. This article discusses the technical prerequisites for successful application of GTR therapy to infrabony defects and periodontally involved furcations for maximization of treatment results. PMID:11360324

  20. Additivity of factor effects in reading tasks is still a challenge for computational models: Reply to Ziegler, Perry, and Zorzi (2009).

    PubMed

    Besner, Derek; O'Malley, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    J. C. Ziegler, C. Perry, and M. Zorzi (2009) have claimed that their connectionist dual process model (CDP+) can simulate the data reported by S. O'Malley and D. Besner. Most centrally, they have claimed that the model simulates additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on the time to read aloud when words and nonwords are randomly intermixed. This work represents an important attempt given that computational models of reading processes have to date largely ignored the issue of whether it is possible to simulate additive effects. Despite CDP+'s success at capturing many other phenomena, it is clear that CDP+ fails to capture the full pattern seen with skilled readers in these experiments. PMID:19210105

  1. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the Southwest Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Southwest Regional Advisory Committee (RAC) is one of ten regional committees appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct an assessment of the technical assistance needs of educators, parents, and students in the region. During the period between December 2004 and March 2005 this committee, which includes…

  2. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report of the Pacific Regional Advisory Committee (RAC) provides an assessment of the technical assistance needs of educators in the Pacific region in response to a directive from the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education (ED). This information will be used to assist in the establishment of 20 comprehensive centers providing technical…

  3. Securing the Future of the Indian IT Industry: A Case for Educational Innovation in Higher Technical Education--Challenges and the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ankur

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenal growth achieved by the Indian IT industry in the last decade has become a global success story. Fuelled by the thousands of engineering graduate and postgraduate students emerging from the higher technical education system, it is on the verge of significant change. This paper examines the issues facing the Indian IT industry and…

  4. A Report to the U.S. Department of Education on Educational Challenges and Technical Assistance Needs for the Appalachia Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CNA Corporation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education (ED) appointed eleven members to the Appalachian Regional Advisory Committee (AP RAC) to provide advice concerning the educational needs of the region as required by the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-279; 20 USC 9605). The RAC was charged with providing this advice…

  5. The role of structural dynamics in the design and operations of space systems: The history, the lessons, the technical challenges of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Structural dynamics and its auxiliary fields are the most progressive and challenging areas space system engineering design and operations face. Aerospace systems are dependent on structural dynamicists for their success. Past experiences (history) are colored with many dynamic issues, some producing ground or flight test failures. The innovation and creativity that was brought to these issues and problems are the aura from the past that lights the path to the future. Using this illumination to guide understanding of the dynamic phenomena and designing for its potential occurrence are the keys to successful space systems. Our great paradox, or challenge, is how we remain in depth specialists, yet become generalists to the degree that we make good team members and set the right priorities. This paper will deal with how we performed with acclaim in the past, the basic characteristics of structural dynamics (loads cycle, for example), and the challenges of the future.

  6. Effects of a recombinant complement component C3b functional fragment α2MR (α2-macroglobulin receptor) additive on the immune response of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the exposure to cold shock challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Ec-α2MR (Epinephelus coiodes-α2-macroglobulin receptor) on growth performance, enzymatic activity, respiratory burst, MDA level, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging percentage and immune-related gene expressions of the juvenile orange-spotted grouper were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with α2MR additive was used to feed the orange-spotted grouper for six weeks. Although a slight increase was observed in the specific growth rate, survival rate and weight gain, no significance was observed among different group. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to cold stress. Respiratory burst activity and MDA level decreased significantly in α2MR additive group by comparing with the control and additive control group, while a sharp increase of ACP activity, ALP activity, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radial scavenging percentage was observed in α2MR additive group. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that the up-regulated mRNA expressions of C3, TNF1, TNF2, IL-6, CTL, LysC, SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in α2MR additive group at 20 °C. These results showed that α2MR additive may moderate the immune response in grouper following cold shock challenge. PMID:25917969

  7. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  8. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  10. Challenges of developing the complex socio-technical system: realising the present, acknowledging the past, and envisaging the future of vessel traffic services.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Maaria; Savioja, Paula; Sonninen, Sanna

    2007-09-01

    This paper raises the question of how to guide the development of an emerging complex socio-technical system. The empirical basis for the discussion is a study of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS). We analysed the current state and the history of the service in Finland in four studies and identified several development needs. The results showed that there are differences between the outcome, practices and conceptions of the core task across different experts in the VTS centres, which can be explained by the current state of the constituents and the history of the activity system. Qualitatively different development phases characterised either by a top-down standardisation or bottom-up construction process were recognised. A combination of these processes was suggested for the future development strategy of the VTS. This could allow both continuous development within VTS and recognition of the need for a new system. A promising way to achieve continuous development is by creating reflective practices supported for instance with annual simulator exercises aimed at procedure development. We conclude that solving the current problems and promoting the development of the complex system call for a dynamic, open vision of the target future of the system, in which the pressures from the social, political and technological environments are taken into account. The results of ergonomics studies can help in self-reflecting, envisaging and developing supportive methods for the system but the persons within the system create the will to develop and find their way towards the development horizon. PMID:17196545

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  13. Technical Shibboleths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technical sub-languages to reveal sociological functions of language that transcend mere transfer of substantive information. Finds one sociological feature, the shibboleth, acting widely throughout technical fields. (PA)

  14. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerlin, H, M, PhD PE; Leach, J, W, PhD PE; Terry, S, D, PhD PE

    2007-02-28

    The Industrial Assessment Center program at North Carolina State University has conducted one hundred industrial assessments of small and medium sized manufacturers in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Reports were submitted to each facility that included a brief description of the plant, historical energy use, and a technical analysis of potential energy efficiency savings, waste reduction, and productivity savings. Seven hundred thirty eight conservation measures were recommended with total annual cost savings in excess of $18 million. The NCSU IAC has worked with other government and private entities to deliver energy efficiency and conservation services. We have worked closely with the NCSU Industrial Extension Service, the Manufacturer’s Extension Partnership (MEP), and the North Carolina State Energy Office to provide follow-up technical help and financial assistance in implementing conservation recommendations. In addition to these organizations, the NCSU IAC has also worked with the NC Department of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance, the NC Solar Center, Advanced Energy Corporation, Duke Power, Progress Energy, Dominion Power, and the City of Danville, Virginia. Eighteen undergraduate and twenty graduate students were exposed to a variety of manufacturing processes, trained on plant safety, and taught the use of various types of data collection equipment. The students performed technical analyses of each recommendation, computed the potential savings from engineering relations and collected data, estimated the cost from vendor information, and communicated the findings in a compact, well written report to the client. The students have also been exposed to a variety of business personnel, including corporate presidents, engineering managers, plant managers, plant engineers, facility maintenance staff, and production workers – each with a unique perspective on the challenges faced in a modern manufacturing facility. The program

  16. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English. PMID:23898598

  17. 2002 Controls Design Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    This document is intended to provide the specifications and requirements for a flight control system design challenge. The response to the challenge will involve documenting whether the particular design has met the stated requirements through analysis and computer simulation. The response should be written in the general format of a technical publication with corresponding length limits, e.g., an approximate maximum length of 45 units, with each full-size figure and double-spaced typewritten page constituting one unit.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Managing Challenges in a Multi Contractor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The presentation provides a project description, describes the integrated product team, and review project challenges. The challenges include programmatic, technical, basic drop tests, heavy drop tests, C-17 envelope expansion, and Ares I-X.

  1. Technical Challenges of Drilling on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey; Gross, Anthony; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the last year, NASA's Mars science advisory committee (MEPAG: Mars Exploration Payload Advisory Group) has formally recommended that deep drilling be undertaken as a priority investigation to meet astrobiology and geology goals. This proposed new dimension in Mars exploration has come about for several reasons. Firstly, geophysical models of the martian subsurface environment indicate that we may well find liquid water (in the form of brines) under ground-ice at depths of several kilometers near the equator. On Earth we invariably find life forms associated with any environmental niche that supports liquid water. New data from the Mars Global Surveyor have shown that the most recent volcanism on Mars is very young so we cannot rule out contemporary volcanism -- in which case subsurface temperatures consistent with having water in its liquid phase may be found at relatively shallow depths. Secondly, in recent decades we have learned to our surprise that the Earth's subsurface (microbial) biosphere extends to depths of many kilometers and this discovery provides the basis for planning to explore the martian subsurface in search of ancient or even extant microbial life forms. We know (from Viking measurements) that all the biogenic elements (C, H, O, N, P, S) are available on Mars. What we therefore hope to learn is whether or not the evolution of life is inevitable given the necessary ingredients and, by implication, whether the Universe may be teeming with life. The feasibility of drilling deep into the surface of Mars has been the subject of increasing attention within NASA (and more recently among some of its international partners) for several years and this led to a broad-based feasibility study carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and, subsequently, to the development of several hardware prototypes. This paper is intended to provide a general survey of that activity.

  2. Challenges to Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hermann

    Advances in information technology are changing industrialized societies into knowledge societies. The end of the cold war has promoted development of a global economy. Growing ecological consciousness has necessitated that environmental knowledge become part of all education. As the need to remain competitive increases, a new balance in…

  3. CFLs in Recessed Downlights: Technical Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Dillon, Heather E.; Sandahl, Linda J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2005-05-09

    Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixture in the United States representing about 12 percent of installed residential lighting fixtures and 15 percent of total lighting energy use nationwide. We estimate 400 million recessed downlights are currently installed in American homes, almost all using incandescent light sources. In the year 2000, only 0.44 percent of recessed cans sold were hard-wired for using pin-based CFLs. Recessed downlights consume energy in three ways. First, their incandescent light sources use energy directly, drawing 65 to 150 watts. Second, they consume energy indirectly by adding heat from their light sources to air-conditioning loads. Third, since most are not airtight, they also consume energy indirectly by allowing conditioned air to escape into unconditioned areas above the downlights, such as attics. PNNL calculated potential energy savings and found that if a 65W incandescent non-airtight downlight is replaced with a 26W CFL ICAT downlight operated at 3 hrs per day savings will be 126 kWh/yr. Early reflector CFLs have had high return rates primarily because of failure due to thermal related stress. A PNNL laboratory test of ten commercially available R-CFLs selected from retail store shelves showed almost all operated above their manufacturer rated maximum operating temperatures when they were installed and tested in ICAT downlights in a simulated insulated ceiling apparatus. DOE asked PNNL to investigate the development and introduction of both pin-based and screw-based CFLs for use in ICAT fixtures. PNNL invited manufacturers to submit lamps to a procurement program. PNNL conducted short- and long-term thermal testing of the lamps to measure performance parameters affected by elevated temperatures. 8 out of 10 R-CFLs (secrew-based lamps) failed the long-tem testing. Five out of nine CFL-ICAT (pin-based CFL) fixtures passed the long-term test, surviving a full year of operation in a simulated insulated ceiling apparatus, while maintaining at least 80% of initial lumens at 40% of rated life. Of those five products, two were withdrawn from the market due to poor sales, probably because of the high prices on the products. Three remain on the market. PNNL plans to initiate another R-CFL technology procurement in the winter of 2004/2005 to bring more high-quality R-CFL models to market. PNNL developed a number of design ideas for improving the thermal performance of pin-based CFL ICAT downlights for use in future activities.

  4. Challenges in Teaching "Colloid and Surface Chemistry"--A Danish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Vigild, Martin E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven years ago we were asked, as one of our first teaching duties at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), to teach a 5 ECTS point course on "Colloid and Surface Chemistry". The topic is itself at the same time exciting and demanding, largely due to its multidisciplinary nature. Several "local" requirements posed additional challenges. The…

  5. Fossil Energy: Drivers and Challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Concerns about rapid economic growth, energy security, and global climate change have created a new landscape for fossil energy exploration, production, and utilization. Since 85% of primary energy supply comes from fossil fuels, and 85% of greenhouse gas emissions come from fossil fuel consumption, new and difficult technical and political challenges confront commercial, governmental, and public stakeholders. As such, concerns over climate change are explicitly weighed against security of international and domestic energy supplies, with economic premiums paid for either or both. Efficiency improvements, fuel conservation, and deployment of nuclear and renewable supplies will help both concerns, but are unlikely to offset growth in the coming decades. As such, new technologies and undertakings must both provide high quality fossil energy with minimal environmental impacts. The largest and most difficult of these undertakings is carbon management, wherein CO2 emissions are sequestered indefinitely at substantial incremental cost. Geological formations provide both high confidence and high capacity for CO2 storage, but present scientific and technical challenges. Oil and gas supply can be partially sustained and replaced through exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels such as tar-sands, methane hydrates, coal-to-liquids, and oil shales. These fuels provide enormous reserves that can be exploited at current costs, but generally require substantial energy to process. In most cases, the energy return on investment (EROI) is dropping, and unconventional fuels are generally more carbon intensive than conventional, presenting additional carbon management challenges. Ultimately, a large and sustained science and technology program akin to the Apollo project will be needed to address these concerns. Unfortunately, real funding in energy research has dropped dramatically (75%) in the past three decades, and novel designs in fission and fusion are not likely to provide any

  6. Technical Guid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasescu, F. T.; Stanciu, V.; Nitu, V.; Nitu, C.

    The book contains the most important informations from Physics,Mechanics,Heat,Electromagnetism, Nuclear Physics as well as tables with values for physical and technical Quantities. The book is designed especially for engineers, but could be useful for physicists

  7. PISA 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "PISA 2009 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2009 survey. It examines additional features related to the implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to understand and replicate its analyses. The reader will find a wealth of information on the test and sample design, methodologies…

  8. The Colombian nuclear scenario: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    In Colombia, the absence of nuclear-oriented policies based on technical knowledge, the closing of the Nuclear Affairs Institute (1956-1998), the association of the word "nuclear" with weapons, plus the country's last six decades of internal conflict and narcotraffic have discourage the technical, social and environmental nuclear advance. However, there are technical, social and economic national challenges that could be faced by the present nuclear technical capacities.

  9. Preface : the 2000 ethanol vehicle challenge.

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, N. M.; Larsen, R. P.

    2000-12-11

    The technical papers presented in this special publication represent the efforts of students from 16 colleges and universities across North America. Over 600 students have participated in the Ethanol Vehicle Challenge since its inception in 1998. The 2000 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge was the final year of this successful 3-year advanced vehicle competition series. The papers presented are enhanced and expanded versions of those prepared in advance of the competition by the participating student engineers. They describe the design elements, construction details, and performance of the dedicated ethanol vehicles brought to the Challenge by the participating universities. The goal of this competition was to demonstrate the potential of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% hydrocarbon primer) to significantly lower emissions and improve the performance, fuel efficiency and cold starting of vehicles fueled by ethanol. The competition series began with a Request for Proposals in January 1997. A letter announcing and soliciting interest in the competition (Notice of Interest) was sent to all accredited engineering programs and two-year technical schools in the US and Canada. The Notice described the competition and the requirements for the conversion of a 1997 Chevrolet Malibu to dedicated E85 operation. On the basis of the submitted proposals, 14 schools were selected to participate in the first competition in 1998. Those schools were invited to participate again in 1999. Two additional schools collaborated with the existing teams for the 2000 competition; these two teams participated in the competition, but they were not eligible for the competition awards.

  10. Content and Language Integrated Learning in Higher Technical Education Using the "InGenio" Online Multimedia Authoring Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimeno, Ana; Seiz, Rafael; de Siqueira, Jose Macario; Martinez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The future professional world of today's students is becoming a life-long learning process where they have to adapt to a changing market and an environment full of new opportunities and challenges. Thus, the development of a number of personal and professional skills, in addition to technical content and knowledge, is a crucial part of their…

  11. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  12. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  13. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlordane ( Technical ) ; CASRN 12789 - 03 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  16. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2005-10-27

    In this final technical report, a summary of work is provided. Work toward an improved representation of frontal clouds in global climate models occurred. This involved analysis of cloud variability in ARM observations and the careful contrast of single column model solutions with ARM data. In addition, high resolution simulations of frontal clouds were employed to diagnosis processes that are important for the development of frontal clouds.

  17. Challenges of the Future in Postsecondary Occupational Education. Fourth Conference on New Horizons in Community College Occupational-Technical Education (4th, Blacksburg, Virginia, October 31, November 1-2, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L., Ed.

    Approximately 135 instructors, counselors, division directors, deans, presidents, university personnel, and graduate students from ten states participated in a fourth annual conference on New Horizons in Community College Occupational-Technical Education reported in this document. The general purpose of the conference was to examine current views…

  18. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  19. Predictors of employer satisfaction: technical and non-technical skills.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A

    2012-01-01

    Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction. PMID:22433741

  20. SOAs for Scientific Applications: Experiences and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sriram; Bhatia, Karan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, with the advent of the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) (19) and the Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) (25), Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) and Web service technologies have been embraced in the field of scientific and Grid computing. These new principles promise to help make scientific infrastructures simpler to use, more cost effective to implement, and easier to maintain. However, understanding how to leverage these developments to actually design and build a system remains more of an art than a science. In this paper, we present some positions learned through experience that provide guidance in leveraging SOA technologies to build scientific infrastructures. In addition, we present the technical challenges that need to be addressed in building an SOA, and as a case study, we present the SOA that we have designed for the National Biomedical Computation Resource (NBCR) (9) community. We discuss how we have addressed these technical challenges, and present the overall architecture, the individual software toolkits developed, the client interfaces, and the usage scenarios. We hope that our experiences prove to be useful in building similar infrastructures for other scientific applications. PMID:21308003

  1. SOAs for Scientific Applications: Experiences and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sriram; Bhatia, Karan

    2009-04-01

    Over the past several years, with the advent of the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) (19) and the Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) (25), Service-oriented Architectures (SOA) and Web service technologies have been embraced in the field of scientific and Grid computing. These new principles promise to help make scientific infrastructures simpler to use, more cost effective to implement, and easier to maintain. However, understanding how to leverage these developments to actually design and build a system remains more of an art than a science. In this paper, we present some positions learned through experience that provide guidance in leveraging SOA technologies to build scientific infrastructures. In addition, we present the technical challenges that need to be addressed in building an SOA, and as a case study, we present the SOA that we have designed for the National Biomedical Computation Resource (NBCR) (9) community. We discuss how we have addressed these technical challenges, and present the overall architecture, the individual software toolkits developed, the client interfaces, and the usage scenarios. We hope that our experiences prove to be useful in building similar infrastructures for other scientific applications. PMID:21308003

  2. Current challenges in interventional mitral valve treatment

    PubMed Central

    Candreva, Alessandro; Pozzoli, Alberto; Guidotti, Andrea; Gaemperli, Oliver; Nietlispach, Fabian; Barthelmes, Jens; Emmert, Maximilian Y.; Weber, Alberto; Benussi, Stefano; Alfieri, Ottavio; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter mitral valve therapies have emerged as an alternative option in high surgical risk or inoperable patients with severe and symptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR). As multiple technologies and different approaches will become available in the field of mitral valve interventions, different challenges are emerging, both patient- (clinical challenges) and procedure-related (technical challenges). This review will briefly explore the current open challenges in the evolving fields of interventional mitral valve treatment. PMID:26543599

  3. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  4. Clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Questions for this month's clinical challenge are based on articles in this issue. The clinical challenge is endorsed by the RACGP Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development (QI&CPD) program and has been allocated four Category 2 points (Activity ID:59922). Answers to this clinical challenge are available immediately following successful completion online at http://gplearning.racgp.org.au. Clinical challenge quizzes may be completed at any time throughout the 2014-16 triennium; therefore, the previous months' answers are not published. Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the most appropriate statement as your answer. PMID:27606376

  5. Digital Libraries: The Grand Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the technical, economic, social, and cultural challenges to building a national digital library system. Selecting and filtering information, building and scaling distributed digital library networks, invoicing, payment, authorizing access, the locus of planning leadership, and the information poor are discussed. (Contains three…

  6. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination is limited to those... preliminary technical determination. The participant may also provide any additional documentation to...

  7. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination is limited to those... preliminary technical determination. The participant may also provide any additional documentation to...

  8. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  9. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  10. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  11. Interop technical report: additional constants for table 15.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E; Rabenseifner, Rolf

    2011-01-19

    The Fortran sub-committee of the MPI-3 Forum would like to define the MPI Fortran interface with explicit interfaces. To ease the implementation of portable MPI libraries, it would be helpful if this interface can be defined as BIND (C). With BIND (C), the MPI library can be implemented portably across different Fortran compilers. For backward-compatibility reasons, it is essential to guarantee that existing MPI programs still run with MPI libraries based on the new Fortran 2003 compatible MPI interface specification. To achieve this goal, all existing intrinsic (with default kind parameter) and derived Fortran types should be usable as actual arguments in routines defined with BIND (C), Unfortunately, intrinsic Fortran types with default kind parameter may not be interoperable.

  12. Engineering Technical Review Planning Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    The general topics covered in the engineering technical planning briefing are 1) overviews of NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and Engineering, 2) the NASA Systems Engineering(SE) Engine and its implementation , 3) the NASA Project Life Cycle, 4) MSFC Technical Management Branch Services in relation to the SE Engine and the Project Life Cycle , 5) Technical Reviews, 6) NASA Human Factor Design Guidance , and 7) the MSFC Human Factors Team. The engineering technical review portion of the presentation is the primary focus of the overall presentation and will address the definition of a design review, execution guidance, the essential stages of a technical review, and the overall review planning life cycle. Examples of a technical review plan content, review approaches, review schedules, and the review process will be provided and discussed. The human factors portion of the presentation will focus on the NASA guidance for human factors. Human factors definition, categories, design guidance, and human factor specialist roles will be addressed. In addition, the NASA Systems Engineering Engine description, definition, and application will be reviewed as background leading into the NASA Project Life Cycle Overview and technical review planning discussion.

  13. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  14. America's challenge.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  15. Challenges in media delivery systems and servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan

    2005-03-01

    Although multimedia compression formats and protocols to stream such content have been around for a long time, there has been limited success in the adoption of open standards for streaming over IP (Internet Protocol) networks. The elements of such an end-to-end system will be introduced outlining the responsibilities of each element. The technical and financial challenges in building a viable multimedia streaming end-to-end system will be analyzed in detail in this paper outlining some solutions and areas for further research. Also, recent migration to IP in the backend video delivery network infrastructures have made it possible to use IP based media streaming solutions in non-IP last mile access networks like cable and wireless networks in addition to the DSL networks. The advantages of using IP streaming solutions in such networks will be outlined. However, there is a different set of challenges posed by such applications. The real time constraints are acute in each element of the media delivery end-to-end system. Meeting these real time constraints in general purpose non real time server systems is quite demanding. Quality of service, resource management, session management, fail-over, reliability, and cost are some important but challenging requirements in such systems. These will also be analyzed with suggested solutions. Content protection and rights management requirements are also very challenging for open standards based multimedia delivery systems. Interoperability unfortunately interferes with security in most of the current day systems. Some approaches to solve the interoperability problems will also be presented. The requirements, challenges, and possible solutions for delivering broadcast, on demand, and interactive video delivery applications for IP based media streaming systems will be analyzed in detail.

  16. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Prehospital Emergency Ultrasound: A Review of Current Clinical Applications, Challenges, and Future Implications

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging modalities in the prehospital setting are helpful in the evaluation and management of time-sensitive emergency conditions. Ultrasound is the main modality that has been applied by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the field. This paper examines the clinical applications of ultrasound in the prehospital setting. Specific focus is on applications that provide essential information to guide triage and management of critical patients. Challenges of this modality are also described in terms of cost impact on EMS agencies, provider training, and skill maintenance in addition to challenges related to the technical aspect of ultrasound. PMID:24171113

  18. Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    ,; ,; ,

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 World Materials Summit, held on 10/9-12/2011 in Washington DC, provided a forum for top decision makers and energy experts from aropund the world to focus on the materials research needs for the growing energy economy. Organized jointly by the Materials Research Society (MRS), the European MRS (E-MRS), and the Chinese MRS (C-MRS), the goal of the Summit was to explore how the different regions of the world can work together on the critical issue of clean energy, including its relation to environmental sustainability and water. The participants considered the area of materials research as well as advocacy, economics, outreach, and education. Realizing that the concerns are long-term and that young players will ultimately be the ones who are going to need to solve the energy challenges, the chairs of the Summit inaugurated a Student Congress, a program for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in fields directly related to energy and environmental science, engineering, and/or policy. The top 45 candidates coming from 18 countries were selected on a competititve basis to participate in the Student Congress. The four-day effort culminated in a 2011 Worlds Materials Summit Declaration delineating materials directions related to global access to clean energy and water in a sustainable way.

  19. The Urban Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the myriad of challenges facing urban schools and the problems their districts must struggle through in finding solutions. The severity of these problems, such as additional facility demand, school deterioration, increasing rates of school takeovers, and tight budgets are described. (GR)

  20. 78 FR 32541 - Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...The NCUA Board (Board) is making a number of technical amendments to NCUA's regulations based on issues identified by staff and through NCUA's rolling, three-year regulatory review process. In addition, the Board is making a number of nomenclature changes to NCUA's regulations to reflect changes to NCUA's office structure, including the transfer of duties and the creation of the new Office of......

  1. Research in Technical Education: A Publication Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolcz, Matt

    This directory contains a comprehensive listing of publications that may be appropriate for publication of academic research in technical education. Both research-based and trade publications related to technical education were used as bases for the guide, along with additional information about special interest publications. Complete synopses of…

  2. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  3. Quill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Teaching high school students the "grammar" of art--the principles and elements of art and design--while also teaching them about creativity and concept can be difficult. This author has found that combining beginning lessons in line, shape, value, texture, form, and color with projects requiring innovation and inspiration, though challenging, is…

  4. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  6. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  7. Challenges of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Charles, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentations will be given during the X-Prize symposium, exploring the multi-faceted dimensions of spaceflight ranging from the technical developments necessary to achieve safe routine flight to and from and through space to the new personal business opportunities and economic benefits that will open in space and here on Earth. The symposium will delve into the technical, regulatory, market and financial needs and challenges that must be met in charting and executing the incremental developments leading to Personal Spaceflight and the opening of a Place Called Space. The presentation covers facets of human space flight including descriptions of life in space, the challenges of delivering medical care in space, and the preparations needed for safe and productive human travel to the moon and Mars.

  8. Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan D. Istok

    2008-06-01

    ‘Bioimmobilization’ of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In this approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated precipitation (‘bioimmobilization’) of targeted contaminants. This project investigated a fundamentally new approach for modeling this process that couples thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth with associated geochemical reactions. In this approach, a synthetic microbial community is defined as a collection of defined microbial groups; each with a growth equation derived from bioenergetic principles. The growth equations and standard-state free energy yields are appended to a thermodynamic database for geochemical reactions and the combined equations are solved simultaneously to predict the effect of added substrates on microbial biomass, community composition, and system geochemistry. This approach, with a single set of thermodynamic parameters (one for each growth equation), was used to predict the results of laboratory and field bioimmobilization experiments at two geochemically diverse research sites. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium and technetium solubility, major ion geochemistry, mineralogy, microbial biomass and community composition were in general agreement with experimental observations although the available experimental data precluded rigorous model testing. Model simulations provide insight into the long-standing difficulty in transferring experimental results from the laboratory to the field and from one field site to the next, especially if the form, concentration, or delivery of growth substrate is varied from one experiment to the next. Although originally developed for use in better understanding bioimmobilization of uranium and technetium via reductive precipitation

  9. The challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Roger L.

    1988-01-01

    Radio systems in space are on the brink of achieving throughout data rates in the hundred of megabits. At present, radio systems operate below 60 GHz and are the traditional workhorses of satellite communications. Legal constraints and the laws of physics limit data rates on the systems. It is maintained that the challenge to provide high technology tools to develop viable high-data-rate space transmission systems can be met before the next century if three optical system and technology issues are overcome. In declining order of importance, the issues are: precise optical pointing, acquisition, and tracking; efficient laser diode optical sources producing sufficient output power; and advanced optical detector technology.

  10. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  11. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  12. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  13. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  14. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  15. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  16. The Technical Communicator as Corporate Spokesperson: A Public Relations Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troester, Rod; Warburton, Terrence L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing role of the technical communication professional in the rapidly evolving environment of organizational life. Presents five principles that serve as an initial step in laying a foundation for the preparation of technical communicators for the challenges and opportunities awaiting in contemporary organizations and the…

  17. Technical report writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  18. SUPERFUND TECHNICAL SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under this task, technical support is provided to Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)/On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) at Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites contaminated with hazardous materials by the Technical Support Center (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization....

  19. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of additional copies. 1180.6 Section 1180.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade..., TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  20. Regional Technical Committee meeting.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    In January 1999, the 7th Regional Technical Committee of the Asia Regional Project, which seeks to strengthen community-based delivery of reproductive health (RH) care and family planning (FP), met at JOICFP. The 15 participants from Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, the UN Population Fund, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reviewed project activities during 1996-98 and finalized a work plan for 1999, reviewed evaluation outcomes, drafted a set of guidelines for the implementation of community-based RH programs, and consolidated plans to ensure program sustainability beyond 2000. The delegates from each country reported on their accomplishments and future challenges, and these experiences will be incorporated into manuals that will be useful tools for policy-makers and grassroots activists alike. A representative of the IPPF recommended continued sharing of accumulated project experience, sharing IEC (information, education, communication) materials with other nongovernmental and governmental organizations, fostering site visits to expand projects, and involving local governments to raise local resources. She noted that the IPPF would explore ways to continue project support. The UNFPA representative called for increased regional activities in the areas of adolescent sexual and RH education and services, quality of care training, advocacy, and furthering male involvement. PMID:12349120

  1. TU-D-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT II: Challenges ' Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z; Yin, F; Cho, J

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been effective treatment for the management of various diseases, which often delivers high radiation dose in a single or a few fractions. SBRT therefore demands precise treatment delivery to the tumor while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Recent developments in image guidance enable target localization with increased accuracy. With such improvements in localization, image-guided SBRT has been widely adopted into clinical practice. In SBRT, high radiation dose is generally delivered with small fields. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately measure dosimetric data for the small fields during commissioning. In addition, image-guided SBRT demands accurate image localization to ensure safety and quality of patient care. Lately, the reports of AAPM TG 142 and TG 104 have been published and added recommendations for imaging devices that are integrated with the linear accelerator for SBRT. Furthermore, various challenges and potential pitfalls lie in the clinical implementation of image-guided SBRT. In this lecture, these challenges and pitfalls of image-guided SBRT will be illustrated and discussed from dosimetric, technical and clinical perspectives.Being a promising technique, image-guided SBRT has shown great potentials, and will lead to more accurate and safer SBRT treatments. Learning Objectives: To understand dosimetric challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major clinical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major technical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT.

  2. Environmental challenge as a geologist

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Many scientific environmental studies involving geology are now becoming apparent. If we can convince the regulatory agencies to take advantage of our geologic knowledge to assess environmental problems, many unnecessary mandates can be modified. Isn`t it strange that Mt. Erebus in the Antarctic pumps over 1,000 tons of chlorine directly into the vortex of the earth every day and has for over 100 years? Yet man and CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are being blamed for the ozone hole and global warming. Recent ice cores have been recovered in Greenland which date back 250,000 years in time. This scientific study indicated that the climate in the northern hemisphere has always been cyclic. The United States Geological Survey has recently completed a study of the Exxon Valdes oil spill and has found Monterey oil residues are more prevalent than the North Slope oil. The Monterey oil is present as a result of the 1994 Alaska earthquake. Also current activity by fishing boats is polluting much of the Prince William Sound. Geologists have studied the effects of road deicing in the northeast and have reported that there is substantial evidence that the millions of tons of salt placed on the highways are contributing to underground water pollution. Yet the oil industry is being challenged by environmental groups that putting produced salt water back into disposal wells is contaminating and polluting the country. We need a level playing field. How can all this help a petroleum geologist? To be competitive in today`s business, we must take advantage of opportunities to learn about other sub-disciplines of our profession. Many geologists are in a survival mode, and additional education and training are necessary if we are to survive. Technical transfers from hydrocarbon extraction to environmental assessment can be undertaken if there is a desire to change. Reeducation can be achieved by an optimistic, aggressive and disciplined individual.

  3. Editing Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Donald C., Jr.

    Intended for students in upper-division technical communication courses and professionals in business and government who want to learn how to edit technical writing, this book describes what technical editors do and how they do it. Throughout the book are exercises that students can use as self-tests; answer keys are provided for checking work.…

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  5. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  8. NASA Langley's Approach to the Sandia's Structural Dynamics Challenge Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis G.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this challenge is to develop a data-based probabilistic model of uncertainty to predict the behavior of subsystems (payloads) by themselves and while coupled to a primary (target) system. Although this type of analysis is routinely performed and representative of issues faced in real-world system design and integration, there are still several key technical challenges that must be addressed when analyzing uncertain interconnected systems. For example, one key technical challenge is related to the fact that there is limited data on target configurations. Moreover, it is typical to have multiple data sets from experiments conducted at the subsystem level, but often samples sizes are not sufficient to compute high confidence statistics. In this challenge problem additional constraints are placed as ground rules for the participants. One such rule is that mathematical models of the subsystem are limited to linear approximations of the nonlinear physics of the problem at hand. Also, participants are constrained to use these models and the multiple data sets to make predictions about the target system response under completely different input conditions. Our approach involved initially the screening of several different methods. Three of the ones considered are presented herein. The first one is based on the transformation of the modal data to an orthogonal space where the mean and covariance of the data are matched by the model. The other two approaches worked solutions in physical space where the uncertain parameter set is made of masses, stiffnesses and damping coefficients; one matches confidence intervals of low order moments of the statistics via optimization while the second one uses a Kernel density estimation approach. The paper will touch on all the approaches, lessons learned, validation 1 metrics and their comparison, data quantity restriction, and assumptions/limitations of each approach. Keywords: Probabilistic modeling, model validation

  9. Challenges in operating an Arctic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanescu, Liviu; Baibakov, Konstantin; O'Neill, Norman T.; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard, Yann; Saha, Auromeet; Rietze, Martin; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2014-07-01

    We describe our seven year experience and the specific technical and environmental challenges we had to overcome while operating a telescope in the High Arctic, at the Eureka Weather Station, during the polar winter. The facility and the solutions implemented for remote control and maintenance are presented. We also summarize the observational challenges encountered in making precise and reliable star-photometric observations at sea-level.

  10. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  11. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  12. 76 FR 80226 - Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 Technical Amendments AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION... designation to make minor, nonsubstantive technical corrections. The technical amendments update the... technical corrections. The corrections are necessary to update and conform the regulation to current...

  13. Proteomics: Challenges, Techniques and Possibilities to Overcome Biological Sample Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics is the large-scale study of the structure and function of proteins in complex biological sample. Such an approach has the potential value to understand the complex nature of the organism. Current proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. Advances in protein fractionation and labeling techniques have improved protein identification to include the least abundant proteins. In addition, proteomics has been complemented by the analysis of posttranslational modifications and techniques for the quantitative comparison of different proteomes. However, the major limitation of proteomic investigations remains the complexity of biological structures and physiological processes, rendering the path of exploration paved with various difficulties and pitfalls. The quantity of data that is acquired with new techniques places new challenges on data processing and analysis. This article provides a brief overview of currently available proteomic techniques and their applications, followed by detailed description of advantages and technical challenges. Some solutions to circumvent technical difficulties are proposed. PMID:20948568

  14. Challenges and perspectives in anti-doping testing.

    PubMed

    Schamasch, Patrick; Rabin, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    In less than 10 years after the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code and of the International Standard for Laboratories and its related Technical Documents, the analysis of human samples for the purpose of anti-doping testing has undergone a noticeable evolution. The research programs developed by the anti-doping organizations, and in particular the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), have created an unprecedented momentum in anti-doping science to strengthen the existing analytical methods, as well as to support the development and implementation of new and more sophisticated methodologies by the WADA-accredited laboratories. The integration of technical novelties into the analytical menus has been stimulated by the never-ending challenges posed by the adoption of more complex doping regimens by some athletes and their entourage. This increased sophistication of doping practices has also been reflected in the addition of new doping substances or methods on the WADA Prohibited Substances and Methods List. The integration of new anti-doping scientific paradigms with the development of the Athlete Biological Passport or the foreseen implementation of genomic- and proteomic-based tests constantly reshapes the environment of anti-doping analysis. This article provides a multiangle perspective on some of the key analytical challenges that anti-doping analytical science will face in 2012 and beyond. PMID:22831484

  15. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  16. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  17. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  18. Daunting challenges.

    PubMed

    Wirth, T E

    1994-09-01

    Excerpts of a speech on behalf of the United States at the Third Preparatory Meeting of the International Conference on Population and Development on April 5, 1994 are presented. The Draft Program of Action defines an international agenda for the Cairo Conference and for sustained, priority action in the remainder of this century and on into the 21st. 1) Quality voluntary family planning and reproductive health services must be universally available early in the 21st century by broadening the contraceptive choice as well as expanding and improving reproductive health services without coercion. As President Clinton has said, abortion should be safe, legal, and rare. 2) Educating females is a priority because it raises the status of women as well as lowers infant and maternal mortality and poverty. 3) The extent must be assessed of the national unmet need for antenatal care, childbirth care, immunization, and the monitoring of growth and development. 4) Emphasizing to adolescents the responsibilities of sexuality will reinforce health, education, and economic objectives. 5) As women are empowered, so must men be empowered to be responsible in relation to fertility as well as sexual and reproductive health. 6) Responsible mutually respectful sexual behavior must be encouraged among both men and women and the importance of such behavior must be taught to both boys and girls. 7) Any discussion of responsibility must also include emphasis on the family, which is challenged globally as never before. 8) The Cairo conference provides the opportunity to discuss the current unprecedented migrations of human populations around the world; the link between environmental degradation and migration; and the potential effect of development programs on population movements. 9) North-South partnerships must be nurtured, recognizing the mutually reinforcing roles and responsibilities of all countries for sustainable development. PMID:12288264

  19. Machine learning challenges in Mars rover traverse science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, R.; Judd, M.; Anderson, R. C.; Estlin, T.

    2003-01-01

    The successful implementation of machine learning in autonomous rover traverse science requires addressing challenges that range from the analytical technical realm, to the fuzzy, philosophical domain of entrenched belief systems within scientists and mission managers.

  20. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

  1. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  2. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  3. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    reactions that produce them. In response, the CEEM team developed well-defined molecular semiconductors that produce active layers with very high power conversion efficiencies, in other words they can convert a very high fraction of sunlight into useful electrical power. The fact that the semiconductor is formed from molecular species provides the basis for circumventing the unreliability of polymer counterparts and, as an additional bonus, allows one to attain much grater insight into the structure of the active layer. The latter is particularly important because efficient conversion is the result of a complex arrangement of two semiconductors that need to phase separate in a way akin to oil and water, but with domains that are described by nanoscale dimensions. CEEM was therefore able to provide deep insight into the influence of nanostructure, through the application of structural characterization tools and theoretical methods that describe how electrical charges migrate through the organic layer. Our research in light emitting diode (LED)-based solid state lighting (SSL) was directed at improving efficiency and reducing costs to enable the widespread deployment of economically-viable replacements for inefficient incandescent, halogen, and fluorescent-based lighting. Our specific focus was to advance the fundamental science and technology of light emitting diodes to both understand factors that limit efficiencies and to provide innovative and viable solutions to the current impediments. One of the main challenges we faced is the decrease in efficiency when LEDs are driven harder to increase light output---the so called “droop” effect. It requires large emitting surfaces to reach a desired optical output, and necessitates the use of costly heat sinks, both of which increase the cost. We successfully reduced droop by growing LED crystals having non-conventional orientations. As recognized by the award of the 2014 Nobel prize to the inventors of the nitride LEDs (one of

  4. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  5. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  6. Practical challenges in conducting respiratory studies

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sanjay D.; Patil, Mahesh L.; Shah, Tapankumar M.; Gokhale, Partha M.; Suvarna, Viraj

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory studies are complex on account of specific therapeutic knowledge that is needed and various instruments that are used for the management of this condition. Monitoring a respiratory study requires knowledge of the specific disease and associated guidelines. The intent of this article is to help clinical research professionals understand the technicalities, challenges, and the nuances of performing respiratory studies. PMID:25657898

  7. Challenges in Sustaining Public Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability remains a key challenge in public health. The perspective article by Fagen and Flay adds to our understanding of technical factors associated with sustaining health interventions in schools. In this commentary, the Fagen and Flay article (2009) is considered within the broader literature on sustainability. By taking a broad view,…

  8. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  9. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Junker; Greg Wheeler

    2007-02-26

    Since 1986 the Oregon State University Industrial Assessment Center (OSU IAC) has worked to increase the energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness of US manufacturers; provide engineering students an education not available in the classroom; keep engineering faculty in contact with technology and challenges in Northwest industry; and reduce dependence on nonrenewable energy resources, both imported and domestic. Project Objective: Over the duration of this project (2002-2006), the OSU IAC worked to directly support and influence industrial decisions primarily regarding energy but also regarding sustainability and profitability through: Assessments & Follow-up: The OSU IAC performed 111 Industrial Assessments in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Nevada to help industry identify and implement opportunities to increase energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness Workshops Seminars Forums Etc: OSU IAC staff worked with regional peers to offer appropriate workshops and trainings as opportunities availed themselves. Graduating Excellent Energy Aware Professional Alumni: As technically capable, skilled written and verbal communicators, our alumni contributed to OSU IAC influence from their positions within industry, consulting organizations, utilities, and governmental and non governmental agencies. Tool Development: Analysis tools and guides originated at the OSU IAC extended our reach. The center continually worked to develop computer based analysis tools, evaluation checklists, analysis guide sheets for internal use and general sharing with industry, energy, and other professionals to assist them in efforts to improve US Industry. Impact: Over 20 years of activity the OSU IAC has typically performed 25 Industrial Assessments a year. On average, each year of 25 assessments has resulted in implemented projects that saved industry a total of: 25.3 TBTU in annual energy and $4.5 Million annually, with an average investment

  10. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Simon D.W.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Gog, Julia R.; Viboud, Cecile; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Bedford, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data. PMID:25843391

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  16. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  17. Technical challenges for the construction of a medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Francis J.; Ammer, Kurt; Wiecek, Boguslaw; Plassmann, Peter; Jones, Carl D.; Jung, Anna; Murawski, Piotr

    2005-10-01

    Infrared thermal imaging was first made available to medicine in the early 1960's. Despite a large number of research publications on the clinical application of the technique, the images have been largely qualitative. This is in part due to the imaging technology itself, and the problem of data exchange between different medical users, with different hardware. An Anglo Polish collaborative study was set up in 2001 to identify and resolve the sources of error and problems in medical thermal imaging. Standardisation of the patient preparation, imaging hardware, image capture and analysis has been studied and developed by the group. A network of specialist centres in Europe is planned to work to establish the first digital reference atlas of quantifiable images of the normal healthy human body. Further processing techniques can then be used to classify abnormalities found in disease states. The follow up of drug treatment has been successfully monitored in clinical trials with quantitative thermal imaging. The collection of normal reference images is in progress. This paper specifies the areas found to be the source of unwanted variables, and the protocols to overcome them.

  18. Technical and Observational Challenges for Future Time-Domain Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Joshua S.

    2012-04-01

    By the end of the last decade, robotic telescopes were established as effective alternatives to the traditional role of astronomer in planning, conducting and reducing time-domain observations. By the end of this decade, machines will play a much more central role in the discovery and classification of time-domain events observed by such robots. While this abstraction of humans away from the real-time loop (and the nightly slog of the nominal scientific process) is inevitable, just how we will get there as a community is uncertain. I discuss the importance of machine learning in astronomy today, and project where we might consider heading in the future. I will also touch on the role of people and organisations in shaping and maximising the scientific returns of the coming data deluge.

  19. Performance and technical challenges of liquid argon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Brian; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    Liquid argon time projection chambers offer the possibility of incredible resolution of particle interactions. This review outlines the ongoing research and development towards the realization of a multi-kiloton scale detector. The ICARUS and ArgoNeuT experiments which make use of liquid argon time projection chamber technology are also described.

  20. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study room (now № 107), the floor was lowered to 2 m and a drilling rig was mounted where students could obtain practical skills in drilling. The Department of Exploration became the foundation of the future department of Mining Exploration Technologies. However, the Department of Exploration, headed by A.A. Belitshky from 1944, furthered its work in the research sphere of drilling (including such leading specialists as P.F. Palyanov, V.I. Molchanov, I.S. Mitushkin, V.M. Matrosov, V.P. Krendelev) and in 1949 a new speciality was introduced "Technologies in Mineral Exploration." In 1952 the graduate of Moscow Geological Institute (now Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Science) PhD. S.S. Sulakshin began working in this Department, and in 1954 headed the newly established Department of Technologies in Mineral Exploration and was its continuous Head for more than 32 years and during the last 60 years has been a close associate of this department. Due to his brilliant supervision, this Department flourished and during the last 20 years has been one of the top departments in Russian affliated departments. In 1962 within the framework of this Department a new speciality was introduced - Oil and Gas Well Drilling. 125 full-time and 50 part-time students were enrolled in the two above-mentioned specialities. As a result, there was a necessity to open a new independent department which was in 1984 (October 1). The Department of Oil and Gas Well Drilling was located in Building № 8 and then in Building № 15. The Department staff included graduates of the Department of Technologies in Mineral Exploration and was headed by Yu. L. Boyarko, one of the first graduates of this Department. Time passed by and life made its own adjustments which influenced the further existence of these two departments. Due to the decrease of exploration and development drilling scope the student enrollment in the two above-mentioned specialties also decreased many-fold. As a result the two departments - Technologies in Mineral Ex

  1. Vocational and Technical Education in the Netherlands: Changes and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Benninger, Barbara

    Higher education in the Netherlands is divided into three sectors: traditional universities; schools for higher occupational education, known as "hoger beroepsonderwijs," or HBOs; and the Open University, which offers both university and HBO degrees for students unable or unprepared to attend traditional institutions. The HBO system, having…

  2. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard. PMID:27260820

  3. High T(c) superconductors: Technical and commercial challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschner, I.; Horvath, E.; Vajda, I.; Bencze, L.; Goebl, N.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic questions of the way which leads from the discovery of high-T(c) superconductors to their applications is surveyed. The influence of high-T(c) superconducting technology on the industrial and social development is also briefly analyzed.

  4. Policy Manuals: A Challenge for the Technical Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of policy and procedure manuals. Focuses on some of the difficulties in writing these: (1) maintaining legality; (2) maintaining accuracy and consistency; (3) finding an appropriate style; and (4) handling the review and approval process. (JAD)

  5. Does integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services improve technical efficiency in Kenya and Swaziland? An application of a two-stage semi parametric approach incorporating quality measures

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Jacobs, Rowena; Guinness, Lorna; Mayhew, Susannah; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, integration of vertically organized services is seen as an important approach to improving the efficiency of health service delivery. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the effect of integration on the technical efficiency of health service delivery. Furthermore, where technical efficiency has been assessed, there have been few attempts to incorporate quality measures within efficiency measurement models particularly in sub-Saharan African settings. This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the determinants of technical efficiency of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using data collected from 40 health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland for 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Incorporating a measure of quality, we estimate the technical efficiency of health facilities and explore the effect of integration and other environmental factors on technical efficiency using a two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap approach. The empirical results reveal a high degree of inefficiency in the health facilities studied. The mean bias corrected technical efficiency scores taking quality into consideration varied between 22% and 65% depending on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model specification. The number of additional HIV services in the maternal and child health unit, public ownership and facility type, have a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency. However, number of additional HIV and STI services provided in the same clinical room, proportion of clinical staff to overall staff, proportion of HIV services provided, and rural location had a negative and significant effect on technical efficiency. The low estimates of technical efficiency and mixed effects of the measures of integration on efficiency challenge the notion that integration of HIV and SRH services may substantially improve the technical efficiency of health facilities. The analysis of quality and efficiency as separate dimensions of

  6. Does integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services improve technical efficiency in Kenya and Swaziland? An application of a two-stage semi parametric approach incorporating quality measures.

    PubMed

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Jacobs, Rowena; Guinness, Lorna; Mayhew, Susannah; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Theoretically, integration of vertically organized services is seen as an important approach to improving the efficiency of health service delivery. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the effect of integration on the technical efficiency of health service delivery. Furthermore, where technical efficiency has been assessed, there have been few attempts to incorporate quality measures within efficiency measurement models particularly in sub-Saharan African settings. This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the determinants of technical efficiency of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using data collected from 40 health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland for 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Incorporating a measure of quality, we estimate the technical efficiency of health facilities and explore the effect of integration and other environmental factors on technical efficiency using a two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap approach. The empirical results reveal a high degree of inefficiency in the health facilities studied. The mean bias corrected technical efficiency scores taking quality into consideration varied between 22% and 65% depending on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model specification. The number of additional HIV services in the maternal and child health unit, public ownership and facility type, have a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency. However, number of additional HIV and STI services provided in the same clinical room, proportion of clinical staff to overall staff, proportion of HIV services provided, and rural location had a negative and significant effect on technical efficiency. The low estimates of technical efficiency and mixed effects of the measures of integration on efficiency challenge the notion that integration of HIV and SRH services may substantially improve the technical efficiency of health facilities. The analysis of quality and efficiency as separate dimensions of

  7. Challenges in plasma membrane phosphoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Orsburn, Benjamin C; Stockwin, Luke H; Newton, Dianne L

    2011-01-01

    The response to extracellular stimuli often alters the phosphorylation state of plasma membrane-associated proteins. In this regard, generation of a comprehensive membrane phosphoproteome can significantly enhance signal transduction and drug mechanism studies. However, analysis of this subproteome is regarded as technically challenging, given the low abundance and insolubility of integral membrane proteins, combined with difficulties in isolating, ionizing and fragmenting phosphopeptides. In this article, we highlight recent advances in membrane and phosphoprotein enrichment techniques resulting in improved identification of these elusive peptides. We also describe the use of alternative fragmentation techniques, and assess their current and future value to the field of membrane phosphoproteomics. PMID:21819303

  8. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  10. The EOSDIS software challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Allan

    1993-08-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) will serve as a major resource for the earth science community, supporting both command and control of complex instruments onboard the EOS spacecraft and the archiving, distribution, and analysis of data. The scale of EOSDIS and the volume of multidisciplinary research to be conducted using EOSDIS resources will produce unparalleled needs for technology transparency, data integration, and system interoperability. The scale of this effort far outscopes any previous scientific data system in its breadth or operational and performance needs. Modern hardware technology can meet the EOSDIS technical challenge. Multiprocessing speeds of many giga-flops are being realized by modern computers. Online storage disk, optical disk, and videocassette libraries with storage capacities of many terabytes are now commercially available. Radio frequency and fiber optics communications networks with gigabit rates are demonstrable today. It remains, of course, to perform the system engineering to establish the requirements, architectures, and designs that will implement the EOSDIS systems. Software technology, however, has not enjoyed the price/performance advances of hardware. Although we have learned to engineer hardware systems which have several orders of magnitude greater complexity and performance than those built in the 1960's, we have not made comparable progress in dramatically reducing the cost of software development. This lack of progress may significantly reduce our capabilities to achieve economically the types of highly interoperable, responsive, integraded, and productive environments which are needed by the earth science community. This paper describes some of the EOSDIS software requirements and current activities in the software community which are applicable to meeting the EOSDIS challenge. Some of these areas include intelligent user interfaces, software reuse libraries, and domain engineering

  11. GEM Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  13. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  16. Technical Education in Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Since independence from Britain in 1960, the establishment and organization of technical education has been one of the Cyprus government's primary concerns. Recently, Cyprus has stressed the college-preparatory course in both the gymnasium (high school) and vocational/technical curriculum. The Cyprus education system produces highly qualified…

  17. Technical Training for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  18. Toward a Technical Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, Louis

    1977-01-01

    Examines the relationship between education and development in developing nations. Advocates the fostering of a technical humanism--the development of knowledge in all its forms as a basis for action. In this system, technical education is as highly valued as general education. The system, and its applications to rural education is discussed. (CP)

  19. Databases Improve Technical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graube, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    In Lower Saxony, technology studies as part of preparing technical education teachers for primary and partly for secondary education can be studied only at two universities--the Technical University of Brunswick and the University of Oldenburg. Technology education is not available at the Gymnasium (a type of secondary school leading to the…

  20. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  1. Technical and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This issue focuses on the various forms that secondary technical and vocational education takes in different European Community Member States. "The Future for Skilled Workers" is an interview with Burkart Lutz, a German researcher. Other articles are as follows: "Contradictions in Technical and Vocational Education: The Outlook" (Paolo Garonna);…

  2. RADIATION SITES TECHNICAL WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the radiation expertise in EPA is located in the Region Offices. The EPA Radiation Sites Technical Workgroup is an interoffice technical workgroup within EPA which provides a focal point for radiation expertise. The Workgroup has members from each region, as well as the...

  3. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  4. Research in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  5. Orion: challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    1998-09-01

    ORION is a practical proposal for removing the 150,000 pieces of manmade space debris in the 1- to 10-cm size range now orbiting the Earth below 1500 km altitude which threaten large space systems in low Earth orbit. It is based on using the thrust produced by pulsed laser ablation of a thin layer on the debris surface to drop its perigee sufficiently for reentry and burnup. Applied when the object is rising between about 45 and 15-degree zenith angle, the necessary (Delta) v is of order 100 m/s. A laser of 30 kW average power at 10-ns pulsewidth and a 6-m mirror with adaptive optics can clear near-Earth space of these debris in 2 years of operation. Technical challenges faced by such a system include: heavy demands on detection, tracking and adaptive optics arising from the tiny optical cross section of the smallest debris and the required pointing accuracy and steering rate, stimulated Raman conversion and nonlinear refraction of the laser beam in the atmosphere, uncertainty of momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) for some materials, and high-average-power laser development. It is crucial that the system we propose be developed under international aegis, to insure that its installation does not increase international tensions. It should be viewed as a single-pay lifetime insurance policy for the World's space assets whose premium is less than 1% of the protected asset value, an excellent rate for such contracts.

  6. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  7. Advances in Musculoskeletal MRI – Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren; Harish, Monica; Hargreaves, Brian; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry

    2012-01-01

    The technology of musculoskeletal MRI imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. MR imaging is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and post processing techniques than ever before. These numerable technical advances are advantageous as they lead to an increased signal to noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. However, at the same time they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal MR imaging along with their clinical applications. PMID:22987756

  8. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Mike; Gray, Lesley

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  9. Challenges for Deep Vadose Zone Remediation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.G.; Charboneau, B.L.; Lober, R.W.; Triplett, M.B.

    2008-07-01

    The 'deep vadose zone' is defined as the region below the practical depth of surface remedy influence (e.g., excavation or barrier). At the Hanford Site, this region of the Central Plateau poses unique challenges for characterization and remediation. Currently, deep vadose zone characterization efforts and remedy selection are spread over multiple waste site Operable Units and tank farm Waste Management Areas. A particular challenge for this effort is the situation in which past leaks from single-shell tanks have become commingled with discharges from nearby liquid disposal sites. In addition, tests of potentially viable remediation technologies will be initiated in the next few years. The Hanford Site is working with all affected parties, including the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE-RL, DOE-ORP, and multiple contractor organizations to develop remediation approaches. This effort addresses the complex and challenging technical and is evaluating the best strategy or combination of strategies for focusing technical investigations, including treatability studies to facilitate deep vadose zone remediation at the Hanford Site. In summary: Hanford's two DOE offices, Richland Operations and the Office of River Protection, are engaging the Site's regulators, EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology, in a collaborative process to resolve one of Hanford's most challenging technical issues - investigation and remedy selection for the deep vadose zone. While this process has not reached its conclusion, several important findings are apparent. All parties agree that the current approach of addressing this problem is not likely to be successful and an alternative is needed. An essential initial step is to develop and then implement a deep vadose zone treatability test plan that logically organizes the testing of candidate technologies for application to the variety of Hanford's deep vadose zone problems. This plan is

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  12. The 1995 HEV challenge: Results and technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and summarize the performance results and the technology used in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge. Government and industry are exploring hybrid electric vehicle technology to significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of the vehicles without sacrificing performance. This last in a three-year series of HEV competitions provided the testing grounds to evaluate the different approaches of 29 universities and colleges constructing HEVS. These HEVs competed in an affay of events, including: acceleration, emissions testing, consumer acceptance, range, vehicle handling, HVAC testing, fuel economy, and engineering design. The teams also documented the attributes of their vehicles in the technical reports. The strategies and approaches to HEV design are analyzed on the basis of the data from each of the events. The overall performance for promising HEV approaches is also examined. Additional significant design approaches employed by the teams are presented, and the results from the events are discussed.

  13. USAF perspective on foundational challenges for enhanced damage sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E. A.; Stargel, D.

    2013-01-01

    Structural integrity programs of the United States Air Force (USAF) include periodic inspection to detect damage before it grows to a critical size that can impact the safety of USAF systems. Current inspection methods have been used successfully to ensure the required risk metrics for these systems are being met as mandated by the relevant USAF Standards. However, there is a continual desire to improve the capability of inspection methods while increasing the efficiency and reliability of these methods. As new approaches are being explored for the enhancement of damage sensing, a number of foundational issues that represent hurdles for the application of these enhancements have been identified. This paper provides background of how damage sensing is used by the USAF and expands on identified foundational challenges that represent technical barriers to the implementation of new damage sensing methods. As the desired capability of the damage sensing methods expand from detection of damage to the characterization of damage, the degree of complexity grows and additional challenges emerge. Representative case studies are used to illustrate challenges for detection, localization and characterization of damage.

  14. The Challenges of Meeting the "Standards": A Perspective from the Test Publishing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the challenges that test publishers face in constructing educational assessments that meet high technical quality as prescribed in the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999) are examined. Federal educational initiatives are used to illustrate demands on technical quality that challenge the efforts of…

  15. Challenges for fuel cells in transport applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.; Wagner, Fred W.

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 miles/gal. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient alternative technology for transport applications. In the past few years, US automakers have made significant advances in fuel cell technology and have announced plans to put fuel cell vehicles on the market by 2004. DOE is working with industry suppliers to address some of the biggest remaining challenges, which include fuel processing and lowering the cost of fuel cell systems. The refueling infrastructure necessary to support fuel cell vehicles presents additional unresolved issues. This paper provides a status report on the PNGV program and provides an overview of the technical accomplishments and future plans of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation Program.

  16. Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

  17. New Mass Properties Engineers Aerospace Ballasting Challenge Facilitated by the SAWE Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutright, Amanda; Shaughnessy, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Mass Properties Engineering tends to find the engineers; not typically vice versa. In this case, two engineers quickly found their new responsibilities deep in many aspects of mass properties engineering and required to meet technical challenges in a fast paced environment. As part of NASA's Constellation Program, a series of flight tests will be conducted to evaluate components of the new spacecraft launch vehicles. One of these tests is the Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test which will test the Launch Abort System (LAS), a system designed to provide escape for astronauts in the event of an emergency. The Flight Test Articles (FTA) used in this flight test are required to match mass properties corresponding to the operational vehicle, which has a continually evolving design. Additionally, since the structure and subsystems for the Orion Crew Module (CM) FTA are simplified versions of the final product, thousands of pounds of ballast are necessary to achieve the desired mass properties. These new mass properties engineers are responsible for many mass properties aspects in support of the flight test, including meeting the ballasting challenge for the CM Boilerplate FTA. SAWE expert and experienced mass properties engineers, both those that are directly on the team and many that supported via a variety of Society venues, significantly contributed to facilitating the success of addressing this particular mass properties ballasting challenge, in addition to many other challenges along the way. This paper discusses the details regarding the technical aspects of this particular mass properties challenge, as well as identifies recommendations for new mass properties engineers that were learned from the SAWE community along the way.

  18. Campus Challenge - Part 2: Benefits and Challenges of BACnet

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Masica, Ken

    2016-01-15

    Additional challenges of implementing a BACnet network in a large campus environment are explored in this article: providing BACnet campus connectivity, protecting BACnet network traffic, and controlling the resulting broadcast traffic. An example of BACnet implementation is also presented, unifying concepts presented in this and Part One of the article.

  19. Engineering the System and Technical Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the problems encountered in aerospace systems have been due to a breakdown in technical integration and/or systems engineering. One of the major challenges we face in designing, building, and operating space systems is: how is adequate integration achieved for the systems various functions, parts, and infrastructure? This Contractor Report (CR) deals with part of the problem of how we engineer the total system in order to achieve the best balanced design. We will discuss a key aspect of this question - the principle of Technical Integration and its components, along with management and decision making. The CR will first provide an introduction with a discussion of the Challenges in Space System Design and meeting the challenges. Next is an overview of Engineering the System including Technical Integration. Engineering the System is expanded to include key aspects of the Design Process, Lifecycle Considerations, etc. The basic information and figures used in this CR were presented in a NASA training program for Program and Project Managers Development (PPMD) in classes at Georgia Tech and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Many of the principles and illustrations are extracted from the courses we teach for MSFC.

  20. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  1. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  7. 1977 Bibliography of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Dorothy; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Lists bibliographies, books, reviews, and articles on technical writing; categorizes articles according to a number of topics, including pedagogy, technical style, writing abstracts and precis, writing proposals, graphic/visual aids, and the technical writing profession. (MAI)

  8. EUV lithography: progress, challenges, and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, S.

    2014-10-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) has been in the making for more than a quarter century. The first EUVL production tools have been delivered over the past year and chip manufacturers and suppliers are maturing the technology in pilot line mode to prepare for high volume manufacturing (HVM). While excellent progress has been made in many technical and business areas to prepare EUVL for HVM introduction, there are still critical technical and business challenges to be addressed before the industry will be able to use EUVL in HVM.

  9. NASA Technical Standards Program and Implications for Lessons Learned and Technical Standard Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency consists of fourteen Facilities throughout the United States. They are organized to support the Agency's principal Enterprises: (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Science, (3) Aerospace Technology, (4) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (5) Biological and Physical Research. Technical Standards are important to the activities of each Enterprise and have been an integral part in the development and operation of NASA Programs and Projects since the Agency was established in 1959. However, for years each Center was responsible for its own standards development and selection of non-NASA technical standards that met the needs of Programs and Projects for which they were responsible. There were few Agencywide applicable Technical Standards, mainly those in area of safety. Department of Defense Standards and Specifications were the foundation and main source for Technical Standards used by the Agency. This process existed until about 1997 when NASA embarked on a Program to convert NASA's Center-developed Technical Standards into Agencywide endorsed NASA Preferred Technical Standards. In addition, action was taken regarding the formal adoption of non-NASA Technical Standards (DOD, SAE, ASTM, ASME, IEEE, etc.) as NASA Preferred Technical Standards.

  10. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  11. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  12. DEPLETED URANIUM TECHNICAL WORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Depleted Uranium Technical Work is designed to convey available information and knowledge about depleted uranium to EPA Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, contractors, and other Agency managers involved with the remediation of sites contaminated with this mater...

  13. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  14. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  15. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  16. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  17. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  18. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  19. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  2. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  3. Technical publications program. A working guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Many of the questions that arise during the day-to-day activities of NASA's agency-wide scientific and technical publication program are answered. This document provides information on the policies and procedures of the program. In addition to serving as a guide for NASA Headquarters and NASA field installation personnel, this publication may be referenced in NASA contract and grant instruments.

  4. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  5. Challenges in Replicating Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephanie G; Newcomer, Susan F; Bachrach, Christine; Borawski, Elaine; Jemmott, John L; Morrison, Diane; Stanton, Bonita; Tortolero, Susan; Zimmerman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes and reflects on an effort to document, through a set of six interventions, the process of adapting effective youth risk behavior interventions for new settings. It provides insights into how this might best be accomplished. It discusses six studies funded by NIH starting in 1999. The studies were funded in response to a Request for Applications [RFA] to replicate HIV prevention interventions for youth. Researchers were to select an HIV risk reduction intervention program shown to be effective in one adolescent population and to replicate it in a new community or different adolescent population. This was to be done while systematically documenting those processes and aspects of the intervention hypothesized to be critical to the development of community-based, culturally sensitive programs. The replication was to assess the variations necessary to gain cooperation, implement a locally feasible and meaningful intervention, and evaluate the outcomes in the new setting. Methods This paper lays out the rationale for this initiative and describes the goals and the approaches to adaptation of the funded researchers. Results The paper discusses issues relevant to all interventions, those unique to replication and to these replications in particular. It then reflects on the processes and the consequences of the adaptations. It does not address the further challenges in taking a successful intervention “to scale.” Conclusions Replications of effective interventions face all of the challenges of implementation design plus additional challenges of balancing fidelity to the original intervention and sensitivity to the needs of new populations. PMID:17531757

  6. Evaluation of Cabin Crew Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Jordan, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or essen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research (Chute & Wiener, 1996) indicates that light attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports (National Transportation Safety Board, 1992; Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 1995; Chute & Wiener, 1996). The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and dot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge if cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily :ompleted a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendants.

  7. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  8. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  9. Stafford Technical Center: Designing a Future for Architects and Builders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucci, William, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Stafford Technical Center's Engineering Technology Academy (ETA), in which students pursue a variety of educational and career options for anything connected to construction technologies--including drafting and design, architecture, and even work in historic preservation. In addition to technical skills,…

  10. PET/MRI – Technical Review

    PubMed Central

    Muzic, Raymond F.; DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    PET/MR is a hybrid imaging technology with the potential to combine the molecular and functional information of PET with the soft-tissue contrast of MR. Herein we review the technical features and challenges of putting these different technologies together. We emphasize the conceptual to make the material accessible to a wide audience. We begin by reviewing PET/CT, a more mature multi-modality imaging technology, to provide a basis for comparison to the history of PET/MR development. We discuss the motivation and challenges of PET/MR and different approaches that have been used to meet the challenges. We conclude with a speculation about the future of this exciting imaging method. PMID:25497909

  11. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean; Tom Schechinger; Stuart Birrell; Jill Euken

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  12. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  13. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  14. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  15. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  16. Final Technical Report Advanced Solar Resource Modeling and Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-12-01

    The SunShot Initiative coordinates research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities aimed at dramatically reducing the total installed cost of solar power. The SunShot Initiative focuses on removing critical technical and non-technical barriers to installing and integrating solar energy into the electricity grid. Uncertainty in projected power and energy production from solar power systems contributes to these barriers by increasing financial risks to photovoltaic (PV) deployment and by exacerbating the technical challenges to integration of solar power on the electricity grid.

  17. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers. PMID:18411937

  18. 1980 Bibliography of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Virginia Alm; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Offers resources on technical writing that were published in 1980. Arranges the citations under 12 categories: bibliographies, books, reviews, and articles on theory and philosophy; pedagogy; writing technical articles and reports; research; technical writing and the computer; graphic/visual aids; correspondence; technical speech; and designing…

  19. Study on the Improvement of Vocational and Technical Programs at the Higher Education Level in Taiwan. Based on Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mingchang; Tseng, Kuo-hung; Liu, Weite

    2007-01-01

    Technical programs at the higher education level play an important role in the journey of economic development. Technical institutes in Taiwan have been facing challenges while the Taiwan economics rapidly changes in the recent years. Nowadays, the fast revolution of technology and socioeconomic structures just challenges the efficiency and…

  20. Technical Assistance to Developers

    SciTech Connect

    Rockward, Tommy; Borup, Rodney L.; Garzon, Fernando H.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan

    2012-07-17

    This task supports the allowance of technical assistance to fuel-cell component and system developers as directed by the DOE. This task includes testing of novel materials and participation in the further development and validation of single cell test protocols. This task also covers technical assistance to DOE Working Groups, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability (U.S. Drive) Fuel Cell Technology Team. Assistance includes technical validation of new fuel cell materials and methods, single cell fuel cell testing to support the development of targets and test protocols, and regular advisory participation in other working groups and reviews. This assistance is made available to PEM fuel cell developers by request and DOE Approval. The objectives are to: (1) Support technically, as directed by DOE, fuel cell component and system developers; (2) Assess fuel cell materials and components and give feedback to developers; (3) Assist the DOE Durability Working Group with the development of various new material durability Testing protocols; and (4) Provide support to the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Fuel Cell Technology Team. FY2012 specific technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate novel MPL materials; (2) Develop of startup/ shutdown protocol; (3) Test the impact of hydrophobic treatment on graphite bi-polar plates; (4) Perform complete diagnostics on metal bi-polar plates for corrosion; and (5) Participate and lead efforts in the DOE Working Groups.

  1. SSME to RS-25: Challenges of Adapting a Heritage Engine to a New Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) program to provide next-generation heavy lift cargo and crew access to space. A key constituent of the SLS architecture is the RS-25 engine, also known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The RS-25 was selected to serve as the main propulsion system for the SLS core stage in conjunction with the solid rocket boosters. This selection was largely based on the maturity and extensive experience gained through 135 missions, 3000+ ground tests, and over a million seconds total accumulated hot-fire time. In addition, there were also over a dozen functional flight assets remaining from the Space Shuttle program that could be leveraged to support the first four flights. However, while the RS-25 is a highly mature system, simply unbolting it from the Space Shuttle boat-tail and installing it on the new SLS vehicle is not a "plug-and-play" operation. In addition to numerous technical integration details involving changes to significant areas such as the environments, interface conditions, technical performance requirements, operational constraints and so on, there were other challenges to be overcome in the area of replacing the obsolete engine control system (ECS). While the magnitude of accomplishing this effort was less than that needed to develop and field a new clean-sheet engine system, the path to the first flight of SLS has not been without unexpected challenges.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered. PMID:24779311

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The Committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of deriving tolerable intakes where appropriate and advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives and contaminants. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for certain food additives (aluminium-containing food additives, Benzoe Tonkinensis, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, glycerol ester of wood rosin, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, polydimethyl siloxane, Ponceau 4R, pullulan, pullulanase from Bacillus deromificans expressed in Bacillus licheniformis, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow FCF) and two food contaminants (cyanogenic glycosides and fumonisins). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aluminium lakes of colouring matters; beta-apo-8'-carotenal; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester; beta-carotene, synthetic; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; magnesium silicate, synthetic; modified starches; nitrous oxide; sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; and sucrose monoesters of lauric, palmitic or stearic acid. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminants considered. PMID:22519244

  4. Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis James R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief overview of the research underway in the Cruise Efficiency -- Propulsion technical challenge area of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics project. The research involves both computational and experimental efforts in the areas of Advanced Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wide Operability Fan and Compressors, Advanced Nozzle Concepts and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The work consists of both internal NASA research and external efforts funded through the NASA Research Announcement process.

  5. Dry pressing technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramic components. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.

  6. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  7. Technical Efficiency of Hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKEMAN, Edris; RAHIMI FORUSHANI, Abbas; DARGAHI, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, restriction on access and optimum use of resources is the main challenge of development in all organizations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the technical efficiency and its factors, influencing hospitals of Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytical and retrospective study conducted in 2014–2015. Fifty two hospitals with public, private, and social security ownership type were selected for this study. The required data was collected by a researcher-made check list in 3 sections of background data, inputs and outputs. The data was analyzed by DEAP 1.0.2, and STATA-13 technique. Results: Seventeen (31/48) of hospitals had the efficiency score of 1 as the highest technical efficiency. The highest average score of efficiency was related to social security hospitals as 84.32, and then the public and private hospitals with the average of 84.29 and 79.64 respectively. Tobit regression results showed that the size, type of practice, and ownership of hospitals were effective on the degree of their technical efficiency. However, there was no significant correlation between teaching / non-teaching hospitals with technical efficiency. Conclusion: Establishment of competition system among hospitals, constitution of medium size hospitals and allocation of budget to hospitals based on national accreditation system are recommended. PMID:27252919

  8. Airport Noise Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, operating under NASA Aeronautics Mission Directorate#s Fundamental Aero Program, has been organized around the Technical Challenges that have historically precluded commercial supersonic flight. One of these Challenges is making aircraft that are capable of such high aerodynamic performance quiet enough around airports that they will not be objectionable. It is recognized that a successful civilian supersonic aircraft will be a system where many new technologies will come together, and for this to happen not only will new low noise propulsion concepts be required, but new engineering tools that predict the noise of the aircraft as these technologies are combined and compromised with the rest of the aircraft design. These are the two main objectives of the Airport Noise Tech Challenge. " ! As a Project in the Fundamental Aero Program, we work at a relatively low level of technology readiness. However, we have high level milestones which force us to integrate our efforts to impact systems-level activities. To keep the low-level work tied to delivering engineering tools and low-noise concepts, we have structured our milestones around development of the concepts and organized our activities around developing and applying our engineering tools to these concepts. The final deliverables in these milestones are noise prediction modules validated against the best embodiment of each concept. These will then be used in cross-disciplinary exercises to demonstrate the viability of aircraft designs to meet all the Technical Challenges. Some of the concepts being developed are shown: Fan Flow Diverters, Multi-jet Shielding, High-Aspect Ratio Embedded Nozzles, Plasma Actuated Instability Manipulation, Highly Variable Cycle Mixer- Ejectors, and Inverted Velocity Profiles. These concepts are being developed for reduced jet noise along with the design tools which describe how they perform when used in various aircraft configurations. Several key upcoming

  9. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  10. Environmental Assessment Technical Assistance Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Environmental Assessment Technical Handbook has four types of Technical Assistance Documents (Sections 2.00-5.00) to assist persons preparing environmental information under 21 CFR Part 25, FDA's policies and procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act. Section 2.00 describes how to assemble environmental information, determine if additional testing is needed, and prepare environmental documents to support petitions and applications for proposed actions. Section 3.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental fate of chemicals: water solubility; n-octanol/water partition coefficient vapor pressure; dissociation constant; ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum; melting temperature; density and relative density; sorption/desorption; hydrolysis; photodegradation; and biodegradation. Section 4.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental effects of chemicals: algal growth; microbial growth inhibition; seed germination and root elongation; seedling growth; acute toxicity to Daphnia, Hyalella azteca, and freshwater fish; earthworm subacute toxicity; and Daphnia chronic toxicity. Section 5.00 describes procedures used to analyze effects test data. The FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine prepared the Handbook and will issue revisions or supplements as necessary to reflect comments received and advances in environmental assessment procedures and test methodology.

  11. The NASA Technical Report Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.; Paulson, Sharon S.; Binkley, Robert L.; Kellogg, Yvonne D.; Beaumont, Chris J.; Schmunk, Robert B.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established NASA and charged it to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA's information lead a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems as search engines. The NTRS is an inter-center effort which provides uniform access to various distributed publication servers residing on the Internet. Users have immediate desktop access to technical publications from NASA centers and institutes. The NTRS is comprised of several units, some constructed especially for inclusion in NTRS, and others that are existing NASA publication services that NTRS reuses. This paper presents the NTRS architecture, usage metrics, and the lessons learned while implementing and maintaining the service. The NTRS is largely constructed with freely available software running on existing hardware. NTRS builds upon existing hardware and software, and the resulting additional exposure for the body of literature contained ensures that NASA's institutional knowledge base will continue to receive the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination.

  12. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  13. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine; Braekevelt, Sylvie; Lauritzen, Karsten; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of selective water channel proteins-aquaporins-has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market-in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes. PMID:26556379

  14. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine; Braekevelt, Sylvie; Lauritzen, Karsten; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of selective water channel proteins—aquaporins—has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market—in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes. PMID:26556379

  15. Evaluation of Flight Attendant Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or lessen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research indicates that flight attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports. Chute and Wiener describe five factors which may produce communication barriers between cockpit and cabin crews: the historical background of aviation, the physical separation of the two crews, psychosocial issues, regulatory factors, and organizational factors. By examining these areas of division we can identify possible bridges and address the implications of deficient cockpit/cabin communication on flight safety. Flight attendant operational knowledge may provide some mitigation of these barriers. The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and pilot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge of cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily completed a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendant operational knowledge and pilots' and flight attendants' expected and desired levels of technical knowledge. Implications for training will be discussed.

  16. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  17. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  18. Forecasting Scientific - Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vvedenskiy, T. A.; And Others

    This document contains three selections from the Russian-language journal "Nauchno-Teknicheskaya Informatsiya," Moscow. The first article is "Documentation for Technical Forecasts" by T. A. Vvedenskiy (Series 1, Number 11, 1969, submitted for publication 9 July 1968, p3-5). This article deals with the transformation of the method of scientific…

  19. ANTHRAX TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Anthrax TAD was developed as an Interim Draft Final technical resource in November 2003. It is specifically for response to an actual or suspected terrorist release of anthrax (i.e., it is not intended for response to anthrax in agricultural settings.). The TAD was provided ...

  20. EUDISED: Technical Studies, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    This collection of technical studies concerning the European Documentation and Information System for Education (EUDISED) presents the problems of educational information, documentation, and dissemination in Europe. In the first report, transmitter-receiver relationships and the understanding of each other's roles and needs are discussed. The…

  1. Special technical assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform various special analytical and experimental investigations to support the NRC in resolving regulatory research issues related to irradiation effects on materials. This task currently addresses two major areas: (1) providing technical expertise and assistance in the review of national codes and standards and (2) experimental evaluations of test specimens and practices and material properties.

  2. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  3. Technical Writing Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In fall 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Technical Writing program. General information was gathered from a literature review, Michigan Occupational Information System data, interviews with professionals in the field, and a 1987 needs assessment conducted by Washtenaw Community…

  4. Teaching Technical Report Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pasquale, Joseph A.

    1977-01-01

    A high school electronics teacher describes the integration of technical report writing in the electronics program for trade and industrial students. He notes that the report writing rather than just recording data seemed to improve student laboratory experience but further improvements in the program are needed. A sample lab report is included.…

  5. ICCS 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram, Ed.; Ainley, John, Ed.; Fraillon, Julian, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This report is structured so as to provide technical detail about each aspect of International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). The overview is followed by a series of chapters that provide detail about different aspects of ICCS. Chapters, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are concerned with the instruments. Chapter 2 provides information about the…

  6. Teaching Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lummis, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Uses concept-based laboratory reports to incorporate technical writing into teaching. Features three paragraphs in the writing format: introductory paragraph, data paragraph, and conclusion. Recommends using this teaching method, especially in chemistry laboratories, because of the difficulties students have in understanding. (YDS)

  7. Assessing Technical Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaller, Anthony E.; Slipy, Dave

    1985-01-01

    Describes the results of a joint project of St. Cloud State University (Minnesota) and DeZURIK Corporation (a manufacturer and distributor of industrial valves) which developed and implemented a technical training needs questionnaire for use with the company's employees. Student involvement in the process is noted. (MBR)

  8. Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compact, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Volume 2, Issue 3 of "Compact" was designed to point out the problems and potential of vocational-technical education and to offer some suggestions for action. Major content includes: (1) "Education for Twenty-First Century Employment," by Wayne Morse, (2) "Pending Federal Legislation Encourages Vocational Innovation," by Grant Venn, (3)…

  9. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  10. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  11. Technical Report Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffnagle, Gale F.

    A Bibliography of all unclassified technical reports prepared by USAF Environmental Health Laboratory, McClellan is presented. It contains a listing by subject matter and a listing of all reports by year with report number and abstract. The reports cover most areas of environmental topics such as air, water, noise, and radiation pollution. (NTIS)

  12. Technical Entrepreneurship: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold C., Ed.; Komives, John L., Ed.

    Contained in this document are papers presented at the Symposium on Technical Entrepreneurship at Purdue University by researchers who were then or had previously been engaged in research in the area. Because formal research in this area was in its infancy, there was a particular need to afford investigators in the field opportunities to compare…

  13. TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO IAEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IAEA sponsors meetings of technical specialists from many nations on NORM and NORM industries in Member States, with particular emphasis on potential public exposure to, and the residual waste arising from, these activities, and aspects of how NORM differs from artificial, man-ma...

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, Rex

    2000-05-15

    The technical goal of this collaborative effort is to measure electron temperature fluctuations using electron cyclotron emission on the Alcator-C tokamak. The physics goal is to understand the role that these fluctuations play in plasma transport; in particular, the influence of electron temperature fluctuations on anomalous transport. Measurement techniques and apparatus are discussed.

  15. PISA 2012 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "PISA 2012 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2012 survey, which tested 15-year-olds' competencies in mathematics, reading and science and, in some countries, problem solving and financial literacy. It examines the design and implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to…

  16. CATV Technical Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Complete technical papers of the 1977 National Cable Television Association Convention are included in this report. Twenty-two of 32 papers and two abstracts cover the topics of advanced cable television techniques, human reactions to television picture impairment, special displays and services, protection from theft of service, everyday…

  17. Scientific and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balzer, Harley D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses scientific and technical education in the Soviet Union (based in part on extensive interviews with Soviet scientists and engineers), focusing on system of secondary education, preparing students for advanced study, renewed emphasis on specialized secondary schools, higher education/training, and future developments. (Author/JN)

  18. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O'Brien, Kathleen

    2011-09-28

    of a working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  19. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O'Brien, Kathleen; Bebic, Jovan; Schelenz, Owen

    2011-09-28

    working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...