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Sample records for additional tem images

  1. Graphene nanoscrolls and live TEM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokkapati, Venkata; Mirsaidov, Utkur; Matsudaira, Paul; Oezyilmaz, Barbaros; Graphene research laboratory Team; Centerbio-imaging sciences/Mechanobiology institute Team

    2013-03-01

    It has been theoretically hypothesized and predicted that graphene when in contact with water, wraps itself around the droplets and forms graphene nanoscrolls. Studying the applications of these nanoscrolls can open a new area of research especially in the bio-medical field. Here we present a method where partially suspended graphene nanoscrolls were fabricated on carbon mesh attached to a gold TEM grid. The process involves sandwiching of two graphene layers with water being encapsulated within these nanoscrolls. Gold nanoparticles were encapsulated and live imaging of water and gold nanoparticles was carried out under the TEM. The dynamics of the encapsulated water and nanobubbles is being studied. The encapsulated water within these graphene nanoscrolls lasted for more than three months (till the date of publication). It was also realized that the formation/abundance of these nanoscrolls is concentration dependent of the etching solution (Ammonium persulfate) with a saturation point. Large area, uniform, monolayer graphene films can also be produced by varying the concentration of Ammonium persulfate. Further studies are being carried out to live image TMV/protein and liposome encapsulated drugs using nanoscrolls and films respectively. The authors would like to acknowledge A*Star for funding this research

  2. Correlation Analysis of TEM Images of Nanocrystal Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Micheel, Christine; Zanchet, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-21

    Quantitative characterizataion of images of naocrystals and nanostructures is a challenging but important task. The development and optimization of methods for the construction of complex nanostructures rely on imaging techniques. Computer programs were developed to quantify TEM images of nanocrystal/DNA nanostructures, and results are presented for heterodimers annd trimers of gold nanocrystals. The programs presented here have also been used to analyze more complex trimers and tetramers linked by branched DNA, as well as for structures made from attaching gold nanocrystals to CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. This work has the additional goal of enabling others to quickly and easily adapt the methods for their own use.

  3. Aberration-Corrected TEM Imaging of Oxygen Occupancy in YSZ.

    PubMed

    An, Jihwan; Koh, Ai Leen; Park, Joong Sun; Sinclair, Robert; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Fritz B

    2013-04-01

    We present atomic-scale imaging of oxygen columns and show quantitative analysis on the occupancy of the columns in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using aberration-corrected TEM operated under the negative Cs condition. Also, individual contributions both from oxygen column occupancy and the static displacement of oxygen atoms due to occupancy change to the observed column intensities of TEM images were systematically investigated using HRTEM simulation. We found that oxygen column intensity is governed primarily by column occupancy rather than by static displacement of oxygen atoms. Utilizing the aberration-corrected TEM capability and HRTEM simulation results, we experimentally verified that oxygen vacancies segregate near the single grain boundary of a YSZ bicrystal. The methodology and the high spatial resolution characterization tool employed in the present study provide insights into the distribution of oxygen vacancies in the bulk as well as near grain boundaries and pave the way for further investigation and atomic-scale analysis in other important oxide materials.

  4. Imaging electron detectors for low-voltage TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A. I.

    2010-07-01

    There is an increasing effort for the development of transmission electron microscopes operating at accelerating voltages of less that 100 kV, down to 20 kV. This work aims to clarify if the technology of conventional indirect scintillator-CCD cameras is suitable to record images formed with electrons of such low energy and how its performance compare to that of novel direct silicon imaging detectors. The performance of these imaging detectors is discussed in terms of modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency. It is demonstrated that whilst the performance of conventional scintillator-CCDs improves as the electron energy is dropped, it then peaks at 70 keV and then drops again. Optimum imaging performance at even lower energies is expected for the novel directly exposed detectors, which are capable of near 100% detective quantum efficiency at very low electron energies.

  5. Imaging modes for direct electron detection in TEM with column parallel CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Grigore; Jeffery, Ben; Nomerotski, Andrei; Kirkland, Angus

    2009-08-01

    Electron imaging detectors have become the main limiting factor in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A transition is now being made from indirect scintillator-coupled cameras to directly exposed detectors, which propose imaging modes that are novel in TEM. This work uses a dataset recoded with a directly exposed column parallel charge-coupled-device (CCD) to characterize modulation transfer and detective quantum efficiency of integrating, binary and counting imaging modes. Results presented here demonstrate that counting mode produces final images with largest contrast and highest efficiency because it takes into account the large lateral displacement of beam electrons in the detector. Counting imaging mode is recommended in TEM to take advantage from the higher sensitivity of directly exposed detectors.

  6. Comparison Between Eight- and Sixteen-Channel TEM Transceive Arrays for Body Imaging at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, CJ; DelaBarre, L; Moeller, S; Tian, J; Akgun, C; Van De Moortele, P-F; Bolan, PJ; Ugurbil, K; Vaughan, JT; Metzger, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Eight- and sixteen-channel transceive stripline/TEM body arrays were compared at 7 tesla (297 MHz) both in simulation and experimentally. Despite previous demonstrations of similar arrays for use in body applications, a quantitative comparison of the two configurations has not been undertaken to date. Results were obtained on a male pelvis for assessing transmit, SNR and parallel imaging performance and to evaluate local power deposition versus transmit B1 (B1+). All measurements and simulations were conducted after performing local B1+ phase shimming in the region of the prostate. Despite the additional challenges of decoupling immediately adjacent coils, the sixteen-channel array demonstrated improved or nearly equivalent performance to the eight-channel array based on the evaluation criteria. Experimentally, transmit performance and SNR were 22% higher for the sixteen-channel array while significantly increased reduction factors were achievable in the left-right direction for parallel imaging. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated similar results with respect to transmit and parallel imaging performance, however a higher transmit efficiency advantage of 33% was predicted. Simulations at both 3T and 7T verified the expected parallel imaging improvements with increasing field strength and showed that, for a specific B1+ shimming strategy employed, the sixteen-channel array exhibited lower local and global SAR for a given B1+. PMID:22102483

  7. High-Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy at High Pressure: A Novel Liquid Cell for the TEM

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Mihaela; Winterstein, Jonathan; Sharma, Renu; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Holland, Glenn; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy of iron oxide nanoparticles and imaging resolution of Ag nanoparticles in liquid down to 0.24 nm, in both transmission and scanning-transmission modes, in a novel, monolithic liquid cell developed for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). At typical SiN membrane thicknesses of 50 nm the liquid layer thickness has a maximum change of only 30 nm for the entire TEM viewing area of 200 μm × 200 μm. PMID:26650072

  8. Particle size determination using TEM: a discussion of image acquisition and analysis for the novice microscopist.

    PubMed

    Pyrz, William D; Buttrey, Douglas J

    2008-10-21

    As nanoparticle synthesis capabilities advance, there is an increasing need for reliable nanoparticle size distribution analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to directly image nanoparticles at scales approaching a single atom. However, the advantage gained by being able to "see" these nanoparticles comes with several tradeoffs that must be addressed and balanced. For effective nanoparticle characterization, the proper selection of imaging type (bright vs dark field), magnification, and analysis method (manual vs automated) is critical. These decisions control the measurement resolution, the contrast between the particle and background, the number of particles in each image, the subsequent analysis efficiency, and the proper determination of the particle-background boundary and affect the significance of electron beam damage to the sample. In this work, the relationship between the critical decisions required for TEM analysis of small nanoparticles and the statistical effects of these factors on the resulting size distribution is presented.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations and morphology analysis of TEM imaged PVDF nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jiayuan; Reneker, Darrell; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, Philip

    With the goal of elucidating the structure of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were performed, and the results compared with structures observed in high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the molecular level. Simulation shows that the stability of the β-phase component in a PVDF nanofiber is influenced by its thickness and processing history. When exposed to irradiation, as in a TEM observation, the structure is then further modified by the effects of chain scission. The transformation from the β phase into a paraelectric phase can explain the spindle formation and serpentine motion of molecular segments observed by Zhong et al. (Polymer, 54, 2013, 3745-3756) in irradiated PVDF nanofibers. From a comparison between simulated and experimental TEM images it was possible to identify numerous features that are useful in unveiling the inherent structure of PVDF nanofibers. The experimental TEM images appear to match well with those predicted by a model based on α-phase PVDF, while also being consistent with an alternative model (Nanoscale 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01619c). Work supported by the Petroleum Research Fund of the ACS.

  10. Development, optimization, and validation of novel anti-TEM1/CD248 affinity agent for optical imaging in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia; Feng, Yi; Hasegawa, Kosei; Peng, Xiaohui; Duan, Xingmei; Zhao, Aizhi; Mikitsh, John L.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Pryma, Daniel A.; Dunn, Steven M.; Coukos, George

    2014-01-01

    Tumor Endothelial Marker-1 (TEM1/CD248) is a tumor vascular marker with high therapeutic and diagnostic potentials. Immuno-imaging with TEM1-specific antibodies can help to detect cancerous lesions, monitor tumor responses, and select patients that are most likely to benefit from TEM1-targeted therapies. In particular, near infrared(NIR) optical imaging with biomarker-specific antibodies can provide real-time, tomographic information without exposing the subjects to radioactivity. To maximize the theranostic potential of TEM1, we developed a panel of all human, multivalent Fc-fusion proteins based on a previously identified single chain antibody (scFv78) that recognizes both human and mouse TEM1. By characterizing avidity, stability, and pharmacokinectics, we identified one fusion protein, 78Fc, with desirable characteristics for immuno-imaging applications. The biodistribution of radiolabeled 78Fc showed that this antibody had minimal binding to normal organs, which have low expression of TEM1. Next, we developed a 78Fc-based tracer and tested its performance in different TEM1-expressing mouse models. The NIR imaging and tomography results suggest that the 78Fc-NIR tracer performs well in distinguishing mouse- or human-TEM1 expressing tumor grafts from normal organs and control grafts in vivo. From these results we conclude that further development and optimization of 78Fc as a TEM1-targeted imaging agent for use in clinical settings is warranted. PMID:25051365

  11. Chromatic Aberration Correction for Atomic Resolution TEM Imaging from 20 to 80 kV.

    PubMed

    Linck, Martin; Hartel, Peter; Uhlemann, Stephan; Kahl, Frank; Müller, Heiko; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Max; Niestadt, Marcel; Bischoff, Maarten; Biskupek, Johannes; Lee, Zhongbo; Lehnert, Tibor; Börrnert, Felix; Rose, Harald; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-08-12

    Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations. Over the entire voltage range, optimum phase-contrast imaging conditions for weak signals from light atoms can be adjusted for an optical aperture of at least 55 mrad. The information transfer within this aperture is no longer limited by chromatic aberrations. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using the examples of 30 kV phase-contrast TEM images of graphene and molybdenum disulfide, showing unprecedented contrast and resolution that matches image calculations. PMID:27563976

  12. Chromatic Aberration Correction for Atomic Resolution TEM Imaging from 20 to 80 kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Martin; Hartel, Peter; Uhlemann, Stephan; Kahl, Frank; Müller, Heiko; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Max.; Niestadt, Marcel; Bischoff, Maarten; Biskupek, Johannes; Lee, Zhongbo; Lehnert, Tibor; Börrnert, Felix; Rose, Harald; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-08-01

    Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed Cc/Cs corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations. Over the entire voltage range, optimum phase-contrast imaging conditions for weak signals from light atoms can be adjusted for an optical aperture of at least 55 mrad. The information transfer within this aperture is no longer limited by chromatic aberrations. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using the examples of 30 kV phase-contrast TEM images of graphene and molybdenum disulfide, showing unprecedented contrast and resolution that matches image calculations.

  13. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging of electropolished and FIB manufactured TEM specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, W. Płociński, T.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.

    2015-06-15

    We present a study of the efficiency of the utility of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based transmission methods for characterizing grain structure in thinned bulk metals. Foils of type 316 stainless steel were prepared by two methods commonly used for transmission electron microscopy — double-jet electropolishing and focused ion beam milling. A customized holder allowed positioning of the foils in a configuration appropriate for both transmission electron forward scatter diffraction, and for transmission imaging by the use of a forescatter detector with two diodes. We found that both crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field transmitted images could be obtained for specimens prepared by either method. However, for both methods, preparation-induced artifacts may affect the quality or accuracy of transmission SEM data, especially those acquired by the use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Generally, the quality of orientation data was better for specimens prepared by electropolishing, due to the absence of ion-induced damage. - Highlights: • The transmission imaging and diffraction techniques are emerging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as promising new field of materials characterization. • The manuscript titled: “Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction and Transmission Electron Forescatter Imaging of Electropolished and FIB Manufactured TEM Specimens” documents how different specimen thinning procedures can effect efficiency of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging. • The abilities to make precision crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field images in transmission was studied on electropolished versus focus ion beam manufactured TEM specimens. • Depending on the need, electropolished and focused ion beam technique may produce suitable specimens for transmission imaging and diffraction in SEM.

  14. Harnessing nonlinear rubber swelling for bulk synthesis of anisotropic hybrid nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM images of control Au–PDVB hybrid nanoparticles formed without the presence of PVP and Au–PS hybrid nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01660b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles are at the forefront of colloidal chemistry as building blocks for novel structures and applications, as well as for exploring fundamental ways of breaking symmetry in physical systems. Current methods of synthesis have significant limitations in terms of control over synthesis, particle size ranges and polydispersity. We report a facile and scalable synthesis based on the anisotropic swelling of rubber to obtain metal–(polymer rubber) hybrid nanoparticles. Initial Au nanoparticle (NP) seeds are grown larger by reducing HAuCl4 with divinyl benzene (DVB), while simultaneous radical polymerization of DVB forms a cross-linked rubber layer of PDVB on the Au NP surface. The propensity of rubber to swell nonlinearly in the presence of DVB monomers amplifies initial asymmetries to break the symmetry of the PDVB shell, causing growth of asymmetric protrusions on one side of the core–shell particles, which are fixed by further polymerization. Plasmonic absorption of Au allows us to follow the Au reduction reaction and also suggests potential applications of some of the asymmetric particles in plasmon-enhanced sensing. The polydispersity, determined statistically from TEM and SEM images, of the resulting particles is low (<10%) and their sizes, shapes and metal–polymer ratios are easily tunable. PMID:27358735

  15. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Grapentin, Christoph; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE) are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI). 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS) is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM), to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion. PMID:26098661

  16. Microscopic imaging of resin-bonded dentin using Cryo-FIB/TEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Turki A.

    2015-03-01

    Background and Objective: Introduction of focused ion beam (FIB) for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) preparation had enhanced the understanding of materials' interaction at nanoscale. However, this technique generates localized heat that may possibly have some effect on organic/vital structures during preparation of biological tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of milling with Cryogenic-FIB on imaging the ultra-morphological features of dentin-resin interface bonded in a tooth and compare the findings to a room-temperature FIB prepared specimens. Methods: After cylindrical dentin cavities (3 mm diameter × 1.5 mm depth) were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of extracted, non-carious human premolar teeth, they were restored with Filtek P90 (Silorane) restorative system (3M ESPE, USA). To investigate the ultra-morphological features of resin-dentin interface, the bonded specimens were divided into 2 groups based on the preparation technique; (1) FIB preparation at room-temperature (RT), and (2) FIB preparation with cryogenic cooling (Cy). Later, each group was examined under TEM. Results: The obtained sections in RT group showed blurred scattered needle-like crystals above the resin-impregnated dentin. However, the orientation of these crisscross needle-like crystals and the ultramorphological features of the underlying dentin were more vivid and distinct in Cy group. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this in-vitro study, it could be concluded that combining FIB with cryogenic cooling had preserved the biological organic features of dentin due to minimized beam damage. The presented cryogenic technique should be considered in future FIB/TEM studies involving biological substrates. This research was supported by King Abdulaziz University.

  17. Image processing enhancement of high-resolution TEM micrographs of nanometer-size metal particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artal, P.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Soria, F.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The high-resolution TEM detectability of lattice fringes from metal particles supported on substrates is impeded by the substrate itself. Single value decomposition (SVD) and Fourier filtering (FFT) methods were applied to standard high resolution micrographs to enhance lattice resolution from particles as well as from crystalline substrates. SVD produced good results for one direction of fringes, and it can be implemented as a real-time process. Fourier methods are independent of azimuthal directions and allow separation of particle lattice planes from those pertaining to the substrate, which makes it feasible to detect possible substrate distortions produced by the supported particle. This method, on the other hand, is more elaborate, requires more computer time than SVD and is, therefore, less likely to be used in real-time image processing applications.

  18. In situ TEM imaging of CaCO₃ nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michael H; Aloni, Shaul; De Yoreo, James J

    2014-09-01

    Mechanisms of nucleation from electrolyte solutions have been debated for more than a century. Recent discoveries of amorphous precursors and evidence for cluster aggregation and liquid-liquid separation contradict common assumptions of classical nucleation theory. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to explore calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nucleation in a cell that enables reagent mixing, we demonstrate that multiple nucleation pathways are simultaneously operative, including formation both directly from solution and indirectly through transformation of amorphous and crystalline precursors. However, an amorphous-to-calcite transformation is not observed. The behavior of amorphous calcium carbonate upon dissolution suggests that it encompasses a spectrum of structures, including liquids and solids. These observations of competing direct and indirect pathways are consistent with classical predictions, whereas the behavior of amorphous particles hints at an underlying commonality among recently proposed precursor-based mechanisms. PMID:25190792

  19. A pnCCD-based, fast direct single electron imaging camera for TEM and STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryll, H.; Simson, M.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Huth, M.; Ihle, S.; Kondo, Y.; Kotula, P.; Liebel, A.; Müller-Caspary, K.; Rosenauer, A.; Sagawa, R.; Schmidt, J.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a new camera that is based on a pnCCD sensor for applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Emerging new microscopy techniques demand improved detectors with regards to readout rate, sensitivity and radiation hardness, especially in scanning mode. The pnCCD is a 2D imaging sensor that meets these requirements. Its intrinsic radiation hardness permits direct detection of electrons. The pnCCD is read out at a rate of 1,150 frames per second with an image area of 264 x 264 pixel. In binning or windowing modes, the readout rate is increased almost linearly, for example to 4000 frames per second at 4× binning (264 x 66 pixel). Single electrons with energies from 300 keV down to 5 keV can be distinguished due to the high sensitivity of the detector. Three applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy are highlighted to demonstrate that the pnCCD satisfies experimental requirements, especially fast recording of 2D images. In the first application, 65536 2D diffraction patterns were recorded in 70 s. STEM images corresponding to intensities of various diffraction peaks were reconstructed. For the second application, the microscope was operated in a Lorentz-like mode. Magnetic domains were imaged in an area of 256 x 256 sample points in less than 37 seconds for a total of 65536 images each with 264 x 132 pixels. Due to information provided by the two-dimensional images, not only the amplitude but also the direction of the magnetic field could be determined. In the third application, millisecond images of a semiconductor nanostructure were recorded to determine the lattice strain in the sample. A speed-up in measurement time by a factor of 200 could be achieved compared to a previously used camera system.

  20. Hexagonal zero mode TEM coil: a single-channel coil design for imaging multiple small animals.

    PubMed

    Lazovic, Jelena; Stojkovic, Dragan S; Collins, Christopher M; Yang, Qing X; Vaughan, J Thomas; Smith, Michael B

    2005-05-01

    A novel hexagonal coil design for simultaneous imaging of multiple small animals is presented. The design is based on a coaxial cavity and utilizes the magnetic field formed between two coaxial conductors with hexagonal cross-sections. An analytical solution describing the B(1) field between conductors of the hexagonal coil was found from the Biot-Savart law. Both experimental results and analytical calculations showed a variation in the B(1) field within the imaging region of less than 10%. Numerical calculations predicted approximately 35% improvement in B(1) field homogeneity with the hexagonal coil design compared to a cylindrical coaxial cavity design. The experimentally-measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the hexagonal coil loaded with six 50-mM phantoms was only 4-5% lower than that of a single parallel plate resonator loaded with one phantom. In vivo spin-echo (SE) images of six 7-day-old rat pups acquired simultaneously demonstrated sufficient SNR for microimaging. The construction scheme of the coil, simple methods for tuning and matching, and an anesthesia device and animal holder designed for the coil are described. The hexagonal coil design utilizes a single receiver and allows for simultaneous imaging of six small animals with no significant compromise in SNR. PMID:15844165

  1. Effects of low-spatial-frequency response of phase plates on TEM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgcombe, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Images of simple objects produced by a perfect lens and a phase plate have been calculated by use of Abbe theory for Foucault, Hilbert and Zernike phase plates. The results show that with a Zernike plate, white outlines and ringing like those observed previously can be caused by the beam hole, which limits the low-spatial-frequency response of the system even when the lens behaves perfectly. When the change of phase added by the phase plate is distributed over a range of radius rather than a simple step, the unwanted effects are substantially reduced.

  2. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  3. Exploring geometric properties of gold nanoparticles using TEM images to explain their chaperone like activity for citrate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Vikas; Lahiri, Tapobrata; Singha, Shantiswaroop; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Study on geometric properties of nanoparticles and their relation with biomolecular activities, especially protein is quite a new field to explore. This work was carried out towards this direction where images of gold nanoparticles obtained from transmission electron microscopy were processed to extract their size and area profile at different experimental conditions including and excluding a protein, citrate synthase. Since the images were ill-posed, texture of a context-window for each pixel was used as input to a back-propagation network architecture to obtain decision on its membership as nanoparticle. The segmented images were further analysed by k-means clustering to derive geometric properties of individual nanoparticles even from their assembled form. The extracted geometric information was found to be crucial to give a model featuring porous cage like configuration of nanoparticle assembly using which the chaperone like activity of gold nanoparticles can be explained. PMID:22355230

  4. On morphology and strain field of Ge/Si(001) Islands according to TEM phase imaging method.

    PubMed

    Donnadieu, P; Neisius, T; Amiard, G; Gouyé, A; Ronda, A; Berbezier, I

    2011-10-01

    The mechanism driving Germanium islands nucleation and self-assembly is an important effect for opto-electronic applications, still not fully understood. We demonstrate that the new transmission electron microscopy phase imaging method provides insights on the distribution of strain and composition fields in and around the islands on rather large areas. The method consists of retrieving the phase from a focus series of plane view images. The phase image is representative of morphology, composition and strain. The results show that whatever the islands size and shape is, a maximum compressive strain is obtained at the apex of the islands compensated by a maximum tensile strain in the substrate close to the islands perimeter. The maximum compressive strain is associated to a larger Ge concentration. The distribution of tensile strain varies with the shape of the islands: for square base pyramidal "hut" islands, a maximum tensile strain is obtained at the four corners of the pyramid base and for "dome" islands, the tensile strain is less pronounced and affects almost the whole island perimeter. These results are consistent with the higher strain relaxation level of "dome" islands in comparison to those of "hut" islands. PMID:22400325

  5. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  6. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-02

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  7. Epifluorescence, SEM, TEM and nanoSIMS image analysis of the cold phenotype of Clostridium psychrophilum at subzero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Perfumo, Amedea; Elsaesser, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Foster, Rachel A; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Cockell, Charles S; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    We have applied an image-based approach combining epifluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) with stable isotope probing to examine directly the characteristic cellular features involved in the expression of the cold phenotype in the Antarctic bacterium Clostridium psychrophilum exposed to a temperature range from +5 to -15 °C under anoxic conditions. We observed dramatic morphological changes depending on temperature. At temperatures below -10 °C, cell division was inhibited and consequently filamentous growth predominated. Bacterial cells appeared surrounded by a remarkably thick cell wall and a capsule formed of long exopolysaccharide fibres. Moreover, bacteria were entirely embedded within a dense extracellular matrix, suggesting a role both in cryo-protection and in the cycling of nutrients and genetic material. Strings of extracellular DNA, transient cell membrane permeability and release of membrane vesicles were observed that suggest that evolution via transfer of genetic material may be especially active under frozen conditions. While at -5 °C, the bacterial population was metabolically healthy, at temperatures below -10 °C, most cells showed no sign of active metabolism or the metabolic flux was extremely slowed down; instead of being consumed, carbon was accumulated and stored in intracellular granules as in preparation for a long-term survival. PMID:25319134

  8. Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

  9. Estimating classification images with generalized linear and additive models.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Kenneth; Maloney, Laurence T

    2008-12-22

    Conventional approaches to modeling classification image data can be described in terms of a standard linear model (LM). We show how the problem can be characterized as a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a Bernoulli distribution. We demonstrate via simulation that this approach is more accurate in estimating the underlying template in the absence of internal noise. With increasing internal noise, however, the advantage of the GLM over the LM decreases and GLM is no more accurate than LM. We then introduce the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), an extension of GLM that can be used to estimate smooth classification images adaptively. We show that this approach is more robust to the presence of internal noise, and finally, we demonstrate that GAM is readily adapted to estimation of higher order (nonlinear) classification images and to testing their significance.

  10. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  11. Novel sample preparation for operando TEM of catalysts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin K; Barker, Trevor M; Crozier, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    A new TEM sample preparation method is developed to facilitate operando TEM of gas phase catalysis. A porous Pyrex-fiber pellet TEM sample was produced, allowing a comparatively large amount of catalyst to be loaded into a standard Gatan furnace-type tantalum heating holder. The increased amount of catalyst present inside the environmental TEM allows quantitative determination of the gas phase products of a catalytic reaction performed in-situ at elevated temperatures. The product gas concentration was monitored using both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Imaging of catalyst particles dispersed over the pellet at atomic resolution is challenging, due to charging of the insulating glass fibers. To overcome this limitation, a metal grid is placed into the holder in addition to the pellet, allowing catalyst particles dispersed over the grid to be imaged, while particles in the pellet, which are assumed to experience identical conditions, contribute to the overall catalytic conversion inside the environmental TEM cell. The gas within the cell is determined to be well-mixed, making this assumption reasonable.

  12. TEM calibration methods for critical dimension standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I.; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Bishop, Michael; Cresswell, Michael W.; Allen, Richard A.; Allgair, John A.

    2007-03-01

    One of the key challenges in critical dimension (CD) metrology is finding suitable calibration standards. Over the last few years there has been some interest in using features measured with the transmission electron microscope (TEM) as primary standards for linewidth measurements. This is because some modes of TEM can produce lattice-resolved images having scale traceability to the SI (Systeme International d'Unites or International System of Units) definition of length through an atomic lattice constant. As interest in using calibration samples that are closer to the length scales being measured increases, so will the use of these TEM techniques. An area where lattice-traceable images produced by TEM has been used as a primary standard is in critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) tip width calibration. Two modes of TEM that produce crystal lattice-traceable images are high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM). HR-TEM produces lattice-traceable images by interference patterns of the diffracted and transmitted beams rather than the actual atomic columns, while HAADF-STEM produces direct images of the crystal lattice. The difference in how both of these techniques work could cause subtle variations in the way feature edges are defined. In this paper, we present results from width samples measured using HR-TEM and HAADF-STEM. Next we compare the results with measurements taken from the same location by two different CD-AFMs. Both of the CD-AFM instruments used for this work have been calibrated using a single crystal critical dimension reference material (SCCDRM). These standards, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and SEMATECH, used HR-TEM for traceable tip-width calibration. Consequently, the present work and the previous SCCDRM work provide a mutual cross-check on the traceability of the width calibration

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  15. In situ TEM of biological assemblies in liquid.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Madeline J; Gilmore, Brian L; Tanner, Justin R; McDonald, Sarah M; Kelly, Deborah F

    2013-12-30

    Researchers regularly use Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) to examine biological entities and to assess new materials. Here, we describe an additional application for these instruments- viewing viral assemblies in a liquid environment. This exciting and novel method of visualizing biological structures utilizes a recently developed microfluidic-based specimen holder. Our video article demonstrates how to assemble and use a microfluidic holder to image liquid specimens within a TEM. In particular, we use simian rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) as our model system. We also describe steps to coat the surface of the liquid chamber with affinity biofilms that tether DLPs to the viewing window. This permits us to image assemblies in a manner that is suitable for 3D structure determination. Thus, we present a first glimpse of subviral particles in a native liquid environment.

  16. In situ TEM of Biological Assemblies in Liquid

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sarah M.; Kelly, Deborah F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers regularly use Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) to examine biological entities and to assess new materials. Here, we describe an additional application for these instruments- viewing viral assemblies in a liquid environment. This exciting and novel method of visualizing biological structures utilizes a recently developed microfluidic-based specimen holder. Our video article demonstrates how to assemble and use a microfluidic holder to image liquid specimens within a TEM. In particular, we use simian rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) as our model system. We also describe steps to coat the surface of the liquid chamber with affinity biofilms that tether DLPs to the viewing window. This permits us to image assemblies in a manner that is suitable for 3D structure determination. Thus, we present a first glimpse of subviral particles in a native liquid environment. PMID:24429390

  17. Optimal addition of images for detection and photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Philippe; Kochanski, Greg P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe weighting techniques used for the optimal coaddition of charge coupled devices (CCD) frames with differing characteristics. Optimal means maximum signal to noise (S/N) for stellar objects. We derive formulas for four applications: (1) object detection via matched filter, (2) object detection identical to DAOFIND, (3) aperture photometry, and (4) ALLSTAR profile-fitting photometry. We have included examples involving 21 frames for which either the sky brightness or image resolution varied by a factor of 3. The gains in S/N were modest for most of the examples, except for DAOFIND detection with varying image resolution which exhibited a substantial S/N increase. Even though the only consideration was maximizing S/N, the image resolution was seen to improve for most of the variable resolution examples. Also discussed are empirical fits for the weighting and the availability of the program, WEIGHT, used to generate the weighting for the individual frames. Finally, we include appendices describing the effects of clipping algorithms and a scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination. scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination.

  18. Application of a New Method for Analyzing Images: Two-Dimensional Non-Linear Additive Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    MA Zaccaria; DM Drudnoy; JE Stasenko

    2006-07-05

    This paper documents the application of a new image processing algorithm, two-dimensional non-linear additive decomposition (NLAD), which is used to identify regions in a digital image whose gray-scale (or color) intensity is different than the surrounding background. Standard image segmentation algorithms exist that allow users to segment images based on gray-scale intensity and/or shape. However, these processing techniques do not adequately account for the image noise and lighting variation that typically occurs across an image. NLAD is designed to separate image noise and background from artifacts thereby providing the ability to consistently evaluate images. The decomposition techniques used in this algorithm are based on the concepts of mathematical morphology. NLAD emulates the human capability of visually separating an image into different levels of resolution components, denoted as ''coarse'', ''fine'', and ''intermediate''. Very little resolution information overlaps any two of the component images. This method can easily determine and/or remove trends and noise from an image. NLAD has several additional advantages over conventional image processing algorithms, including no need for a transformation from one space to another, such as is done with Fourier transforms, and since only finite summations are required, the calculational effort is neither extensive nor complicated.

  19. Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-05-01

    A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.

  20. Multiplexed TEM Specimen Preparation and Analysis of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Anchi; Crum, John; Jain, Tilak; Duggan, Erika; Liu, Er; Nolan, John P.; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for rapidly screening hundreds of nanoparticle samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The system uses a liquid handling robot to place up to 96 individual samples onto a single standard TEM grid at separate locations. The grid is then transferred into the TEM and automated software is used to acquire multi-scale images of each sample. The images are then analyzed to extract metrics on the size, shape, and morphology of the nanoparticles. The system has been used to characterize plasmonically-active nanomaterials. PMID:26223550

  1. Classification Of Multi-Classed Stochastic Images Buried In Additive Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zu-Han; Lee, Sing H.

    1987-01-01

    The Optimal Correlation Filter for the discrimination or classification of multi-class stochastic images buried in additive noise is designed. We consider noise in images as the (K+1)th class of stochastic image so that the K-class with noise problem becomes a problem of (K+1)-classes: K-class without noise plus the (K+1)th class of noise. Experimental verifications with both low frequency background noise and high fre-quency shot noise show that the new filter design is reliable.

  2. Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in

  3. In situ TEM of radiation effects in complex ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jie; Wang, L M; Sun, Kai; Ewing, Rodney C

    2009-03-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been extensively applied to study radiation effects in a wide variety of materials, such as metals, ceramics and semiconductors and is an indispensable tool in obtaining a fundamental understanding of energetic beam-matter interactions, damage events, and materials' behavior under intense radiation environments. In this article, in situ TEM observations of radiation effects in complex ceramics (e.g., oxides, silicates, and phosphates) subjected to energetic ion and electron irradiations have been summarized with a focus on irradiation-induced microstructural evolution, changes in microchemistry, and the formation of nanostructures. New results for in situ TEM observation of radiation effects in pyrochlore, A(2)B(2)O(7), and zircon, ZrSiO(4), subjected to multiple beam irradiations are presented, and the effects of simultaneous irradiations of alpha-decay and beta-decay on the microstructural evolution of potential nuclear waste forms are discussed. Furthermore, in situ TEM results of radiation effects in a sodium borosilicate glass subjected to electron-beam exposure are introduced to highlight the important applications of advanced analytical TEM techniques, including Z-contrast imaging, energy filtered TEM (EFTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in studying radiation effects in materials microstructural evolution and microchemical changes. By combining ex situ TEM and advanced analytical TEM techniques with in situ TEM observations under energetic beam irradiations, one can obtain invaluable information on the phase stability and response behaviors of materials under a wide range of irradiation conditions.

  4. Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, R.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Chanal, C.; Labia, R.; Sirot, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of resistance to amoxicillin among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, 10 TEM-type β-lactamases were characterized: (i) the well-known penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-3 and TEM-24, and the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) TEM-44 and (ii) five novel enzymes, a penicillinase TEM-57 similar to TEM-1, an ESBL TEM-66 similar to TEM-3, and three IRTs, TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74. The penicillinase TEM-57 and the ESBL TEM-66 differed from TEM-1 and TEM-3, respectively, by the amino acid substitution Gly-92→Asp (nucleotide mutation G-477→A). This substitution could have accounted for the decrease in pIs (5.2 for TEM-57 and 6.0 for TEM-66) but did not necessarily affect the intrinsic activities of these enzymes. The IRT TEM-65 was an IRT-1-like IRT (Cys-244) related to TEM-2 (Lys-39). The two other IRTs, TEM-73 and TEM-74, were related to IRT-1 (Cys-244) and IRT-2 (Ser-244), respectively, and harbored the amino acid substitutions Leu-21→Phe and Thr-265→Met. In this study, the ESBLs TEM-66, TEM-24, and TEM-3 were encoded by large (170- to 180-kb) conjugative plasmids that exhibited similar patterns after digestion and hybridization with the TEM and AAC(6′)I probes. The three IRTs TEM-65, TEM-73, and TEM-74 were encoded by plasmids that ranged in size from 42 to 70 kb but for which no transfer was obtained. The characterization of five new plasmid-mediated TEM-type β-lactamases and the first report of TEM-24 in P. mirabilis are evidence of the wide diversity of β-lactamases produced in this species and of its possible role as a β-lactamase-encoding plasmid reservoir. PMID:10543745

  5. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J

    2013-01-01

    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization.

  6. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach

  7. A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hua; Todd, Naomi M; Devlin-Mullin, Aine; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kim, Taek Bo; Madi, Kamel; Cartmell, Sarah; Mitchell, Christopher A; Jones, Julian R; Lee, Peter D

    2016-06-01

    A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants.

  8. FIM/IAP/TEM studies of ion implanted nickel emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, S.D.; Hren, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate depth profiling of implanted hydrogen and its isotopes in metals is extremely important. Field ion microscopy and atom-probe techniques provide the most accurate depth profiling analytical method of any available. In addition, they are extremely sensitive to hydrogen. This paper reports our early work on hydrogen trapping at defects in metals using the Field Ion Microscope/Imaging Atom Probe (FIM/IAP). Our results deal primarily with the control experiments required to overcome instrumental difficulties associated with in situ implantation and the influence of a high electric field. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been used extensively to independently examine the influence of high electric fields on emitters. 11 references, 7 figures.

  9. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  10. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  11. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  12. Enabling direct nanoscale observations of biological reactions with dynamic TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-02-18

    Biological processes can occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales; from femtoseconds to hours and from angstroms to meters. Although no single experimental method can fully cover this entire phase space, many new biological insights can be expected from a better understanding of the processes that occur on the very fast timescales and very small length scales. In this regard, new instruments that use fast x-ray or electron pulses are now available that are expected to reveal new mechanistic insights for macromolecular protein dynamics. To ensure that any observed conformational change is physiologically relevant and not constrained by three-dimensional crystal packing, it would be preferable for experiments to utilize smaller protein samples such as single particles or two-dimensional crystals that mimic the target protein’s native environment. These samples aren’t typically amenable to x-ray analysis, but transmission electron microscopy has successfully imaged such sample geometries for over 40 years and permits data acquisition using both direct imaging and diffraction modes. While conventional transmission electron microscopes (TEM) have only visualized biological samples with atomic resolution in an arrested or frozen state, the recent development of the dynamic TEM (DTEM) extends electron microscopy capabilities into dynamics. A new 2nd generation DTEM that is currently being constructed has the potential to observe live biological processes with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution by using pulsed electron packets to probe the sample on the micro- and nanosecond timescale. In addition to the enhanced temporal resolution, the DTEM also operates in the pump-probe regime that can permit visualizing reactions propagating in real-time. This article reviews the experimental parameters necessary for coupling DTEM with in situ liquid microscopy to allow direct imaging of protein conformational dynamics in a fully hydrated environment.

  13. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, L; Cantisani, V; Jenssen, C; Sidhu, P S; Baum, U; Dietrich, C F

    2015-09-01

    Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  14. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  15. Active Contours Using Additive Local and Global Intensity Fitting Models for Intensity Inhomogeneous Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Shafiullah; Kim, Jeong Heon; Soomro, Toufique Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved region based active contour method with a level set formulation. The proposed energy functional integrates both local and global intensity fitting terms in an additive formulation. Local intensity fitting term influences local force to pull the contour and confine it to object boundaries. In turn, the global intensity fitting term drives the movement of contour at a distance from the object boundaries. The global intensity term is based on the global division algorithm, which can better capture intensity information of an image than Chan-Vese (CV) model. Both local and global terms are mutually assimilated to construct an energy function based on a level set formulation to segment images with intensity inhomogeneity. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to other state-of-the-art-methods. PMID:27800011

  16. Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Phil

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7) test was a full-scale, full duration static test firing of a high performance motor-configuration solid rocket motor with nozzle vectoring. The final test report documents the procedures, performance, and results of the static test firing of TEM-7. All observations, discussions, conclusions, and recommendations included in the report are complete and final except for the TEM-7 fixed housing unbond investigation. A presentation and discussion of TEM-7 performance, anomalies, and test result concurrence with the objectives outlined in CTP-0107, Rev A, Space Shuttle Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-7) Static Fire Test Plan are included.

  17. TEM-109 (CMT-5), a Natural Complex Mutant of TEM-1 β-Lactamase Combining the Amino Acid Substitutions of TEM-6 and TEM-33 (IRT-5)†

    PubMed Central

    Robin, F.; Delmas, J.; Chanal, C.; Sirot, D.; Sirot, J.; Bonnet, R.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli CF349 exhibited a complex β-lactam resistance phenotype, including resistance to amoxicillin and ticarcillin alone and in combination with clavulanate and to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The double-disk synergy test was positive. CF349 harbored an 85-kb conjugative plasmid which encoded a β-lactamase of pI 5.9. The corresponding bla gene was identified by PCR and sequencing as a blaTEM gene. The deduced protein sequence revealed a new complex mutant of TEM-1 β-lactamase designated TEM-109 (CMT-5). TEM-109 contained both the substitutions Glu104Lys and Arg164His of the expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-6 and Met69Leu of the inhibitor-resistant TEM-33 (IRT-5). TEM-109 exhibited hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime similar to that of TEM-6 (kcat, 56 s−1 and 105 s−1, respectively; Km values, 226 and 247 μM, respectively). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of clavulanate and tazobactam (0.13 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively) were 5- to 10-fold higher for TEM-109 than for TEM-6 (0.01 and 0.06 μM, respectively) but were almost 10-fold lower than those for TEM-33. The characterization of this novel CMT, which exhibits a low level of resistance to inhibitors, highlights the emergence of this new ESBL type. PMID:16251281

  18. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  19. Evolution of TEM-Type Enzymes: Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Two New Complex Mutant TEM Enzymes, TEM-151 and TEM-152, from a Single Patient▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Frédéric; Delmas, Julien; Schweitzer, Cédric; Tournilhac, Olivier; Lesens, Olivier; Chanal, Catherine; Bonnet, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Two clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, CF1179 and CF1295, were isolated from a patient hospitalized in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France. They were resistant to penicillin-clavulanate combinations and to ceftazidime. The double-disk synergy test was positive only for isolate CF1179. Molecular comparison of the isolates showed that they were clonally related. E. coli recombinant strains exhibiting the resistance phenotype of the clinical strains were obtained by cloning. The clones corresponding to strains CF1179 and CF1295 produced TEM-type beta-lactamases with pI values of 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed two novel blaTEM genes encoding closely related complex mutant TEM enzymes, designated TEM-151 (pI 5.3) and TEM-152 (pI 5.7). These two genes also harbored a new promoter region which presented a 9-bp deletion. The two novel β-lactamases differed from the parental enzyme, TEM-1, by the substitution Arg164His, previously observed in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), and by the substitutions Met69Val and Asn276Asp, previously observed in the inhibitor-resistant penicillinase TEM-36/IRT-7. They differed by two amino acid substitutions: TEM-152 harbored a Glu240Lys ESBL-type substitution and TEM-151 had an Ala284Gly substitution. Functional analysis of TEM-151 and TEM-152 showed that both enzymes had hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime (kcat, 5 and 16 s−1, respectively). TEM-152 was more resistant than TEM-151 to the inhibitor clavulanic acid (50% inhibitory concentrations, 1 versus 0.17 μM). These results confirm the evolution of TEM-type enzymes toward complex enzymes harboring the two kinds of substitutions which confer an extended spectrum of action against beta-lactam antibiotics and resistance to inhibitors. PMID:17220412

  20. Complete Tem-Tomography: 3D Structure of Gems Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the 3D shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the 3D structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous 3D TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to constrain the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.

  1. Technical Evaluation Motor No. 10 (TEM-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor No. 10 (TEM-10) was static fired on 27 Apr. 1993 at the Thiokol Corporation full-scale motor static test bay, T-24. This final test report documents the procedures, performance, and results of the static test firing of TEM-10. All observations, discussions, conclusions, and recommendations contained are final. Included is a presentation and discussion of TEM-10 performance, anomalies, and test results in concurrence with the objectives outlined in CTP-0110, Revision D, Space Shuttle Technical Evaluation Motor No. 10 (TEM-10) Static Fire Test Plan.

  2. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  3. Development of 89Zr-Ontuxizumab for in vivo TEM-1/endosialin PET applications

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sara E.S.; Zheleznyak, Alex; Studer, Matthew; O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Lapi, Suzanne E.; Van Tine, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The complexity of sarcoma has led to the need for patient selection via in vivo biomarkers. Tumor endothelial marker-1 (TEM-1) is a cell surface marker expressed by the tumor microenvironment. Currently MORAb-004 (Ontuxizumab), an anti-TEM-1 humanized monoclonal antibody, is in sarcoma clinical trials. Development of positron emission tomography (PET) for in vivo TEM-1 expression may allow for stratification of patients, potentially enhancing clinical outcomes seen with Ontuxizumab. Results Characterization of cell lines revealed clear differences in TEM-1 expression. One high expressing (RD-ES) and one low expressing (LUPI) cell line were xenografted, and mice were injected with 89Zr-Ontuxizumab. PET imaging post-injection revealed that TEM-1 was highly expressed and readily detectable in vivo only in RD-ES. In vivo biodistribution studies confirmed high radiopharmaceutical uptake in tumor relative to normal organs. Experimental Design Sarcoma cell lines were characterized for TEM-1 expression. Ontuxizumab was labeled with 89Zr and evaluated for immunoreactivity preservation. 89Zr-Ontuxizumab was injected into mice with high or null expressing TEM-1 xenografts. In vivo PET imaging experiments were performed. Conclusion 89Zr-Ontuxizumab can be used in vivo to determine high versus low TEM-1 expression. Reliable PET imaging of TEM-1 in sarcoma patients may allow for identification of patients that will attain the greatest benefit from anti-TEM-1 therapy. PMID:26909615

  4. New TEM Variant (TEM-92) Produced by Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Isolates

    PubMed Central

    de Champs, Christophe; Monne, Claire; Bonnet, Richard; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Sirot, Danielle; Chanal, Catherine; Sirot, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    The sequences of the blaTEM genes encoding TEM-92 in Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii isolates were determined and were found to be identical. Except for positions 218 (Lys-6) and 512 (Lys-104), the nucleotide sequence of blaTEM-92 was identical to that of blaTEM-20, including the sequence of the promoter region harboring a 135-bp deletion combined with a G-162→T substitution. The deduced amino acid sequence of TEM-92 differed from that of TEM-52 by the presence of a substitution (Gln-6→Lys) in the peptide signal. PMID:11257046

  5. High-resolution analytical TEM of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    2002-10-01

    This paper briefly reviews the potential applicability of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate both structural and chemical peculiarities of materials at high lateral resolution. Examples of analytical TEM investigations performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) are presented for different materials systems including metals, ceramics, and compound semiconductors. In particular, results are given of imaging the element distribution in the interface region between gamma matrix and gamma' precipitate in the nickel-based superalloy SC16 by energy-filtered TEM. For core-shell structured BaTiO(3) particles the chemical composition and even the chemical bonding were revealed by EELS at a resolution of about 1 nm. A sub-nanometer resolution is demonstrated by energy-selective images of the Ga distribution in the surrounding of (In,Ga)As quantum dots. Moreover, the element distribution in (Al,Ga)As/AlAs multilayers with linear concentration gradients in a range of about 10 nm was investigated by EDXS line-profile analyses and EFTEM. PMID:12397484

  6. High-resolution analytical TEM of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    2002-10-01

    This paper briefly reviews the potential applicability of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate both structural and chemical peculiarities of materials at high lateral resolution. Examples of analytical TEM investigations performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) are presented for different materials systems including metals, ceramics, and compound semiconductors. In particular, results are given of imaging the element distribution in the interface region between gamma matrix and gamma' precipitate in the nickel-based superalloy SC16 by energy-filtered TEM. For core-shell structured BaTiO(3) particles the chemical composition and even the chemical bonding were revealed by EELS at a resolution of about 1 nm. A sub-nanometer resolution is demonstrated by energy-selective images of the Ga distribution in the surrounding of (In,Ga)As quantum dots. Moreover, the element distribution in (Al,Ga)As/AlAs multilayers with linear concentration gradients in a range of about 10 nm was investigated by EDXS line-profile analyses and EFTEM.

  7. Additional value of biplane transoesophageal imaging in assessment of mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Groundstroem, K; Rittoo, D; Hoffman, P; Bloomfield, P; Sutherland, G R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether biplane transoesophageal imaging offers advantages in the evaluation of mitral prostheses when compared with standard single transverse plane imaging or the precordial approach in suspected prosthetic dysfunction. DESIGN--Prospective mitral valve prosthesis in situ using precordial and biplane transoesophageal ultrasonography. SETTING--Tertiary cardiac referral centre. SUBJECTS--67 consecutive patients with suspected dysfunction of a mitral valve prosthesis (16 had bioprostheses and 51 mechanical prostheses) who underwent precordial, transverse plane, and biplane transoesophageal echocardiography. Correlative invasive confirmation from surgery or angiography, or both, was available in 44 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number, type, and site of leak according to the three means of scanning. RESULTS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging alone identified all 31 medial/lateral paravalvar leaks but only 24/30 of the anterior/posterior leaks. Combining the information from both imaging planes confirmed that biplane scanning identified all paravalvar leaks. Five of the six patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis, all three with valvar thrombus or obstruction, and all three with mitral annulus rupture were diagnosed from transverse plane imaging alone. Longitudinal plane imaging alone enabled diagnosis of the remaining case of prosthetic endocarditis and a further case of subvalvar pannus formation. CONCLUSIONS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging was superior to the longitudinal imaging in identifying medial and lateral lesions around the sewing ring of a mitral valve prosthesis. Longitudinal plane imaging was superior in identifying anterior and posterior lesions. Biplane imaging is therefore an important development in the study of mitral prosthesis function. Images PMID:8398497

  8. Application of Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization to Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Additives in Polymer Films

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Ryo; Yamoto, Yoshinari; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the application of tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization (t-SPESI) to mass spectrometry imaging of industrial materials. The t-SPESI parameters including tapping solvent composition, solvent flow rate, number of tapping at each spot, and step-size were optimized using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to improve mass spectrometry (MS) imaging of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and additives in polymer films. Spatial resolution of approximately 100 μm was achieved by t-SPESI imaging mass spectrometry using a fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d., 150 μm o.d.) with the flow rate set at 0.2 μL/min. This allowed us to obtain discriminable MS imaging profiles of three dyes separated by TLC and the additive stripe pattern of a PMMA model film depleted by UV irradiation. PMID:26819894

  9. SimulaTEM: multislice simulations for general objects.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Beltrán-Del-Río, L M; Herrera-Becerra, R

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present the program SimulaTEM for the simulation of high resolution micrographs and diffraction patterns. This is a program based on the multislice approach that does not assume a periodic object. It can calculate images from finite objects, from amorphous samples, from crystals, quasicrystals, grain boundaries, nanoparticles or arbitrary objects provided the coordinates of all the atoms can be supplied.

  10. Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

  11. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  12. Enhancement of Glossiness Perception by Retinal-Image Motion: Additional Effect of Head-Yoked Motion Parallax

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yusuke; Araki, Keisuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that when an observer moves, a contingent retinal-image motion of a stimulus would strengthen the perceived glossiness. This would be attributed to the veridical perception of three-dimensional structure by motion parallax. However, it has not been investigated whether the effect of motion parallax is more than that of retinal-image motion of the stimulus. Using a magnitude estimation method, we examine in this paper whether cross-modal coordination of the stimulus change and the observer's motion (i.e., motion parallax) is essential or the retinal-image motion alone is sufficient for enhancing the perceived glossiness. Our data show that a retinal-image motion simulating motion parallax without head motion strengthened the perceived glossiness but that its effect was weaker than that of motion parallax with head motion. These results suggest the existence of an additional effect of the cross-modal coordination between vision and proprioception on glossiness perception. That is, motion parallax enhances the perception of glossiness, in addition to retinal-image motions of specular surfaces. PMID:23336006

  13. Effects of diagnostic ionizing radiation on pregnancy via TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, W. H.; Artoli, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    In Sudan, X-rays are routinely used at least once for measurements of pelvis during the gestation period, though this is highly prohibited worldwide, except for a few life threatening cases. To demonstrate the effect of diagnostic ionizing radiation on uterus, fetus and neighboring tissues to the ovaries, two independent experiments on pregnant rabbits were conducted. The first experiment was a proof of concept that diagnostic ionizing radiation is hazardous throughout the gestation period. The second experiment was done through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the morphological changes in the ultra structure of samples taken from irradiated pregnant rabbits. This study uses TEM to test the effect of diagnostic radiation of less than 0.6 Gray on the cellular level. Morphological changes have been captured and the images were analyzed to quantify these effects.

  14. Analysis of Open TEM-Waveguide Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, R.; Garbe, H.

    This work belongs to a research project on the analysis and characterization of higher order modes occurring in open TEM-waveguide structures. An open TEM waveguide, derived from a conventional GTEM cell by removing the sidewalls, is investigated. The intrinsic resonances of the electromagnetic field occurring in the test volume of the waveguide are analyzed in frequency domain by computer simulation and measurement. This resonance behavior is compared to that of more simplified wire models, describing just the planar septum of the original TEM waveguide. The influence of the number of wires used in the wire model is investigated with respect to the resonant behavior. The use of wire structures is a prerequisite for application of transmission-line super theory (TLST) for further analysis.

  15. Technical Evaluation Motor No. 7 (TEM-07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugh, Phil

    1991-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor Number 7 (TEM-7) was a full scale, full-duration static test firing of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM) with nozzle vectoring. The static test fire occurred on 11 December 1990 at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. Documented here are the procedures, performance, and results available through 22 January 1991. Critical post test hardware activities and assessment of the test data are not complete. A completed test report will be submitted 60 days after the test date. Included here is a presentation and discussion of the TEM-7 performance, anomalies, and test result concurrence with the objectives outlined in CTP-0107 Revision A, Space Shuttle Technical Evaluation Motor number 7 (TEM-07) Static Fire Test Plan.

  16. TEM-nanoindentation studies of semiconducting structures.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, E; Patriarche, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of nanoindentation coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigations of the plastic behaviour of semiconducting structures and its implication for device design. Instrumented nanoindentation has been developed to extract the mechanical behaviour of small volumes scaled to those encountered in semiconductor heterostructures. We illustrate that TEM is a powerful complementary tool for the study of local plasticity induced by nanoindentation. TEM-nanoindentation allows for detailed understanding of the plastic deformation in semiconducting structures and opens practical routes for improvement of devices. Performances of heterostructures are deteriously affected by dislocations that relax the lattice mismatched layers. Different ways to obtain compliant substructures are being developed in order to concentrate the plastic relaxation underneath the heterostructure. Such approaches allow for mechanical design of micro- and opto-electronic devices to be considered throughout the fabrication process. PMID:16901706

  17. Unexpected Enzyme TEM-126: Role of Mutation Asp179Glu

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, J.; Robin, F.; Bittar, F.; Chanal, C.; Bonnet, R.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical isolate Escherichia coli CF884 exhibited low-level resistance to ceftazidime (4 μg/ml) by a positive double-disk synergy test and apparent susceptibility to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefpirome, and aztreonam. The enzyme implicated in this phenotype was a novel 180-kb plasmid-encoded TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase designated TEM-126 which harbors the mutations Asp179Glu and Met182Thr. TEM-126 exhibited significant hydrolytic activity (kcat, 2 s−1) and a Km value of 82 μM against ceftazidime. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the substitution Asp179Glu induces subtle conformational changes to the omega loop which may favor the insertion of ceftazidime in the binding site and the correct positioning of the crucial residue Glu166. Overall, these results highlight the remarkable plasticity of TEM enzymes, which can expand their activity against ceftazidime by the addition of one carbon atom in the side chain of residue 179. PMID:16189109

  18. Paired helical filaments (PHFs) are a family of single filament structures with a common helical turn period: negatively stained PHF imaged by TEM and measured before and after sonication, deglycosylation, and dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ruben, George C; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2005-07-01

    Isolated paired helical filaments (PHFs) were visualized on glutaraldehyde vapor-treated thin approximately 10-nm thick indirect carbon films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the negative stain, phosphotungstate acid (PTA) at near neutral pH of 6.8. PHF preparations were prepared with and without 1 minute of sonication. These same PHF were also deglycosylated with endoglycosidase F/N-glycosidase F for 1 hour or the PHF were dephosphorylated with PP-2A for 1 hour. The negatively stained PHF filaments were quantitatively studied by measuring their wide regions (W) their thin regions (T) and their helical turn period (L) and these separate parameters were averaged for each filament. In the unsonicated PHF preparation there were PHF, cylindrical filaments with periodic thin regions (CF-PT), cylindrical filaments (CF), as well as 2.0-nm tau polymer-like filaments. The CF-PT were characterized by W, T, and L measurements and the CF were characterized by diameter measurements. The paired helical filament model proposed by Kidd (1963, Nature 197:192-193) of two approximately 10 nm filaments twisting around each other every approximately 80 nm with a thin region of 10 nm and a wide region of 25 nm does not correspond to the PHF structures found. None of the PHF we observed were composed of a pair of filaments and all of the PHF appear to be a single filament. The wide regions ranged from 12.5-27 nm and the thin regions ranged from 4.5-12.3 nm. The helical turn periods ranged from 76-85 nm and were generally about 80 nm. Only the helical turn period of approximately 80 nm was a common property of the whole family of PHF structures. The CF-PT appear to be a PHF precursor filament. Deglycosylation of the PHF and CF-PT reduced their sizes by 0.5-0.6 nm and 0.7-1.0 nm, respectively, and the right-hand helicity of the PHF was lost after deglycosylation. Dephosphorylation with PP-2A reduced the PHF wide regions by 6.0 nm and the thin regions by 2

  19. Correlated SEM, FIB-SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS imaging of microbes from the hindgut of a lower termite: methods for in situ functional and ecological studies of uncultivable microbes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J; Weber, Peter K; Davisson, M Lee; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Haverty, Michael I; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    The hindguts of lower termites harbor highly diverse, endemic communities of symbiotic protists, bacteria, and archaea essential to the termite's ability to digest wood. Despite over a century of experimental studies, ecological roles of many of these microbes are unknown, partly because almost none can be cultivated. Many of the protists associate with bacterial symbionts, but hypotheses for their respective roles in nutrient exchange are based on genomes of only two such bacteria. To show how the ecological roles of protists and nutrient transfer with symbiotic bacteria can be elucidated by direct imaging, we combined stable isotope labeling (13C-cellulose) of live termites with analysis of fixed hindgut microbes using correlated scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We developed methods to prepare whole labeled cells on solid substrates, whole labeled cells milled with a FIB-SEM instrument to reveal cell interiors, and ultramicrotome sections of labeled cells for NanoSIMS imaging of 13C enrichment in protists and associated bacteria. Our results show these methods have the potential to provide direct evidence for nutrient flow and suggest the oxymonad protist Oxymonas dimorpha phagocytoses and enzymatically degrades ingested wood fragments, and may transfer carbon derived from this to its surface bacterial symbionts. PMID:24119340

  20. Correlated SEM, FIB-SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS imaging of microbes from the hindgut of a lower termite: methods for in situ functional and ecological studies of uncultivable microbes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J; Weber, Peter K; Davisson, M Lee; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Haverty, Michael I; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    The hindguts of lower termites harbor highly diverse, endemic communities of symbiotic protists, bacteria, and archaea essential to the termite's ability to digest wood. Despite over a century of experimental studies, ecological roles of many of these microbes are unknown, partly because almost none can be cultivated. Many of the protists associate with bacterial symbionts, but hypotheses for their respective roles in nutrient exchange are based on genomes of only two such bacteria. To show how the ecological roles of protists and nutrient transfer with symbiotic bacteria can be elucidated by direct imaging, we combined stable isotope labeling (13C-cellulose) of live termites with analysis of fixed hindgut microbes using correlated scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We developed methods to prepare whole labeled cells on solid substrates, whole labeled cells milled with a FIB-SEM instrument to reveal cell interiors, and ultramicrotome sections of labeled cells for NanoSIMS imaging of 13C enrichment in protists and associated bacteria. Our results show these methods have the potential to provide direct evidence for nutrient flow and suggest the oxymonad protist Oxymonas dimorpha phagocytoses and enzymatically degrades ingested wood fragments, and may transfer carbon derived from this to its surface bacterial symbionts.

  1. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  2. Silver Trees: Chemistry on a TEM Grid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The copper/carbon substrate of a TEM grid reacted with aqueous silver nitrate solution within minutes to yield spectacular tree-like silver dendrites, without using any added capping or reducing reagents. These results demonstrate a facile, aqueous, room temperature synthesis of...

  3. Thermal Imaging for Assessment of Electron-Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) Additive Manufacturing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy R.; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA s electron beam free-form fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF(sup 3) technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF(sup 3) system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality weld, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for weld assessment metrics.

  4. Assessing the use of an infrared spectrum hyperpixel array imager to measure temperature during additive and subtractive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenton, Eric; Heigel, Jarred; Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Accurate non-contact temperature measurement is important to optimize manufacturing processes. This applies to both additive (3D printing) and subtractive (material removal by machining) manufacturing. Performing accurate single wavelength thermography suffers numerous challenges. A potential alternative is hyperpixel array hyperspectral imaging. Focusing on metals, this paper discusses issues involved such as unknown or changing emissivity, inaccurate greybody assumptions, motion blur, and size of source effects. The algorithm which converts measured thermal spectra to emissivity and temperature uses a customized multistep non-linear equation solver to determine the best-fit emission curve. Emissivity dependence on wavelength may be assumed uniform or have a relationship typical for metals. The custom software displays residuals for intensity, temperature, and emissivity to gauge the correctness of the greybody assumption. Initial results are shown from a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, as well as a machining process. In addition, the effects of motion blur are analyzed, which occurs in both additive and subtractive manufacturing processes. In a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, the scanning laser causes the melt pool to move rapidly, causing a motion blur-like effect. In machining, measuring temperature of the rapidly moving chip is a desirable goal to develop and validate simulations of the cutting process. A moving slit target is imaged to characterize how the measured temperature values are affected by motion of a measured target.

  5. Determination of detergent and dispensant additives in gasoline by ring-oven and near infrared hypespectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues e Brito, Lívia; da Silva, Michelle P F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Pasquini, Celio; Honorato, Fernanda A; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda

    2015-03-10

    A method using the ring-oven technique for pre-concentration in filter paper discs and near infrared hyperspectral imaging is proposed to identify four detergent and dispersant additives, and to determine their concentration in gasoline. Different approaches were used to select the best image data processing in order to gather the relevant spectral information. This was attained by selecting the pixels of the region of interest (ROI), using a pre-calculated threshold value of the PCA scores arranged as histograms, to select the spectra set; summing up the selected spectra to achieve representativeness; and compensating for the superimposed filter paper spectral information, also supported by scores histograms for each individual sample. The best classification model was achieved using linear discriminant analysis and genetic algorithm (LDA/GA), whose correct classification rate in the external validation set was 92%. Previous classification of the type of additive present in the gasoline is necessary to define the PLS model required for its quantitative determination. Considering that two of the additives studied present high spectral similarity, a PLS regression model was constructed to predict their content in gasoline, while two additional models were used for the remaining additives. The results for the external validation of these regression models showed a mean percentage error of prediction varying from 5 to 15%.

  6. Energy-filtering TEM at high magnification: spatial resolution and detection limits.

    PubMed

    Grogger, Werner; Schaffer, Bernhard; Krishnan, Kannan M; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2003-09-01

    Energy-filtering TEM (EFTEM) has turned out to be a very efficient and rapid tool for the chemical characterization of a specimen on a nanometer and even subnanometer length scale. Especially, the detection and measurement of very thin layers has become a great application of this technique in many materials science fields, e.g. semiconductors and hard disk technology. There, the reliability of compositional profiles is an important issue. However, the experimentally obtainable spatial resolution strongly influences the appearance of a thin layer in an EFTEM image, when dimensions reach subnanometer levels, which mainly leads to a broadening of the layer in the image. This fact has to be taken into account, when measuring the thickness of such a thin layer. Additionally, the convolution decreases contrast which makes the layer less visible in the image and finally determines the detection limit. In this work we present a systematic study on specifically designed Mn/PdMn multilayer test specimens to explore the practical aspects of spatial resolution and detection limits in EFTEM. Although specific to the ionization edges used, we will present general conclusions about the practical limitations in terms of EFTEM spatial resolution. Additionally, work will be shown about low energy-loss imaging of thin oxide layers, where delocalization is the main factor responsible for broadening. PMID:12871810

  7. TEM and XPS studies on CdS/CIGS interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun-feng; Liao, Cheng; Cha, Li-mei; Jiang, Tao; Xie, Hua-mu; Zhao, Kui; Besland, M.-P.

    2014-12-01

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) was deposited by metallic precursors sputtering and subsequently submitted to a selenization process. The upper CdS layers were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The CdS/CIGS interfaces were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). As checked by XPS analysis, the CIGS surface exhibited a hydroxide-terminated CdSe layer when treated with Cd Partial Electrolyte solution (Cd PE). Its thickness was roughly estimated to several nanometers. A 100 nm thick CdS layer was deposited onto CIGS surface. The TEM images revealed a clear and sharp interface between CdS and CIGS. XPS analysis showed a CIGS surface covered by a pinhole free and homogeneous CdS layer. XPS depth profile measurement of the CdS/CIGS interface did not evidence elemental inter-diffusion between the CIGS and CdS layers, in very good agreement with TEM observations.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of TEM-3 (CTX-1) beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Petit, A; Gerbaud, G; Sirot, D; Courvalin, P; Sirot, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 33 clinical isolates encoding TEM-3 (CTX-1) from four French hospitals were studied. The strains belonged to seven species, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 3), Serratia marcescens (n = 2), Citrobacter freundii (n = 1), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 1), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), and Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 1). All the strains harbored an Inc7 or M self-transferable plasmid with a size of approximately 85 kilobases. The plasmids had closely related EcoRI, HincII, HindIII, and PvuII restriction endonuclease-generated patterns and conferred resistance to all beta-lactams, except cephamycins and imipenem; to tetracycline, because of the presence of the genes blatem-3 and tetC, respectively, as determined by hybridization with specific probes; and to sulfonamide. Depending on the presence or absence and level of expression of the genes aacA4, aadA, and dfrI and of insertion element IS15, four types of plasmids could be distinguished. Plasmid pCFF04, the prototype plasmid encoding TEM-3, was widespread and appeared, by Southern hybridization, as the progenitor of the other types of replicons. The plasmid epidemic responsible for dissemination of TEM-3 in clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae may have originated in S. marcescens since pCFF04 was first detected in this species. Images PMID:2327769

  9. Development of an analytical environmental TEM system and its application.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Keisuke; Sakai, Hisashi; Tanaka, Hiromochi; Saka, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Kotaro; Sakamoto, Masayuki; Watabe, Akira; Kamino, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Many automotive materials, such as catalysts and fuel cell materials, undergo significant changes in structure or properties when subjected to temperature change or the addition of a gas. For this reason, in the development of these materials, it is important to study the behavior of the material under controlled temperatures and gaseous atmospheres. Recently, a new environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for observation with a high resolution at high temperatures and under gaseous atmospheres, thus making it possible to analyze reaction processes in details. Also, the new TEM provides a high degree of reproducibility of observation conditions, thus making it possible to compare and validate observation of various specimens under a given set of conditions. Furthermore, easiness of gas condition and temperature control can provide a powerful tool for the studying of the mechanism of material change, such as oxidation and reduction reactions. PMID:19520735

  10. Towards an integrative structural biology approach: combining Cryo-TEM, X-ray crystallography, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jeffrey; Hnath, Eric; Storms, Marc; Wohlfarth, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and particularly single particle analysis is rapidly becoming the premier method for determining the three-dimensional structure of protein complexes, and viruses. In the last several years there have been dramatic technological improvements in Cryo-TEM, such as advancements in automation and use of improved detectors, as well as improved image processing techniques. While Cryo-TEM was once thought of as a low resolution structural technique, the method is currently capable of generating nearly atomic resolution structures on a routine basis. Moreover, the combination of Cryo-TEM and other methods such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics modeling are allowing researchers to address scientific questions previously thought intractable. Future technological developments are widely believed to further enhance the method and it is not inconceivable that Cryo-TEM could become as routine as X-ray crystallography for protein structure determination.

  11. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) combined with SEM (FIB/SEM) and TEM: Advanced tools for nano-analysis in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.; Morales, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) techniques have been successfully applied to the preparation of site-specific electron transparent membranes for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations in Geosciences since several years. For example, systematic TEM studies of nano-inclusions in diamond foils prepared with FIB have improved our knowledge on diamond formation. However, FIB is not exclusively used for sample preparation for TEM application because it has been proved that one and the same TEM foil can also be used for Synchrotron IR, Synchrotron X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning transmission X-Ray microscopy (STXM) and NanoSIMS analysis. In addition, FIB milling turned out to be very useful for sample preparation of Brillouin scattering experiments and has a strong potential for preparation of highly-polished, micrometer-scale samples. However, a real break through in FIB application was achieved combining a Ga-ion source of the FIB with an electron source of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in one single instrument. The combination of FIB/SEM renders access to the third dimension of the sample possible. A cavity normal to the sample surface is sputtered with Ga-ions and this newly created inner surface is imaged with the electron beam. Alternating slicing and viewing along these cavities allow the acquisition of a sequence of images that allows the observation in 3 dimensions. Recently, this technique has been successfully applied to image the structure of grain or phase boundaries in metamorphic rocks as well as micro- and nanoporosity in shales, but its applicability goes far beyond these few examples. Combining slicing and viewing with X-Ray and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis can provide 3D elemental mapping and 3D crystallographic orientation mapping of crystalline materials. Combined FIB/SEM devices also facilitate the preparation of substantially thinner and cleaner TEM foils (approximately 30 nm) because electron beam imaging

  12. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners.

  13. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  14. Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

    Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

  15. Enabling direct nanoscale observations of biological reactions with dynamic TEM.

    PubMed

    Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2013-02-01

    Biological processes occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales: from femtoseconds to hours and from angstroms to meters. Many new biological insights can be expected from a better understanding of the processes that occur on these very fast and very small scales. In this regard, new instruments that use fast X-ray or electron pulses are expected to reveal novel mechanistic details for macromolecular protein dynamics. To ensure that any observed conformational change is physiologically relevant and not constrained by 3D crystal packing, it would be preferable for experiments to utilize small protein samples such as single particles or 2D crystals that mimic the target protein's native environment. These samples are not typically amenable to X-ray analysis, but transmission electron microscopy has imaged such sample geometries for over 40 years using both direct imaging and diffraction modes. While conventional transmission electron microscopes (TEM) have visualized biological samples with atomic resolution in an arrested or frozen state, the recent development of the dynamic TEM (DTEM) extends electron microscopy into a dynamic regime using pump-probe imaging. A new second-generation DTEM, which is currently being constructed, has the potential to observe live biological processes with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution by using pulsed electron packets to probe the sample on micro- and nanosecond timescales. This article reviews the experimental parameters necessary for coupling DTEM with in situ liquid microscopy to enable direct imaging of protein conformational dynamics in a fully hydrated environment and visualize reactions propagating in real time. PMID:23315566

  16. Deficits in Agency in Schizophrenia, and Additional Deficits in Body Image, Body Schema, and Internal Timing, in Passivity Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kyran T.; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T.; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Jablensky, Assen; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected-hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber-hand illusion) with synchronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay), and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image, and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms) and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference between clinical subgroups (sense of agency) and some quantitative (specific) differences depending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema). Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past) had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition), suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self-body input

  17. Technical Evaluation Motor 3 (TEM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, Diane

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of the technical evaluation motor program is to recover the case, igniter and nozzle hardware for use on the redesigned solid rocket motor flight program. Two qualification objectives were addressed and met on TEM-3. The Nylok thread locking device of the 1U100269-03 leak check port plug and the 1U52295-04 safe and arm utilizing Krytox grease on the barrier-booster shaft O-rings were both certified. All inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-3 static test firing conducted 23 May 1989 was successful. The test was conducted at ambient conditions with the exception of the field joints (set point of 121 F, with a minimum of 87 F at the sensors), igniter joint (set point at 122 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors) and case-to-nozzle joint (set point at 114 F with a minimum of 87 F at sensors). Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. Nozzle performance was nominal with typical erosion. The nozzle and the case joint temperatures were maintained at the heaters controlling set points while electrical power was supplied. The water and the CO2 quench systems prevented damage to the metal hardware. All other test equipment performed as planned, contributing to a successful motor firing. All indications are that the test was a success, and all expected hardware will be refurbished for the RSRM program.

  18. Chemical bioimaging for the subcellular localization of trace elements by high contrast TEM, TEM/X-EDS, and NanoSIMS.

    PubMed

    Penen, Florent; Malherbe, Julien; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Bertalan, Ivo; Gontier, Etienne; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Chemical bioimaging offers an important contribution to the investigation of biochemical functions, biosorption and bioaccumulation processes of trace elements via their localization at the cellular and even at the subcellular level. This paper describes the combined use of high contrast transmission electron microscopy (HC-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (X-EDS), and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) applied to a model organism, the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. HC-TEM providing a lateral resolution of 1nm was used for imaging the ultrastructure of algae cells which have diameters of 5-10μm. TEM coupled to X-EDS (TEM/X-EDS) combined textural (morphology and size) analysis with detection of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn in selected subcellular granules using an X-EDS probe size of approx. 1μm. However, instrumental sensitivity was at the limit for trace element detection. NanoSIMS allowed chemical imaging of macro and trace elements with subcellular resolution (element mapping). Ca, Mg, and P as well as the trace elements Fe, Cu, and Zn present at basal levels were detected in pyrenoids, contractile vacuoles, and granules. Some metals were even localized in small vesicles of about 200nm size. Sensitive subcellular localization of trace metals was possible by the application of a recently developed RF plasma oxygen primary ion source on NanoSIMS which has shown good improvements in terms of lateral resolution (below 50nm), sensitivity, and stability. Furthermore correlative single cell imaging was developed combining the advantages of TEM and NanoSIMS. An advanced sample preparation protocol provided adjacent ultramicrotome sections for parallel TEM and NanoSIMS analyses of the same cell. Thus, the C. reinhardtii cellular ultrastructure could be directly related to the spatial distribution of metals in different cell organelles such as vacuoles and chloroplast. PMID:27288221

  19. Shells on nanowires detected by analytical TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Nanostructures in the form of nanowires or filled nanotubes and nanoparticles covered by shells are of great interest in materials science. They allow the creation of new materials with tailored new properties. For the characterisation of these structures and their shells by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), especially by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), the accurate analysis of linescan intensity profiles is necessary. A mathematical model is described, which is suitable for this analysis. It considers the finite electron beam size, the beam convergence, and the beam broadening within the specimen. It is shown that the beam size influences the measured result of core radius and shell thickness. On the other hand, the influence of the beam broadening within the specimen is negligible. At EELS, the specimen thickness must be smaller than the mean free path for inelastic scattering. Otherwise, artifacts of the signal profile of a nanowire can pretend a nanotube.

  20. Studying dynamic processes in liquids by TEM/STEM/DTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellan, Patricia; Evans, James; Woehl, Taylor; Jungjohann, Katherine; Parent, Lucas; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William; Browning, Nigel; Mater. Sci. Group Team; Microsc. Group Team; Catal. Sci. Group Collaboration; Ristenpart Res. Group Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    In order to study dynamic phenomena such as corrosion or catalysis, extreme environmental conditions must be reproduced around the specimen - these include high-temperatures, high-pressures, specific oxidizing/reducing atmospheres or a liquid environment. The use of environmental stages specifically designed to fit in any transmission electron microscope (TEM) allows us to apply the distinct capabilities of each instrument to study dynamic processes. Localized gas/fluid conditions are created around the sample and separated from the high vacuum inside the microscope using hermetically sealed windowed-cells. Advanced capabilities of these techniques include spatial resolutions of ~1 Angstrom or better in aberration corrected instruments or temporal resolutions in the microsecond-nanosecond range in a dynamic TEM (DTEM). Here, unique qualities of the DTEM that benefit the in-situ experiments with gas/fluid environmental cells will be discussed. We also present our results with a liquid stage allowing atomic resolution imaging of nanomaterials in a colloidal suspension, core EEL spectra acquisition, continuous flow, controlled growth of nanocrystals and systematic calibration of the effect of the electron dose on silver nuclei formation.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in partial epilepsy: additional abnormalities shown with the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Bergin, P S; Fish, D R; Shorvon, S D; Oatridge, A; deSouza, N M; Bydder, G M

    1995-01-01

    Thirty six patients with a history of partial epilepsy had MRI of the brain performed with conventional T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences as well as the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Abnormalities were found in 20 cases (56%), in whom there were 25 lesions or groups of lesions. Twenty four of these lesions were more conspicuous with the FLAIR sequence than with any of the conventional sequences. In 11 of these 20 cases, lesions thought to be of aetiological importance were only seen with the FLAIR sequence. In eight this was a solitary lesion. In the other three, an additional and apparently significant lesion (or lesions) was only seen with the FLAIR sequence when another lesion had been identified with both conventional and FLAIR sequences. The 11 additional lesions or groups of lesions were seen in the hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, or subcortical and periventricular regions. No lesion was found with any pulse sequence in 16 (44%) of the original group of 36 patients. In the eight cases where a lesion was seen only with the FLAIR sequence, localisation was concordant with the electroclinical features. Two of the eight patients with solitary lesions seen only on the FLAIR sequence underwent surgery, after which there was pathological confirmation of the abnormality identified with imaging. In one patient with a congenital cavernoma, the primary lesion was best seen with a contrast enhanced T1 weighted spin echo sequence. In this selected series, the FLAIR sequence increased the yield of MRI examinations of the brain by 30%. Images PMID:7738550

  2. A-10/TF34 Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The hardware and software development of the A-10/TF34 turbine engine monitoring system (TEMS) is described. The operation and interfaces of the A-10/TF34 TEMS hardware are discussed with particular emphasis on function, capabilities, and limitations. The TEMS data types are defined and the various data acquisition modes are explained. Potential data products are also discussed.

  3. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas Karl; Andresen, Nord

    2010-12-14

    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  4. Biological applications of energy-filtered TEM.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Martin; Shaw, Jeremy A

    2014-01-01

    The techniques of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) are routinely applied in the physical sciences to map the distribution of elements at the nanoscale. EELS can also provide details of the bonding/valence of elements through variations in the fine structure of elemental peaks in the spectrum. While applications of these techniques in biology are less prevalent, their ability to detect both the light elements (e.g., C, N, O, P, S) that form the building blocks of biological systems and heavier elements (e.g., metals) makes them potentially important techniques for investigating local chemical variations in tissues and cells. Successful application of EELS and EFTEM in biology requires both an understanding of the techniques themselves and expertise in specimen preparation. Care must be taken to avoid the diffusion of elements during the preparation process to avoid artifacts in the resulting element maps. The power of the techniques is demonstrated here using tissue from a marine mollusc (chiton). PMID:24357386

  5. Nano-Structural Elucidation in Carbon Black Loaded NR Vulcanizate by 3D-TEM and In Situ WAXD Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda,Y.; Kato, A.; Shimanuki, J.; Kohjiya, S.; Tosaka, M.; Poompradub, S.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) visualization of nanometer structure of carbon black dispersion in rubbery matrix has successfully been studied and reported in this paper. Use of 3D-TEM, which is computerized tomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enabled us to reconstruct 3D images of carbon black aggregates in natural rubber (NR) matrix. The TEM measurements were conducted by a bright-field method on thin samples without any electron staining. The sample was subject to uni-axial tilting (+65 degree to -65 degree with 2 degree increment) in the sample chamber, and 66 TEM images were taken on each sample. These TEM images were used for computerized tomography to reconstruct the 3D image. This technique is designated as 3D-TEM. The nano-structural features observed by 3D-TEM were in conformity with the electron-conductivity results, and the percolation behavior was recognized. These results were further supplemented by in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), i.e., simultaneous WAXD and tensile measurements on the sample to observe the strain-induced crystallization in NR vulcanizate. Upon tensile elongation, the crystallization was clearly observed in WAXD in the presence of carbon black, and it contributed to the tensile properties. In order to understand the performances of filled NR vulcanizates, it surely is necessary to know the structural states of the mixed nano-filler and the crystallites produced upon elongation.

  6. Facile preparation and biological imaging of luminescent polymeric nanoprobes with aggregation-induced emission characteristics through Michael addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiulan; Wang, Ke; Xu, Dazhuang; Liu, Meiying; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-09-01

    Water dispersion aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dyes based nanomaterials have recently attracted increasing attention in the biomedical fields because of their unique optical properties, outstanding performance as imaging and therapeutic agents. The methods to conjugate hydrophilic polymers with AIE dyes to solve the hydrophobic nature of AIE dyes and makeS them widely used in biomedicine, which have been extensively explored and paid great effort previously. Although great advance has been made in the fabrication and biomedical applications of AIE-active polymeric nanoprobes, facile and efficient strategies for fabrication of biodegradable AIE-active nanoprobes are still high desirable. In this work, amphiphilic biodegradable fluorescent organic nanoparticles (PLL-TPE-O-E FONs) have been fabricated for the first time by conjugation of AIE dye tetraphenylethene acrylate (TPE-O-E) with Poly-l-Lysine (PLL) through a facile one-step Michael addition reaction, which was carried out under rather mild conditions, included air atmosphere, near room temperature and absent of metal catalysts or hazardous reagents. Due to the unique AIE properties, these amphiphilic copolymers tend to self-assemble into high luminescent water dispersible nanoparticles with size range from 400 to 600nm. Laser scanning microscope and cytotoxicity results revealed that PLL-TPE-O-E FONs can be internalized into cytoplasm with negative cytotoxicity, which implied that PLL-TPE-O-E FONs are promising for biological applications. PMID:27311129

  7. (S)TEM analysis of functional transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Miaofang

    Perovskite vanadates (AVO3) form an ideal family to study the structure-property relationships in transition metal oxides because their physical properties can easily be tailored by varying the A-site cations. (S)TEM is an ideal tool for this type of study due to its capacity for simultaneous imaging and chemical analysis. Determination of the oxidation state of vanadium in complex oxides have been carried out by electron energy loss spectroscopy. SrVO3/LaAlO3 is then studied both experimentally and theoretically as a prototype system. Extra electrons have been detected on the interface layer, and further proven to originate mainly from a change in the local bonding configuration of V at the La-O terminated substrate surface. Cr-containing stainless steel deposited with a LaCrO3 thin-film layer is a promising interconnect material of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Our investigation on its microstructural evolution reveals that the LaCrO 3 thin film plays a role in inhibiting the growth of an oxide layer on the metal surface and thus protects the surface of the stainless steel. Ca-doped LaCoO3 is a promising SOFC cathode material. The domain structures and the oxidation state of Co in Ca-doped LaCoO3, which are directly related to its mechanical properties and electronic conductivity, are investigated by in-situ TEM and EELS. The formation of microcracks is observed during thermal cycles. Ca-doping in LaCoO3 is shown to not only improve the electronic conductivity of the material, but is also likely to strengthen the grain boundaries. The realization of its application in SOFCs depends on depressing the ferroelastisity to reduce strain formation during thermal cycles. The application of the (S)TEM techniques used for studying the perovskite systems are further extended to other compounds containing transition metal elements. The refractory minerals from Comet 81 P/Wild-2 are studied to investigate the formation of the early solar system. A relatively high Ti3+/Ti 4

  8. Carbon investigation of two Stardust particles: A TEM, NanoSIMS, and XANES study

    SciTech Connect

    Matrajt, G.; Ito, M; Wirick, S; Messenger, S; Brownlee, D; Joswiak, D; Flynn, G; Sandford, S; Snead, C; Westphal, A

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the results of a systematic search for cometary organics in 14 Stardust particles (particles from comet 81P/Wild 2, captured by NASA's Stardust mission) by TEM and multidisciplinary studies (XANES and NanoSIMS) of Febo and Ada, two of the organic-bearing particles identified. The combination of the three analytical techniques has established the presence of organic, cometary C in both particles. Using energy-filtered and high-resolution imaging it was shown that the C is amorphous and rare, given that it is found in grains =200 nm in size that are not abundant throughout the particles. The XANES maps and spectra of the carbonaceous areas identified with the TEM have shown that the carbonaceous material is organic due to the presence of carbonyl (C=O) functional groups and the overlapping of C and N on the same grains. In addition, several different C-XANES spectra were obtained from the same particle, suggesting that there is diversity in the types of carbonaceous phases present in these particles, as well as a heterogeneous distribution of the carbonaceous phases within these particles. The C-XANES spectra obtained are different from C-XANES spectra of carbonaceous chondrites and IDPs. In the particle Febo we found five spots showing a pronounced enrichment in the isotope {sup 15}N ({sigma}{sup 15} ffffrom 420 to 639 {+-} 20 to 70%, 1S) that were clearly associated with the C-rich regions. The carbonaceous material has approximately solar C and D/H isotopic compositions, and the bulk O isotopic composition was found to be S{sup 17} O=-18 {+-} 13% and {sigma}{sup 18} O=-37 {+-}12% (aS).

  9. Multi-scale characterization by FIB-SEM/TEM/3DAP.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, T; Sepehri-Amin, H; Sasaki, T T; Hono, K

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve properties of functional materials, it is important to understand the relation between the structure and the properties since the structure has large effect to the properties. This can be done by using multi-scale microstructure analysis from macro-scale to nano and atomic scale. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and 3D atom probe (3DAP) are complementary analysis tools making it possible to know the structure and the chemistry from micron to atomic resolution. SEM gives us overall microstructural and chemical information by various kinds of detectors such as secondary electron, backscattered electron, EDS and EBSD detectors. Also, it is possible to analyze 3D structure and chemistry via FIB serial sectioning. In addition, using TEM we can focus on desired region to get more complementary information from HRTEM/STEM/Lorentz images, SAED/NBD patterns and EDS/EELS to see the detail micro or nano-structure and chemistry. Especially, combination of probe Cs corrector and split EDS detectors with large detector size enable us to analyze the atomic scale elemental distribution. Furthermore, if the specimen has a complicated 3D nanostructure, or we need to analyze light elements such as hydrogen, lithium or boron, 3DAP can be used as the only technique which can visualize and analyze distribution of all constituent atoms of our materials within a few hundreds nm area. Hence, site-specific sample preparation using FIB/SEM is necessary to get desired information from region of interest. Therefore, this complementary analysis combination works very well to understand the detail of materials.In this presentation, we will show the analysis results obtained from some of functional materials by Carl Zeiss CrossBeam 1540EsB FIB/SEM, FEI Tecnai G(2) F30, Titan G2 80-200 TEMs and locally build laser assisted 3DAP. As the one of the example, result of multi-scale characterization for

  10. Development and Application of Operando TEM to a Ruthenium Catalyst for CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin Kyle

    Operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an extension of in-situ TEM in which the performance of the material being observed is measured simultaneously. This is of great value, since structure-performance relationships lie at the heart of materials science. For catalyst materials, like the SiO2-supported Ru nanoparticles studied, the important performance metric, catalyst activity, is measured inside the microscope by determining the gas composition during imaging. This is accomplished by acquisition of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) of the gas in the environmental TEM while catalysis is taking place. In this work, automated methods for rapidly quantifying low-loss and core-loss EELS of gases were developed. A new sample preparation method was also established to increase catalytic conversion inside a differentially-pumped environmental TEM, and the maximum CO conversion observed was about 80%. A system for mixing gases and delivering them to the environmental TEM was designed and built, and a method for locating and imaging nanoparticles in zone axis orientations while minimizing electron dose rate was determined. After atomic resolution images of Ru nanoparticles observed during CO oxidation were obtained, the shape and surface structures of these particles was investigated. A Wulff model structure for Ru particles was compared to experimental images both by manually rotating the model, and by automatically determining a matching orientation using cross-correlation of shape signatures. From this analysis, it was determined that most Ru particles are close to Wulff-shaped during CO oxidation. While thick oxide layers were not observed to form on Ru during CO oxidation, thin RuO2 layers on the surface of Ru nanoparticles were imaged with atomic resolution for the first time. The activity of these layers is discussed in the context of the literature on the subject, which has thus far been inconclusive. We conclude that disordered oxidized ruthenium

  11. Substitution of Thr for Ala-237 in TEM-17, TEM-12 and TEM-26: alterations in beta-lactam resistance conferred on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Giakkoupi, P; Hujer, A M; Miriagou, V; Tzelepi, E; Bonomo, R A; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2001-07-10

    Non-naturally occurring mutants of TEM-17 (E104K), TEM-12 (R164S) and TEM-26 (E104K:R164S) extended-spectrum (ES) beta-lactamases bearing threonine at position 237 were constructed by site-specific mutagenesis and expressed under isogenic conditions in Escherichia coli. Quantification of beta-lactamase activities and immunoblotting indicated that Ala-237-->Thr did not significantly affect expression levels of these ES enzymes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics showed that the presence of threonine at position 237 exerted a dominant effect increasing the enzymes' preference for various early generation cephalosporins over penicillins. Activity against broad-spectrum oxyimino-beta-lactams was also changed. The effect of Ala-237-->Thr on the activity against ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefepime and cefpirome of all three ES TEM enzymes was detrimental. Introduction of Thr-237 improved activity against cefotaxime and ceftriaxone in TEM-12 and TEM-26, but not in TEM-17. PMID:11445164

  12. Improvement in perception of image sharpness through the addition of noise and its relationship with memory texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiazi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Naokazu

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding study, we investigated the effects of image noise on the perception of image sharpness using white noise, and one- and two-dimensional single-frequency sinusoidal patterns as stimuli. This study extends our preceding study by evaluating natural color images, rather than black-and-white patterns. The results showed that the effect of noise in improving image sharpness perception is more evident in blurred images than in sharp images. This is consistent with the results of the preceding study. In another preceding study, we proposed "memory texture" to explain the preferred granularity of images, as a concept similar to "memory color" for preferred color reproduction. We observed individual differences in type of memory texture for each object, that is, white or 1/f noise. This study discusses the relationship between improvement of sharpness perception by adding noise, and the memory texture, following its individual differences. We found that memory texture is one of the elements that affect sharpness perception.

  13. Characterization of the Novel CMT Enzyme TEM-154 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Frédéric; Delmas, Julien; Machado, Elisabete; Bouchon, Bernadette; Peixe, Luísa; Bonnet, Richard

    2011-01-01

    TEM-154, identified in Portugal in 2004, associated the substitutions observed in the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-12 and in the inhibitor-resistant penicillinase (IRT) TEM-33. This enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime and a low level of resistance to clavulanic acid. Surprisingly, the substitution Met69Leu enhanced the catalytic efficiency of oxyimino β-lactams conferred by the substitution Arg164Ser. Its discovery confirms the dissemination of the complex mutant group of TEM enzymes in European countries. PMID:21173189

  14. Transmission EELS of oxide superconductors with a cold field emission TEM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Zhang, H; Dravid, V P

    1995-02-15

    Electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) with a cold field emission gun (cFEG) transmission electron microscope (TEM) is implemented to analyze the evolution of the electronic structure and dielectric function of oxide superconductors. The O-K core loss spectra of p-type doped oxide superconductors are analyzed in terms of holes formation on oxygen sites, while low loss spectra are analyzed for free carrier plasmas, other spectral excitations, and their crystallographic confinement. It is illustrated that the transmission EELS with a cFEG TEM very much complement soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy, with the added advantages of high spatial resolution (approximately 1-100 nm), and is compatible with other analytical, diffraction, and imaging techniques, which are readily available in a cFEG TEM.

  15. Characterization of small inclusions: SEM vs TEM, or is it even worth considering SEM?

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, C.; L`Esperance, G.; Baril, E.; Forget, C.

    1996-12-31

    Inclusions of technological importance are often in the size range from 0.1 to 1 {mu}m. These inclusions are generally too thick for EEL-spectrometry and require the use of EDS to characterize their chemical composition. Recent Monte Carlo simulations indicated that scanning electron electron microscopes (SEM`s) equipped with a field emission gun (FEG) might challenge transmission electron microscopes (TEM`s) for the characterization of small inclusions. In the light of these results, we investigated the possibility of using a FEGSEM to characterize inclusions found in micro-alloyed steel welds used for arctic applications. The main setbacks of using EDS for such a task are due to the presence of small phases of unknown thicknesses, non-homogeneity of the X-ray generation volumes, variation in absorption along the path length of the X-rays, etc. Even though these problems are encountered in both the SEM and the TEM, the relative ease of imaging the very small inclusions in TEM confers a definite advantage to this technique. Furthermore, TEM allows to obtain convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns (CBED) which complement the chemical composition characterization, thereby allowing the unambiguous identification of the phases present (chemistry and crystal structure).

  16. TEM Observations of Corrosion Behaviors of Platinized Carbon Blacks under Thermal and Electrochemical Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.Y.; Zhang, J.L.; Yu, P.T.; Zhang, J.X.; Makharia, R.; More, Karren Leslie; Stach, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 are widely used to support platinum (Pt) or Pt alloy catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Despite their widespread use, carbon blacks are susceptible to corrosion during fuel cell operations. In this work, the corrosion behaviors of platinized Vulcan XC-72 nanoparticles under thermal and electrochemical conditions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal corrosion experiment was carried out in a gas-cell TEM, which allows for a direct observation of the thermal oxidation behavior of the nanoparticles. The electrochemical corrosion experiment was performed outside of the TEM by loading the nanoparticles on a TEM grid and then electrochemically corroding them step by step followed by taking TEM images from exactly the same nanoparticles after each step. This work revealed four types of structural changes: (i) total removal of structurally weak aggregates, (ii) breakdown of aggregates via neck-breaking, (iii) center-hollowed primary particles caused by an inside-out corrosion starting from the center to outer region, and (iv) gradual decrease in the size of primary particles caused by a uniform removal of material from the surface. These structural changes took place in sequence or simultaneously depending on the competition of carbon corrosion dynamical processes. The results obtained from this work provide insight on carbon corrosion and its effects on fuel cells' long-term performance and durability.

  17. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  18. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  19. Coma morphology and dust-emission pattern of periodic comet Halley. III - Additional high-resolution images taken in 1910

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Sekanina, Z.

    1985-01-01

    High-resolution photographic images of comet Halley obtained at Lick, Helwan, Lowell, and Vienna observatories during May-June 1910 are analyzed using the image-processing algorithm of Larson and Sekanina (1984). The results are presented in tables and compared with analyses of Mt. Wilson plates for the same period (Sekanina and Larson, 1984), and good general agreement is noted. Consideration is given to the position of the rotation pole, features indicative of the nucleus spin rate, the spokelike structure observed on May 21-22, and the expanding gas halo.

  20. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  1. TEM and NanoSIMS Study of Hydrated/Anhydrous Phase Mixed IDPs: Cometary or Asteroidal Origin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.

    2005-01-01

    Chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are subdivided into (1) particles that form highly porous aggregates (chondritic porous "CP" IDPs), and (2) smooth particles ("CS" IDPs). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been a valuable tool for non-destructively determining the bulk mineralogy of IDPs. Most IDPs fall within three distinct IR groups: (1) olivine-rich particles, (2) pyroxene-rich particles, and (3) phyllosilicate-rich particles. From the IR studies, IDPs dominated by anhydrous minerals tend to be fine grained (CP), while phyllosilicate-rich IDPs are mostly CS. CP IDPs have been linked to cometary sources based on their compositions, spectral properties, and atmospheric entry velocities. Since no spectral signatures of hydrated minerals have been detected in comets, CS IDPs are thought to derive from primitive asteroids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have revealed that the mineralogical distinctions between CP and CS IDPs are not always clear. Previous investigators have reported trace amounts of hydrous minerals in dominantly anhydrous particles. A better understanding of these particles will help to elucidate whether there is a genetic relationship between anhydrous and hydrated IDPs, provide insight into the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of primitive materials, and may help to determine whether comets have experienced any aqueous processing. Here we report a combined TEM and isotopic imaging study of an unusual anhydrous IDP with hydrated phases. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  2. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy.

  3. SANS and TEM studies of carbide precipitation and creep damage in type 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Ogle, J.C.; Schneibel, J.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to characterize the carbide (M/sub 23/C/sub 6/) precipitation and creep damage induced in type 304 stainless steel in the primary creep stage. The size distribution of matrix carbides evaluated from SANS analyses was consistent with TEM data, and the expected accelerated kinetics of precipitation under applied stress was confirmed. Additional SANS measurements after the postcreep solution annealing were made in order to differentiate cavities from the carbides. Potential advantages and difficulties associated with characterization of creep-induced cavitation by the SANS techniques are discussed.

  4. Differentiation between Glioblastoma Multiforme and Primary Cerebral Lymphoma: Additional Benefits of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien Feng; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shu, Ginger; Kuo, Yu Ting; Lee, Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and primary cerebral lymphoma (PCL) is important because the treatments are substantially different. The purpose of this article is to describe the MR imaging characteristics of GBM and PCL with emphasis on the quantitative ADC analysis in the tumor necrosis, the most strongly-enhanced tumor area, and the peritumoral edema. This retrospective cohort study collected 104 GBM (WHO grade IV) patients and 22 immune-competent PCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) patients. All these patients had pretreatment brain MR DWI and ADC imaging. Analysis of conventional MR imaging and quantitative ADC measurement including the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe) were done. ROC analysis with optimal cut-off values and area-under-the ROC curve (AUC) was performed. For conventional MR imaging, there are statistical differences in tumor size, tumor location, tumor margin, and the presence of tumor necrosis between GBM and PCL. Quantitative ADC analysis shows that GBM tended to have significantly (P<0.05) higher ADC in the most strongly-enhanced area (ADCt) and lower ADC in the peritumoral edema (ADCe) as compared with PCL. Excellent AUC (0.94) with optimal sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86% for differentiating between GBM and PCL was obtained by combination of ADC in the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe). Besides, there are positive ADC gradients in the peritumoral edema in a subset of GBMs but not in the PCLs. Quantitative ADC analysis in these three areas can thus be implemented to improve diagnostic accuracy for these two brain tumor types. The histological correlation of the ADC difference deserves further investigation. PMID:27631626

  5. Differentiation between Glioblastoma Multiforme and Primary Cerebral Lymphoma: Additional Benefits of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ching Chung; Tai, Ming Hong; Li, Chien Feng; Chen, Tai Yuan; Chen, Jeon Hor; Shu, Ginger; Kuo, Yu Ting; Lee, Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and primary cerebral lymphoma (PCL) is important because the treatments are substantially different. The purpose of this article is to describe the MR imaging characteristics of GBM and PCL with emphasis on the quantitative ADC analysis in the tumor necrosis, the most strongly-enhanced tumor area, and the peritumoral edema. This retrospective cohort study collected 104 GBM (WHO grade IV) patients and 22 immune-competent PCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) patients. All these patients had pretreatment brain MR DWI and ADC imaging. Analysis of conventional MR imaging and quantitative ADC measurement including the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe) were done. ROC analysis with optimal cut-off values and area-under-the ROC curve (AUC) was performed. For conventional MR imaging, there are statistical differences in tumor size, tumor location, tumor margin, and the presence of tumor necrosis between GBM and PCL. Quantitative ADC analysis shows that GBM tended to have significantly (P<0.05) higher ADC in the most strongly-enhanced area (ADCt) and lower ADC in the peritumoral edema (ADCe) as compared with PCL. Excellent AUC (0.94) with optimal sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86% for differentiating between GBM and PCL was obtained by combination of ADC in the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe). Besides, there are positive ADC gradients in the peritumoral edema in a subset of GBMs but not in the PCLs. Quantitative ADC analysis in these three areas can thus be implemented to improve diagnostic accuracy for these two brain tumor types. The histological correlation of the ADC difference deserves further investigation. PMID:27631626

  6. TEM Study of Internal Crystals in Supernova Graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Bernatowicz, T.; Stadermann, F. J.; Messenger, S.; Amari, S.

    2003-03-01

    A coordinated TEM and isotopic study of ten supernova (SN) graphites from the Murchison meteorite has revealed many internal grains, mostly titanium carbides (TiCs) and TiC-kamacite composite grains, which were accreted during the graphite growth.

  7. Instability of nanoscale metallic particles under electron irradiation in TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. Y.; Zhang, S. G.; Xia, M. X.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    The stability of nano metallic glass under electron beam in transmission electron microscope (TEM) was investigated. The most common voltage of TEM used in metallic materials characterization was either 200 kV or 300 kV. Both situations were investigated in this work. An amorphous metallic particle with a dimension of a few hundred nanometers was tested under 300 keV electron irradiation. New phase decomposed from the parent phase was observed. Moreover, a crystal particle with the same composition and dimension was tested under 200 keV irradiation. Decomposition process also occurred in this situation. Besides, crystal orientation modification was observed during irradiation. These results proved that the electron beam in TEM have an effect on the stability of nanoscale samples during long time irradiation. Atomic displacement was induced and diffusion was enhanced by electron irradiation. Thus, artifacts would be induced when a nanoscale metallic sample was characterized in TEM.

  8. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering.

    PubMed

    Janbroers, S; de Kruijff, T R; Xu, Q; Kooyman, P J; Zandbergen, H W

    2009-08-01

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775K under vacuum conditions. PMID:19450927

  9. Governing the morphology of Pt–Au heteronanocrystals with improved electrocatalytic performance† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional tabulated data, TEM, HAADF-STEM, HRTEM images, UV-visible measurements, XPS spectra, ICP elemental analysis, EDX-mapping, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements and tomography videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07481e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Chirea, Mariana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Mitrakas, Manasis; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum–gold heteronanostructures comprising either dimer (Pt–Au) or core–satellite (Pt@Au) configurations were synthesized by means of a seeded growth procedure using platinum nanodendrites as seeds. Careful control of the reduction kinetics of the gold precursor can be used to direct the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles on either one or multiple surface sites simultaneously, leading to the formation of either dimers or core–satellite nanoparticles, respectively, in high yields. Characterization by electron tomography and high resolution electron microscopy provided a better understanding of the actual three-dimensional particle morphology, as well as the Au–Pt interface, revealing quasi-epitaxial growth of Au on Pt. The prepared Pt–Au bimetallic nanostructures are highly efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution, showing accurate selectivity, high sensitivity, and improved efficiency by generating higher current densities than their monometallic counterparts. PMID:25904481

  10. Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Mirone, A.; Pareschi, G.; Canestrari, R.; Cotroneo, V.; Ferrari, C.; Ferrero, C.; Lazzarini, L.; Vernani, D.

    2006-06-01

    Future hard (10-100 keV) X-ray telescopes (SIMBOL-X, Con-X, HEXIT-SAT, XEUS) will implement focusing optics with multilayer coatings: in view of the production of these optics we are exploring several deposition techniques for the reflective coatings. In order to evaluate the achievable optical performance X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements are performed, which are powerful tools for the in-depth characterization of multilayer properties (roughness, thickness and density distribution). An exact extraction of the stack parameters is however difficult because the XRR scans depend on them in a complex way. The PPM code, developed at ERSF in the past years, is able to derive the layer-by-layer properties of multilayer structures from semi-automatic XRR scan fittings by means of a global minimization procedure in the parameters space. In this work we will present the PPM modeling of some multilayer stacks (Pt/C and Ni/C) deposited by simple e-beam evaporation. Moreover, in order to verify the predictions of PPM, the obtained results are compared with TEM profiles taken on the same set of samples. As we will show, PPM results are in good agreement with the TEM findings. In addition, we show that the accurate fitting returns a physically correct evaluation of the variation of layers thickness through the stack, whereas the thickness trend derived from TEM profiles can be altered by the superposition of roughness profiles in the sample image.

  11. Switching operation and degradation of resistive random access memory composed of tungsten oxide and copper investigated using in-situ TEM

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Akihito; Ohno, Yuuki; Nakane, Akitoshi; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (in-situ TEM) was performed to investigate the switching operation of a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) made of copper, tungsten oxide and titanium nitride (Cu/WOx/TiN). In the first Set (Forming) operation to initialize the device, precipitation appeared inside the WOx layer. It was presumed that a Cu conducting filament was formed, lowering the resistance (on-state). The Reset operation induced a higher resistance (the off-state). No change in the microstructure was identified in the TEM images. Only when an additional Reset current was applied after switching to the off-state could erasure of the filament be seen (over-Reset). Therefore, it was concluded that structural change relating to the resistance switch was localized in a very small area around the filament. With repeated switching operations and increasing operational current, the WOx/electrode interfaces became indistinct. At the same time, the resistance of the off-state gradually decreased. This is thought to be caused by Cu condensation at the interfaces because of leakage current through the area other than through the filament. This will lead to device degradation through mechanisms such as endurance failure. This is the first accelerated aging test of ReRAM achieved using in-situ TEM. PMID:26611856

  12. Computer image analysis: an additional tool for the identification of processed poultry and mammal protein containing bones.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, L; Fearn, T; Gulalp, S; Campagnoli, A; Ottoboni, M; Baldi, A; Cheli, F; Savoini, G; Dell'Orto, V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements, in combination with the official analytical methods for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, to distinguish between poultry versus mammals; and (2) to identify possible markers that can be used in routine analysis. For this purpose, 14 mammal and seven poultry samples and a total of 1081 bone fragment lacunae were analysed by combining the microscopic methods with computer image analysis. The distribution of 30 different measured size and shape bone lacunae variables were studied both within and between the two zoological classes. In all cases a considerable overlap between classes meant that classification of individual lacunae was problematic, though a clear separation in the means did allow successful classification of samples on the basis of averages. The variables most useful for classification were those related to size, lacuna area for example. The approach shows considerable promise but will need further study using a larger number of samples with a wider range.

  13. Spotiton: A prototype for an integrated inkjet dispense and vitrification system for cryo-TEM

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tilak; Sheehan, Patrick; Crum, John; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades, Cryo-TEM has developed into a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of biological macromolecules in their native vitrified state. However, the technique for vitrifying specimens onto EM grids is essentially unchanged – application of ~ 3 µL sample to a grid, followed by blotting and rapid plunge freezing into liquid ethane. Several trials are often required to obtain suitable thin (few hundred nanometers or less) vitrified layers amenable for cryo-TEM imaging, which results in waste of precious sample and resources. While commercially available instruments provide some level of automation to control the vitrification process in an effort to increase quality and reproducibility, obtaining satisfactory vitrified specimens remains a bottleneck in the Cryo-TEM pipeline. We describe here a completely novel method for EM specimen preparation based on small volume (picoliter to nanoliter) dispensing using inkjet technology. A first prototype system (Spotiton v0.5) demonstrates feasibility of this new approach for specimen vitrification. A piezo-electric inkjet dispenser is integrated with optical real-time cameras (100 Hz frame rate) to analyze picoliter to nanoliter droplet profiles in-flight and spreading dynamics on the grid, and thus provides a method to optimize timing of the process. Using TEM imaging and biochemical assays we demonstrate that the piezo-electric inkjet mechanism does not disrupt the structural or functional integrity of macromolecules. These preliminary studies provide insight into the factors and components that will need further development to enable a robust and repeatable technique for specimen vitrification using this novel approach. PMID:22569522

  14. Performance of low-voltage STEM/TEM with delta corrector and cold field emission gun.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeo; Sawada, Hidetaka; Hosokawa, Fumio; Kohno, Yuji; Tomita, Takeshi; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu; Kondo, Yukihito; Kimoto, Koji; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu

    2010-08-01

    To reduce radiation damage caused by the electron beam and to obtain high-contrast images of specimens, we have developed a highly stabilized transmission electron microscope equipped with a cold field emission gun and spherical aberration correctors for image- and probe-forming systems, which operates at lower acceleration voltages than conventional transmission electron microscopes. A delta-type aberration corrector is designed to simultaneously compensate for third-order spherical aberration and fifth-order 6-fold astigmatism. Both were successfully compensated in both scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) modes in the range 30-60 kV. The Fourier transforms of raw high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) images of a Si[110] sample revealed spots corresponding to lattice spacings of 111 and 96 pm at 30 and 60 kV, respectively, and those of raw TEM images of an amorphous Ge film with gold particles showed spots corresponding to spacings of 91 and 79 pm at 30 and 60 kV, respectively. Er@C(82)-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes, which are carbon-based samples, were successfully observed by HAADF-STEM imaging with an atomic-level resolution.

  15. Detecting single-electron events in TEM using low-cost electronics and a silicon strip sensor.

    PubMed

    Gontard, Lionel C; Moldovan, Grigore; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; Lin, Chao; Kirkland, Angus I

    2014-04-01

    There is great interest in developing novel position-sensitive direct detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. Direct imaging improves contrast and efficiency and allows the operation of the microscope at lower energies and at lower doses without loss in resolution, which is especially important for studying soft materials and biological samples. We investigate the feasibility of employing a silicon strip detector as an imaging detector for TEM. This device, routinely used in high-energy particle physics, can detect small variations in electric current associated with the impact of a single charged particle. The main advantages of using this type of sensor for direct imaging in TEM are its intrinsic radiation hardness and large detection area. Here, we detail design, simulation, fabrication and tests in a TEM of the front-end electronics developed using low-cost discrete components and discuss the limitations and applications of this technology for TEM. PMID:24401331

  16. Allochthonous Addition of Meteoritic Organics to the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of lunar samples 74220,861 was discussed in detail in [3, 4]. Our analysis sequence was as follows: optical microscopy, UV fluorescence imaging, -Raman, FESEM-EDX imaging and mapping, FETEMEDX imaging and mapping of a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) extracted section, and NanoSIMs analysis. We observed fluffytextured C-rich regions of interest (ROI) on three different volcanic glass beads. Each ROI was several m2 in size and fluoresced when exposed to UV. Using FESEM/EDX, the largest ROI measured 36 m and was located on an edge of a plateau located on the uppermost surface of the bead. The ROI was covered on one edge by a siliceous filament emanating from the plateau surface indicating it was attached to the bead while on the Moon. EDX mapping of the ROI shows it is composed primarily of heterogeneously distributed C. Embedded with the carbonaceous phase are localized concentrations of Si, Fe, Al and Ti indicating the presence of glass and/or minerals grains. -Raman showed strong D- and G-bands and their associated second order bands; intensity and location of these bands indicates the carbonaceous matter is structurally disorganized. A TEM thin section was extracted from the surface of a glass bead using FIB microscopy. High resolution TEM imaging and selected area electron diffraction demonstrate the carbonaceous layer to be amorphous; it lacked any long or short range order characteristic of micro- or nanocrystalline graphite. Additionally TEM imaging also revealed the presence of submicron mineral grains, typically < 50 nm in size, dispersed within the carbonaceous layer. NanoSIMs data will be presented and discussed at the meeting. Given the noted similarities between the carbonaceous matter present on 74220 glass beads and meteoritic kerogen, we suggest the allochthonous addition of meteoritic organics as the most probable source for the C-rich ROIs.

  17. A complex mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase with mutations encountered in both IRT-4 and extended-spectrum TEM-15, produced by an Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, D; Recule, C; Chaibi, E B; Bret, L; Croize, J; Chanal-Claris, C; Labia, R; Sirot, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli GR102 was isolated from feces of a leukemic patient. It expressed different levels of resistance to amoxicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate and to the various cephalosporins tested. The double-disk synergy test was weakly positive. Production of a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.6 was transferred to E. coli HB101 by conjugation. The nucleotide sequence was determined by direct sequencing of the amplification products obtained by PCR performed with TEM gene primers. This enzyme differed from TEM-1 (blaT-1B gene) by four amino acid substitutions: Met-->Leu-69, Glu-->Lys-104, Gly-->Ser-238 and Asn-->Asp-276. The amino acid susbstitutions Leu-69 and Asp-276 are known to be responsible for inhibitor resistance of the IRT-4 mutant, as are Lys-104 and Ser-238 substitutions for hydrolytic activity of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases TEM-15, TEM-4, and TEM-3. These combined mutations led to a mutant enzyme which conferred a level of resistance to coamoxiclav (MIC, 64 microg/ml) much lower than that conferred by IRT-4 (MIC, 2,048 microg/ml) but higher than that conferred by TEM-15 or TEM-1 (MIC, 16 microg/ml). In addition, the MIC of ceftazidime for E. coli transconjugant GR202 (1 microg/ml) was lower than that for E. coli TEM-15 (16 microg/ml) and higher than that for E. coli IRT-4 or TEM-1 (0.06 microg/ml). The MICs observed for this TEM-type enzyme were related to the kinetic constants Km and k(cat) and the 50% inhibitory concentration, which were intermediate between those observed for IRT-4 and TEM-15. In conclusion, this new type of complex mutant derived from TEM-1 (CMT-1) is able to confer resistance at a very low level to inhibitors and at a low level to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. CMT-1 received the designation TEM-50. PMID:9174192

  18. iPAINT: a general approach tailored to image the topology of interfaces with nanometer resolution† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1–S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00445h Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aloi, A.; Vilanova, N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interfacial phenomena in soft materials such as wetting, colloidal stability, coalescence, and friction warrants non-invasive imaging with nanometer resolution. Super-resolution microscopy has emerged as an attractive method to visualize nanostructures labeled covalently with fluorescent tags, but this is not amenable to all interfaces. Inspired by PAINT we developed a simple and general strategy to overcome this limitation, which we coin ‘iPAINT: interface Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography’. It enables three-dimensional, sub-diffraction imaging of interfaces irrespective of their nature via reversible adsorption of polymer chains end-functionalized with photo-activatable moieties. We visualized model dispersions, emulsions, and foams with ∼20 nm and ∼3° accuracy demonstrating the general applicability of iPAINT to study solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. iPAINT thus broadens the scope of super-resolution microscopy paving the way for non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of complex soft materials. PMID:27055489

  19. Soot Precursor Material: Visualization Via Simultaneous LIF-LII and Characterization Via TEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous combined laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced incandescence (LIF-LII) images are presented for both a normal and inverse diffusion flame. The excitation wavelength dependence distinguishes the LIF and LII signals in images from the normal diffusion flame while the temporal decay distinguishes the signals in images of the inverse diffusion flame. Each flame presents a minimum in the combined LIF-LII intensity in a region separating the fuel pyrolysis and soot containing regions. Opacity, geometric in definition, and extent of crystallinity measured through both bright and dark field Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) characterizes the thermophoretically sampled material from within this minimal LIF-LII intensity region. TEM analysis reveals rather different soot processes occurring within the normal and inverse diffusion flame. In the normal diffusion flame, rapid chemical and physical coalescence of PAHs results in initial formation of soot precursor particles that are highly crystalline and evolve toward fully formed soot. In the inverse diffusion flame, rapid coalescence of pyrolysis products occurs, producing tarlike, globular structures equivalent in size to fully formed soot aggregates but with markedly less crystallinity than normal-appearing soot. These different material properties are interpreted as reflecting different relative rates of chemical and physical coalescence of fuel pyrolysis products versus carbonization. Significantly, these TEM images support qualitative photophysical arguments suggesting that, in general, this 'dark' region observed in the LIF-LII images demarcates a transitional region in which a fundamental change in the material the material chemical/physical properties occurs between solid carbonaceous soot and condensed or gaseous molecular growth material.

  20. Coarsening of Pd nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere studied by in situ TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren; Skoglundh, Magnus; Helveg, Stig

    2016-06-01

    The coarsening of supported palladium nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere was studied in situ by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Specifically, the Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on a planar and amorphous Al2O3 support and were observed during the exposure to 10 mbar technical air at 650 °C. Time-resolved TEM image series reveal that the Pd nanoparticles were immobile and that a few percent of the nanoparticles grew or shrank, indicating a coarsening process mediated by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. The TEM image contrast suggests that the largest nanoparticles tended to wet the Al2O3 support to a higher degree than the smaller nanoparticles and that the distribution of projected particle sizes consequently broadens by the appearance of an asymmetric tail toward the larger particle sizes. A comparison with computer simulations based on a simple mean-field model for the Ostwald ripening process indicates that the observed change in the particle size distribution can be accounted for by wetting of the Al2O3 support by the larger Pd nanoparticles.

  1. Carbonate Mineral Assemblages as Inclusions in Yakutian Diamonds: TEM Verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logvinova, A. M.; Wirth, R.; Sobolev, N. V.; Taylor, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate mineral inclusions are quite rare in diamonds from the upper mantle, but are evidence for a carbonate abundance in the mantle. It is believed that such carbonatitic inclusions originated from high-density fluids (HDFs) that were enclosed in diamond during its growth. Using TEM and EPMA, several kinds of carbonate inclusions have been identified in Yakutian diamonds : aragonite, dolomite, magnesite, Ba-, Sr-, and Fe-rich carbonates. Most of them are represented by multi-phase inclusions of various chemically distinct carbonates, rich in Ca, Mg, and K and associated with minor amounts of silicate, oxide, saline, and volatile phases. Volatiles, leaving some porosity, played a significant role in the diamond growth. A single crystal of aragonite (60μm) is herein reported for the first time. This inclusion is located in the center of a diamond from the Komsomolskaya pipe. Careful CL imaging reveals the total absence of cracks around the aragonite inclusion - i.e., closed system. This inclusion has been identified by X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. At temperatures above 1000 0C, aragonite is only stable at high pressures of 5-6 GPa. Inside this aragonite, we observed nanocrystalline inclusions of titanite, Ni-rich sulfide, magnetite, water-bearing Mg-silicate, and fluid bubbles. Dolomite is common in carbonate multi-phase inclusions in diamonds from the Internatsionalnaya, Yubileinaya, and Udachnaya kimberlite pipes. Alluvial diamonds of the northeastern Siberian Platform are divided into two groups based on the composition of HDFs: 1) Mg-rich multi-phase inclusions (60% magnesite + dolomite + Fe-spinel + Ti-silicate + fluid bubbles); and 2) Ca-rich multi-phase inclusions (Ca,Ba-, Ca,Sr-, Ca,Fe-carbonates + Ti-silicate + Ba-apatite + fluid bubbles). High-density fluids also contain K. Volatiles in the fluid bubbles are represented by water, Cl, F, S, CO2, CH4, and heavy hydrocarbons. Origin of the second group of HDFs may be related to the non

  2. Zwitterionic polymersomes in an ionic liquid: room temperature TEM characterization.

    PubMed

    Maddikeri, Raghavendra R; Colak, Semra; Gido, Samuel P; Tew, Gregory N

    2011-10-10

    Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to characterize vesicles formed by the spontaneous self-assembly of a novel zwitterionic block copolymer in the ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium methanesulfonate as well as in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS). This block copolymer was synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a norbornene-based sulfobetaine, followed by its end-functionalization with polystyrene to generate the necessary amphiphilic structure. The ionic liquid enabled the visualization of the vesicles in their swollen state by TEM, demonstrating a new method for improved characterization of polymer vesicles. PMID:21902263

  3. Investigating materials formation with liquid-phase and cryogenic TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Yoreo, J. J.; N. A. J. M., Sommerdijk

    2016-08-01

    The recent advent of liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and advances in cryogenic TEM are transforming our understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms underlying the formation of materials in synthetic, biological and geochemical systems. These techniques have been applied to study the dynamic processes of nucleation, self-assembly, crystal growth and coarsening for metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, (bio)minerals, electrochemical systems, macromolecular complexes, and organic and inorganic self-assembling systems. New instrumentation and methodologies that are currently on the horizon promise new opportunities for advancing the science of materials synthesis.

  4. Direct electron detection for TEM with column parallel CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Grigore; Jeffery, Ben; Nomerotski, Andrei; Kirkland, Angus

    2009-06-01

    Step improvements in electron detectors are needed for transmission electron microscopes (TEM) to take full advantage of latest developments in electron optics and electron sources. This work presents beam tests performed with column parallel charge-coupled devices (CPCCD) and discusses measured cluster properties. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio is found, demonstrating that CPCCD are well suited for TEM. Large variations in cluster-integrated intensity and size are observed, attributed to the strong scattering of 120-200 keV electrons in silicon. Spatial momentum analysis of clusters reveals strong asymmetry indicating that position resolution could be limited for certain cluster shapes.

  5. Below-Band-Gap Laser Ablation Of Diamond For TEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Thomas; Foote, Marc C.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Fortier, Edward P.; Posthill, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Thin, electron-transparent layers of diamond for examination in transmission electron microscope (TEM) fabricated from thicker diamond substrates by using laser beam to ablate surface of substrate. Involves use of photon energy below band gap. Growing interest in use of diamond as bulk substrate and as coating material in variety of applications has given rise to increasing need for TEM for characterization of diamond-based materials. Below-band-gap laser ablation method helps to satisfy this need. Also applied in general to cutting and etching of diamonds.

  6. Investigation of gold-bearing veins using magnetics and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L.; Groom, R.

    2012-12-01

    Gold-bearing fractures have been mined at Charters Towers, Queensland for a century. The ore occurs in quartz-sulfide veins hosted in granitoids. The gold is found in lenses within the veins. The purpose of our work was to determine if geophysical methods could be used to identify and delineate known lode-bearing veins. The study site is around the Warrior Mine immediately south of the town. Two structures are being mined at 100-300 m depth: Warrior and Sons of Freedom. While IP is typically used to locate disseminated sulfides, we used a different approach: we integrated airborne magnetic data with ground TEM data to map the geometries of the gold-bearing fracture zones. TEM is advantageous because it does not involve injection of current into the ground with the uncertainty of current flow patterns in such resistive, fractured rocks. Fixed loop TEM surveying was utilized as this approach is much faster to perform than moving loop surveys. Although TEM is commonly used for mapping layered structures and strong conductors, it is much less used for detecting weak conductors, such as those found in gold exploration, contaminant plumes, or geotechnical applications. Here the fracture zones are highly weathered and wet thus producing weak conductors. Upon mapping the vertical derivative of the RTP magnetic data, many linear anomalies were noted, including over both mined structures. These anomalies all indicate negative susceptibility, as would be expected because the structures are depleted in magnetite with respect to the granitoids. Modeling of the RTP total field and derivatives confirms a negative susceptibility. The RTP data indicate the approximate dip, which agrees with known information. Depth resolution is limited in standard 3D inversions, which utilize orthogonal grids with the normal axis in the vertical direction. In this study, we use a dipping grid which strikes and dips according to known information, and have obtained good results. TEM surveying at

  7. TEM Derivative-Producing Enterobacter aerogenes Strains: Dissemination of a Prevalent Clone

    PubMed Central

    Dumarche, P.; De Champs, C.; Sirot, D.; Chanal, C.; Bonnet, R.; Sirot, J.

    2002-01-01

    TEM-24 (CAZ-6) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was detected in 1988 in Clermont-Ferrand, France, in Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaTEM-24) and Enterobacter aerogenes (blaTEM-24b), and since 1994, a TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes clonal strain has been observed elsewhere in the country. To determine if the spread of this clonal strain was restricted to TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes strains, 84 E. aerogenes strains (non-TEM/SHV-producing strains, TEM-1- or -2-producing strains, and different ESBL-producing strains), isolated from 1988 to 1999 in Clermont-Ferrand (n = 59) and in 11 other French hospitals in 1998 (n = 25), were studied. A clonal strain was found for TEM-24- but also for TEM-3- and TEM-1- or 2-producing isolates. This study shows that there is a clonal strain dependent on acquisition of the TEM-type enzyme (TEM-24 and other TEM types). PMID:11897606

  8. RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED RERTR FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B.D. Miller; D.D. Keiser Jr.; A.B. Robinson; J.W. Madden; P.G. Medvedev; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The recent development on TEM work of irradiated RERTR fuels includes microstructural characterization of the irradiated U-10Mo/alloy-6061 monolithic fuel plate, the RERTR-7 U-7Mo/Al-2Si and U-7Mo/Al-5Si dispersion fuel plates. It is the first time that a TEM sample of an irradiated nuclear fuel was prepared using the focused-ion-beam (FIB) lift-out technical at the Idaho National Laboratory. Multiple FIB TEM samples were prepared from the areas of interest in a SEM sample. The characterization was carried out using a 200kV TEM with a LaB6 filament. The three dimensional orderings of nanometer-sized fission gas bubbles are observed in the crystalline region of the U-Mo fuel. The co-existence of bubble superlattice and dislocations is evident. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of these fuels are discussed.

  9. Preparation of zeolites for TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) using microtomy

    SciTech Connect

    Csencsits, R.; Gronsky, R.

    1987-12-01

    The application of microtomy to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation of zeolite catalysts is explained. Using a new acrylic resin (LR White) thin sections (less than or equal to60 nm) may be cut with relative ease. Although the details described are specific to catalysts, microtomy and the use of the acrylic resin are applicable to any hard ceramic powder sample. 3 figs.

  10. Nanoleakage within the hybrid layer: a correlative FEISEM/TEM investigation.

    PubMed

    Suppa, Pietro; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Mazzotti, Giovanni; Prati, Carlo; Chersoni, Stefano; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nanoleakage patterns of the resin-dentin interfaces of three dentin bonding systems at both TEM and field emission in lens SEM (FEI-SEM) levels. A standardized smear layer was created with 180-grit silicon carbide paper (SiC) on dentin disks obtained from 18 noncarious human third molars. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups and bonded with a two-step total etching adhesive (Single Bond, SB), a two-step, self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE BOND, SEB), and a one-step, self-etching adhesive (XENO III, XEIII). Nanoleakage was evaluated by using an ammoniacal silver-nitrate solution. Specimens were processed for TEM and FEI-SEM observation. The TEM of SB revealed silver deposits in adhesive and hybrid layers (HL). High-magnification FEI-SEM micrographs clearly identified these deposits as spherical clusters mainly associated with nonembedded collagen fibrils. TEM and FEI-SEM examination of SEB revealed some clusters of silver deposits within porosities and small channels of the HL. Additional silver deposits were observed between the peritubular dentin walls and the resin tags. XEIII revealed very fine and diffuse silver grains throughout the entire HL. SEM visualization of nanoleakage at a high level of resolution has not been previously described. FEI-SEM technology supported the TEM visualization with three-dimensional morphological data of the relations between the HL constituents and nanoleakage. The results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that both total- and self-etch adhesives are not able to fully infiltrate the dentin substrate. PMID:15678495

  11. Solid-phase synthesis of graphene quantum dots from the food additive citric acid under microwave irradiation and their use in live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qianfen; Wang, Yong; Ni, Yongnian

    2016-05-01

    The work demonstrated that solid citric acid, one of the most common food additives, can be converted to graphene quantum dots (GQDs) under microwave heating. The as-prepared GQDs were further characterized by various analytical techniques like transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the GQDs was evaluated using HeLa cells. The result showed that the GQDs almost did not exhibit cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 1000 µg mL(-1). In addition, it was found that the GQDs showed good solubility, excellent photostability, and excitation-dependent multicolor photoluminescence. Subsequently, the multicolor GQDs were successfully used as a fluorescence light-up probe for live-cell imaging.

  12. In situ TEM straining of nanograined free-standing thin films reveals various unexpected deformation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid M.; Robertson, Ian M.

    2010-04-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) straining experiments provide direct detailed observation of the deformation and failure mechanisms active at a length scale relevant to nanomaterials. This presentation will detail continued investigations into the active mechanisms governing high purity nanograined pulsed-laser deposited (PLD) nickel, as well as recent work into dislocation-particle interactions in nanostructured PLD aluminum-alumina alloys. Straining experiments performed on nanograined PLD free-standing nanograined Ni films with an engineered grain size distribution revealed that the addition of ductility with limited decrease in strength, reported in such metals, can be attributed to the simultaneous activity of three deformation mechanisms in front of the crack tip. At the crack tip, a grain agglomeration mechanism occurs where several nanograins appear to rotate, resulting in a very thin, larger grain immediately prior to failure. In the classical plastic zone in front of the crack tip, a multitude of mechanisms were found to operate in the larger grains including: dislocation pile-up, twinning, and stress-assisted grain growth. The region outside of the plastic zone showed signs of elasticity with limited indications of dislocation activity. The insight gained from in-situ TEM straining experiments of nanograined PLD Ni provides feedback for models of the deformation and failure in nanograined FCC metals, and suggests a greater complexity in the active mechanisms. The investigation into the deformation and failure mechanisms of FCC metals via in-situ TEM straining experiments has been expanded to the effect of hard particles on the active mechanisms in nanograined aluminum with alumina particles. The microstructures investigated were developed with varying composition, grain size, and particle distribution via tailoring of the PLD conditions and subsequent annealing. In order to develop microstructures suitable for in-situ deformation testing

  13. Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to

  14. Catalyst-layer ionomer imaging of fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Guetaz, Laure; Lopez-Haro, M.; Escribano, S.; Morin, A.; Gebel, G.; Cullen, D. A.; More, K. L.; Borup, Rodney L.

    2015-09-14

    Investigation of membrane/electrode assembly (MEA) microstructure has become an essential step to optimize the MEA components and manufacturing processes or to study the MEA degradation. For these investigations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a tool of choice as it provides direct imaging of the different components. TEM is then widely used for analyzing the catalyst nanoparticles and their carbon support. However, the ionomer inside the electrode is more difficult to be imaged. The difficulties come from the fact that the ionomer forms an ultrathin layer surrounding the carbon particles and in addition, these two components, having similar density, present nomore » difference in contrast. In this paper, we show how the recent progresses in TEM techniques as spherical aberration (Cs) corrected HRTEM, electron tomography and X-EDS elemental mapping provide new possibilities for imaging this ionomer network and consequently to study its degradation.« less

  15. Catalyst-layer ionomer imaging of fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guetaz, Laure; Lopez-Haro, M.; Escribano, S.; Morin, A.; Gebel, G.; Cullen, D. A.; More, K. L.; Borup, Rodney L.

    2015-09-14

    Investigation of membrane/electrode assembly (MEA) microstructure has become an essential step to optimize the MEA components and manufacturing processes or to study the MEA degradation. For these investigations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a tool of choice as it provides direct imaging of the different components. TEM is then widely used for analyzing the catalyst nanoparticles and their carbon support. However, the ionomer inside the electrode is more difficult to be imaged. The difficulties come from the fact that the ionomer forms an ultrathin layer surrounding the carbon particles and in addition, these two components, having similar density, present no difference in contrast. In this paper, we show how the recent progresses in TEM techniques as spherical aberration (Cs) corrected HRTEM, electron tomography and X-EDS elemental mapping provide new possibilities for imaging this ionomer network and consequently to study its degradation.

  16. 3D TEM reconstruction and segmentation process of laminar bio-nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Iturrondobeitia, M. Okariz, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, R.; Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Ibarretxe, J.

    2015-03-30

    The microstructure of laminar bio-nanocomposites (Poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay) depends on the amount of clay platelet opening after integration with the polymer matrix and determines the final properties of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique is the only one that can provide a direct observation of the layer dispersion and the degree of exfoliation. However, the orientation of the clay platelets, which affects the final properties, is practically immeasurable from a single 2D TEM image. This issue can be overcome using transmission electron tomography (ET), a technique that allows the complete 3D characterization of the structure, including the measurement of the orientation of clay platelets, their morphology and their 3D distribution. ET involves a 3D reconstruction of the study volume and a subsequent segmentation of the study object. Currently, accurate segmentation is performed manually, which is inefficient and tedious. The aim of this work is to propose an objective/automated segmentation methodology process of a 3D TEM tomography reconstruction. In this method the segmentation threshold is optimized by minimizing the variation of the dimensions of the segmented objects and matching the segmented V{sub clay} (%) and the actual one. The method is first validated using a fictitious set of objects, and then applied on a nanocomposite.

  17. Methods for TEM analysis of NIST's single-walled carbon nanotube Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Geiss, Roy; Fagan, Jeffrey A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will soon release a series of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) reference materials (RMs) to provide users with a well-characterized material for their applications. The SWCNT reference material will be introduced as a series of three types of material: (1) raw soot characterized for composition, which will be certified as a Standard Reference Material, (2) purified (greater than 90 % SWCNT by weight) bucky paper and (3) dispersed, length-sorted populations characterized by length. The instrumental characterization of NIST's SWCNT reference materials is extensive, and this paper aims to provide researchers with dispersion preparation methods for TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of the SWCNT raw soot. A selection of dispersing solvents, including organic solvents, aqueous surfactants and DNA dispersions, were prepared and examined by TEM. Recommendations for sample preparation of the SWCNT SRM 2483 to yield images similar to those presented here are given. Examples of images of the length-sorted SWCNT reference material are also shown. These results illustrate the importance of optimal dispersion to enable imaging of SWCNT characteristics.

  18. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.

  19. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    DOE PAGES

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integratedmore » into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.« less

  20. Analytical study of raw Swarna Makshika (Chalcopyrite) and its Bhasma through TEM and EDAX.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, Chandra Bhushan

    2013-04-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine deals with a number of metals and minerals. Swarna Makshika (SM), a chalcopyrite one such minerals has iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sulphur (S) as major ingredients along with other trace elements of therapeutic importance. Studies related with characterization of SM are very few. In the current study SM and SM Bhasma were analysed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Analysis reveals the presence of iron, copper, and sulphur in SM. In addition to these elements, SM Bhasma found to contain Potassium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount. TEM study reveals that, grain size of the SM (5-10 microns) is significantly reduced in SM Bhasma to 50-200 nm.

  1. Analytical study of raw Swarna Makshika (Chalcopyrite) and its Bhasma through TEM and EDAX

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, Chandra Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine deals with a number of metals and minerals. Swarna Makshika (SM), a chalcopyrite one such minerals has iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sulphur (S) as major ingredients along with other trace elements of therapeutic importance. Studies related with characterization of SM are very few. In the current study SM and SM Bhasma were analysed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Analysis reveals the presence of iron, copper, and sulphur in SM. In addition to these elements, SM Bhasma found to contain Potassium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount. TEM study reveals that, grain size of the SM (5-10 microns) is significantly reduced in SM Bhasma to 50-200 nm. PMID:24250132

  2. Thermal stress induced voids in nanoscale copper interconnects by in-situ TEM heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Jin Ho

    Stress induced void formation in Cu interconnects, due to thermal stresses generated during the processing of semiconductors, is an increasing reliability issue in the semiconductor industry as Cu interconnects are being downscaled to follow the demand for faster chip speed. In this work, 1.8 micron and 180 nm wide Cu interconnects, fabricated by Freescale Semiconductors, were subjected to thermal cycles, in-situ in the TEM, to investigate the stress relaxation mechanisms as a function of interconnect linewidth. The experiments show that the 1.8 micron Cu interconnect lines relax the thermal stresses through dislocation nucleation and motion while the Cu interconnect 180 nm lines exhibit void formation. Void formation in 180 nm lines occurs predominantly at triple junctions where the Ta diffusion barrier meets a Cu grain boundary. In order to understand void formation in 180 nm lines, the grain orientation and local stresses are determined. In particular, Nanobeam Diffraction (NBD) in the TEM is used to obtain the diffraction pattern of each grain, from which the crystal orientation is evaluated by the ACT (Automated Crystallography for TEM) software. In addition, 2D Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations are performed using the Object Oriented Finite Modeling (OOF2) software to correlate grain orientation with local stresses, and consequently void formation. According to the experimental and simulation results obtained, void formation in 180nm Cu interconnects does not seem to be solely dependent on local stresses, but a combination of diffusion paths available, stress gradients and possibly the presence of defects. In addition, based on the in-situ TEM observations, void growth seems to occur through grain boundary and/or interfacial diffusion. However, in-situ STEM observations of fully opened voids post-failure show pileup of material at the Cu grain surfaces. This means that surface or interface diffusion is also very active during void growth in the presence

  3. Is There an Additional Value of {sup 11}C-Choline PET-CT to T2-weighted MRI Images in the Localization of Intraprostatic Tumor Nodules?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Koole, Michel; Isebaert, Sofie; Joniau, Steven; Deroose, Christophe M.; Oyen, Raymond; Lerut, Evelyne; Budiharto, Tom; Mottaghy, Felix; Bormans, Guy; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Haustermans, Karin

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the additional value of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) to T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for localization of intraprostatic tumor nodules. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine prostate cancer patients underwent T2w MRI and {sup 11}C-choline PET-CT before radical prostatectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. Tumor regions were outlined on the whole-mount histopathology sections and on the T2w MR images. Tumor localization was recorded in the basal, middle, and apical part of the prostate by means of an octant grid. To analyze {sup 11}C-choline PET-CT images, the same grid was used to calculate the standardized uptake values (SUV) per octant, after rigid registration with the T2w MR images for anatomic reference. Results: In total, 1,176 octants were analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of T2w MRI were 33.5%, 94.6%, and 70.2%, respectively. For {sup 11}C-choline PET-CT, the mean SUV{sub max} of malignant octants was significantly higher than the mean SUV{sub max} of benign octants (3.69 {+-} 1.29 vs. 3.06 {+-} 0.97, p < 0.0001) which was also true for mean SUV{sub mean} values (2.39 {+-} 0.77 vs. 1.94 {+-} 0.61, p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was observed between SUV{sub mean} and absolute tumor volume (Spearman r = 0.3003, p = 0.0362). No correlation was found between SUVs and prostate-specific antigen, T-stage or Gleason score. The highest accuracy (61.1%) was obtained with a SUV{sub max} cutoff of 2.70, resulting in a sensitivity of 77.4% and a specificity of 44.9%. When both modalities were combined (PET-CT or MRI positive), sensitivity levels increased as a function of SUV{sub max} but at the cost of specificity. When only considering suspect octants on {sup 11}C-choline PET-CT (SUV{sub max} {>=} 2.70) and T2w MRI, 84.7% of these segments were in agreement with the gold standard, compared with 80.5% for T2w MRI alone. Conclusions: The additional value of {sup

  4. In Situ Laser Synthesis of Si Nanowires in the Dynamic TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, M; Reed, B; LaGrange, T; Browning, N

    2007-12-05

    Nanowires (NWs) are a crucial component in today's nanoscale devices and are vital to the further development of nanotechnology. To achieve reliable growth of NWs and uniform electronic properties, the specific mechanisms that control the structural development of NWs and the correlation between NWs and their nucleation and growth processes must be examined. Because imaging is not possible in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) chambers, in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) based growth methods provide a method for characterizing NW evolution. In this paper, we describe a new method of in situ synthesis and imaging of NWs using laser-assisted growth inside a TEM. The vapor-liquid solid (VLS) growth mechanism (Figure 1), first described by Wagner and co-workers, is a widely accepted description of how many 1D nanostructures are formed. VLS and similar models have been applied to such methods as hybrid pulsed-laser ablation/chemical vapor deposition (PLA/CVD) and laser assisted NW growth at elevated temperatures, in which a pulsed laser ablates a target with gas flowing through the reaction chamber held at elevated temperature. These methods have successfully produced semiconductor and conducting oxide NWs with size control determined by the catalyst droplet diameter. The VLS description of NW growth is a widely accepted model, but the exact role of vapor species and its interaction with the catalyst particle is not fully understood. For example, NW growth has been observed to occur far below predicted eutectic temperatures, which suggests that alternative mechanisms such as solid-liquid-solid growth (SLS) may play a role. Many NW fabrication techniques preclude direct in situ characterization of the growth process. Because of this need for direct observation during growth, TEM-based NW growth methods have become increasingly popular. Though progress has been made in the study of the VLS mechanism of NW growth using in situ TEM, conventional in situ growth

  5. Plastic deformation in zirconium nitride observed by nanoindentation and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, G. W.; Wheeler, K.; Peralta, P.; McClellan, K. J.; Maloy, S. A.; Bond, G. M.

    2011-09-01

    A study on zirconium nitride using TEM and nanoindentation was performed to assess the significant surface plasticity found to be introduced by sample polishing. Cross-sectional TEM results show strong evidence of plasticity via dislocations produced directly from surface grinding and polishing. These dislocations were found to glide on the {0 1 1}<0 1¯ 1> slip system. Using nanoindentation to observe the effects of surface dislocation density, a critical shear stress was found that relates to dislocations nucleation and multiplication. Continued chemo-mechanical polishing increased the critical shear stress to approximately 1600 mN by reducing surface dislocations. It is postulated that vacancy clusters and oxide microcrystallites produced during surface processing provide dislocation nucleation and/or multiplication sites. Gentle chemo-mechanical polishing for several hours greatly reduced or eliminated preexisting dislocations such that the critical shear stress for nucleation approaches the theoretical limit (˜ G/5).

  6. Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ω m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and

  7. Helical superstructure of continuum graphene cone uncovered by TEM analysis of herringbone-striped pattern in graphitic whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yukie; Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    Cone-shaped graphitic whiskers (CGWs) are a form of pyrolytic carbon, consisting of conically stacked hexagonal carbon layers with an apex angle of 135-140°. Under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CGWs often exhibit herringbone-striped patterns. Bright-field (BF) and dark-field (DF) TEM images indicated that the stripes are due to periodical appearance of a strong inter-planar reflection, which is consistent with helical rotation of layers with stepwise "layer overlap". High-resolution TEM revealed that the period was 14-15 layers. The relationship between apex angle and stripe periodicity of CGWs could be consistently explained in terms of a helical superstructure of tightly coiled continuous graphene cone.

  8. Observations from TEM Analysis of Swift Creek Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Samples analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) from suspended sediments in Swift Creek have unique characteristics compared to other naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) sites across the country. Our first introduction to the uniqueness of the Swift Creek site came about when we analyzed soil sediments by polarized light microscopy (PLM) and found relatively low or nonexistent levels of chrysotile asbestos. Upon submission of these samples for TEM analysis, we found that the samples were literally filled with small chrysotile fibers and bundles. We also notice a high number of dark, rounded particles which were not asbestiform. Out of curiosity, we viewed the surface features of one of these particles using scanning electron microscopy to find compacted chrysotile fibers bundled inside these particles. These particles contained the vast majority of chrysotile in the sample. This finding began our approach to provide more advanced TEM/SEM methods for identifying and characterizing complex arrangements of asbestos from NOA sites. We will present some of our experiences and methods for characterizing these types of particles common to NOA sites.

  9. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  10. Effects of extreme pressure additive chemistry on rolling element bearing surface durability

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D.; Nixon, H. P.; Darragh, Craig V.; Howe, Jane Y; Coffey, Dorothy W

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant additives have been known to affect rolling element bearing surface durability for many years. Tapered roller bearings were used in fatigue testing of lubricants formulated with gear oil type additive systems. These systems have sulfur- and phosphoruscontaining compounds used for gear protection as well as bearing lubrication. Several variations of a commercially available base additive formulation were tested having modified sulfur components. The variations represent a range of ''active'' extreme pressure (EP) chemistries. The bearing fatigue test results were compared with respect to EP formulation and test conditions. Inner ring near-surface material in selected test bearings was evaluated on two scales: the micrometer scale using optical metallography and the nanometer scale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging and chemical analysis of the bearing samples revealed near-surface material and tribofilm characteristics. These results are discussed with respect to the relative fatigue lives.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging: A potential tool in assessing the addition of hyperthermia to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    CRACIUNESCU, OANA I.; THRALL, DONALD E.; VUJASKOVIC, ZELJKO; DEWHIRST, MARK W.

    2010-01-01

    The poor overall survival for patients with locally advanced breast cancers has led over the past decade to the introduction of numerous neoadjuvant combined therapy regimens to down-stage the disease before surgery. At the same time, more evidence suggests the need for treatment individualisation with a wide variety of new targets for cancer therapeutics and also multi modality therapies. In this context, early determination of whether the patient will fail to respond can enable the use of alternative therapies that can be more beneficial. The purpose of this review is to examine the potential role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early prediction of treatment response and prognosis of overall survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients enrolled on multi modality therapy trials that include hyperthermia. The material is organised with a review of dynamic contrast (DCE)-MRI and diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI for characterisation of phenomenological parameters of tumour physiology and their potential role in estimating therapy response. Most of the work published in this field has focused on responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens alone, so the emphasis will be there, however the available data that involves the addition of hyperthermia to the regimen will be discussed The review will also include future directions that include the potential use of MRI imaging techniques in establishing the role of hyperthermia alone in modifying breast tumour microenvironment, together with specific challenges related to performing such studies. PMID:20849258

  12. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  13. A new procedure for making TEM specimens of superconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Merkle, K.L.

    1997-04-01

    A new procedure is developed for making TEM specimens of thin film devices. In this procedure the sample is flatly polished to an overall ion-mill-ready thickness so that any point in the 2-D sample pane can be thinned to an electron-transparent thickness by subsequent ion-milling. Using this procedure, small regions of interest can be easily reached in both cross-section and plan-view samples. This is especially useful in device studies. Applications of this procedure to the study of superconductor devices yield good results. This procedure, using commercially available equipment and relatively cheap materials, is simple and easy to realize.

  14. Using coherent illumination to extend HRTEM resolution: Why we need a FEG-TEM for HREM

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    Resolution of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) has traditionally been defined in terms of its Scherzer resolution limit at optimum defocus. However, even beyond the Scherzer limit, spatial frequencies can be transferred from the specimen to the image, out to the so-called information limit of the electron microscope. The information limit of the HRTEM is determined by the degree of energy spread in the electron beam used to illuminate the sample. Since a HRTEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FEG) will produce an electron beam of high coherence with little energy spread, it can achieve an improved information-limit, and can thus be used to produce through-focus series of images containing information well beyond its nominal (Scherzer) resolution limit. Suitable computer processing of such series of images can produce composite images at resolutions approaching the microscope information limit. For such a FEG-TEM, combined with suitable computer image processing, resolution can approach 1{Angstrom}. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Using coherent illumination to extend HRTEM resolution: Why we need a FEG-TEM for HREM

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    Resolution of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) has traditionally been defined in terms of its Scherzer resolution limit at optimum defocus. However, even beyond the Scherzer limit, spatial frequencies can be transferred from the specimen to the image, out to the so-called information limit of the electron microscope. The information limit of the HRTEM is determined by the degree of energy spread in the electron beam used to illuminate the sample. Since a HRTEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FEG) will produce an electron beam of high coherence with little energy spread, it can achieve an improved information-limit, and can thus be used to produce through-focus series of images containing information well beyond its nominal (Scherzer) resolution limit. Suitable computer processing of such series of images can produce composite images at resolutions approaching the microscope information limit. For such a FEG-TEM, combined with suitable computer image processing, resolution can approach 1[Angstrom]. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  16. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. In Situ TEM Observations on the Sulfur-Assisted Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Li, Shisheng; Shi, Chao; Cong, Hong-Tao; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2014-04-17

    The effect of sulfur on the catalytic nucleation and growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from an iron catalyst was investigated in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalyst precursor of ferrocene and growth promoter of sulfur were selectively loaded inside of the hollow core of multiwall CNTs with open ends, which served as a nanoreactor powered by applying a voltage inside of the chamber of a TEM. It was found that a SWCNT nucleated and grew perpendicularly from a region of the catalyst nanoparticle surface, instead of the normal tangential growth that occurs with no sulfur addition. Our in situ TEM observation combined with CVD growth studies suggests that sulfur functions to promote the nucleation and growth of SWCNTs by forming inhomogeneous local active sites and modifying the interface bonding between catalysts and precipitated graphitic layers, so that carbon caps can be lifted off from the catalyst particle. PMID:26269989

  19. Microstructural characterization of Ti-6Al-4V metal chips by focused ion beam (FIB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Judy; Dong, Lei; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure of the secondary deformation zone (SDZ) near the cutting surface in metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V formed during machining was investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) specimen preparation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Use of the FIB allowed precise extraction of the specimen across this region to reveal its inhomogeneous microstructure resulting from the non-uniform distribution of strain, strain rate, and temperature generated during the cutting process. Initial imaging from conventional TEM foil preparation revealed microstructures ranging from heavily textured to regions of fine grains. Using FIB preparation, the transverse microstructure could be interpreted as fine grains near the cutting surface which transitioned to coarse grains toward the free surface. At the cutting surface a 10 nm thick recrystallized layer was observed capping a 20 nm thick amorphous layer.

  20. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid

  1. Quantitative TEM-based phase retrieval of MgO nano-cubes using the transport of intensity equation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tim C; Keast, Vicki J; Paganin, David M

    2008-08-01

    Through focus series of images are collected from MgO nano-cube crystals in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experimental data is used to solve the transport of intensity equation (TIE) to retrieve phase maps, which portray the morphology of the cubes and are quantified by the mean inner potential V(0). Particular attention is given to the practical difficulties associated with TIE phase retrieval of non-conducting polyhedron particles.

  2. TSAR modeling of a TEM horn and surrounding structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.C.; Pennock, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of a TEM horn was performed with the TSAR FDTD electromagnetics code. The modeling was done in stages, beginning with the simplest case, the bare antenna itself. Complexity was added in the form of a dielectric lens, an enclosing cylinder, a layer of absorber inside the cylinder, resistive terminations between the horn and cylinder, and a flat plate over all, electrically separate from the cylinder. The final configuration included all of the above, plus a ring of ferrite inside the cylinder, just ahead of the horn. Predictions of the far-field were made at roughly ten degree increments, more closely spaced near boresight, in both vertical and horizontal planes, through the antenna`s centerline. Time histories at those points were evaluated, and from the time histories power densities were calculated. Both time histories and power densities will be presented for the configurations modeled.

  3. Loosely coupled coaxial TEM applicators for deep-heating.

    PubMed

    Harrison, W H; Storm, F K

    1989-01-01

    The development of a coaxial TEM (transverse electromagnetic) deep-heating, non-contacting applicator employing two axially spaced concentric sleeves is described which has electrostatic characteristics and has been named the ESA. Thermal data obtained with the FDA/CDRH elliptic-shaped human torso phantom (with fat overlay) showed nearly uniform heating (+/- 10%) throughout the inner cross-section. Saline tank measurements on a torso cross-section confirmed similar SAR uniformity. Animal experiments with a pig, both with and without blood flow, verified deep-heating and suggested that some preferential central heating occurred. The absence of excessive surface heating indicated that the major portion of the E-field excitation is axially aligned. The non-contacting applicator does not require a water bolus, and experiments showed that moderate patient movement had minor effect on performance.

  4. A TEM analysis of nanoparticulates in a Polar ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, E.V.; Murr, L.E

    2004-03-15

    This paper explores the prospect for analyzing nanoparticulates in age-dated ice cores representing times in antiquity to establish a historical reference for atmospheric particulate regimes. Analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were utilized to observe representative ice-melt water drops dried down on carbon/formvar or similar coated grids. A 10,000-year-old Greenland ice core was melted, and representative water drops were transferred to coated grids in a clean room environment. Essentially, all particulates observed were aggregates and either crystalline or complex mixtures of nanocrystals. Especially notable was the observation of carbon nanotubes and related fullerene-like nanocrystal forms. These observations are similar with some aspects of contemporary airborne particulates including carbon nanotubes and complex nanocrystal aggregates.

  5. Quantitative electrochemical measurements using in situ ec-S/TEM devices.

    PubMed

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sacci, Robert L; Brown, Gilbert M; Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L; Walden, Franklin S; Gardiner, Daniel S; Damiano, John; Nackashi, David P

    2014-04-01

    Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3-/4--based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10-5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.

  6. Structural changes in collagen fibrils across a mineralized interface revealed by cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Quan, Bryan D; Sone, Eli D

    2015-08-01

    The structure of the mineralized collagen fibril, which is the basic building block of mineralized connective tissues, is critical to its function. We use cryo-TEM to study collagen structure at a well-defined hard-soft tissue interface, across which collagen fibrils are continuous, in order to evaluate changes to collagen upon mineralization. To establish a basis for the analysis of collagen banding, we compared cryo-TEM images of rat-tail tendon collagen to a model based on the X-ray structure. While there is close correspondence of periodicity, differences in band intensity indicate fibril regions with high density but lacking order, providing new insight into collagen fibrillar structure. Across a mineralized interface, we show that mineralization results in an axial contraction of the fibril, concomitant with lateral expansion, and that this contraction occurs only in the more flexible gap region of the fibril. Nevertheless, the major features of the banding pattern are not significantly changed, indicating that the axial arrangement of molecules remains largely intact. These results suggest a mechanism by which collagen fibrils are able to accommodate large amounts of mineral without significant disruption of their molecular packing, leading to synergy of mechanical properties.

  7. Advantages and limitations of OM, SEM, TEM and AFM in the study of ancient decorated pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Silva-Velazquez, Y.; Alva Medina, A.; Rivera, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results from the study of two fragments of pre-Hispanic pottery, decorated with red pigment, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). Capabilities and limitations of these techniques in the analysis of archaeological material are highlighted with special emphasis on TEM, AFM and MFM due to their contribution in the study of the pigment layer at micro and nano scale. The analyzed samples come from the archaeological sites of El Tajin and Xochicalco, both in Mexico. Results of conventional TEM and HRTEM analysis of the red pigment showed nanometric Fe2O3 particles in both samples but different particle shape and size distributions: specimen from El Tajin presented irregular particles between 50-100 nm while that from Xochicalco exhibited semispherical shapes in the 3-25 nm range. AFM images showed the topography of the pigments, which are related to the texture of their surface and thus to the production process. Finally, MFM showed different contrast regions suggesting the presence of ferromagnetic elements forming clusters and domain orientations on the color layer.

  8. An alternative to the TEM (Transformed Eulerian Mean) equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaßmann, Almut

    2013-04-01

    The TEM equations constitute a powerful means to get access to the residual circulation. However, due to their foundation on the wave perspective, they deliver only a zonally averaged picture without access to the three-dimensional structure or the local origins of the residual circulation. Therefore it is worth to investigate whether there are alternatives. The pathway followed here is to perform a transformation of the momentum and the potential temperature equation before taking the zonal mean. This is done by removing the steady state ideal wind solution vid = ?×?B-(?±P) from the equations (? - potential temperature, B - Bernoulli function, P - Ertel's potential vorticity EPV, ?± - density). The advantage of that approach is that the total EPV-flux does no longer contain an explicitly visible 'do-nothing-flux'. This flux, ?? ×?B, does only vanish when averaging on isentropic surfaces, but not on other isosurfaces. Here we find the reason why the conventional zonal mean on isentropes delivers a direct overturning cell on each hemisphere, whereas on other isosurfaces we obtain the typical three-cell structure with Headley, Ferrel, and polar cells. It will be demonstrated and made visible through idealized climate experiments with the ICON-IAP model that the zonal averages of the nonideal wind components vnid = v - vid and wnid = w - wid constitute similar direct overturning cells on non-isentropic surfaces as obtained with the TEM-generated v* and w*. It is also interesting to inspect fields of local nonideal wind components, the very origin of the residual circulation.

  9. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of QDs, XPS spectra, UV-vis and PL spectra of the sensitized electrodes, details about photophysical characterization and IPCE spectra interpretation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06769c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (108 s–1) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures. PMID:27478616

  10. Network Analysis of Sequence-Function Relationships and Exploration of Sequence Space of TEM β-Lactamases.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Catharina; Widmann, Michael; Fademrecht, Silvia; Vogel, Constantin; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The Lactamase Engineering Database (www.LacED.uni-stuttgart.de) was developed to facilitate the classification and analysis of TEM β-lactamases. The current version contains 474 TEM variants. Two hundred fifty-nine variants form a large scale-free network of highly connected point mutants. The network was divided into three subnetworks which were enriched by single phenotypes: one network with predominantly 2be and two networks with 2br phenotypes. Fifteen positions were found to be highly variable, contributing to the majority of the observed variants. Since it is expected that a considerable fraction of the theoretical sequence space is functional, the currently sequenced 474 variants represent only the tip of the iceberg of functional TEM β-lactamase variants which form a huge natural reservoir of highly interconnected variants. Almost 50% of the variants are part of a quartet. Thus, two single mutations that result in functional enzymes can be combined into a functional protein. Most of these quartets consist of the same phenotype, or the mutations are additive with respect to the phenotype. By predicting quartets from triplets, 3,916 unknown variants were constructed. Eighty-seven variants complement multiple quartets and therefore have a high probability of being functional. The construction of a TEM β-lactamase network and subsequent analyses by clustering and quartet prediction are valuable tools to gain new insights into the viable sequence space of TEM β-lactamases and to predict their phenotype. The highly connected sequence space of TEM β-lactamases is ideally suited to network analysis and demonstrates the strengths of network analysis over tree reconstruction methods.

  11. Nano-scale Petrography of Permian-Basin Halite by TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Powers, D. W.; Ismail, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Halite from the upper Permian Salado Formation of the Permian basin has been extensively studied over the last century. Few researchers, however, have looked at these units at the nano-scale. This is partially due to the difficulty of preparing soft-ionic-crystal samples for TEM studies, and because of the inherent artifacts created in the sectioning and imaging process. We have ultramicrotomed and imaged halite from the Salado in a 200kV TEM. An interesting find is the presence of a ≈ 30 nm transition zone of crystal surrounding some (but not all) fluid inclusions in primary halite (chevron crystal). The transition-zone crystal appears to be oriented differently than the bulk halite crystal away from the transition zone. The thickness of the transition zone does not seem to be sensitive to the dimensions of the inclusion which rules out pressure-temperature changes in solubility in such a small volume. The cause of these transition zones is unknown. Several interesting petrofabrics can also be seen in the primary halite. Fluid-inclusion-banded halite contains bands of very small (< 100 nm) fluid inclusions. Some inclusions appear to have trails of smaller drops, as if due to a drop-breakup event. This is curious because we don’t expect breakup events in a primary crystal. A “myrmekite” like texture has been observed that contains a series of indentations and spurs along the bedding plane. A turbulent fabric has been observed which contains small eddy-like structures . At this time, we are not able to interpret these fabrics with confidence or determine which are real and which are artifacts. This work is considered preliminary and should not be cited, as some samples were not collected under the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance (QA) program. This work will be repeated in the future with full WIPP QA.

  12. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-01

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to

  13. TEM-simulation of amorphous carbon films: influence of supercell packaging.

    PubMed

    Schultrich, H; Schultrich, B

    2001-07-01

    Recent developments in thin film technology allow to prepare deliberately amorphous carbon films with structures widely varying between graphite-like (sp2) and diamond-like (sp3) atomic bonds. This leads to amorphous structures with correspondingly varying densities. By periodically changing deposition conditions, nanometer multilayers may be prepared consisting of carbon layers of different density. Simulation of the electron microscopic imaging allows to differentiate between such real structural details (on the nanometer scale) and artefacts induced by the imaging procedure. But it must be assured that the modeled structure reflects the real one with sufficient accuracy. Thorough comparison of different simulation strategies shows that for the adequate simulation of TEM imaging of amorphous materials, the thickness of the layer with independently distributed atoms has to exceed a certain limit. Then, the statistical scattering of the randomly distributed atoms will be averaged. Otherwise, if the model of the transmission electron microscopy sample is constructed as iteration of thin identical supercells, the superposition of scattering waves with constant phase differences results in enhanced local fluctuations burying the multilayer structure. For thicker packages of supercells with independent random distributions, the effect of statistical atomic arrangements is more and more leveled off. Hence, nanometer structures based on regions with different density will be visible more distinctively in the random background. For carbon, this critical thickness amounts to about 4 nm. This is of special importance for the visualization of nanoscaled heterogeneities like multilayers or nanotube-like inclusions in amorphous matrices. PMID:11419873

  14. Morphological and Compositional (S)TEM Analysis of Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, F.; Davis, N. J. L. K.; Bohm, M.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum confinement of charge carriers in semiconductor nanocrystals produces optical and electronic properties that have the potential to enhance the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. One of these properties is the efficient formation of more than one electron-hole pair from a single absorbed photon, in a process called multiple exciton generation (MEG). In this work we studied the morphology of nanocrystal multilayers of PbSe treated with CdCl2 using complementary imaging and spectroscopy techniques to characterise the chemical composition and morphology of full MEG devices made with PbSe nanorods (NRs). IN the scanning TEM (STEM), plan view images and chemical maps were obtained of the nanocrystal layers, which allowed for the analysis of crystal structure and orientation, as well as size distribution and aspect ratio. These results were complemented by cross-sectional images of full devices, which allowed accessing the structure of each layer that composes the device, including the nanorod packing in the active nanocrystal layer.

  15. TEM in situ lithiation of tin nanoneedles for battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mackay, David T.; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Carter, C. Barry; Norton, M. Grant

    2015-08-12

    Materials such as tin (Sn) and silicon that alloy with lithium (Li) have attracted renewed interest as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. Although their superior capacity to graphite and other intercalation materials has been known for decades, their mechanical instability due to extreme volume changes during cycling has traditionally limited their commercial viability. This limitation is changing as processes emerge that produce nanostructured electrodes. The nanostructures can accommodate the repeated expansion and contraction as Li is inserted and removed without failing mechanically. Recently, one such nano-manufacturing process, which is capable of depositing coatings of Sn “nanoneedles” at low temperature with no template and at industrial scales, has been described. The present work is concerned with observations of the lithiation and delithiation behavior of these Sn nanoneedles during in situ experiments in the transmission electron microscope, along with a brief review of how in situ TEM experiments have been used to study the lithiation of Li-alloying materials. Individual needles are successfully lithiated and delithiated in solid-state half-cells against a Li-metal counter-electrode. Furthermore the microstructural evolution of the needles is discussed, including the transformation of one needle from single-crystal Sn to polycrystalline Sn–Li and back to single-crystal Sn.

  16. TEM in situ lithiation of tin nanoneedles for battery applications

    DOE PAGES

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mackay, David T.; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Carter, C. Barry; Norton, M. Grant

    2015-08-12

    Materials such as tin (Sn) and silicon that alloy with lithium (Li) have attracted renewed interest as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. Although their superior capacity to graphite and other intercalation materials has been known for decades, their mechanical instability due to extreme volume changes during cycling has traditionally limited their commercial viability. This limitation is changing as processes emerge that produce nanostructured electrodes. The nanostructures can accommodate the repeated expansion and contraction as Li is inserted and removed without failing mechanically. Recently, one such nano-manufacturing process, which is capable of depositing coatings of Sn “nanoneedles” at low temperature withmore » no template and at industrial scales, has been described. The present work is concerned with observations of the lithiation and delithiation behavior of these Sn nanoneedles during in situ experiments in the transmission electron microscope, along with a brief review of how in situ TEM experiments have been used to study the lithiation of Li-alloying materials. Individual needles are successfully lithiated and delithiated in solid-state half-cells against a Li-metal counter-electrode. Furthermore the microstructural evolution of the needles is discussed, including the transformation of one needle from single-crystal Sn to polycrystalline Sn–Li and back to single-crystal Sn.« less

  17. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of minerals in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Kuang-Chien

    1982-01-01

    Minerals in eight coals from different mines were characterized in the micron-size range by using analytical transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were thinned by ion-milling wafers cut from these coals; a cold stage cooled by liquid nitrogen was used to reduce thermal degradation of the minerals by the ion-beam. Different mineral compounds were observed in different coals. The major minerals are clays, sulfides, oxides, carbonates and some minor-element-bearing phosphates. Clays (kaolinite, illite and others) have been most commonly found as either flat sheets or round globules. Iron sulfide was mostly found in the No. 5 and No. 6 coals from Illinois, distributed as massive polycrystals, as clusters of single crystals (framboids) or as isolated single crystals with size range down to some 0.25 microns. Other sulfides and some oxides were found in other coals with particle size as small as some 200 angstroms. Quartz, titanium oxides and many other carbonates and phosphate compounds were also characterized. Brief TEM work in the organic mass of coal was also introduced to study the nature of the coal macerals.

  18. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  19. Aquifer characterisation in East Timor, with ground TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley-Cooper, A.

    2011-12-01

    An assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Resources in East Timor led by Geosciences Australia is aimed at assisting East Timor's government to better understand and manage their groundwater resources. Form the current known information most aquifers in Timor-Leste are recharged by rainfall during the wet season. There is a concern that without a regular recharge, the stored groundwater capacity will decrease. Timor's population increase has caused a higher demand for groundwater which is currently been met by regulated pumping bores which are taped into deep aquifers, plus the sprouting of unregulated spear point bores in the shallow aquifers . Both groundwater recharge and the aquifers morphology need to be better understood in order to ensure supply and so groundwater can be managed for the future. Current weather patterns are expected to change and this could cause longer periods of drought or more intense rainfall, which in turn, would affect the availability and quality of groundwater. Salt water intrusions pose a threat on the low-lying aquifers as sea level rises. Australia's CSIRO has undertaken a series hydrogeophysical investigations employing ground TEM to assist in the characterisation of three aquifers near Dili, Timor Leste's capital. Interpreting ground water chemistry and dating; jointly with EM data has enhanced the understanding of the aquifers architecture, groundwater quality and helped identify potential risks of seawater intrusions.

  20. EBSD and TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, Melissa C.; Gorman, Brian P.; Miller, Brandon D.; King, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and studying the irradiation behavior of high burn-up oxide fuel is critical to licensing of future fast breeder reactors. Advancements in experimental techniques and equipment are allowing for new insights into previously irradiated samples. In this work dual column focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to prepared transmission electron microscope samples from mixed oxide fuel with a burn-up of 6.7% FIMA. Utilizing the FIB/SEM for preparation resulted in samples with a dose rate of <0.5 mRem/h compared to approximately 1.1 R/h for a traditionally prepared TEM sample. The TEM analysis showed that the sample taken from the cooler rim region of the fuel pellet had approximately 2.5x higher dislocation density than that of the sample taken from the mid-radius due to the lower irradiation temperature of the rim. The dual column FIB/SEM was additionally used to prepared and serially slice approximately 25 um cubes. High quality electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) were collected from the face at each step, showing, for the first time, the ability to obtain EBSD data from high activity irradiated fuel.

  1. Deformation mechanisms of a 20Mn TWIP steel investigated by in situ neutron diffraction and TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yongfeng; Wang, Y. D.; Liu, Xiaopeng; Sun, Xin; Peng, R. Lin; Zhang, S. Y.; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2013-07-25

    The deformation mechanisms and associated microstructure changes during tensile loading of an annealed twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with the chemical composition of Fe–20Mn–3Si–3Al–0.045C (wt.%) were systematically investigated using in situ time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction in combination with postmortem transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The initial microstructure of the investigated alloy consists of equiaxed austenitic grains with the initial α´-phase of ~7% in volume. In addition to dislocation slip, twinning and two kinds of martensitic transformations from the austenite to α´- and epsilon martensites were observed as the main deformation modes during the tensile deformation. In situ neutron diffraction provides a powerful tool to establish the deformation mode map for elucidating the role of different deformation modes in different strain regions. The critical stress is 520 MPa for the martensitic transformation from the austenite to α´-martensite, whereas a higher stress (>600 MPa) is required for actuating the deformation twin and/or the martensitic transformation from -martensite. Both epsilon- and α´-martensites act as the hard phases whereas mechanical twinning contributes to both strength and ductility of the studied steel. TEM observations confirmed that the twinning process was facilitated by the parent grains orientated with <111> or <110> parallel to the loading direction. The nucleation and growth of twins are attributed to the pole and self-generation formation mechanisms, as well as the stair-rod cross-slip mechanism.

  2. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  3. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  4. TEM, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography studies of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles in Inconel 718 superalloy.

    PubMed

    Dubiel, B; Kruk, A; Stepniowska, E; Cempura, G; Geiger, D; Formanek, P; Hernandez, J; Midgley, P; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was the identification of gamma' and gamma'' strengthening precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 (Ni-19Fe-18Cr-5Nb-3Mo-1Ti-0.5Al-0.04C, wt %) using TEM dark-field, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography imaging. To identify gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles unambiguously, a systematic analysis of experimental and theoretical diffraction patterns were performed. Using HRTEM method it was possible to analyse small areas of precipitates appearance. Electron holography and electron tomography techniques show new possibilities of visualization of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles. The analysis by means of different complementary TEM methods showed that gamma'' particles exhibit a shape of thin plates, while gamma' phase precipitates are almost spherical. PMID:19903242

  5. Recent Advances in Electron Tomography: TEM and HAADF-STEM Tomography for Materials Science and IC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kubel, C; Voigt, A; Schoenmakers, R; Otten, M; Su, D; Lee, T; Carlsson, A; Engelmann, H; Bradley, J

    2005-11-09

    Electron tomograph tomography is a well y well-established technique for three-dimensional structure determination of (almost) amorphous specimens in life science applications. With the recent advances in nanotechnology and the semiconductor industry, there is also an increasing need for high-resolution 3D structural information in physical sciences. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of TEM and HAADF-STEM tomography for the 3D structural characterization of partially crystalline to highly crystalline materials. Our analysis of catalysts, a hydrogen storage material, and different semiconductor devices shows that features with a diameter as small as 1-2 nm can be resolved in 3D by electron tomography. For partially crystalline materials with small single crystalline domains, TEM tomography provides reliable 3D structural information. HAADF-STEM tomography is more versatile and can also be used for high-resolution 3D imaging of highly crystalline materials such as semiconductor devices.

  6. Development of "oligotyping" for characterization and molecular epidemiology of TEM beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Mabilat, C; Courvalin, P

    1990-01-01

    Based on the DNA sequences of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-2, which encode parental penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2, respectively, and blaTEM-3, blaTEM-4, blaTEM-5, blaTEM-6, and blaTEM-7, which encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, we designed heptadecanucleotides to discriminate point mutations in five loci. Determination of the hybridization profiles by colony hybridization with this selection of probes, termed "oligotyping," allowed characterization of the TEM variants present in 265 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae that exhibit synergism between a penicillinase inhibitor and broad-spectrum cephaslosporins. Among the 222 strains harboring TEM enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae (48%) and Escherichia coli (21%) were predominant, and TEM-3 was the most common enzyme (60%). Penicillinases TEM-1 and TEM-2 were detected alone (15 and 1%, respectively), combined (1%), or associated with another TEM beta-lactamase (17 and 6%, respectively). Fourteen variants, including seven new enzymes, were detected. One, TEM-13, was a new penicillinase with the same isoelectric point and substrate range as TEM-2 but differed by a single amino acid substitution, whereas the others, TEM-14 to TEM-19, were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases that consisted of novel combinations of known amino acid substitutions. Different TEM variants were found to coexist within the same cells. A patient could harbor two or three different strains that encoded the same enzyme or two indistinguishable isolates that produced distinct TEM beta-lactamases. PMID:2073111

  7. Three Dimensional TEM Forward Modeling Using FDTD Accelerated by GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Huang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Three dimensional inversion of transient electromagnetic (TEM) data is still challenging. The inversion speed mostly depends on the forward modeling. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the popular forward modeling scheme. In an explicit type, which is based on the Du Fort-Frankel scheme, the time step is under the constraint of quasi-static approximation. Often an upward-continuation boundary condition (UCBC) is applied on the earth-air surface to avoid time stepping in the model air. However, UCBC is not suitable for models with topography and has a low parallel efficiency. Modeling without UCBC may cause a much smaller time step because of the resistive attribute of the air and the quasi-static constraint, which may also low the efficiency greatly. Our recent research shows that the time step in the model air is not needed to be constrained by the quasi-static approximation, which can let the time step without UCBC much closer to that with UCBC. The parallel performance of FDTD is then largely released. On a computer with a 4-core CPU, this newly developed method is obviously faster than the method using UCBC. Besides, without UCBC, this method can be easily accelerated by Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). On a computer with a CPU of 4790k@4.4GHz and a GPU of GTX 970, the speed accelerated by CUDA is almost 10 times of that using CPU only. For a model with a grid size of 140×140×130, if the conductivity of the model earth is 0.02S/m, and the minimal space interval is 15m, it takes only 80 seconds to evolve the field from excitation to 0.032s.

  8. Comparative quantification and statistical analysis of η′ and η precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 by TEM and AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, Adrian Luis Dominguez-Lopez, Ivan Lopez-Jimenez, Luis Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D. Oscar

    2014-01-15

    Quantification of nanometric precipitates in metallic alloys has been traditionally performed using transmission electron microscopy, which is nominally a low throughput technique. This work presents a comparative study of quantification of η′ and η precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM quantification was compared with 2-D stereological results reported elsewhere. Also, a method was developed, using specialized software, to characterize nanometric size precipitates observed in dark-field TEM micrographs. Statistical analysis of the quantification results from both measurement techniques supports the use of AFM for precipitate characterization. Once the precipitate stoichiometry has been determined by appropriate analytical techniques like TEM, as it is the case for η′ and η in AA7075-T651, the relative ease with which specimens are prepared for AFM analysis could be advantageous in product and process development, and quality control, where a large number of samples are expected for analysis on a regular basis. - Highlights: • Nanometric MgZn{sub 2} precipitates in AA7075-T651 were characterized using AFM and TEM. • Phase-contrast AFM was used to differentiate metal matrix from MgZn{sub 2} precipitates. • TEM and AFM micrographs were analyzed using commercially available software. • AFM image analysis and TEM 2-D stereology render statistically equivalent results.

  9. TEM-4, a new plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes broad-spectrum cephalosporins in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, G C; Gerbaud, G; Bure, A; Philippon, A M; Pangon, B; Courvalin, P

    1989-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli, strain CB-134, recovered in 1986 from an abdominal abscess, exhibited resistance to penams, oxyimino-beta-lactams including broad-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime), and aztreonam but remained susceptible to cephamycins (cefoxitin, cefotetan) and to moxalactam and imipenem. Clavulanate (2 micrograms/ml) restored the susceptibility of the strain to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. A beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.9 was detected in strain CB-134, and the corresponding gene was transferred by conjugation to E. coli together with the associated aminoglycoside resistance determinant [AAC(3)-II] and tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfonamide resistance. The beta-lactamase efficiently hydrolyzed cefotaxime and ceftriaxone but only moderately hydrolyzed ceftazidime and was inhibited by clavulanate and sulbactam (1 microM) and by anti-TEM-1 and anti-TEM-2 sera. This extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, conferring resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and aztreonam, was comparable to CTX-1 (TEM-3) but differed from it by pI. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the plasmid DNA indicated that this new enzyme was coded by pUD16, a plasmid of 220 kilobases which belongs to the Inc6 incompatibility group. Hybridization with an intragenic probe for TEM-1 revealed that this beta-lactamase derives from TEM-type beta-lactamases and hence it was named TEM-4. Images PMID:2692515

  10. Inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases with different substitutions at position 244.

    PubMed Central

    Bret, L; Chaibi, E B; Chanal-Claris, C; Sirot, D; Labia, R; Sirot, J

    1997-01-01

    A novel inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamase was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and susceptible to cephalothin. The substrate and inhibitor profiles of this beta-lactamase were similar to those of IRT-1 and IRT-2. The novel IRT's bla gene was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed the amino acid replacement Arg for His-244 of the TEM-1 sequence. Substitutions for Arg-244 have been reported in three TEM-1 mutants: IRT-1 (which corresponds to TEM-31) (Cys), IRT-2/TEM-30 (Ser), and TEM-41 (Thr). We designated this novel beta-lactamase, which corresponds to TEM-51, IRT-15. PMID:9371365

  11. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  12. Image

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Amber; Harsch, Tim; Pitt, Julie; Firpo, Mike; Lekin, April; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  13. A Rapid Method for Viral Particle Detection in Viral-Induced Gastroenteritis: A TEM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M. John; Barrish, James P.; Hayes, Elizabeth S.; Leer, Laurie C.; Estes, Mary K.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1995-10-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. The most frequent cause of gastroenteritis is viral in origin. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid modified negative-staining TEM method with the conventional pseudoreplica technique in detection of viral particles in fecal samples from children with viral gastroenteritis. The modified negative-staining method resulted in a significantly higher (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) viral rating score than that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique (1.7 ± 0.4). In addition, the preparation time for the negative-staining method was approximately one fifth that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique. Rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis may be made by ultrastructural detection of viral particles in fecal samples using the negative staining technique.

  14. A TEM Study of Creep Deformation Mechanisms in Allvac 718Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Unocic, Kinga A; Hayes, Robert; Daehn, Glenn; Mills, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of creep deformation substructure in Ni-base superalloy Allvac 718Plus has been performed. Specimens crept at 620 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 690-732 C were examined utilizing diffraction contrast TEM characterization techniques. Creep was interrupted at 1-2.5% strain in order to study the deformation substructure following a limited amount of deformation. The dominant deformation modes at each of the test temperatures were highly planar in nature and involved shearing of the matrix and precipitates on {111} glide planes. In addition, paired a/2<110> dislocations were evident which suggest an antiphase boundary shearing mechanism. Creep induced microtwinning was also observed at the highest creep temperature which was created by identical a/6<112> Shockley partial dislocations that shear the matrix and precipitates on consecutive close packed {111} glide planes.

  15. Quantitative TEM analysis of precipitation and grain boundary segregation in neutron irradiated EUROFER 97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Christian; Gaganidze, Ermile; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of irradiation induced microstructural defects is essential for assessing the applicability of structural steels like the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steel EUROFER 97 in upcoming fusion reactors. In this work Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used to analyze the types and structure of precipitates, and the evolution of their size distributions and densities caused by neutron irradiation to a dose of 32 displacements per atom (dpa) at 330-340 °C in the irradiation experiment ARBOR 1. A significant growth of MX and M23C6 type precipitates is observed after neutron irradiation, while the precipitate density remains unchanged. Hardening caused by MX and M23C6 precipitate growth is assessed by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening (DBH) model, and shown to be of minor importance when compared to other irradiation effects like dislocation loop formation. Additionally, grain boundary segregation of chromium induced by neutron irradiation was investigated and detected in irradiated specimens.

  16. Shallow geothermal exploration using SkyTEM data: the VIGOR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santilano, Alessandro; Manzella, Adele; Viezzoli, Andrea; Menghini, Antonio; Donato, Assunta; Montanari, Domenico; Maggi, Sabino; Rizzo, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, helicopter geophysical electromagnetic (SkyTEM) data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The SkyTEM system provides, after data acquisition, analysis, processing and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Results were used also to characterize the main geological units outcropping in the region and extend the investigation at depth. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Besides, resistivity data may help in characterizing hydrogeological or tectonic features. The attempt is also to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, covering two areas. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. After acquisition, data were analysed and processed. Inversions were then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI). The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to

  17. Analytical TEM examinations of CoPt-TiO2 perpendicular magnetic recording media.

    PubMed

    Risner, Juliet D; Nolan, Thomas P; Bentley, James; Girt, Erol; Harkness, Samuel D; Sinclair, Robert

    2007-04-01

    For this analytical TEM study, nonmagnetic oxygen-rich boundaries were introduced into Co-Pt-alloy perpendicular recording media by cosputtering Co and Pt with TiO2. Increasing the TiO2 content resulted in changes to the microstructure and elemental distribution within grains and boundaries in these films. EFTEM imaging was used to generate composition maps spanning many tens of grains, thereby giving an overall depiction of the changes in elemental distribution occurring with increasing TiO2 content. Comparing EFTEM with spectrum-imaging maps created by high-resolution STEM with EDXS and EELS enabled both corroboration of EFTEM results and quantification of the chemical composition within individual grain boundary areas. The difficulty of interpreting data from EDXS for these extremely thin films is discussed. Increasing the TiO2 content of the media was found to create more uniformly wide Ti- and O-rich grain boundaries as well as Ti- and O-rich regions within grains.

  18. Propagation of TEM- and PSE-Type β-Lactamases among Amoxicillin-Resistant Salmonella spp. Isolated in France

    PubMed Central

    Llanes, Catherine; Kirchgesner, Veronique; Plesiat, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted between 1987 and 1994 at the University Hospital of Besançon, France, demonstrated a dramatic increase (from 0 to 42.5%) in the prevalence of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella spp. Of the 96 resistant isolates collected during this period (including 77 Typhimurium), 54 were found to produce TEM-1 β-lactamase, 40 produced PSE-1 (equivalent to CARB-2), one produced PSE-1 plus TEM-2, and one produced OXA-1 in isoelectric focusing and DNA hybridization experiments. Plasmids coding for these β-lactamases were further characterized by (i) profile analysis, (ii) restriction fragmentation pattern analysis, (iii) hybridization with an spvCD-orfE virulence probe, and (iv) replicon typing. In addition, isolates of S. typhimurium were genotypically compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-macrorestricted chromosomal DNA. Altogether, these methods showed that 40 of the 41 PSE-1 producers were actually the progeny of a single epidemic S. typhimurium strain lysotype DT104. Isolates of that strain were found to harbor RepFIC virulence plasmids with somewhat different restriction profiles, but which all carried the blaPSE-1 gene. Of these virulence/resistance plasmids, 15 were transmissible to Escherichia coli. TEM-1-producing S. typhimurium displayed much greater genotypic and plasmidic diversities, suggesting the acquisition of the blaTEM-1 gene from multiple bacterial sources by individual strains. In agreement with this, 32 of the 35 S. typhimurium plasmids encoding TEM-1 were found to be conjugative. These data show that development of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella, especially in serovar Typhimurium, results from both gene transfers and strain dissemination. PMID:10508020

  19. A TEM protocol for quality assurance of in vitro cellular barrier models and its application to the assessment of nanoparticle transport mechanisms across barriers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong; Dawson, Kenneth A; Lynch, Iseult

    2015-01-01

    We report here a protocol to characterise and monitor the quality of in vitro human cellular barrier models using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which can be applied for transport assays, mechanistic studies and screening of drug/compound (including nanoparticle) penetration across such biological barriers. Data from two examples of biological barriers are given, namely the hCMEC/D3 endothelial blood-brain barrier model, and the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial barrier model, to show the general applicability of the method. Several aspects of this method are applicable to the quality assurance of in vitro barrier models, e.g., assessment of the multi or mono-layer structure of the endothelial cells; identification of any potential "holes" in the barrier that could confound transport assay results; validation of tight junction expression; and determination of the types and amounts of key cellular organelles present in the barrier to account for any significant changes in phenotype that may occur compared to the in vivo situation. The method described here provides a key advantage in that it prevents loss of the filter membrane during monolayer sectioning, thereby preserving critical details associated with the basal cell membrane. Applicability of the protocol for other in vitro biological barriers, such as the blood-foetus, blood-testes, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lung alveolar-capillary barriers is also discussed. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of the method for assessment of nanoparticle transport across cellular barriers and elucidation of transcytosis mechanisms. Sequential events of cellular endocytosis, localisation and transcytosis can be described in detail by TEM imaging, revealing useful sub-cellular details that provide evidence for the mechanism of nanoparticle transport in the hCMEC/D3 blood-brain barrier model and the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell model. Potential artefacts resulting from the nanoparticles interacting with the

  20. Swelling of ion-irradiated 3C-SiC characterized by synchrotron radiation based XRD and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Ru; Ho, Chun-Yu; Chuang, Wei-Tsung; Ku, Ching-Shun; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-12-01

    An experimental technique was established to characterize irradiation-induced volume swelling through a combined utilization of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 3C-SiC specimens were irradiated by Si2+ ions (5 MeV) with fluences up to 5 × 1017 ion/cm2 at 1000 °C. In order to avoid the accumulation of implanted Si ions in the SiC layer, specific thicknesses of the epitaxy layer and implanted ion energy were chosen. Unresolvable black spot defects were studied by TEM, and the average size and density were calculated. XRD radial scan results of surface (0 0 2), (1 1 1), (0 2 2), (1 1 3), and (2 0 0) including peak shift and asymmetry peak broadening were observed. Different interplanar spacing information of single crystal SiC can be obtained from this XRD measurement method, making it possible to investigate the lattice expansion and volume swelling more precisely. While TEM provided a direct visualization of the microstructures and the interplanar spacing was measured from HRTEM images. It is suggested that irradiation induced point defects and compressive stress from the Si substrate were the cause of anisotropic (a = b < c) volume swelling of irradiated 3C-SiC in this study.

  1. Direct correlation of structural and electrical properties of electron-doped individual VO2 nanowires on devised TEM grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y.-R.; Kim, M.-W.; Kim, B.-J.

    2016-10-01

    Nano-scale VO2 wires with controlled parameters such as electron-doping have attracted intense interest due to their capability of suppressing the temperature of the metal-insulator transition (MIT). However, because their diameters are smaller than the spatial resolutions of the conventional measuring equipment, the ability to perform a thorough examination of the wires has been hindered. Here, we report the fabrication of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid with an optimum design of Si3N4 windows on which the photolithography for individual electron-doped VO2 nanowire devices can be safely accomplished, allowing the cross-examination of the structural and electrical properties. TEM dark-field imaging was used to quantitatively investigate the fractions of rutile and M1 phases, and their lattice alignments were observed using high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) with small area diffraction. Moreover, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that the rutile domain would be created by the strain induced by oxygen vacancies. Importantly, we successfully tuned the transition temperature by changing the rutile fraction while maintaining a high level of resistivity change. The resistivity at room temperature linearly decreased with the rutile fraction, following a simple model. Furthermore, the T dependence of the threshold voltage can be attributed to the Joule heating, exhibiting an identical thermal dependence, irrespective of the rutile fraction.

  2. TEM sample preparation using a new nanofabrication technique combining electron-beam-induced deposition and low-energy ion milling.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki; Tanaka, Miyoko; Takeguchi, Masaki; Song, Minghui; Furuya, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    A new TEM sample preparation technique using electron-beam-induced deposition combined with low-energy ion milling was used to fabricate for two different shapes of sample, conical and plate. High-quality HREM images can be obtained from samples prepared by this technique. A desired sample position can be obtained with high accuracy, and the total sample preparation time can be much less than conventional techniques. Because the gas deposition system used can easily be integrated in a conventional SEM, the method can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a SEM and an ion milling machine.

  3. Sub-meter desiccation crack patterns imaged by Curiosity at Gale Crater on Mars shed additional light on former lakes evident from examined outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Mangold, N.; Oehler, D. Z.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bish, D. L.; Heydari, E.; Rubin, D. M.; Rowland, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Small-scale desiccation crack patterns (mudcrack-like arrays of uniform ~0.1 to 1 m polygonal domains separated by linear or curving cracks in exposed bedding) imaged by Curiosity in Gale Crater, Mars complement a wealth of diverse data obtained from exposures of sedimentary rocks that point to deposition "in fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments" including an "intracrater lake system likely [to have] existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years …"(e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2015, Science, submitted). We interpret these mudcrack-like patterns, found on many of the bedrock exposures imaged by Curiosity, as desiccation cracks that developed either of two ways: 1) at the soft sediment-air interface like common mudcracks, or 2) at or below the sediment-water interface by synaeresis or diastasis (involving differential compaction). In the context of recent studies of terrestrial mudcracks, and cracks formed experimentally in various wet powders as they loose moisture, these desiccation features reflect diverse aspects of the formative environment. If they formed as mudcracks, some of the lakes were shallow enough to permit the recurrent drying and wetting that can lead to the geometric regularity characteristic of several of sets of mudcracks. Moreover, the water likely contained little suspended sediment otherwise the mudcracks would be buried too rapidly for the crack pattern to persist and to mature into regular polygonal patterns. The preservation of these desiccation crack patterns does not require, but does not exclude, deep burial and exhumation. Although invisible from satellite because of their size, a multitude of Mastcam and Navcam images reveals these informative features in considerable detail. These images complement much evidence, mostly from HiRISE data from several regions, suggesting that potential desiccation polygons on larger scales may be more common on the surface of Mars than generally recognized.

  4. In situ TEM investigations of mineral growth through oriented attachment of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Nielsen, M.; Lee, J. R.; Frandsen, C.; Banfield, J. F.; Kisailus, D.; De Yoreo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of crystals through aggregation and coalescence of nanoparticles is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon in biomineral, biomimetic and natural systems, and during synthetic production of nanoparticles and nanowires. The resulting crystals often exhibit complex forms ranging from quasi-one-dimensional chains to 3D hierarchical and self-similar superstructures. Yet the final structure typically diffracts as a single crystal, implying that the primary particles aligned during growth. When coalignment is accompanied by coalescence, this growth process is often referred to as oriented attachment (OA). OA is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials in the environment. However, the pathway by which OA occurs has not been established. Although the preservation of primary particle morphology and formation of twins and stacking faults at particle-particle boundaries strongly suggest a sequence of whole particle alignment followed by interface elimination, atom-by-atom reorientation via dislocation and grain-boundary migration after attachment are another potential mechanism. If indeed the primary particles align before attachment, the dynamics of that process and the forces that drive it have yet to be revealed. To achieve this understanding we are investigating crystal nucleation and oriented attachment in a number of systems, such as iron oxides and oxyhydroxide as well as titanium dioxide, through in situ and ex situ TEM. We performed high-resolution TEM using a fluid cell to directly observe oriented attachment of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles. The particles undergo continuous rotation and interaction until they find a perfect lattice match. A sudden jump to contact then occurs over less than 1 nanometer, followed by lateral atom-by-atom addition initiated at the contact point. Interface elimination proceeds at a rate consistent with the curvature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. Measured translational and

  5. Exploring the potential reservoirs of non specific TEM beta lactamase (blaTEM) gene in the Indo-Gangetic region: A risk assessment approach to predict health hazards.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Rani, Neetika; Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-08-15

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is an important public health and environmental contamination issue. Antimicrobials of β-lactam group accounts for approximately two thirds, by weight, of all antimicrobials administered to humans due to high clinical efficacy and low toxicity. This study explores β-lactam resistance determinant gene (blaTEM) as emerging contaminant in Indo-Gangetic region using qPCR in molecular beacon format. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach was adopted to predict risk to human health associated with consumption/exposure of surface water, potable water and street foods contaminated with bacteria having blaTEM gene. It was observed that surface water and sediments of the river Ganga and Gomti showed high numbers of blaTEM gene copies and varied significantly (p<0.05) among the sampling locations. The potable water collected from drinking water facility and clinical settings exhibit significant number of blaTEM gene copies (13±0.44-10200±316 gene copies/100mL). It was observed that E.crassipes among aquatic flora encountered in both the rivers had high load of blaTEM gene copies. The information on prevalence of environmental reservoirs of blaTEM gene containing bacteria in Indo-Gangetic region and risk associated will be useful for formulating strategies to protect public from menace of clinical risks linked with antimicrobial resistant bacteria. PMID:27111425

  6. Exploring the potential reservoirs of non specific TEM beta lactamase (blaTEM) gene in the Indo-Gangetic region: A risk assessment approach to predict health hazards.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Rani, Neetika; Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-08-15

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is an important public health and environmental contamination issue. Antimicrobials of β-lactam group accounts for approximately two thirds, by weight, of all antimicrobials administered to humans due to high clinical efficacy and low toxicity. This study explores β-lactam resistance determinant gene (blaTEM) as emerging contaminant in Indo-Gangetic region using qPCR in molecular beacon format. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach was adopted to predict risk to human health associated with consumption/exposure of surface water, potable water and street foods contaminated with bacteria having blaTEM gene. It was observed that surface water and sediments of the river Ganga and Gomti showed high numbers of blaTEM gene copies and varied significantly (p<0.05) among the sampling locations. The potable water collected from drinking water facility and clinical settings exhibit significant number of blaTEM gene copies (13±0.44-10200±316 gene copies/100mL). It was observed that E.crassipes among aquatic flora encountered in both the rivers had high load of blaTEM gene copies. The information on prevalence of environmental reservoirs of blaTEM gene containing bacteria in Indo-Gangetic region and risk associated will be useful for formulating strategies to protect public from menace of clinical risks linked with antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

  7. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  8. TEM Study of Aerosol Particles in Brown Haze Episodes over Northern China in Spring 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Shao, L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne aerosol collections were performed in eight brown haze episodes from 31 May to 21 June 2007 in Beijing, China. Morphologies, compositions, and mixing states of individual aerosol particles having different sizes were obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aerosol particle types less than 2 μ m in diameter include mineral dust, fly ash, soot, organic material, and K-rich, S-rich, and metal particles (Fe- and Zn-rich). Mineral dust particles dominate in the range of 2 to 10 μ m. In addition to finding contributions from vehicle emissions and soil dust in Beijing, TEM results from the study provide new insights into sources such as agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and waste incineration. These sources can contribute not only great amounts of K-rich and metal particles but also reactive gases such as NH3, NOx, SO2, and VOCs to the haze. More than 80% of the analyzed aerosol particles are internally mixed. K- and S-rich particles tend to be coagulated with fly ash, soot, metal, and fine-grained mineral dust particles. Organic materials can act as inclusions in the K- and S-rich particles and their coatings. Over 90% of the analyzed internally mixed mineral particles are covered with Ca-, Mg-, or Na-rich coatings, and only 8% are associated with K- or S-rich coatings. The compositions of Ca-, Mg-, and Na-rich coatings suggest that they are possibly nitrates mixed with minor sulfates and chlorides. Calcium sulfate particles with diameters from 10 to 500 nm were also detected within Ca(NO3)2 and Mg(NO3)2 coatings. These results indicate that mineral dust particles in the brown haze episodes participated in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere with one or more of SO2, NO2, HCl, and HNO3. The development of coatings altered some mineral dust particles from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  9. Inverse transformation algorithm of transient electromagnetic field and its high-resolution continuous imaging interpretation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xushan; Zhang, Yingying; Yao, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a new and potentially useful method for wave field inverse transformation and its application in transient electromagnetic method (TEM) 3D interpretation. The diffusive EM field is known to have a unique integral representation in terms of a fictitious wave field that satisfies a wave equation. The continuous imaging of TEM can be accomplished using the imaging methods in seismic interpretation after the diffusion equation is transformed into a fictitious wave equation. The interpretation method based on the imaging of a fictitious wave field could be used as a fast 3D inversion method. Moreover, the fictitious wave field possesses some wave field features making it possible for the application of a wave field interpretation method in TEM to improve the prospecting resolution. Wave field transformation is a key issue in the migration imaging of a fictitious wave field. The equation in the wave field transformation belongs to the first class Fredholm integration equation, which is a typical ill-posed equation. Additionally, TEM has a large dynamic time range, which also facilitates the weakness of this ill-posed problem. The wave field transformation is implemented by using pre-conditioned regularized conjugate gradient method. The continuous imaging of a fictitious wave field is implemented by using Kirchhoff integration. A synthetic aperture and deconvolution algorithm is also introduced to improve the interpretation resolution. We interpreted field data by the method proposed in this paper, and obtained a satisfying interpretation result.

  10. SRF niobium characterization using SIMS and FIB-TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevie, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities has been improved by elemental analysis at high depth resolution and by high magnification microscopy. This paper summarizes the technique development and the results obtained on poly-crystalline, large grain, and single crystal SRF niobium. Focused ion beam made possible sample preparation using transmission electron microscopy and the images obtained showed a very uniform oxide layer for all samples analyzed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen and the hydrogen content exhibited a relationship with improvement in performance. Depth profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen did not show major differences with heat treatment. Niobium oxide less than 10 nm thick was shown to be an effective hydrogen barrier. Niobium with titanium contamination showed unexpected performance improvement.

  11. SRF niobium characterization using SIMS and FIB-TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Stevie, F. A.

    2015-12-04

    Our understanding of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities has been improved by elemental analysis at high depth resolution and by high magnification microscopy. This paper summarizes the technique development and the results obtained on poly-crystalline, large grain, and single crystal SRF niobium. Focused ion beam made possible sample preparation using transmission electron microscopy and the images obtained showed a very uniform oxide layer for all samples analyzed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen and the hydrogen content exhibited a relationship with improvement in performance. Depth profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen did not show major differences with heat treatment. Niobium oxide less than 10 nm thick was shown to be an effective hydrogen barrier. Niobium with titanium contamination showed unexpected performance improvement.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Thiol-Michael Addition Reactions: A Case Study of Reversible Fluorescent Probes for Glutathione Imaging in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiqian; Carroll, Shaina L; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the thermodynamics and kinetics of reversible thiol-Michael addition reactions. M06-2X/6-31G(d) with the SMD solvation model can reliably predict the Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) of thiol-Michael addition reactions with an error of less than 1 kcal·mol(-1) compared with the experimental benchmarks. Taking advantage of this computational model, the first reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe was developed that can monitor the changes in glutathione levels in single living cells.

  13. High-temperature in-situ TEM straining of the interaction with dislocations and particles for Cu-added ferritic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kaneko, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Masao; Kanno, Norihiro; Hamada, Junichi

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionCu is always present in the matrix when ferritic steels were prepared from ferrous scrap. When the ferritic steels are aged thermally, Cu precipitates start appear and disperse finely and homogeneously [1], which may make the steels strengthened by precipitation hardening. In this study, the interaction between Cu precipitates and dislocations was exmined via high-temperature in-situ TEM straining. ExperimentalCu-added ferritic stainless steel (Fe-18.4%Cr-1.5%Cu) was used in the present study. Specimen was aged at1073 K for 360 ks. Samples for TEM observation were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB; Quanta 3D 200i) method. Microstructure of specimen was analyzed by JEM-3200FSK and high-temperature in-situ TEM straining was conducted using JEM-1300NEF. Results and discussionInteraction between Cu precipitates and dislocation is seen from consecutive TEM images acquired by in-situ TEM straining at 1073 K, as shown in Fig.1. The size of Cu precipitates was about 70 nm and several dislocations were present within the field of view. In particular, progressing dislocations contacted with the Cu precipitate at right angle, as indicated by arrows in Fig.1 (b) to (d). This result implies that there is an attractive interaction between dislocations and the Cu precipitate. This is attributed to the fact that Stress field of dislocations was easily relaxed in interface between the Cu precipitate and matrix because of lattice and interface diffusion as well as slip in the interface [2,3]. Furthermore, dislocations pass through the particle after contacting it, so that the interaction with dislocations and particles should be explained by Srolovitz mechanism [4].jmicro;63/suppl_1/i28/DFU083F1F1DFU083F1Fig. 1.TEM images foucused on interaction with dislocations and partticles.

  14. Calibration method of tilt and azimuth angles for alignment of TEM tomographic tilt series.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Misa; Terauchi, Shinya; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the calibration method of the tilt and azimuth angles of specimen using a digital protractor and a laser autocollimator for alignment of electron tomography. It also suggests an easy method to check whether the specimen is tilted by 180.0°, and whether the azimuth angle is 0.0°; the method involves the use of two images of a rod-shaped specimen collected before and after a 180.0° tilt. The method is based on the assumption that these images are symmetric about the tilt axis when the azimuth angle is 0.0°. In addition, we used an experiment to demonstrate the effect of the incorrect angles on reconstructed images and simulated the image quality against distance away from tilt axis.

  15. Calibration method of tilt and azimuth angles for alignment of TEM tomographic tilt series

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Misa; Terauchi, Shinya; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the calibration method of the tilt and azimuth angles of specimen using a digital protractor and a laser autocollimator for alignment of electron tomography. It also suggests an easy method to check whether the specimen is tilted by 180.0 deg., and whether the azimuth angle is 0.0 deg.; the method involves the use of two images of a rod-shaped specimen collected before and after a 180.0 deg. The method is based on the assumption that these images are symmetric about the tilt axis when the azimuth angle is 0.0 deg. In addition, we used an experiment to demonstrate the effect of the incorrect angles on reconstructed images and simulated the image quality against distance away from tilt axis.

  16. An analytical technique to extract surface information of negatively stained or heavy-metal shadowed organic materials within the TEM.

    PubMed

    Matsko, Nadejda B; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Albu, Mihaela; Mittal, Vikas

    2013-06-01

    Using a series of uranyl acetate stained or platinum-palladium shadowed organic samples, an empirical analytical method to extract surface information from energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images is described. The distribution of uranium or platinum-palladium atoms, which replicate the sample surface topography, have been mathematically extracted by dividing the image acquired in the valence bulk plasmon energy region (between 20 and 30 eV) by the image acquired at the carbon K ionization edge (between 284 and 300 eV). The resulting plasmon-to-carbon ratio (PCR) image may be interpreted as a precise metal replica of the sample surface. In contrast to conventional EFTEM elemental mapping, including an absolute quantification approach, this technique can be applied to 200-600 nm thick organic samples. A combination of conventional TEM and PCR imaging allows one to detect complementary transmission and topographical information with nanometer precision of the same area of carbon-based samples. The advantages and limitations of PCR imaging are highlighted. PMID:23570815

  17. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-14

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices. PMID:27362430

  18. TEM investigation on the microstructural evolution of Hastelloy N induced by Ar⁺ ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Lu, Yanling; Liu, Renduo; Zhou, Xingtai

    2014-02-01

    Hastelloy N alloy has been selected as the primary structure material for molten salt reactor. In this article, Hastelloy N alloy samples were irradiated to different doses at room temperature using 300 keV Ar(+) ions. The microstructural evolution was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Black dot defects emerged in sample irradiated at low dose (0.4 displacement per atom (dpa)), and they grew up with irradiation doses (0.4-2 dpa). A high density of small dislocation loops (nano meters in size) were observed in the sample irradiated to 4 dpa. When the ion dose increased to 12 dpa, complicated structures with defects (including dislocation lines, larger loops and smaller black dots) were observed. Dislocation networks were detected from high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) images. Larger dislocation loops (size: 30-80 nm) were visible in the sample irradiated to 40 dpa. Irradiation with dose of 120 dpa led to the formation of face-centered cubic nanocrystallites with preferred orientations.

  19. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-14

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Claire

    In this work, unirradiated and irradiated model body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) materials are investigated using advanced electron microscopy techniques to quantitatively measure local stresses and strains around defects, with the overarching goal of obtaining a fundamental understanding of defect physics. Quantitative in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests are performed with Molybdenum-alloy nano-fibers, functioning as a model BCC structural material. Local true stress and strain around an active Frank-Read type dislocation source are obtained using quantitative load-displacement data and digital image correlation. A mixed Frank-Read dislocation source, b=a/2[-1-11](112) with a line direction 20° from a screw orientation and length 177 nm, is observed to begin operating at a measured local stress of 1.38 GPa. The measured local true stress values compare very well to estimated stresses using dislocation radius of curvature, and a line-tension model of a large bow-out configuration, with differences of only ˜1%. The degree to which the local true stresses can be measured is highly promising. However, the ultimate failure mode of these fibers, sudden strain softening after dislocation starvation and exhaustion, cannot be captured at the typical camera frame rate of 30 frames per second. Thus, fibers are mechanically tested while under observation with the Gatan K2-IS direct electron detector camera, where the frame rate is an order of magnitude larger at 400 fps. Though the increase in frame rate adds to the overall understanding of the sudden failure, by definitively showing that the nano-fibers break rather than strain soften, the failure mechanism still operates too quickly to be observed. In the final investigation of this BCC model structural alloy, the mechanical behavior of heavily dislocated, but unirradiated, and He1+ and Ni 2+ irradiated nano-fibers are compared. Remarkable similarities are found in the

  1. Inactivation of TEM-1 by avibactam (NXL-104): insights from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics metadynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Grazioso, Giovanni; De Amici, Marco; Colombo, Giorgio

    2014-08-12

    The fast and constant development of drug-resistant bacteria represents a serious medical emergence. To overcome this problem, the development of drugs with new structures and modes of action is urgently needed. In this context, avibactam represents a promising, innovative inhibitor of beta-lactamases with a novel molecular structure compared to previously developed inhibitors, showing a promising inhibitory activity toward a significant number of beta-lactamase enzymes. In this work, we studied, at the atomistic level, the mechanisms of formation of the covalent complex between avibactam and TEM-1, an experimentally well-characterized class A beta-lactamase, using classical and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations combined with metadynamics. Our simulations provide a detailed structural and energetic picture of the molecular steps leading to the formation of the avibactam/TEM-1 covalent adduct. In particular, they support a mechanism in which the rate-determining step is the water-assisted Glu166 deprotonation by Ser70. In this mechanistic framework, the predicted activation energy is in good agreement with experimental kinetic measurements. Additionally, our simulations highlight the important role of Lys73 in assisting the Ser70 and Ser130 deprotonations. While based on the specific case of the avibactam/TEM-1, the simple protocol we present here can be immediately extended and applied to the study of covalent complex formation in different enzyme-inhibitor pairs.

  2. A comparison of 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) tissue engineering scaffolds produced with conventional and additive manufacturing techniques by means of quantitative analysis of SR μ-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; Intranuovo, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Domingos, M.; Favia, P.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    The technique used to produce a 3D tissue engineering (TE) scaffold is of fundamental importance in order to guarantee its proper morphological characteristics. An accurate assessment of the resulting structural properties is therefore crucial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the produced scaffold. Synchrotron radiation (SR) computed microtomography (μ-CT) combined with further image analysis seems to be one of the most effective techniques to this aim. However, a quantitative assessment of the morphological parameters directly from the reconstructed images is a non trivial task. This study considers two different poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a conventional technique (Solvent Casting Particulate Leaching, SCPL) and an additive manufacturing (AM) technique (BioCell Printing), respectively. With the first technique it is possible to produce scaffolds with random, non-regular, rounded pore geometry. The AM technique instead is able to produce scaffolds with square-shaped interconnected pores of regular dimension. Therefore, the final morphology of the AM scaffolds can be predicted and the resulting model can be used for the validation of the applied imaging and image analysis protocols. It is here reported a SR μ-CT image analysis approach that is able to effectively and accurately reveal the differences in the pore- and throat-size distributions as well as connectivity of both AM and SCPL scaffolds.

  3. Cryo-TEM of morphology and kinetics of self-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingshan

    Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) is applied to study various structures in solutions and suspensions from micron to nanometer scale. By vitrifying the liquid samples at different moments, sequential stages of a dynamic process can be frozen and the structures occurring from about 30 sec to over 10 min can be imaged. Therefore a picture of how the structures evolve with time in the liquid systems can be established. This method has been proven to be a powerful technique in studying the morphology and kinetics of self-assembled nanostructures. Such a pseudo-in-situ technique is used to "watch" the crystallization process of silver stearate (AgSt) from sodium stearate (NaSt) dispersions. AgSt crystal is produced from a reaction of NaSt and silver nitrate. The reaction, as a AgSt crystallization process, starts from AgSt micelles, which aggregate and grow into hexagonal shaped crystals of about 10 microns. If silver bromide (AgBr) grains are present, the micelles do not prefer to aggregate, but rather deposit on the surface of the AgBr crystalline grains. Variation of the carboxylate chain length does not affect the crystallization process very much, although the morphology of both the reactant and the product is changed. Nanostructure transition in sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) solutions is investigated as well. A micellar network structure can form if equal molar calcium chloride is added to 3 wt% SLES solution. The network can be broken into wormlike micelle segments such as spheres and rods by sonication. After about 10 min, these broken pieces can reassemble and reform the network through wormlike micelle growth and connection. Also by using Cryo-TEM, 100-200 nm casein micelles are observed at 1 wt% casein solution, but aggregated submicelles cannot be distinguished. However, individual submicelles of about 30 nm are indeed captured in a 0.03 wt% solution. By adding acid or EDTA, the casein micelles can be disrupted into small particles

  4. Synthesis, TEM characterization and thermal behaviour of LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribaudino, Mario; Bromiley, Geoffrey; Ohashi, Haruo; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2009-10-01

    A pyroxene with composition LiNiSi2O6 was synthesized at T = 1,473 K and P = 2.0 GPa; the cell parameters at T = 298 K are a = 9.4169(6) Å, b = 8.4465(7) Å, c = 5.2464(3) Å, β = 110.534(6)°, V = 390.78(3) Å3. TEM examination of the LiNiSi2O6 pyroxene showed the presence of h + k odd reflections indicative of a primitive lattice, and of antiphase domains obtained by dark field imaging of the h + k odd reflections. A HT in situ investigation was performed by examining TEM selected area diffraction patterns collected at high temperature and synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. In HTTEM the LiNiSi2O6 was examined together with LiCrSi2O6 pyroxene. In LiCrSi2O6 the h + k odd critical reflections disappear at about 340 K; they are sharp up to the transition temperature and do not change their shape until they disappear. In LiNiSi2O6 the h + k odd reflections are present up to sample deterioration at 650 K. A high temperature synchrotron radiation powder diffraction investigation was performed on LiNiSi2O6 between 298 and 773 K. The analysis of critical reflections and of changes in cell parameters shows that the space group is P-centred up to the highest temperature. The comparative analysis of the thermal and spontaneous strain contributions in P21/ c and C2/ c pyroxenes indicates that the high temperature strain in P-LiNiSi2O6 is very similar to that due to thermal strain only in C2/ c spodumene and that a spontaneous strain contribution related to pre-transition features is not apparent in LiNiSi2O6. A different high-temperature behaviour in LiNiSi2O6 with respect to other pyroxenes is suggested, possibly in relation with the presence of Jahn-Teller distortion of the M1 polyhedron centred by low-spin Ni3+.

  5. Virulence Factors and TEM-Type β-Lactamases Produced by Two Isolates of an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain

    PubMed Central

    Hennequin, Claire; Gniadkowski, Marek; Beyrouthy, Racha; Empel, Joanna; Gibold, Lucie; Bonnet, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of the same strain, identified in Poland, produced either TEM-47 or TEM-68, which differed by the Arg275Leu substitution. They harbored a few virulence factors, including an iron-chelating factor and capsule overproduction, suggesting that these factors were sufficient to enhance their nosocomial potency. TEM-68 and TEM-47 had similar enzymatic activities, but TEM-68 was less susceptible to inhibitors than TEM-47. These results confirm the role of the Arg275Leu substitution in the evolution of TEM enzymes. PMID:22106220

  6. Geoelectrical characterization by joint inversion of VES/TEM in Paraná basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Couto, M. A.; Almeida, E. R.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    For many years electrical (DC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings have been used in a great number of environmental, hydrological and mining exploration studies. The data of both methods are interpreted usually by individual 1D models resulting in many cases in ambiguous models. This can be explained by how the two different methodologies sample the subsurface. The vertical electrical sounding (VES) is good on marking very resistive structures, while the transient electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to map conductive structures. Another characteristic is that VES is more sensitive to shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper structures. A Matlab program for joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings, by using CRS algorithm was developed aiming explore the best of the both methods. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data and after it was used to invert experimental data from Paraná sedimentary basin. We present the results of a re-interpretation of 46 VES/TEM soundings data set acquired in Bebedouro region in São Paulo State - Brazil. The previous interpretation was based in geoelectrical models obtained by single inversion of the VES and TEM soundings. In this work we present the results with single inversion of VES and TEM sounding inverted by the Curupira Program and a new interpretation based in the joint inversion of both methodologies. The goal is increase the accuracy in determining the underground structures. As a result a new geoelectrical model of the region is obtained.

  7. TEM observations on Type III kerogen, with special reference to coal as a source rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Susie Y.; Taylor, Geoff H.

    Type III kerogen follows the coalification track of vitrinite or a bulk coal. It is often inferred that, because this organic matter is of comparatively low hydrogen and high oxygen content, it cannot be more than a marginal source of petroleum. This is not a correct approach because the actual source material is not the whole coal but only a small fraction. Some, at least, of this small fraction appears likely to be just as rich a source as much of Type I or Type II kerogen. There is no doubt that the liptinite macerals are important source materials. However, with TEM it can be shown that there are additional, and in some cases more significant, sources with varying degrees of thermal reactivity. These include: -in vitrinite, the remains of fungi and bacteria, other fine lipid-rich matter, and suberin; -in vitrinitic and especially in inertinitic coal, algal and algae-like material. Micrinite consists of aggregates of very fine spherical bodies which are formed when hydrocarbons are generated. The presence of such aggregates within the coal texture confirms the generative role of the lipid-rich components and provides an important indication as to whether generation has occurred.

  8. In situ TEM Studies of the Initial Oxidation stage of Cu and Cu Alloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Judith; Kang, Yihong; Luo, Langli; Ciston, James; Stach, Eric; Zhou, Guangwen

    2012-02-01

    The fundamental understanding of oxidation at the nanoscale is important for the environmental stability of coating materials as well as processing of oxide nanostructures. Our previous studies show the epitaxial growth of Cu2O islands during the initial stages of oxidation of Cu thin films, where surface diffusion and strain impact the oxide development and morphologies. The addition of secondary elements changes the oxidation mechanism. If the secondary element is non-oxidizing, such as Au, it will limit the Cu2O island growth due to the depletion of Cu near the oxide islands. When the secondary element is oxidizing, for example Ni, the alloy will show more complex behaviour, where duplex oxide islands were observed. Nucleation density and growth rate of oxide islands are observed under various temperatures and oxygen partial pressures (pO2) as a function of time by in situ ultra high vacuum (UHV)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our initial results of Cu-Ni(001) oxidation is that the oxide epitaxy and morphologies change as function of Ni concentration. For higher spatial resolution, we are examining the atomic scale oxidation by aberration-corrected ETEM with 1å resolution.

  9. TEM Observation of the Ti Interlayer Between SiC Substrates During Diffusion Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Shigeo; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mori

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion bonding was carried out to join SiC to SiC substrates using titanium interlayers. In this study, 10 m and 20 m thick physical vapor deposited (PVD) Ti surface coatings, and 10 and 20 m thick Ti foils were used. Diffusion bonding was performed at 1250 C for PVD Ti coatings and 1200 C for Ti foil. This study investigates the microstructures of the phases formed during diffusion bonding through TEM and selected-area diffraction analysis of a sample prepared with an FIB, which allows samples to be taken from the reacted area. In all samples, Ti3SiC2, Ti5Si3Cx and TiSi2 phases were identified. In addition, TiC and unknown phases also appeared in the samples in which Ti foils were used as interlayers. Furthermore, Ti3SiC2 phases show high concentration and Ti5Si3Cx formed less when samples were processed at a higher temperature and thinner interlayer samples were used. It appears that the formation of microcracks is caused by the presence of intermediate phase Ti5Si3Cx, which has anisotropic thermal expansion, and by the presence of an unidentified Ti-Si-C ternary phase with relatively low Si content.

  10. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques from 2 MHz to 200 MHz -- Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K., III; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the second part of a two-paper series. The first paper discussed cable types and shield connections. In this second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz.

  11. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques From 2 MHz to 200 MHz - Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the first part of a two-paper series. This first paper discusses cable types and shield connections. In the second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz. The electronic system (Fig. 1) consisted of two Hammond shielded electrical enclosures, one containing the source resistance, and the other containing the load resistance. The boxes were mounted on a large aluminium plate acting as the chassis. Cables connecting the two boxes measured 81 cm in length and were attached to the boxes using standard D38999 military-style connectors. The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. Electromagnetic fields were created using an HP8657B signal generator, MiniCircuits ZHL-42W-SMA amplifier, and an EMCO 5103 TEM cell. Measurements were

  12. Novel, plasmid-encoded, TEM-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae conferring higher resistance to aztreonam than to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

    PubMed Central

    Arlet, G; Rouveau, M; Fournier, G; Lagrange, P H; Philippon, A

    1993-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae was more resistant to aztreonam than to cefotaxime and ceftazidime. It produced a clavulanate-susceptible beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 6.3 which readily hydrolyzed penicillins, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime, but which hydrolyzed aztreonam poorly. The enzyme was encoded by a gene on a 15-kb plasmid; the gene hybridized with an intragenic DNA probe of blaTEM. Images PMID:8239625

  13. Correlated NanoSIMS, TEM, and XANES Studies of Presolar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groopman, Evan Edward

    The objective of this thesis is to describe the correlated study of individual presolar grains via Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) utilizing X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), with a focus on connecting these correlated laboratory studies to astrophysical phenomena. The correlated isotopic, chemical, and microstructural studies of individual presolar grains provide the most detailed description of their formation environments, and help to inform astrophysical models and observations of stellar objects. As a part of this thesis I have developed and improved upon laboratory techniques for micromanipulating presolar grains and embedding them in resin for ultramicrotomy after NanoSIMS analyses and prior to TEM characterization. The new methods have yielded a 100% success rate and allow for the specific correlation of microstructural and isotopic properties of individual grains. Knowing these properties allows for inferences to be made regarding the condensation sequences and the origins of the stellar material that condensed to form these grains. NanoSIMS studies of ultramicrotomed sections of presolar graphite grains have revealed complex isotopic heterogeneities that appear to be primary products of the grains' formation environments and not secondary processing during the grains' lifetimes. Correlated excesses in 15N and 18O were identified as being carried by TiC subgrains within presolar graphite grains from supernovae (SNe). These spatially-correlated isotopic anomalies pinpoint the origin of the material that formed these grains: the inner He/C zone. Complex microstructures and isotopic heterogeneities also provide evidence for mixing in globular SN ejecta, which is corroborated by models and telescopic observations. In addition to these significant isotopic discoveries, I have also observed the first reported nanocrystalline core

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. TEM00 mode Nd:YAG solar laser by side-pumping a grooved rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vistas, Cláudia R.; Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Guillot, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    A simple TEM00 mode solar laser system with a grooved Nd:YAG rod pumped through a heliostat-parabolic mirror system is reported here. The radiation coupling capacity of a fused silica tube lens was combined with the multipass pumping ability of a 2 V-shaped cavity to provide efficient side-pumping along a 4.0 mm diameter grooved Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. TEM00 mode solar laser power of 3.4 W was measured by adopting an asymmetric large-mode laser resonant cavity. Record TEM00 mode solar laser collection efficiency of 3.4 W/m2and slope efficiency of 1.9% was achieved, which corresponds to 1.8 and 2.4 times more than the previous TEM00 mode Nd:YAG solar laser using the PROMES-CNRS heliostat-parabolic mirror system, respectively.

  16. Compression Algorithm Analysis of In-Situ (S)TEM Video: Towards Automatic Event Detection and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Teuton, Jeremy R.; Griswold, Richard L.; Mehdi, Beata L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-09-23

    Precise analysis of both (S)TEM images and video are time and labor intensive processes. As an example, determining when crystal growth and shrinkage occurs during the dynamic process of Li dendrite deposition and stripping involves manually scanning through each frame in the video to extract a specific set of frames/images. For large numbers of images, this process can be very time consuming, so a fast and accurate automated method is desirable. Given this need, we developed software that uses analysis of video compression statistics for detecting and characterizing events in large data sets. This software works by converting the data into a series of images which it compresses into an MPEG-2 video using the open source “avconv” utility [1]. The software does not use the video itself, but rather analyzes the video statistics from the first pass of the video encoding that avconv records in the log file. This file contains statistics for each frame of the video including the frame quality, intra-texture and predicted texture bits, forward and backward motion vector resolution, among others. In all, avconv records 15 statistics for each frame. By combining different statistics, we have been able to detect events in various types of data. We have developed an interactive tool for exploring the data and the statistics that aids the analyst in selecting useful statistics for each analysis. Going forward, an algorithm for detecting and possibly describing events automatically can be written based on statistic(s) for each data type.

  17. A joint TEM-HLEM geophysical approach to borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains.

    PubMed

    Meju, M A; Fontes, S L; Ulugergerli, E U; La Terra, E F; Germano, C R; Carvalho, R M

    2001-01-01

    The accurate location of aquiferous fracture zones in granite beneath a > 50 m thick weathered mantle in semi-arid regions is a major hydrogeological problem. It is expected that the zone of intensive fracturing will be more susceptible to weathering and thus be characterized by the thickest development of saprolite, a good electrically conductive target for deep-probing electromagnetic systems. The single-loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) technique is well known to have the capability for detecting concealed steep mineralized targets in mining environments and can be adapted to this hydrogeological problem. We propose that combining the conventional frequency-domain horizontal-loop electromagnetic (HLEM) and single-loop TEM is an effective practical approach to locating concealed aquiferous fracture zones. In the supporting case studies presented here, we deployed multifrequency HLEM profiling (with 50 m transmitter-receiver separation) and TEM soundings with contiguous 10 or 20 m sided loops along the survey lines in a granitic terrain affected by deep (> 50 m) weathering in northeast Brazil. A somewhat layered structure consisting of resistive hardpan/leached zone, conductive saprolite, and resistive basement is identifiable in the typical TEM depth sounding data. We obtained coincident HLEM and TEM anomalies at all the sites, enabling a relatively straightforward selection of potential drilling positions. Simple resistivity-depth transformation of the TEM data was done for each site, yielding an approximate section from which drilling depths were estimated. All of the boreholes located were successful. Although our results appear to indicate that the single-loop TEM method could be used independently for borehole sitting in deeply weathered granitic terrains and that the weathering profile over granite can be mapped using TEM depth soundings of appropriate observational bandwidth, we recommend a joint electromagnetic approach for optimal well sitting.

  18. In situ TEM tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a MEMS device.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changhong; Howe, Jane Y; Perovic, Doug; Filleter, Tobin; Sun, Yu

    2016-07-15

    This paper reports in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a monolithic TEM compatible microelectromechanical system device. The set-up allows direct on-chip nanosheet thickness mapping, high resolution electron beam linking of a pre-fractured nanosheet, and mechanical tensile testing of the nanosheet. This technique enables simultaneous mechanical and high energy electron beam characterization of 2D nanomaterials. PMID:27256541

  19. In situ TEM tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a MEMS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changhong; Howe, Jane Y.; Perovic, Doug; Filleter, Tobin; Sun, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a monolithic TEM compatible microelectromechanical system device. The set-up allows direct on-chip nanosheet thickness mapping, high resolution electron beam linking of a pre-fractured nanosheet, and mechanical tensile testing of the nanosheet. This technique enables simultaneous mechanical and high energy electron beam characterization of 2D nanomaterials.

  20. In situ TEM tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a MEMS device.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changhong; Howe, Jane Y; Perovic, Doug; Filleter, Tobin; Sun, Yu

    2016-07-15

    This paper reports in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a monolithic TEM compatible microelectromechanical system device. The set-up allows direct on-chip nanosheet thickness mapping, high resolution electron beam linking of a pre-fractured nanosheet, and mechanical tensile testing of the nanosheet. This technique enables simultaneous mechanical and high energy electron beam characterization of 2D nanomaterials.

  1. A comparison of TEM and DLS methods to characterize size distribution of ceramic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. G. F.; Ciminelli, V. S. T.; Mohallem, N. D. S.

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements are compared with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies for characterization of size distributions of ceramic nanoparticles. It was found that measurements by DLS using number distribution presented accurate results when compared to TEM. The presence of dispersants and the enlargement of size distributions induce errors to DLS particle sizing measurements and shifts its results to higher values.

  2. Novel freestanding nanotube devices for combining TEM and electron diffraction with Raman and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Jannik C.; Obergfell, Dirk; Roth, Siegmar; Paillet, Matthieu; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Neumann, Anita; Duesberg, Georg

    2005-09-27

    A versatile procedure for combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction with Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements on the very same nanotube is presented. For this we prepare free-standing structures on the corner of a substrate by electron beam lithography and an etching process. Further, this procedure makes possible a TEM quality control of nanotubes grown directly on the substrate.

  3. TEM-72, a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy.

    PubMed

    Perilli, M; Segatore, B; de Massis, M R; Riccio, M L; Bianchi, C; Zollo, A; Rossolini, G M; Amicosante, G

    2000-09-01

    A new natural TEM-2 derivative, named TEM-72, was identified in a Proteus mirabilis strain and in a Morganella morganii strain isolated in Italy in 1999. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-72 contains the following amino acid substitutions: Q39K, M182T, G238S, and E240K. Kinetic analysis showed that TEM-72 exhibits an extended-spectrum activity, including activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam. Expression of bla(TEM-72) in Escherichia coli was capable of decreasing the host susceptibility to the above drugs.

  4. Identification of TEM-135 β-lactamase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains carrying African and Toronto plasmids in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gianecini, R; Oviedo, C; Littvik, A; Mendez, E; Piccoli, L; Montibello, S; Galarza, P

    2015-01-01

    One hundred forty-three penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates obtained in Argentina from 2008 and 2012 were examined to detect blaTEM-135 genes and to investigate plasmid profiles and multiantigen sequence types. Forty-two PPNG isolates were found to carry TEM-135, and two contained a new TEM derivative characterized as TEM-220. The blaTEM-135 allele was carried by the Toronto/Rio and African plasmids. Molecular epidemiology revealed that two blaTEM-135 isolates were related to previously described isolates from Thailand and China, indicating a common evolutionary origin.

  5. Identification of TEM-135 β-Lactamase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Carrying African and Toronto Plasmids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gianecini, R.; Oviedo, C.; Littvik, A.; Mendez, E.; Piccoli, L.; Montibello, S.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred forty-three penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates obtained in Argentina from 2008 and 2012 were examined to detect blaTEM-135 genes and to investigate plasmid profiles and multiantigen sequence types. Forty-two PPNG isolates were found to carry TEM-135, and two contained a new TEM derivative characterized as TEM-220. The blaTEM-135 allele was carried by the Toronto/Rio and African plasmids. Molecular epidemiology revealed that two blaTEM-135 isolates were related to previously described isolates from Thailand and China, indicating a common evolutionary origin. PMID:25367903

  6. Benchmarking of a novel contactless characterisation method for micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, S.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.

    2014-07-01

    Significant challenges exist in the thermal control of Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs) for use in optical communications. Increasing component density coupled with greater functionality is leading to higher device-level heat fluxes, stretching the capabilities of conventional cooling methods using thermoelectric modules (TEMs). A tailored thermal control solution incorporating micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs) to individually address hotspots within PICs could provide an energy efficient alternative to existing control methods. Performance characterisation is required to establish the suitability of commercially-available μTEMs for the operating conditions in current and next generation PICs. The objective of this paper is to outline a novel method for the characterisation of thermoelectric modules (TEMs), which utilises infra-red (IR) heat transfer and temperature measurement to obviate the need for mechanical stress on the upper surface of low compression tolerance (~0.5N) μTEMs. The method is benchmarked using a commercially-available macro scale TEM, comparing experimental data to the manufacturer's performance data sheet.

  7. VES/TEM 1D joint inversion by using Controlled Random Search (CRS) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Santos, Fernando Acácio Monteiro dos; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical (DC) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are used in a great number of environmental, hydrological, and mining exploration studies. Usually, data interpretation is accomplished by individual 1D models resulting often in ambiguous models. This fact can be explained by the way as the two different methodologies sample the medium beneath surface. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is good in marking resistive structures, while Transient Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to conductive structures. Another difference is VES is better to detect shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper layers. A Matlab program for 1D joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings was developed aiming at exploring the best of both methods. The program uses CRS - Controlled Random Search - algorithm for both single and 1D joint inversions. Usually inversion programs use Marquadt type algorithms but for electrical and electromagnetic methods, these algorithms may find a local minimum or not converge. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data, and then it was used to invert experimental data from two places in Paraná sedimentary basin (Bebedouro and Pirassununga cities), both located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Geoelectric model obtained from VES and TEM data 1D joint inversion is similar to the real geological condition, and ambiguities were minimized. Results with synthetic and real data show that 1D VES/TEM joint inversion better recovers simulated models and shows a great potential in geological studies, especially in hydrogeological studies.

  8. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine.

    PubMed

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C

    1989-02-01

    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  9. A TEM study of samples from acid mine drainage systems: metal-mineral association with implications for transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochella, Michael F.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Golla, Ute; Putnis, Andrew

    1999-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (EFTEM/EELS), as well as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), have been used to study bed sediments from two acid mine drainage (AMD) sites in western Montana, USA. TEM and associated techniques, including sample preparation via epoxy impregnation and ultramicrotome sectioning, afford the opportunity to better interpret and understand complex water-rock interactions in these types of samples. For the sample taken from the first site (Mike Horse mine), ferrihydrite is the dominant phase, Si and Zn are the most abundant elements sorbed to ferrihydrite surfaces, and Pb is notably absent from ferrihydrite association. Three additional important metal-containing phases (gahnite, hydrohetaerolite, and plumbojarosite), that were not apparent in the powder XRD pattern because of their relatively low concentration, were identified in the TEM. The presence of these phases is important, because, for example, gahnite and plumbojarosite act as sinks for Zn and Pb, respectively. Therefore, the mobility of Pb from this part of the drainage system depends on the stability of plumbojarosite and the ability of ferrihydrite to sorb the released Pb. From thermodynamic data in the literature, we predict that Pb will be released by the dissolution of plumbojarosite above a pH of 4 to 5, but it will then be recaptured by ferrihydrite if the pH continues to rise to 5.5 and higher, irrespective of competition effects from other metals. Therefore, only a relatively narrow pH window exists in which Pb can escape this portion of the system as an aqueous species. For the sample taken from the other site included in this study (the Carbonate mine), jarosite and quartz are the dominant phases. Interestingly, however, the jarosites are both Pb-poor and Pb-enriched. In addition, TEM reveals the

  10. Changes in the surfaces on DDOAB organoclays adsorbed with paranitrophenol-An XRD, TEM and TG study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qin; He Hongping; Frost, Ray L. Xi Yunfei

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption of paranitrophenol on organoclays synthesised by the ion exchange of the surfactant molecule dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDOAB) of formula (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}){sub 2}NBr(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis. The expansion of the montmorillonite depends on the loading of the montmorillonite with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide and is related to the arrangement of the surfactant molecules within the clay interlayer. This expansion is altered by the adsorbed paranitrophenol and is observed in the transmission electron microscopic images of the organoclay with adsorbed paranitrophenol. Changes in the surfactant molecular arrangements were analysed by thermogravimetry. The paranitrophenol is sublimed simultaneously with the loss of surfactant. The dehydroxylation temperature of the montmorillonite is decreased upon adsorption of the paranitrophenol indicating a bonding between the paranitrophenol and the hydroxyl units of the montmorillonite.

  11. Peptide:glycosaminoglycan hybrid hydrogels as an injectable intervention for spinal disc degeneration† †The data associated with this paper are openly available from the University of Leeds data repository, http://doi.org/10.5518/47 ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental methods, additional self-assembly and gelation data, additional FTIR spectra and TEM images, rheometry frequency sweep plots and peptide purity and content information. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb00121a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. E.; Mitchell, E. A.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the spinal discs is a major cause of back pain. During the degeneration process, there is a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the proteoglycan-rich gel in the disc's nucleus, which adversely alters biomechanical performance. Current surgical treatments for back pain are highly invasive and have low success rates; there is an urgent need for minimally-invasive approaches that restore the physiological mechanics of the spine. Here we present an injectable peptide:GAG hydrogel that rapidly self-assembles in situ and restores the mechanics of denucleated intervertebral discs. It forms a gel with comparable mechanical properties to the native tissue within seconds to minutes depending on the peptide chosen. Unlike other biomaterials that have been proposed for this purpose, these hybrid hydrogels can be injected through a very narrow 25 G gauge needle, minimising damage to the surrounding soft tissue, and they mimic the ability of the natural tissue to draw in water by incorporating GAGs. Furthermore, the GAGs enhance the gelation kinetics and thermodynamic stability of peptide hydrogels, significantly reducing effusion of injected material from the intervertebral disc (GAG leakage of 8 ± 3% after 24 h when peptide present, compared to 39 ± 3% when no peptide present). In an ex vivo model, we demonstrate that the hydrogels can restore the compressive stiffness of denucleated bovine intervertebral discs. Compellingly, this novel biomaterial has the potential to transform the clinical treatment of back pain by resolving current surgical challenges, thus improving patient quality of life. PMID:27429755

  12. An AEM-TEM study of nanometer-scale mineral associations in an aquifer sand: Implications for colloid mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Christopher H.; Ulery, April L.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1997-02-01

    Analytical and transmission electron microscopy (AEM-TEM) techniques were used to identify mineral juxtapositions at the nanometer-scale in the interstitial matrix of a shallow, Southeastern Coastal plain aquifer sand (Georgetown, South Carolina, USA). In doing so, we sought to infer particle-particle interaction mechanisms holding the matrix intact. The aquifer is a fine-to-medium quartz sand with approximately 12% by weight <63 μm size fraction composing the interstitial matrix. The clay-size fraction contains kaolinite, goethite, gibbsite, and vermiculite. The arrangement of the clay minerals is that of a framework of face-associated domains. Selective extraction revealed that goethite constituted 95% by weight of the free iron oxyhydroxides in the <63 μm size fraction, but AEM-TEM and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the goethite occurred only in discrete aggregates among the clays. Conversely, the remaining 5% of the free iron oxyhydroxides comprised an amorphous iron phase which was found to be distributed throughout the matrix and directly associated with the clay particles. This evidence suggests that the amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phase could act as an effective binding intermediary among the clay-clay associations, possibly electrostatically or through bond linkages with the clay surfaces. In addition, HRTEM indicated the presence of another amorphous phase which appeared to hold the clay particle aggregates in a cementitious web. AEM suggested that this amorphous phase was silicon enriched, probably biogenic opal. This evidence suggests that instigating dissolution of the opaline silica phase may be necessary to induce substantial colloid mobilization in this aquifer sediment.

  13. TEM-1-encoding small plasmids impose dissimilar fitness costs on Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Lund, Marianne; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Only two beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and ROB-1, have been observed in Haemophilus influenzae, while four different TEM but no ROB enzymes have been found in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the dissemination of small beta-lactamase-encoding plasmids in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae, we assessed the fitness cost of three TEM-1- (pPN223, pA1209, pA1606), one TEM-15- (pSF3) and one ROB-1-bearing (pB1000) plasmid when expressed in either bacterial species. All plasmids were stable in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae except pB1000, which showed on average (sample mean) 76% curing in H. parainfluenzae after 5  days of subculture. Competition assays between isogenic strains with and without plasmid showed no competitive disadvantage of pPN223 and pA1606 in H. influenzae, or of pA1209 in H. parainfluenzae. In contrast, pSF3 and pB1000 were associated with significant competitive disadvantages in both species. Some of the competitive disadvantages may be related to differences in plasmid copy number and mRNA expression of the beta-lactamase genes, as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, plasmids encoding TEM beta-lactamases isolated from H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be stably transferred between species. The fast curing of pB1000 in H. parainfluenzae observed in this study correlates to the fact that ROB-1 has never been reported for this species. TEM-1-encoding plasmids are associated with the lowest level of fitness cost, but different TEM-1 plasmids confer different levels of fitness cost on the two hosts.

  14. Heat Exchange, Additive Manufacturing, and Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick

    2015-02-23

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured undistorted snapshots of refrigerants flowing through small heat exchangers, helping them to better understand heat transfer in heating, cooling and ventilation systems.

  15. SEM and TEM Characterization of As-Fabricated U-7Mo Disperson Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. Yao; E. Perez; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate can have a dramatic impact on the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of dispersion fuel plates, SEM and TEM analysis have been performed on RERTR-9A archive fuel plates, which went through an additional hot isostatic procsssing (HIP) step during fabrication. The fuel plates had depleted U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in either Al-2Si or 4043 Al alloy matrix. For the characterized samples, it was observed that a large fraction of the ?-phase U-7Mo alloy particles had decomposed during fabrication, and in areas near the fuel/matrix interface where the transformation products were present significant fuel/matrix interaction had occurred. Relatively thin Si-rich interaction layers were also observed around the U-7Mo particles. In the thick interaction layers, (U)(Al,Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were identified, and in the thin interaction layers U(Al,Si)3, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and USi1.88-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this work, exposure of dispersion fuel plates to relatively high temperatures during fabrication impacts the overall microstructure, particularly the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. The time and temperature of fabrication should be carefully controlled in order to produce the most uniform Si-rich layers around the U-7Mo particles.

  16. Comparative studies of thin film growth on aluminium by AFM, TEM and GDOES characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiantao; Thompson, George E.

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, comparative studies of trivalent chromium conversion coating formation, associated with aluminium dissolution process, have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). High-resolution electron micrographs revealed the evident and uniform coating initiation on the whole surface after conversion treatment for only 30 s, although a network of metal ridges was created by HF etching pre-treatment. In terms of conversion treatment process on electropolished aluminium, constant kinetics of coating growth, ∼0.30 ± 0.2 nm/s, were found after the prolonged conversion treatment for 600 s. The availability of electrolyte anions for coating deposition determined the growth process. Simultaneously, a proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment, of ∼0.11 ± 0.02 nm/s, was found for the first time, indicating constant kinetics of anodic reactions. The distinct process of aluminium consumption was assigned with loss of corrosion protection of the deposited coating material as evidenced in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on the present data, a new mechanism of coating growth on aluminium was proposed, and it consisted of an activation period (0-30 s), a linear growth period (0.30 nm/s, up for 600 s) and limited growth period (0.17 nm/s, 600-1200 s). In addition, the air-drying post-treatment and a high-vacuum environment in the microscope revealed a coating shrinkage, especially in the coatings after conversion treatments for longer time.

  17. Changes in the rheological and colloidal properties of paper coating liquids with paper-yellowing inhibition additives.

    PubMed

    El-Sadi, Haifa; Carreau, Pierre; Esmail, Nabil

    2004-03-15

    This is an investigation of the effect of paper-yellowing inhibitors on the rheological, colloidal, and interfacial properties of paper-coating liquids and the associated changes in the liquid surface microstructure. In addition to rheological measurements, we measured the zeta potential and imaged the surface microstructure of coating liquids by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using an advanced Pt/C replica technique. The zeta potential is related to the concentration of added inhibitors. The images reveal interparticle structuring with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The structuring is related to the interaction between the coating liquids and the inhibitors. It was also found that the viscosity and the elastic modulus increased with inhibitor concentration. The significant changes in mixture properties due to the additives show the importance of the rheological and surface characterization of liquids and the ensuing effect on the corresponding engineering process.

  18. Noncovalent Interaction Energies in Covalent Complexes: TEM-1 beta-Lactamase and beta-Lactams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    The class A {beta}-lactamase TEM-1 is a key bacterial resistance enzyme against {beta}-lactam antibiotics, but little is known about the energetic bases for complementarity between TEM-1 and its inhibitors. Most inhibitors form a covalent adduct with the catalytic Ser70, making the measurement of equilibriumconstants, and hence interaction energies, technically difficult. This study evaluates noncovalent interactions withincovalent complexes by examining the differential stability of TEM-1 and its inhibitor adducts. The thermal denaturation of TEM-1 follows a two-state, reversible model with a melting temperature (T{sub m}) of 51.6 C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding ({Delta}H{sub VH}) of 146.2 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The stability of the enzyme changes on forming an inhibitor adduct. As expected, some inhibitors stabilize TEM-1; transition-state analogues increase the T{sub m} by up to 3.7 C(1.7 kcal/mol). Surprisingly, all {beta}-lactam covalent acyl-enzyme complexes tested destabilize TEM-1 significantly relative to the apoenzyme. For instance, the clinically used inhibitor clavulanic acid and the {beta}-lactamase-resistant {beta}-lactams moxalactam and imipenem destabilize TEM-1 by over 2.6 C (1.2 kcal/mol) in their covalent adducts. Based on the structure of the TEM-1/imipenem complex (Maveyraud et al., J Am Chem Soc 1998;120:9748-52), destabilization by moxalactam and imipenem is thought to be caused by a steric clash between the side-chain of Asn132 and the 6(7)-{alpha} group of these {beta}-lactams. To test this hypothesis, the mutant enzyme N132A was made. In contrast with wild-type, the covalent complexes between N132A and both imipenem and moxalactam stabilize the enzyme, consistent with the hypothesis. To investigate the structural bases of this dramatic change instability, the structure of N132A/imipenem was determined by X-ray crystallography. In the complex with N132A, imipenemadopts a very different conformation from that observed in the wild

  19. TEM-158 (CMT-9), a New Member of the CMT-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases▿

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Frédéric; Delmas, Julien; Brebion, Amélie; Dubois, Damien; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Bonnet, Richard

    2007-01-01

    TEM-158 was found to include the substitutions previously observed for TEM-12 and TEM-35. This enzyme presented hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime and a high level of resistance against clavulanate, which can alter its detection. Its discovery highlights the need for accurate detection methods. PMID:17709463

  20. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  1. Micromechanical and in situ shear testing of Al–SiC nanolaminate composites in a transmission electron microscope (TEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Carl; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan Allan; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-11-07

    Nanolaminate composites show promise as high strength and toughness materials. Still, due to the limited volume of these materials, micron scale mechanical testing methods must be used to determine the properties of these films. To this end, a novel approach combining a double notch shear testing geometry and compression with a flat punch in a nanoindenter was developed to determine the mechanical properties of these films under shear loading. To further elucidate the failure mechanisms under shear loading, in situ TEM experiments were performed using a double notch geometry cut into the TEM foil. Aluminum layer thicknesses of 50nm and 100nm were used to show the effect of constraint on the deformation. Higher shear strength was observed in the 50 nm sample (690±54 MPa) compared to the 100 nm sample (423±28.7 MPa). Additionally, failure occurred along the Al-SiC interface in the 50 nm sample as opposed to failure within the Al layer in the 100 nm sample.

  2. Specificity and cooperativity at [beta]-lactamase position 104 in TEM-1/BLIP and SHV-1/BLIP interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, Melinda S.; Reynolds, Kimberly A.; McNamara, Case; Ghosh, Partho; Bonomo, Robert A.; Kirsch, Jack F.; Handel, Tracy M.

    2011-11-02

    Establishing a quantitative understanding of the determinants of affinity in protein-protein interactions remains challenging. For example, TEM-1/{beta}-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) and SHV-1/BLIP are homologous {beta}-lactamase/{beta}-lactamase inhibitor protein complexes with disparate K{sub d} values (3 nM and 2 {mu}M, respectively), and a single substitution, D104E in SHV-1, results in a 1000-fold enhancement in binding affinity. In TEM-1, E104 participates in a salt bridge with BLIP K74, whereas the corresponding SHV-1 D104 does not in the wild type SHV-1/BLIP co-structure. Here, we present a 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the SHV-1 D104E/BLIP complex that demonstrates that this point mutation restores this salt bridge. Additionally, mutation of a neighboring residue, BLIP E73M, results in salt bridge formation between SHV-1 D104 and BLIP K74 and a 400-fold increase in binding affinity. To understand how this salt bridge contributes to complex affinity, the cooperativity between the E/K or D/K salt bridge pair and a neighboring hot spot residue (BLIP F142) was investigated using double mutant cycle analyses in the background of the E73M mutation. We find that BLIP F142 cooperatively stabilizes both interactions, illustrating how a single mutation at a hot spot position can drive large perturbations in interface stability and specificity through a cooperative interaction network.

  3. TEM study of the nucleation of bubbles induced by He implantation in 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Lescoat, M.-L.; Fortuna, F.; Legras, L.; Li, X.; Gentils, A.

    2015-11-01

    10 keV He ions were implanted in-situ in a TEM into thin foils of 316L industrial austenitic stainless steel at temperatures ranging from 200 to 550 °C. As a result, overpressurized nanometric bubbles are created with density and size depending strongly on both the temperature and fluence of implantation. An investigation on their nucleation and growth is reported through a rigorous statistical analysis whose procedure, including the consideration of free surface effects, is detailed. In the parameter range considered, the results show that an increase of fluence promotes both the nucleation and growth of the bubbles whilst an increase of temperature enhances the growth of the bubbles at the expense of their nucleation. The confrontation of resulting activation energies with existing models for bubble nucleation enables the identification of the underlying mechanisms. In spite of slight differences resulting from different conditions of implantation among which the He concentration, He production rate and He/dpa ratio, it appears that the dominating mechanisms are the same as those obtained in metals in previous studies, which, in addition to corroborating literature results, shows the suitability of in-situ TEM experiments to simulate the production of helium in nuclear materials.

  4. Micromechanical and in situ shear testing of Al–SiC nanolaminate composites in a transmission electron microscope (TEM)

    DOE PAGES

    Mayer, Carl; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan Allan; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-11-07

    Nanolaminate composites show promise as high strength and toughness materials. Still, due to the limited volume of these materials, micron scale mechanical testing methods must be used to determine the properties of these films. To this end, a novel approach combining a double notch shear testing geometry and compression with a flat punch in a nanoindenter was developed to determine the mechanical properties of these films under shear loading. To further elucidate the failure mechanisms under shear loading, in situ TEM experiments were performed using a double notch geometry cut into the TEM foil. Aluminum layer thicknesses of 50nm andmore » 100nm were used to show the effect of constraint on the deformation. Higher shear strength was observed in the 50 nm sample (690±54 MPa) compared to the 100 nm sample (423±28.7 MPa). Additionally, failure occurred along the Al-SiC interface in the 50 nm sample as opposed to failure within the Al layer in the 100 nm sample.« less

  5. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium. PMID:25285910

  6. E240V substitution increases catalytic efficiency toward ceftazidime in a new natural TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-149, from Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe; De Santis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Cristina; Forcella, Chiara; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Stefani, Stefania; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that belongs to the TEM family, the TEM-149 enzyme, and that was isolated from the urine of two hospitalized patients from different hospitals in southern Italy. The peculiarity of this enzyme was the finding of a valine residue at position 240. The array of amino acid substitutions found in TEM-149 was as follows: E104K, R164S, M182T, and E240V. A reversion of a threonine residue at position 182 was also performed to create a new mutant, TEM-149 T182M, in order to assess the contribution of this substitution on the kinetic profile and the stability of TEM-149. The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. Both enzymes hydrolyzed all beta-lactams tested, with a preference for ceftazidime, which was found to be the best substrate. By comparison of the kinetic parameters of the TEM-149 and the TEM-149 T182M enzymes, a reduction of the catalytic efficiency for the TEM-149 T182M mutant was observed against all substrates tested except benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. Tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam were good inhibitors of the TEM-149 beta-lactamase.

  7. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) for studying the morphology of colloidal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Judith; Horst, Jennifer C; Bunjes, Heike

    2011-09-30

    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has evolved into an indispensable tool for the characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems. It can be applied to study the size, shape and internal structure of nanoparticulate carrier systems as well as the overall colloidal composition of the corresponding dispersions. This review gives a short overview over the instrumentation used in cryo-TEM experiments and over the sample preparation procedure. Selected examples of cryo-TEM studies on colloidal drug carrier systems, including liposomes, colloidal lipid emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles, polymer-based colloids and delivery systems for nucleic acids, are presented in order to illustrate the wealth of information that can be obtained by this technique.

  8. Two-in-one sample preparation for plan-view TEM.

    PubMed

    Sáfrán, György; Szász, Noémi; Sáfrán, Eszter

    2015-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation requires special skills, it is time consuming and costly, hence, an increase of the efficiency is of primary importance. This article describes a method that duplicates the yield of the conventional mechanical and ion beam preparation of plan-view TEM samples. As a modification of the usual procedures, instead of one two different samples are comprised in a single specimen. The two pre-cut slabs, one from each samples, are embedded side by side in the window of a 3 mm dia Ti disk and the specimen is thinned mechanically and by ion milling until perforation that occurs at the interface of the two different slabs. That, with proper implementation, provides acceptable size thin area for the TEM study of both samples. The suitability of the two-in-one method has been confirmed through examples.

  9. Theoretical Study the Error Caused by Dipole Hypothesis of Large-loop TEM Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Xue, G.; Zhou, N.

    2010-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic method (Transient Electromagnetic Field is TEM for short) is an time domain artificial sources of electromagnetic detection method based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This method has higher sensitivity for the anomalous body of low resistivity , a stimulating can cover the required frequency bands and greatly improve the work efficiency by using a rich spectrum component pulse waveform . Also because send magnetic moment is relatively large, so the loop source system TEM has been very widely used in geological exploration, engineering, geothermal and environmental exploration which belong to medium depth ( less than 2000m) exploration [1], especially the central-loop system TEM has become the preferred method in Coalfield Hydrogeology Exploration and metal ore exploration . In order to obtain greater depth of exploration, the launch frame side of loop system commonly use large-scale form , Now the imported equipments with a large number of applications are large-loop system which shall be accounted for about 80% of the share of middle-depth exploration on the ground , sush as V-5, V8, GDP-32, PROTEM, SIROTEM, PEM, etc. If only one point be observed in the frame center to move the whole system when the side of loop system reach to hundreds of meters, the work efficiency of TEM will be greatly reduced. In order to increase the production efficiency, we will observe the points from center of loop to 0ne third of loop in the actual production, which is to think that the field in this region is approximately homogeneous. So, we can derive large-loop center-model TEM system which is different from the center-loop TEM system in the conventional sense as well as large-loop source TEM system. Fixed loop source TEM sysetm has been built based on the theory of dipole infinitesimal, which can not show more correct character in near-field area, even though this kind of theory has played more important guide in TEM study. There exist

  10. TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED U3SI2/AL DISPERSION FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B. Miller; D. Keiser; A. Robinson; P. Medvedev; D. Wachs

    2010-10-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U3Si2/Al has been recognized as a reasonably good performance fuel for nuclear research and test reactors except that it requires the use of high enrichment uranium. An irradiated U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel (~75% enrichment) from the high flux side of a RERTR-8 (U0R040) plate was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel plate was irradiated in the advanced test reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately ~110 degrees C and 5.4 x 10-21 f/cm3. The characterization was performed using a 200KV TEM with a LaB6 filament. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of this silicide fuel are discussed.

  11. First characterization of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lemozy, J; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Huc, C; Labia, R; Dabernat, H; Sirot, J

    1995-01-01

    Two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, TP 01 and TP 02, presented resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and were fully susceptible to cephalothin. These strains produced two beta-lactamases, SHV-1 and a TEM enzyme with a pI of 5.2. The previously described changes Arg-244-->Cys and Arg-244-->Ser in IRT-1 and IRT-2 (A. Belaaouaj, C. Lapoumeroulie, M. M. Caniça, G. Vedel, P. Nevot, R. Krishnamoorthy, and G. Paul, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120:75-80, 1994) were found in TEM enzymes from the TP 01 and TP 02 strains, respectively. This is the first report of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) in species other than Escherichia coli from the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:8585751

  12. TEM and Moessbauer Study of Nano Sized Fe{sub 2}MnAl Flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Vinesh, A.; Sudheesh, V. D.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-15

    Magnetic and structural properties of L21 ordered Fe{sub 2}MnAl Heusler alloy have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Moessbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Structural texturing induced by ball milling is destroyed on heating while Moessbauer and DC magnetization studies show magnetic texturing persists after thermal treatment. TEM shows large distribution in particle size with an average size of 27 nm. Thermal annealing of ball milled sample results L2{sub 1} ordering and the needle shaped particle contributes spin texturing.

  13. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N

    2016-03-01

    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping. PMID:26694198

  14. Effectiveness of Shield Termination Techniques Tested with TEM Cell and Bulk Current Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the effectiveness of various shield termination techniques. Each termination technique is evaluated by two independent noise injection methods; transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell operated from 3 MHz 400 MHz, and bulk current injection (BCI) operated from 50 kHz 400 MHz. Both single carrier and broadband injection tests were investigated. Recommendations as to how to achieve the best shield transfer impedance (i.e. reduced coupled noise) are made based on the empirical data. Finally, the noise injection techniques themselves are indirectly evaluated by comparing the results obtained from the TEM Cell to those from BCI.

  15. TEM-24 Produced by Four Different Species of Enterobacteriaceae, Including Providencia rettgeri, in a Single Patient

    PubMed Central

    Marchandin, Helene; Carriere, Christian; Sirot, Danielle; Pierre, Helene Jean-; Darbas, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Four species of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) were recovered in a single patient hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Among these isolates, we describe for the first time an ESBL-producing Providencia rettgeri strain. Bacteria from the same species were shown to be genetically related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. These strains produced the same TEM derivative ESBL, characterized as TEM-24. This enzyme had the peculiarity of being encoded by a large conjugative plasmid of 180 kb, never previously described for such an ESBL. PMID:10428940

  16. Electrochemical loading of TEM grids used for the study of potential dependent morphology of polyaniline nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Bhadu, Gopala Ram; Paul, Anirban; Perween, Mosarrat; Gupta, Rajeev; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Srivastava, Divesh N

    2016-03-01

    An electrochemical method for loading electroactive materials over the TEM grid is reported. The protocol has been demonstrated using polyaniline as an example. The electroactive polymer was directly deposited over the Au TEM grid, used as working electrode in a 3 electrode electrochemical cell. The undisturbed as-deposited morphologies under the influence of various counter ions and ex situ electrochemical states have been studied and compared. Contrary to behaviour in bulk the individual polyaniline fibre was found thinner at anodic potentials. The movement of counter ions as a function of the electrochemical state of the polymer was studied using STEM-EDX elemental mapping.

  17. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood.

  18. TEM7 (PLXDC1), a key prognostic predictor for resectable gastric cancer, promotes cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Zhao, Wen-Yi; Zhao, En-Hao; Tu, Lin; Wang, Chao-Jie; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is a new candidate of molecular target for antiangiogenic therapy. This study aims to evaluate its expression in gastric cancer (GC) and to explore the correlation between its expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Expression of TEM7 was analyzed in both tumor tissues and cell lines of GC by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. RNA interference (RNAi) approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of TEM7. The effects of TEM7 on cell migration and invasion were evaluated by Transwell assays. In vitro experiments revealed that TEM7 was significantly overexpressed in GC cell lines (N87, AGS and SGC-7901) by 2-fold to 4-fold, and knockdown of TEM7 could significantly inhibit cancer cell migration and invasion. For GC patients, TEM7 gene expression was elevated in tumors in most cases (25/31), and its expression was closely correlated with tumor differentiation, depth of cancer invasion, lymphatic metastasis and TNM stage. The overall survival of TEM7 (-) group was significantly higher than that of TEM7 (+) group (P = 0.048) and TEM7 (++) group (P = 0.003). TEM7 is highly expressed in GC and is likely correlated with tumor invasion and migration, and thus its expression is closely related to the clinical outcome of patients. PMID:25973314

  19. A (S)TEM Gas Cell Holder with Localized Laser Heating for In Situ Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehraeen, Shareghe; McKeown, Joseph T.; Deshmukh, Pushkarraj V.; Evans, James E.; Abellan, Patricia; Xu, Pinghong; Reed, Bryan W.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Fischione, Paul E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-03-04

    We report that the advent of aberration correction for transmission electron microscopy has transformed atomic resolution imaging into a nearly routine technique for structural analysis. Now an emerging frontier in electron microscopy is the development of in situ capabilities to observe reactions at atomic resolution in real time and within realistic environments. Here we present a new in situ gas cell holder that is designed for compatibility with a wide variety of sample type (i.e., dimpled 3-mm discs, standard mesh grids, various types of focused ion beam lamellae attached to half grids). Its capabilities include localized heating and precise control of the gas pressure and composition while simultaneously allowing atomic resolution imaging at ambient pressure. The results show that 0.25-nm lattice fringes are directly visible for nanoparticles imaged at ambient pressure with gas path lengths up to 20 μm. Additionally, we quantitatively demonstrate that while the attainable contrast and resolution decrease with increasing pressure and gas path length, resolutions better than 0.2 nm should be accessible at ambient pressure with gas path lengths less than the 15 μm utilized for these experiments.

  20. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  1. Transformation from Multilamellar to Unilamellar Vesicles by Addition of a Cationic Lipid to PEGylated Liposomes Explored with Synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuragi, Mina; Koiwai, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kouji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Ogawa, Hiroki; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    PEGylated liposomes composed of a benzamidine derivative (TRX), hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), and N-(monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycolcarbamyl) distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) were examined in terms of how the addition of TRX affects their structures with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images showed the presence of unilamella vesicles for both with and without TRX, though a small amount of multilamella vesicles were observed in absence of TRX. We analyzed SAXS profiles at contained TRX composition combined with contrast variation technique by adding PEG solution and unilamella vesicle model could be reproduced. Subsequently, we analyzed SAXS profiles at no TRX composition. The mixture model of unilamella and multilamella vesicle was reconstructed and we estimated about 10 % multilamella vesicles from a fitting parameter.

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures. In-situ TEM Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-30

    The goal of this project was to explore the structure and dynamic behaviors of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field modeling. The experimental techniques used include aberration-corrected sub-Å resolution TEM and in-situ TEM using a novel scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) - TEM holder that allows the direct observation of nucleation and dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domains under applied electric field. Specifically, this project was aimed to (1) to study the roles of static electrical boundary conditions and electrical charge in controlling the equilibrium domain structures of BiFeO3 thin films with controlled substrate constraints, (2) to explore the fundamental mechanisms of ferroelectric domain nucleation, growth, and switching under an applied electric field in both uniform thin films and nanostructures, and to understand the roles of crystal defects such as dislocations and interfaces in these processes, (3) to understand the physics of ferroelectric domain walls and the influence of defects on the electrical switching of ferroelectric domains.

  3. Engineering allosteric regulation into the hinge region of a circularly permuted TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Valéry; Fastrez, Jacques; Soumillion, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    In nature, the activity of many enzymes involved in important biochemical pathways is controlled by binding a ligand in a site remote from the active site. The allosteric sites are frequently located in hinge regulatory subunits, in which a conformational change can occur and propagate to the active site. The enzymatic activity is then enhanced or decreased depending on the type of effectors. Many artificial binding sites have been created to engineer an allosteric regulation. Generally, these sites were engineered near the active site in loops or at the surface of contiguous helices or strands but rarely in hinge regions. This work aims at exploring the possibility of regulating a monomeric enzyme whose active site is located at the interface between two domains. We anticipated that binding of a ligand in the hinge region linking the domains would modify their positioning and, consequently, modulate the activity. Here, we describe the design of two mutants in a circularly permuted TEM-1 (cpTEM-1) beta-lactamase. The first one, cpTEM-1-His(3) was created by a rational design. It shows little regulation upon metal ion binding except for a weak activation with Zn(2+). The second one, cpTEM-1-3M-His(2), was selected by a directed evolution strategy. It is allosterically down-regulated by Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) with binding affinities around 300 microM.

  4. Thromboelastometry (TEM) findings in disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of endotoxinemia.

    PubMed

    Schöchl, Herbert; Solomon, Cristina; Schulz, Arthur; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Hanke, Alexander; Van Griensven, Martijn; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2011-01-01

    Standard coagulation tests have a low specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing disseminated intravascular coagulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole blood thromboelastometry (TEM) detects lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in coagulation. Blood samples from 10 pigs were drawn at baseline, before and at the end of LPS infusion and 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after the start of endotoxinemia. Simultaneous to TEM, standard coagulation tests and extended coagulation analysis including tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were performed. Endotoxinemia resulted in a significant acceleration of the nonactivated TEM (NATEM) clotting time 2 h after the end of LPS infusion; in contrast, the changes in international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time suggested delayed initiation of coagulation. NATEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) and fibrin-based thromboelastometry test (FIBTEM)-MCF decreased significantly from baseline until the last time point (from 64.6 ± 7.8 and 35.1 ± 12.8 mm to 52.8 ± 4.6 and 21.4 ± 11.8 mm, respectively; P = 0.01 for both parameters). A sharp, transient increase of t-PA had no effect on maximum lysis in the NATEM test. PAI-1 increased significantly 3 h after the start of LPS infusion, paralleled by a decrease in maximum lysis. In conclusion, TEM was superior to standard coagulation tests in reflecting initial activation of coagulation during endotoxinemia. TEM further suggested consumption of coagulation substrate; at the same time, inhibition of plasminogen activation was accompanied by improved clot stability. Further investigations are necessary to establish the clinical relevance of these findings.

  5. Dynamics of early stage nano-oxidation by in situ UHV-TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Judith

    2011-03-01

    Environmental stability is one of the most important properties for materials exposed to air. As dimensions of engineered systems approach nanoscale, fundamental understanding of reactions with oxygen at this length scale is critical for environmental stability as well as for processing oxide nanostructures, where surface reactions are commonly utilized. The nanoscale stages of oxidation from the nucleation of the metal oxide to the formation of the thermodynamically stable oxide represent a scientifically challenging and technologically important terra incognito. The kinetics of early stage oxidation of Cu, Cu-Au and Cu-Ni alloys were visualized using in situ ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM), where the initial oxidation stages can be observed in real-time under well-controlled surface conditions. We examined the dynamic responses of thin films to variations in thermodynamic variables such as temperature, oxygen pressure, strain, and crystallographic orientation. The kinetics of the nucleation and growth of three-dimensional oxide islands demonstrate that oxygen surface diffusion is the primary mechanism for oxide growth during initial oxidation in dry oxygen, and thus bears a striking resemblance to heteroepitaxy. Compared with the behavior of Cu films, the oxidation of Cu-Au alloys revealed more complexity. For example, the oxidation of (100)-oriented Cu-Au alloys with low Au content at ~ 600 C results in the formation of Cu2O oxide islands with a dendritic morphology and a non-uniform lateral distribution of Au around the islands. For Cu-Ni oxidation, the addition of Ni causes the formation Cu2O and/or NiO where the oxide type(s) and the relative orientation with the film depend on the Ni concentration, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Evolution of the shape and size of the oxide islands can be quantitatively analyzed and provide fundamental insights into the complex kinetics and energetics of oxidation. Models based on

  6. A novel approach to TEM preparation with a (7-axis stage) triple-beam FIB-SEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jamil J.

    2015-10-01

    material, and better pin pointing of the area of interest while reducing overall processing time for the TEM sample preparation process and enhancing repeatability through ease of use via software controls. The development of these new technologies, incorporating a third Ar/Xe ion beam column in conjunction with the electron and gallium ion beam column, a 7-axis stage for enhanced sample orientation with tilt functions in two axes and automated swing control along with a host of additional functions which address the factors aforementioned such as electron and ion scan techniques and curtain effect removal by the use of hardware and software components that are key to reduce typical FIB related artifacts, all of which are called "ACE [Anti Curtaining Effect] Technologies" are explained. The overall developments of these technologies are to address a significant point that productivity, throughput and repeatability are comprised by synergy between the user, application, software and hardware within a FIB-SEM system. The latest Hitachi FIB-SEM platform offers these innovations for reliability, repeatability and high quality lamella preparation for Cs-corrected (S)TEMs.

  7. TEM1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Satoshi; Fujihara, Ayano; Natori, Kei; Abe, Anna; Kuboki, Yasutoshi; Higuchi, Youichi; Aizawa, Masaki; Kuwata, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yasui, Wataru; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stroma, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), is known to contribute to cancer cell progression and metastasis, suggesting that functional proteins expressed specifically in CAFs might be candidate molecular targets for cancer treatment. The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of using TEM1 (tumor endothelial marker 1), which is known to be expressed in several types of mesenchymal cells, as a molecular target by examining the impact of TEM1 expression on clinicopathological factors in gastric cancer patients. A total of 945 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at the National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2003 and July 2007 were examined using a tissue microarray approach. TEM1 expression in CAFs or vessel-associated cells was determined using immunohistochemical staining. Three items (CAF-TEM1-positivity, CAF-TEM1-intensity, and vessel-TEM1-intensity) were then examined to determine the correlations between the TEM1 expression status and the recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-related survival (COS), and other clinicopathological factors. Significant correlations between CAF-TEM1-positivity or CAF-TEM1-intensity and RFS, OS, or COS were observed (P < 0.001, Kaplan–Meier curves); however, no significant correlation between vessel-TEM1-intensity and RFS, OS, or COS was observed. A univariate analysis showed that CAF-TEM1-positivity and CAF-TEM1-intensity were each correlated with a scirrhous subtype, tumor depth, nodal status, distant metastasis, serosal invasion, lymphatic or venous vessel infiltrations, and pTMN stage. This study suggests that the inhibition of TEM1 expression specifically in the CAFs of gastric carcinoma might represent a new strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26336878

  8. Scanning image detection (SID) system for conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) images.

    PubMed

    Tanji, T; Tomita, M; Kobayashi, H

    1990-08-01

    A new image detection system has been developed to display transmission electron microscope (TEM) images on a CRT without a video camera system. Deflection coils placed in both the upper space of an objective lens and in the lower space of the first intermediate lens scan a small electron probe simultaneously. The electrical signal acquired through an improved scintillator and a photomultiplier is synchronized with the scanning signal and displayed in a similar fashion to a conventional scanning TEM (STEM) instrument. A preliminary system using a 100 kV conventional TEM (CTEM) equipped with a hairpin-type electron gun, produced an image with a spatial resolution of 1 nm.

  9. Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of pulsed laser irradiation to simulate the short duration, high-energy conditions characteristic of micrometeorite impacts is now an established approach in experimental space weathering studies. The laser generates both melt and vapor deposits that contain nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) grains with size distributions and optical properties similar to those in natural impact-generated melt and vapor deposits. There remains uncertainty, however, about how well lasers simulate the mechanical work and internal (thermal) energy partitioning that occurs in actual impacts. We are currently engaged in making a direct comparison between the products of laser irradiation and experimental/natural hypervelocity impacts. An initial step reported here is to use analytical TEM is to attain a better understanding of how the microstructure and composition of laser deposits evolve over multiple cycles of pulsed laser irradiation. Experimental Methods: We irradiated pressed-powder pellets of San Carlos olivine (Fo(sub 90)) with up to 99 rastered pulses of a GAM ArF excimer laser. The irradiated surface of the sample were characterized by SEM imaging and areas were selected for FIB cross sectioning for TEM study using an FEI Quanta dual-beam electron/focused ion beam instrument. FIB sections were characterized using a JEOL2500SE analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) optimized for quantitative element mapping at less than 10 nm spatial resolutions. Results: In the SEM the 99 pulse pressed pellet sample shows a complex, inhomogeneous, distribution of laser-generated material, largely concentrated in narrow gaps and larger depressions between grains. Local concentrations of npFe0 spherules 0.1 to 1 micrometers in size are visible within these deposits in SEM back-scatter images. Fig. 1 shows bright-field STEM images of a FIB cross-section of a one of these deposits that continuously covers the top and sloping side of an

  10. Element Transport in Granulite-Facies Fluids: a TEM Study in Exsolved Ternary Feldspar From Charnockites of Lofoten, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, K. T.; Wirth, R.; Markl, G.

    2006-12-01

    TEM was used to study exsolution features in feldspars indicative of high-p-T fluid transport during granulite facies metamorphism in charnockites from the Lofoten Islands in Northern Norway. The protoliths formed about 1750 Ma ago, at about ~800 to 900°C and 4 kbar. During a crustal thickening event, they reached high-pressure granulite-facies conditions of about 8-11 kbar at ~700°C (1). During this event, tiny magmatic pyroxenes enclosed in alkali feldspar reacted with a fluid to Cl-rich amphiboles and biotite. These have always a direct connection to elongated albite exsolutions which seem to surround amphiboles and biotite arranged in a linear fashion. This is evidence of extensive element transport (Fe, H, Cl) through the feldspar. The primary pyroxenes show no spatial relation to the lamellae and are evenly distributed in the feldspars. We tried to unravel the details of the transport and transformation mechanisms recorded by these textures using EMPA and TEM. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) prepared TEM-foils (2) revealed that pyroxenes, when spatially connected to albite exsolutions, show dissolution features. Additionally, amorphous Fe- and Cl-bearing material was found in albite lamellae even when not connected to a pyroxene. Based on composition, nanostructures and the known p-T-history, we propose the following succession of events. Feldspar containing small magmatic pyroxenes began to exsolve between about 800 and 650°C. The exsolution lamellae changed from coherent to incoherent and a fluid infiltrated the feldspar along nanotunnels (see also 3) at the margins of the exsolution lamellae. When the fluid had access to pyroxene, reaction took place and either amphibole or biotite formed. This study shows that fluid migration at elevated p and T is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the percolated rocks. Exsolving alkali feldspars may offer fluid pathways not yet considered in studies on metamorphic fluid flow which is typically believed to happen along

  11. Structural characterization of hard materials by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Diamond-Silicon Carbide composites and Yttria-stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon Seok

    2008-10-01

    supply of the "fuel" (oxygen and hydrogen gas), the performance of an SOFC device is primarily limited by the Ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and the electrochemical reaction kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. While the former constraint may be substantially diminished by reducing the electrolyte's physical dimension into nanoscale thin films, the incorporation of oxygen ions into YSZ from the cathode side remains a relatively sluggish process. In order to study how structural modifications influence the effectiveness of the oxygen transfer at the cathode/YSZ boundary, ion implantation at different energies and doses was performed on the electrolyte, prior to the deposition of platinum (Pt) electrodes. Xenon ions (Xe+) were used as the implant species, and the irradiation was done on atomic layer deposited (ALD) YSZ films and monocrystalline YSZ (001) substrates. From direct electrochemical measurements on fuel cell structures made on the ALD layers, an improvement by a factor of two was witnessed in the peak power density with relatively low implantation dose (10 13 cm-2) as compared to no irradiation. However the fuel cell properties worsened significantly with elevated dosage. Cross sectional TEM images of xenon implanted YSZ single crystals demonstrated the evidence of considerable defect accumulation (dislocation loops and extended dislocation lines) at 1015 and 1016 cm-2 doses. It is speculated that the bombardment with a relatively low concentration of xenon generates an optimum density of structural defects in the electrolyte that facilitate the incorporation or diffusion of O2- ions, whereas at higher radiation fluences the associated buildup of the imperfections or the implanted elements themselves may act as impediments to the anion transfer and conduction.

  12. Effect of clavulanic acid on activity of beta-lactam antibiotics in Serratia marcescens isolates producing both a TEM beta-lactamase and a chromosomal cephalosporinase.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, K; Flamm, R K; Ohringer, S; Singer, S B; Summerill, R; Bonner, D P

    1991-01-01

    An isolate of Serratia marcescens that produced both an inducible chromosomal and a plasmid-mediated TEM-1 beta-lactamase was resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin and also demonstrated decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics (ESBAs). Clavulanic acid did not lower the MICs of the ESBAs, but it decreased the MICs of the penicillins. The TEM-1-producing plasmid was transferred to a more susceptible S. marcescens strain that produced a well-characterized inducible chromosomal beta-lactamase. The MICs of the ESBAs remained at a low level for the transconjugant. Ampicillin and amoxicillin which were good substrates for the plasmid-mediated enzyme, were not well hydrolyzed by the chromosomal enzymes; the ESBAs were hydrolyzed slowly by all the enzymes. When each of the S. marcescens strains was grown with these beta-lactam antibiotics, at least modest increases in chromosomal beta-lactamase activity were observed. When organisms were grown in the presence of clavulanic acid and an ESBA, no enhanced induction was observed. The increases in the MICs of the ESBAs observed for the initial clinical isolate may have been due to a combination of low inducibility, slow hydrolysis, and differences in permeability between the S. marcescens isolates. When clavulanic acid and a penicillin were added to strains that produced both a plasmid-mediated TEM and a chromosomal beta-lactamase, much higher levels of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity were present than were observed in cultures induced by the penicillin alone. This was due to the higher levels of penicillin that were available for induction as a result of inhibition of the TEM enzyme by clavulanate. Images PMID:1803992

  13. Scalable pumping approach for extracting the maximum TEM(00) solar laser power.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Vistas, Cláudia R

    2014-10-20

    A scalable TEM(00) solar laser pumping approach is composed of four pairs of first-stage Fresnel lens-folding mirror collectors, four fused-silica secondary concentrators with light guides of rectangular cross-section for radiation homogenization, four hollow two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrators for further concentration of uniform radiations from the light guides to a 3 mm diameter, 76 mm length Nd:YAG rod within four V-shaped pumping cavities. An asymmetric resonator ensures an efficient large-mode matching between pump light and oscillating laser light. Laser power of 59.1 W TEM(00) is calculated by ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis, revealing 20 times improvement in brightness figure of merit.

  14. TEM wave propagation in a microstrip line on a substrate of circular segment cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malits, P.; Haridim, M.; Chulski, S.

    2015-12-01

    TEM mode wave propagation in a microstrip transmission line on a dielectric substrate of circular segment cross section is of concern. A suggested design of a microstrip is convenient for manufacturing and allows to miniaturize microstrips since there is no lateral fringing effect of the substrate in the transmitted fundamental TEM mode. By using the bipolar orthogonal coordinates, the plane potential problem is reformulated in the form of trigonometric dual integral equations. The discontinuous integrals containing Legendre functions of complex degree and the Abel integral equation are employed to reduce the dual equations to a Fredholm equation of the second kind. The structure of the Fredholm integral equation allows to obtain a simple approximate solution. Basing on this solution, rigorous approximate formulas for the characteristic impedance are derived. The characteristic impedance of a microstrip transmission line on a silicon substrate is computed and plotted as an example.

  15. TEM identification of subsurface phases in ternary U-Pu-Zr fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; Madden, James W.; Papesch, Cynthia A.; Cole, James I.

    2016-05-01

    Phases and microstructure in as-cast, annealed at 850 °C, and subsequently cooled U-23Pu-9Zr fuel were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. SEM examination shows formation of three phases in the alloy that were identified in TEM using selective area diffraction pattern analysis: α-Zr globular and elongated δ-UZr2 inclusions and a thick oxide layer formed on top of β-Pu phase, which has been initially assumed to be ζ-(U, Pu). However, further examination of the cross-sectional TEM specimens identified the matrix phases as δ-UZr2, β-Pu, and (U, Zr)ht. Two types of inclusions were observed in the immediate vicinity of the specimen surface and they were consistent with α-Zr and ζ-(U, Pu).

  16. Direct observation of catalytic oxidation of particulate matter using in situ TEM.

    PubMed

    Kamatani, Kohei; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Tanaka, Nobuo; Ogura, Masaru

    2015-07-08

    The ability to observe chemical reactions at the molecular level convincingly demonstrates the physical and chemical phenomena occurring throughout a reaction mechanism. Videos obtained through in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the oxidation of catalytic soot under practical reaction conditions. Carbon oxidation reactions using Ag/SiO2 or Cs2CO3/nepheline catalysts were performed at 330 °C under an O2 flow of 0.5 Pa in the TEM measurement chamber. Ag/SiO2 catalyzed the reaction at the interface of the mobile Ag species and carbon, while the Cs species was fixed on the nepheline surface during the reaction. In the latter case, carbon particles moved, remained attached to the Cs2CO3/nepheline surface, and were consumed at the interface by the oxidation reaction. Using this technique, we were able to visualize such mobile and immobile catalysis according to different mechanisms.

  17. A TEM-horn antenna with dielectric lens for fast impulse response

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    We designed and constructed a pair of TEM-horn antennas specifically for the very fast time-domain boresight response. Two physical topologies were made. A printed-board configuration has much slower transient response, which we think is due to pulse-smearing of the antenna currents in the dielectric substrate of the printed wiring boards. The solid state version has a 20 ps transition duration response in the main beam endfire (boresight) direction, which is the fastest we have seen to date. And since the antenna has a round trip antenna current propagation time of 6 ns, it offers clean radiated electromagnetic field measurement capability with a clear time of several nanoseconds. The printed board version has resistive loading at the aperture end of the conductors, which should offer better low- frequency performance. The dielectric lens certainly does improve the transient performance of the TEM horn, and was simple to design.

  18. TEM, XRD and nanoindentation characterization of Xenon ion irradiation damage in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Li, D. H.; Liu, R. D.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Yan, L.

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional and bulk specimens of a 20% cold-worked 316 austenitic stainless steel (CW 316 SS) has been characterized by TEM, XRD and nanoindentation to determine the microstructural evolution and mechanical property changes of 316 SS after irradiation with 7 MeV Xe26+ ions. TEM results reveal the presence of dislocation loops with a number density of approximately 3 × 1022 m-3 and sizes between 3 to 10 nm due to the collapse of vacancy rich cores inside displacement cascades. Peak broadening observed in XRD diffraction patters reveal systematic changes to lattice parameters due to irradiation. The calculated indentation values in irradiated 316 SS were found to be much higher in comparison to the unirradiated specimen, indicating the dose dependent effect of irradiation on hardness. The relationship between irradiation induced microstructural evolution and the changes to the mechanical properties of CW 316 SS are discussed in the context of fluence and irradiation temperature.

  19. Theoretical analysis and modeling of Thickness-Expansion Mode (TEM) sensors for fluid characterization.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Luis; Resa, Pablo; Castro, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the principles of Thickness-Expansion Mode (TEM) resonators for the characterization of fluids are described. From the measurement of the resonance parameters of a TEM piezoelectric transducer, the compressional acoustic impedance of gases and liquids can be determined. Since the propagation of mechanical waves into the fluid is not necessary, information in a wide range of frequencies can be obtained. Alternatively, these sensors can be driven in combination with other ultrasonic techniques to simultaneously determine the density, speed of sound and viscosity of samples. Some potential applications include the probe monitoring of processes and the characterization of fluids under harsh conditions. The main experimental criteria for the design and construction of high-resolution impedance meters (such as piezoelectric material, protective coating or thermal response) have been studied using equivalent electrical circuit modeling and finite element analysis. PMID:23206416

  20. Direct observation of catalytic oxidation of particulate matter using in situ TEM

    PubMed Central

    Kamatani, Kohei; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Tanaka, Nobuo; Ogura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The ability to observe chemical reactions at the molecular level convincingly demonstrates the physical and chemical phenomena occurring throughout a reaction mechanism. Videos obtained through in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the oxidation of catalytic soot under practical reaction conditions. Carbon oxidation reactions using Ag/SiO2 or Cs2CO3/nepheline catalysts were performed at 330 °C under an O2 flow of 0.5 Pa in the TEM measurement chamber. Ag/SiO2 catalyzed the reaction at the interface of the mobile Ag species and carbon, while the Cs species was fixed on the nepheline surface during the reaction. In the latter case, carbon particles moved, remained attached to the Cs2CO3/nepheline surface, and were consumed at the interface by the oxidation reaction. Using this technique, we were able to visualize such mobile and immobile catalysis according to different mechanisms. PMID:26154580

  1. InP sample preparation for the TEM by photochemical etching, ion milling, and chemical thinning.

    PubMed

    Lowes, T D; Cassidy, D T

    1992-11-01

    Photochemical etching (PCE) as a method for preparation of InP semiconductor plan view samples for the transmission electron microscope is demonstrated and compared to the methods of ion milling and chemical thinning. PCE can produce small area samples for TEM analysis quickly and accurately. Also, the resulting thin regions are surrounded by a built-in stabilizing structure that improves handleability and reduces the occurrence of handling induced fracture.

  2. Experimental Space Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites by Nanopulse Laser: TEM Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Hiroi, T.; Keller, L. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    A set of ordinary chondrite meteorites has been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser to simulate the effects of micrometeorite bombardment. Three meteorites, an H (Ehole), L (Chateau Renard - CR), and LL (Appley Bridge - AB) were lasered following the method of Sasaki et al [1]. Near IR spectra were taken before and after exposure to examine the optical changes induced and the samples were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) to understand the physical changes.

  3. TEM and HRXRD Analysis of LP MOVPE Grown InGaP/GaAs epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Pelosi, Claudio; Bosi, Matteo; Attolini, Giovanni; Germini, Fabrizio; Frigeri, Cesare; Prutskij, Tatiana

    2007-04-10

    The diffusion phenomena at interfaces between GaAs/InGaP layers grown by low pressure MOVPE have been studied by dark field (DF) transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High resolution X-ray Diffractometry (HRXRD). By comparing the results of the two techniques a mismatched layer containing P or P and In has been evidenced. The causes of this behavior are briefly discussed.

  4. TEM00 terawatt amplification by use of micro-optic spatial mode conversion.

    PubMed

    DiChiara, Anthony; Chowdhury, Enam A; Ongadi, George; Walker, Barry C; Tamosaitis, Robert S

    2003-11-01

    Micro-optic technology is used in a terawatt multipass Ti:sapphire amplifier to convert high-multimode, 532-nm radiation from an unstable resonator Nd:YAG laser into a TEM00 amplified output without sacrificing the amplifier-to-pump energy conversion efficiency. Experimental measurements and Fourier analysis of the spatial mode show a 3.8-fold increase in the peak irradiance and an order-of-magnitude improvement in the spatial contrast. PMID:14587830

  5. Comparison of preparation techniques for nuclear materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; Madden, James W.; Miller, Brandon D; Cole, James I; Gan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Preparation of highly radioactive and irradiated nuclear fuels and materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is conjoined with a set of unique challenges, including but not limited to personnel radiation exposure and contamination. The paper evaluates three specimen preparation techniques for preparation of irradiated materials and determines which technique yields to the most reliable characterization of radiation damage microstructure. Various specimen preparation artifacts associated with each technique are considered and ways of minimizing these artifacts are addressed.

  6. Comparative proteomics and metallomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissues: evaluation of the selenium addition in transgenic and nontransgenic plants using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and laser ablation imaging.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Bruna C M; Barbosa, Herbert S; Pessôa, Gustavo S; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Gonçalves, Danieli C; Ramos, Carlos H I; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2014-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate some differential protein species in transgenic (T) and nontransgenic (NT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants after their cultivation in the presence or absence of sodium selenite. The transgenic line was obtained through insertion of CaMV 35S controlling nptII gene. Comparative proteomics through 2D-DIGE is carried out in four different groups (NT × T; NT × Se-NT (where Se is selenium); Se-NT × Se-T, and T × Se-T). Although no differential proteins are achieved in the T × Se-T group, for the others, 68 differential proteins (by applying a regulation factor ≥1.5) are achieved, and 27 of them accurately characterized by ESI-MS/MS. These proteins are classified into metabolism, energy, signal transduction, disease/defense categories, and some of them are involved in the glycolysis pathway-Photosystems I and II and ROS combat. Additionally, laser ablation imaging is used for evaluating the Se and sulfur distribution in leaves of different groups, corroborating some results obtained and related to proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the genetic modification also confers to the plant resistance to oxidative stress.

  7. Edge-melting: nanoscale key-mechanism to explain nanoparticle formation from heated TEM grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, Maura; Taurino, Antonietta; Catalano, Massimo; Caricato, Anna Paola; Martino, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we examine at both experimental and fundamental levels, the experimental evidence of nanoparticle formation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) metal grids annealed at temperatures lower than the melting point of the corresponding metal bulk material. Our experimental investigation considers the most thermally unstable TEM grids (i.e. Cu-grids) and inspects the possible sources and mechanisms of contamination of thin films, conventionally deposited on carbon-coated Cu-grids. The investigations are supported by morphological-compositional analyses performed in different regions of the TEM sample. Then, a general model is formulated and discussed in order to explain the grid thermal instability, based on the critical role of edge-melting (i.e. melting initiated at edges and corners of the grid bars), the enhanced rate of evaporation from a liquid surface and the polycristallinity of the grid bars. Hence, we totally disregard conventional arguments such as bulk evaporation and metal vapor pressure and, in order to emphasize and clarify the alternative point of view of our model, we also overview the nano-scale melting phenomenology relevant to our discussion and survey the discrepancies reported in the literature.

  8. 2.5 D Transrotational Microcrystals and Nanostructures Revealed by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    Unexpected transrotational microcrystals can be grown in thin 10-100 nm amorphous films. Crystals of different morphology (from nanowhiskers to spherulites, complex textures) and chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) grown in thin films prepared by various methods are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We use primarily our TEM bend-contour method and SAED (HREM, AFM are also performed). The phenomenon resides in strong (up to 300 degrees/ μm) regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. It can be traced inside TEM in situ. Usual translation is complicated by slight regular rotation of the crystal unit cell (transrotation) most prominent at the mesoscale. Different geometries of transrotation of positive and negative curvature are revealed. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. It can be also considered similar to hypothetical endless 2.5 D analogy of MW nanotube/nano-onion halves. Transrotation is strongly increasing as the film gets thinner in the range 100-15 nm. Transrotations supplement dislocations and disclinations. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is proposed. Support of Ministry of Higher Education and Science is acknowledged.

  9. In Situ and Ex Situ TEM Study of Lithiation Behaviours of Porous Silicon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chenfei; Ge, Mingyuan; Luo, Langli; Fang, Xin; Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Rong, Jiepeng; Wang, Chongmin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study the lithiation behaviours of both porous silicon (Si) nanoparticles and porous Si nanowires by in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compare them with solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. The in situ TEM observation reveals that the critical fracture diameter of porous Si particles reaches up to 1.52 μm, which is much larger than the previously reported 150 nm for crystalline Si nanoparticles and 870 nm for amorphous Si nanoparticles. After full lithiation, solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to crystalline Li15Si4 phase while porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to amorphous LixSi phase, which is due to the effect of domain size on the stability of Li15Si4 as revealed by the first-principle molecular dynamic simulation. Ex situ TEM characterization is conducted to further investigate the structural evolution of porous and solid Si nanoparticles during the cycling process, which confirms that the porous Si nanoparticles exhibit better capability to suppress pore evolution than solid Si nanoparticles. The investigation of structural evolution and phase transition of porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires during the lithiation process reveal that they are more desirable as lithium-ion battery anode materials than solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires.

  10. In Situ and Ex Situ TEM Study of Lithiation Behaviours of Porous Silicon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenfei; Ge, Mingyuan; Luo, Langli; Fang, Xin; Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Rong, Jiepeng; Wang, Chongmin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-08-30

    In this work, we study the lithiation behaviours of both porous silicon (Si) nanoparticles and porous Si nanowires by in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compare them with solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. The in situ TEM observation reveals that the critical fracture diameter of porous Si particles reaches up to 1.52 μm, which is much larger than the previously reported 150 nm for crystalline Si nanoparticles and 870 nm for amorphous Si nanoparticles. After full lithiation, solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to crystalline Li15Si4 phase while porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to amorphous LixSi phase, which is due to the effect of domain size on the stability of Li15Si4 as revealed by the first-principle molecular dynamic simulation. Ex situ TEM characterization is conducted to further investigate the structural evolution of porous and solid Si nanoparticles during the cycling process, which confirms that the porous Si nanoparticles exhibit better capability to suppress pore evolution than solid Si nanoparticles. The investigation of structural evolution and phase transition of porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires during the lithiation process reveal that they are more desirable as lithium-ion battery anode materials than solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires.

  11. In Situ and Ex Situ TEM Study of Lithiation Behaviours of Porous Silicon Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenfei; Ge, Mingyuan; Luo, Langli; Fang, Xin; Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Rong, Jiepeng; Wang, Chongmin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the lithiation behaviours of both porous silicon (Si) nanoparticles and porous Si nanowires by in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compare them with solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. The in situ TEM observation reveals that the critical fracture diameter of porous Si particles reaches up to 1.52 μm, which is much larger than the previously reported 150 nm for crystalline Si nanoparticles and 870 nm for amorphous Si nanoparticles. After full lithiation, solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to crystalline Li15Si4 phase while porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to amorphous LixSi phase, which is due to the effect of domain size on the stability of Li15Si4 as revealed by the first-principle molecular dynamic simulation. Ex situ TEM characterization is conducted to further investigate the structural evolution of porous and solid Si nanoparticles during the cycling process, which confirms that the porous Si nanoparticles exhibit better capability to suppress pore evolution than solid Si nanoparticles. The investigation of structural evolution and phase transition of porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires during the lithiation process reveal that they are more desirable as lithium-ion battery anode materials than solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. PMID:27571919

  12. Differential Dependence on N-Glycosylation of Anthrax Toxin Receptors CMG2 and TEM8

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Sarah; Deuquet, Julie; van der Goot, F. Gisou

    2015-01-01

    ANTXR 1 and 2, also known as TEM8 and CMG2, are two type I membrane proteins, which have been extensively studied for their role as anthrax toxin receptors, but with a still elusive physiological function. Here we have analyzed the importance of N-glycosylation on folding, trafficking and ligand binding of these closely related proteins. We find that TEM8 has a stringent dependence on N-glycosylation. The presence of at least one glycan on each of its two extracellular domains, the vWA and Ig-like domains, is indeed necessary for efficient trafficking to the cell surface. In the absence of any N-linked glycans, TEM8 fails to fold correctly and is recognized by the ER quality control machinery. Expression of N-glycosylation mutants reveals that CMG2 is less vulnerable to sugar loss. The absence of N-linked glycans in one of the extracellular domains indeed has little impact on folding, trafficking or receptor function of the wild type protein expressed in tissue culture cells. N-glycans do, however, seem required in primary fibroblasts from human patients. Here, the presence of N-linked sugars increases the tolerance to mutations in cmg2 causing the rare genetic disease Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome. It thus appears that CMG2 glycosylation provides a buffer towards genetic variation by promoting folding of the protein in the ER lumen. PMID:25781883

  13. In Situ and Ex Situ TEM Study of Lithiation Behaviours of Porous Silicon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenfei; Ge, Mingyuan; Luo, Langli; Fang, Xin; Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Rong, Jiepeng; Wang, Chongmin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the lithiation behaviours of both porous silicon (Si) nanoparticles and porous Si nanowires by in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compare them with solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. The in situ TEM observation reveals that the critical fracture diameter of porous Si particles reaches up to 1.52 μm, which is much larger than the previously reported 150 nm for crystalline Si nanoparticles and 870 nm for amorphous Si nanoparticles. After full lithiation, solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to crystalline Li15Si4 phase while porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires transform to amorphous LixSi phase, which is due to the effect of domain size on the stability of Li15Si4 as revealed by the first-principle molecular dynamic simulation. Ex situ TEM characterization is conducted to further investigate the structural evolution of porous and solid Si nanoparticles during the cycling process, which confirms that the porous Si nanoparticles exhibit better capability to suppress pore evolution than solid Si nanoparticles. The investigation of structural evolution and phase transition of porous Si nanoparticles and nanowires during the lithiation process reveal that they are more desirable as lithium-ion battery anode materials than solid Si nanoparticles and nanowires. PMID:27571919

  14. The Morgagnian and Brunescens cataract morphology studied with with SEM and TEM.

    PubMed

    Jongebloed, W L; Kalicharan, D; Los, L I; Worst, J G

    1993-01-01

    The Morgagnian cataract lenses--pre-fixed with GA for SEM & TEM and post-fixed with tannic-acid-arginine-OsO4 for SEM and OsO4/K4Fe(CN)6 for TEM after staining with Ur-acetate/Pb-citrate--showed areas in the cortex with radial instead of concentric running lens fibres, degeneration of lens fibres with vacuoles and defected "ball & socket" connections. The presence of oval/spherical bodies of 0.5-20 microns was acknowledged, the largest of them having a golf-ball appearance and originating from the cytoplasm of the degenerating lens fibres; the smallest of them with an approximate size of 0.2-0.5 micron seemed to be formed by budding off from the microvilli of the furrowed lens epithelium. The Brunescens cataract lenses showed at low magnification no difference between lens fibres from the cortical area and the nucleus. The disintegration process of the lens fibres was observable as degradation of the ball & socket system and the existence of holes in the lens fibre body and emerging of spherical bodies from the cytoplasm. The globular structures seemed to be covered with a thin coating and were partly filled with a low density membranous-like material. In TEM-sections of the cataractous lens aterial vacuoles were visible consisting of a large number of smaller globules with a contents of low contrast low density membranous-like material, comparable with the globular structures seen in SEM.

  15. Novel Transrotational Solid State Order Discovered by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    Exotic thin crystals with unexpected transrotational microstructures have been discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for crystal growth in thin (10-100 nm) amorphous films of different chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) prepared by various methods. Primarily we use our TEM bend contour technique. The unusual phenomenon can be traced in situ in TEM column: dislocation independent regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. Such transrotation (unit cell trans lation is complicated by small rotationrealized round an axis lying in the film plane) can result in strong regular lattice orientation gradients (up to 300 degrees per micrometer) of different geometries: cylindrical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, saddle, etc. Transrotation is increasing as the film gets thinner. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. Transrotational micro crystals have been eventually recognized by other authors in some vital thin film materials, i.e. PCMs for memory, silicides, SrTiO3. Atomic model and possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is also proposed Support of RF Ministry of Education and Science is acknowledged.

  16. Validation of the gyrokinetic model in ITG and TEM dominated L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Greenwald, M.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Walk, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A rigorous validation of the gyrokinetic model was performed in both ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron mode (TEM) dominated Alcator C-Mod plasmas at (normalized midplane minor radius) r/a = 0.5 and 0.8. Analysis focuses on two L-mode discharges operated with 1.2 and 3.5 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating. In depth investigation into the experimental uncertainties and simulation sensitivities in these discharges allows for a stringent test of the gyrokinetic model implemented by the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) in both the centre of the stiff gradient region (r/a = 0.5) and the middle of the region often associated with the transport ‘shortfall’(r/a = 0.8). To identify the nature of the plasma turbulence and to ensure a robust evaluation of the model's ability to reproduce experiment, the sensitivity of the simulation results to experimental uncertainty in turbulence drive and suppression terms were determined at both radial locations. When significant TEM activity is present, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are found to reproduce both electron and ion experimental heat fluxes within their diagnosed uncertainties. In contrast, in the absence of TEM, electron heat fluxes are robustly under predicted by low-k, gyrokinetic simulation.

  17. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  18. Probe current determination in analytical TEM/STEM and its application to the characterization of large area EDS detectors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David R G; Nancarrow, Mitchell J B

    2015-10-01

    A simple procedure, which enables accurate measurement of transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/STEM probe currents using an energy loss spectrometer drift tube is described. The currents obtained are compared with those measured on the fluorescent screen to enable the losses due to secondary and backscattered electrons to be determined. The current values obtained from the drift tube allow the correction of fluorescent screen current densities to yield true current. They also enable CCD conversion efficiencies to be obtained, which in turn allows images to be calibrated in terms of electron fluence. Using probes of known current in conjunction with a NiO reference specimen enables the X-ray detector solid angle to be determined. The NiO specimen also allows a wide range of other EDS detector parameters to be obtained, including the presence of ice and carbon contamination. A range of performance characteristics are reported for two large area EDS detector systems. Many of the measurements reported herein have been automated via the use of freely available scripts for DigitalMicrograph. PMID:26260274

  19. Chemical and structural analysis of the bone-implant interface by TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM: Experimental study in animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmquist, Anders; Emanuelsson, Lena; Sjövall, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Although bone-anchored implants are widely used in reconstructive medicine, the mechanism of osseointegration is still not fully understood. Novel analytical tools are needed to further understand this process, where both the chemical and structural aspects of the bone-implant interface are important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of combining time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) with optical (LM), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for studying the bone-implant interface of bone-anchored implants. Laser-modified titanium implants with surrounded bone retrieved after 8 weeks healing in rabbit were dehydrated and resin embedded. Three types of sample preparation were studied to evaluate the information gained by combining TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM. The results show that imaging TOF-SIMS can provide detailed chemical information, which in combination with structural information from microscopy methods provide a more complete characterization of anatomical structures at the bone-implant interface. By investigating various sample preparation techniques, it is shown that grinded cross section samples can be used for chemical imaging using TOF-SIMS, if careful consideration of potential preparation artifacts is taken into account. TOF-SIMS analysis of FIB-prepared bone/implant cross section samples show distinct areas corresponding to bone tissue and implant with a sharp interface, although without chemical information about the organic components.

  20. Experimental imaging of silicon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Crescenzi, M.; Castrucci, P.; Scarselli, M.; Diociaiuti, M.; Chaudhari, Prajakta S.; Balasubramanian, C.; Bhave, Tejashree M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2005-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss near edge structures (EELNES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to distinguish silicon nanotubes (SiNT) among the reaction products of a gas phase condensation synthesis. TEM images exhibit the tubular nature with a well-defined wall. The EELNES spectra performed on each single nanotube show that they are constituted by nonoxidized silicon atoms. STM images show that they have diameter ranging from 2 to 35 nm, have an atomic arrangement compatible with a puckered structure and different chiralities. Moreover, the I-V curves showed that SiNT can be semiconducting as well as metallic in character.

  1. Direct observation of ferroelectric domain switching in varying electric field regimes using in situ TEM.

    PubMed

    Winkler, C R; Damodaran, A R; Karthik, J; Martin, L W; Taheri, M L

    2012-11-01

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques can potentially fill in gaps in the current understanding interfacial phenomena in complex oxides. Select multiferroic oxide materials, such as BiFeO(3) (BFO), exhibit ferroelectric and magnetic order, and the two order parameters are coupled through a quantum-mechanical exchange interaction. The magneto-electric coupling in BFO allows control of the ferroelectric and magnetic domain structures via applied electric fields. Because of these unique properties, BFO and other magneto-electric multiferroics constitute a promising class of materials for incorporation into devices such as high-density ferroelectric and magnetoresistive memories, spin valves, and magnetic field sensors. The magneto-electric coupling in BFO is mediated by volatile ferroelastically switched domains that make it difficult to incorporate this material into devices. To facilitate device integration, an understanding of the microstructural factors that affect ferroelastic relaxation and ferroelectric domain switching must be developed. In this article, a method of viewing ferroelectric (and ferroelastic) domain dynamics using in situ biasing in TEM is presented. The evolution of ferroelastically switched ferroelectric domains in BFO thin films during many switching cycles is investigated. Evidence of partial domain nucleation, propagation, and switching even at applied electric fields below the estimated coercive field is revealed. Our observations indicate that the occurrence of ferroelastic relaxation in switched domains and the stability of these domains is influenced the applied field as well as the BFO microstructure. These biasing experiments provide a real time view of the complex dynamics of domain switching and complement scanning probe techniques. Quantitative information about domain switching under bias in ferroelectric and multiferroic materials can be extracted from in situ TEM to provide a predictive tool for future device

  2. Behaviour of TEM metal grids during in-situ heating experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaoli; Su, Dangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The stability of Ni, Cu, Mo and Au transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids coated with ultra-thin amorphous carbon (alpha-C) or silicon monoxide film is examined by in-situ heating up to a temperature in the range 500-850 degrees C in a transmission electron microscope. It is demonstrated that some grids can generate nano-particles either due to the surface diffusion of metal atoms on amorphous film or due to the metal evaporation/redeposition. The emergence of nano-particles can complicate experimental observations, particularly in in-situ heating studies of dynamic behaviours of nano-materials in TEM. The most widely used Cu grid covered with amorphous carbon is unstable, and numerous Cu nano-particles start to form once the heating temperature reaches 600 degrees C. In the case of Ni grid covered with alpha-C film, a large number of Ni nano-crystals occur immediately when the temperature approaches 600 degrees C, accompanied by the graphitization of amorphous carbon. In contrast, both Mo and Au grids covered with alpha-C film exhibit good stability at elevated temperature, for instance, up to 680 and 850 degrees C for Mo and Au, respectively, and any other metal nano-particles are detected. Cu grid covered Si monoxide thin film is stable up to 550 degrees C, but Si nano-crystals appear under intensive electron beam. The generated nano-particles are well characterized by spectroscopic techniques (EDXS/EELS) and high-resolution TEM. The mechanism of nano-particle formation is addressed based on the interactions between the metal grid and the amorphous carbon film and on the sublimation of metal.

  3. Geological Hypothesis Testing and Investigations of Coupling with Transient Electromagnetics (TEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A. C.; Moeller, M. M.; Snyder, E.; Workman, E. J.; Urquhart, S.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in Borrego Canyon within the Santo Domingo Basin of the Rio Grande Rift, central New Mexico, during the 2014 Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) field program. TEM surveys were carried out in several regions both to investigate geologic structure and to illustrate the effects of coupling to anthropogenic structures. To determine an optimal survey configuration, 50, 100 and 200 m square transmitter loops were deployed; estimates of depth-of-investigation and logistical considerations determined that 50 m loops were sufficient for production-style measurements. A resistive (100s of ohm-m) layer was identified at a depth of 25-75 m at several locations, and interpreted as dismembered parts of one or more concealed volcanic flows, an interpretation consistent with Tertiary volcanic flows that cap the Santa Anna Mesa immediately to the south. TEM soundings were also made across an inferred fault to investigate whether fault offset is accompanied by lateral changes in electrical resistivity. Soundings within several hundred meters of the inferred fault strand were identical, indicating no resistivity contrast across the fault, and possibly an absence of recent activity. An old windmill and water tank, long-abandoned, offered an excellent laboratory to study the effect of coupling to metallic anthropogenic structures. The character of the measured data strongly suggests the water tank is in electrical contact with the earth (galvanic coupling), and an induced response was persistent to more than 1 second after current turn-off. Coupling effects could be identified at least 150 meters from the tank. Understanding the mechanism behind such coupling and the ability to identify coupled data are critical skills, as one-dimensional modeling of data is affected by such coupling producing artificial conductive layers at depth.

  4. First application of time-domain electromagnetic technology (TEM) for permafrost mapping on the Arctic shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshurnikov, A.; Gunar, A.; Tumskoy, V. E.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Valuyskiy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Different geophysical methods are used to study and map submarine permafrost on the Arctic Shelf. Due to specific features of submarine permafrost, none of geophysical methods can provide conclusive data when gas-charged sediments and taliks occur within permafrost. Experimental data show that electrical properties of frozen grounds change significantly. For example, depending on ground lithology and wetness, electrical resistivity can increase up to 103 times upon freezing. Thus, electromagnetic methods could be considered more informative and valuable tool for characterizing subsea permafrost. Investigation of submarine permafrost on the shallow Arctic Shelf requires modifications of electromagnetic methods to cover specific needs of working from the fast ice. Winter expeditions devoted to subsea permafrost investigations were performed in March-April of 2012-2015 in the near-shore area of the Laptev Sea. TEM was applied to predict permafrost down to 1 km depth. TEM systems are advantageous when many stations are required, because many short deployments can be performed in a single survey. Working from the fast ice allowed collection of few tens of stations to cover the entire polygon. Interpretation of data collected in 2012 allowed to predict position of the permafrost table near-shore near Muostakh Island, which was validated by followed up permafrost drilling. Surveys performed in 2013-2015 also confirmed good agreement between electromagnetic data and observational data obtained by drilling. Accuracy of the methods reached 3.5%. Note, that in March-April of 2014 and 2015, we used the modified TEM which allows obtaining continuous subsea permafrost table profiles.

  5. High Spatial Resolution Study of Microbe-Carbonate-Silicate Interfaces by FIB and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzerara, K.; Menguy, N.; Guyot, F.; Vanni, C.; Gillet, P.

    2003-12-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), chemical micro-analysis (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) are among the most powerful analytical techniques for studying microbe-mineral interactions, allowing to observe the microbe-mineral interface at almost the angstrom scale, to evidence transformations of the mineral structure and chemical alterations at the nanometer scale. However, the samples must be very thin and only a small area can be investigated. A key limitation for using this technique is thus to prepare natural geomicrobiological samples which combine hard minerals, preventing use of ultramicrotomy, with soft organic matter inadequate to ion milling procedures. Additionaly the areas of interest are usually restricted to few micrometer large areas which have to be selected from macroscopic samples. In this study we present two procedures : micromanipulation and FIB (Focused Ion Beam) which allow the study of microbe-mineral interfaces with TEM. The micromanipulation procedure has been presented in Benzerara et al (2003, PNAS). We have evidenced nannobacteria-like objects at the surface of the Tatahouine orthopyroxenite meteorite fallen in the tunisian desert in 1931. SEM observations suggest a complex interaction pattern between the nannobacteria-like objects, the pyroxene and microorganisms which have colonized the surface of the meteorite during its seventy years of residence on Earth. The TEM study on the very same area shows that the nannobacteria-like rods are actually well-crystallized nanometric calcite single crystals surrounded by an amorphous layer of carbonate composition. Those morphologies and structures are unusual for calcite single crystals. We discuss these observations in regard to the criteria of biogenicity i.e. biosignatures. Moreover, we examine the implications for carbonate production associated to silicate bio-weathering under aridic conditions. This work is relevant both to astrobiological and

  6. Transposition of the gene encoding a TEM-12 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, J; Hawkey, P M; Todd, N; Lewis, I J

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca from the blood culture of a child with leukemia was found to produce two beta-lactamases, at least one of which conferred resistance to ceftazidime. Genes encoding both enzymes were located on a single self-transmissible 100-kb plasmid, pOZ201. This plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli UB5201 (pACYC184), and the gene encoding one beta-lactamase was transposed onto plasmid pACYC184 by exploiting a gene dosage effect. The transposable gene was found to encode a TEM-12 enzyme as determined by nucleotide sequencing. This gene was subsequently transposed onto plasmid pUB307. The transposable element encoding the TEM-12 enzyme has been designated Tn841. Both plasmids pACYC184::Tn841 and pUB307::Tn841 were shown to encode a beta-lactamase with the same isoelectric point and substrate profile as the TEM-12 beta-lactamase. Transposon Tn841, at approximately 7 kb, is larger than TnA (4.8 kb) and transposes at a lower frequency. Although it produced a resolvase which can complement the resolvase of Tn3, its transposase function was not able to complement the transposition of a TnA element which lacked transposase. The occurrence of a gene encoding an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase on a transposable element in a clinically significant bacterium is potentially a cause for concern for the spread of resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PMID:1329636

  7. A Survey of Jet Aircraft PM by TEM in APEX III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon field testing during the NASA led APEX III campaign conducted in November 2005 at the NASA Glenn Research Center in coordination with Continental Airlines and Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. This paper reports observations of particulate emissions collected from a suite of jet engine aircraft to assess differences and similarities in soot macro- micro- and nanostructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aggregates are compact, primary particle sizes varied and nanostructure mixed. Comparisons are made to more familiar laboratory flame-generated soot as a well-studied point of reference. Results are interpreted in terms of turbulence interacting with the different stages of particle formation and growth.

  8. In-Situ TEM-STM Observations of SWCNT Ropes/Tubular Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, F.; Lebron-Colon, M.; Ferreira, P. J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Meador, M. A.; Marin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) prepared by the HiPco process were purified using a modified gas phase purification technique. A TEM-STM holder was used to study the morphological changes of SWCNT ropes as a function of applied voltage. Kink formation, buckling behavior, tubular transformation and eventual breakdown of the system were observed. The tubular formation was attributed to a transformation from SWCNT ropes to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures. It is likely mediated by the patching and tearing mechanism which is promoted primarily by the mobile vacancies generated due to current-induced heating and, to some extent, by electron irradiation.

  9. A survey of jet aircraft PM by TEM in APEX III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chung-Hsuan; Bryg, Victoria M.; Vander Wal, Randy L.

    2016-09-01

    Results are reported for sampling non-volatile particulate matter from field tests during the NASA led APEX III campaign. This paper reports observations of particulate emissions collected from a suite of jet engine aircraft to assess differences and similarities in soot macro- micro- and nanostructure using TEM. Aggregates are compact, primary particle sizes varied and nanostructure is mixed. Comparisons are made to soot from a laboratory flame as a well-studied reference. Results are interpreted in terms of turbulence interacting with the different stages of particle formation and growth with implications for atmospheric processing and climate impact.

  10. Thermophysical ESEM and TEM Characterization of Carbon Fibers CTE, Spectroscopy and Roughness Studies at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Ozden O.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of the transverse properties of carbon fibers is important for assessment and prediction of local material as well as global structural response of composite components. However the measurements are extremely difficult due to the very small diameters of the fibers (few microns only) and must be conducted within a microscope. In this work, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are used to determine the transverse coefficient of thermal expansion of different carbon fibers as a function of temperature.

  11. Identification of small molecules that inhibit the interaction of TEM8 with anthrax protective antigen using a FRET assay.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Lorna M; Habeshian, Kaiane A; Caldwell, Thomas P; Morris, Meredith T; Ackroyd, P Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A; Rogers, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Tumor marker endothelial 8 (TEM8) is a receptor for the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin. TEM8 is upregulated on endothelial cells lining the blood vessels within tumors, compared with normal blood vessels. A number of studies have demonstrated a pivotal role for TEM8 in developmental and tumor angiogenesis. We have also shown that targeting the anthrax receptors with a mutated form of PA inhibits angiogenesis and tumor formation in vivo. Here we describe the development and testing of a high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay to identify molecules that strongly inhibit the interaction of PA and TEM8. The assay we describe is sensitive and robust, with a Z' value of 0.8. A preliminary screen of 2310 known bioactive library compounds identified ebselen and thimerosal as inhibitors of the TEM8-PA interaction. These molecules each contain a cysteine-reactive transition metal, and complementary studies indicate that their inhibition of interaction is due to modification of a cysteine residue in the TEM8 extracellular domain. This is the first demonstration of a high-throughput screening assay that identifies inhibitors of TEM8, with potential application for antianthrax and antiangiogenic diseases.

  12. CMT-Type β-Lactamase TEM-125, an Emerging Problem for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Detection†

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Frédéric; Delmas, Julien; Archambaud, Maryse; Schweitzer, Cédric; Chanal, Catherine; Bonnet, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The clinical strain Escherichia coli TO799 was resistant to penicillin-clavulanate combinations and ceftazidime and was not reproducibly detected as an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) according to the standards of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; formerly NCCLS) and the national guidelines of the French Society for Microbiology (Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie). A novel β-lactamase, designated TEM-125, was responsible for this phenotype. TEM-125 harbors a complex association of mutations previously described in the ESBL TEM-12 and in the inhibitor-resistant β-lactamase TEM-39. TEM-125 is the first complex mutant TEM to present hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime (kcat, 3.7 s−1) together with a high level of resistance to clavulanate (50% inhibitory concentration, 13.6 μM). The discovery of such an ESBL, which is difficult to detect by the usual ESBL detection methods, confirms the emergence of a complex mutant TEM subgroup and highlights the need to evaluate detection methods so as to avoid possible therapeutic failures. PMID:16801418

  13. Inversion of arbitrary segmented loop source TEM data over a layered earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai; Xue, Guo-qiang; Zhao, pan; Zhou, Nan-nan; Zhong, Hua-sen

    2016-05-01

    The loop source TEM method has been widely used in the detection of a mined out area in China. In the cases that the laying of traditional rectangle or square transmitting loop is limited due to the presence of obstacle on the path of the loop, the changing of the shape of the transmitting loop to bypass the obstacle is a labor saving solution. A numeric integration scheme is proposed to calculate the response and Jacobian of the segmented loop source from that of an electric dipole source. The comparison of forward response between the segmented loop and square loop shows the effect of loop geometry on the decay curves. In order to interpret the data from an irregular source loop, this paper presents an inversion scheme that incorporate the effect of loop geometry. The proposed inversion scheme is validated on the synthetic data, and then applied to the field data. The result reveals that the developed inversion scheme is capable of interpreting the segmented loop source TEM field data.

  14. TEM study of shock metamorphism in quartz from the Sedan nuclear test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, P.; Gratz, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear explosions represent a useful simulation of meteorite impacts. Stressed of tens of gigapascals are produced during detonation and stress pulses can last 0.1 ms or longer, which is 3-4 orders of magnitude longer than laboratory experiments. Samples studied here were taken from the ejecta of the Sedan nuclear test site and consist of a coarse-grained granodiorite containing quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, cordierite and hornblende. Schocked quartz grains were selected optically in thin section and studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). TEM reveals the presence of planar deformation features (PDFs), which consist of multiple sets of planar amorphous lamellae with the crystallographic orientations (1 0 - 1 3), (1 0 - 1 2), and rarely (1 0 - 1 1). Some lamellae exhibit a substructure which consist of amorphous sublamellae organized 'en echelon'. No high-pressure phases were detected along the transformation lamellae. Some lamellae show evidence of beginning recrystallization, which probably occurred during cooling of the hot ejecta. The shock-induced defects present at the Sedan site are very similar to those seen in laboratory shock recovery experiments and also to those present at meteorite impact craters (e.g., Meteor Crater or Ries Crater). This suggests that shock-induced amorphization in quartz is not strongly dependant on shock pulse duration.

  15. TEM and SIMS Analysis of (100), (110), and (111) Single Crystal Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, A. D.; Stevie, F. A.; Leonard, D. N.; Russell, P. E.; Griffis, D. P.; Myneni, G. R.

    2007-08-09

    Single crystal niobium specimens of (100), (110) and (111) crystal orientations have been analyzed using TEM and SIMS. The TEM specimens were prepared using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and show niobium oxide thicknesses ranging from 4.9 to 8.3 nm for the three specimens after buffer chemical polishing. The oxide layers appear uniform and no significant sub-oxide region was noted. SIMS analysis was made for all three orientations on hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen before and after heat treatments at 90, 600, and 1250 deg. C. Hydrogen is at a high level between the oxide layer and niobium, but at a relatively low level in the oxide. No high oxygen concentration region was noted in the niobium below the oxide. C contamination on the surface is detected mainly at the surface. Analysis after heat treatments showed some decrease in hydrogen after the 600 deg. C heat treatment, and significant oxidation of the niobium after the 1250 deg. C heat treatment.

  16. Double-helical ultrastructure of polycationic dendronized polymers determined by single-particle Cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christoph; Schade, Boris; Ecker, Christof; Rabe, Jürgen P; Shu, Lijin; Schlüter, A Dieter

    2005-05-01

    The ultrastructure of cationic dendronized polymers (denpols) of third and fourth generations (PG3 and PG4) in water was determined by using single-particle cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). At concentrations in the region of 50 mg L(-1), networks of double-stranded fibers were revealed that exhibit well-defined diameters of 5.9 nm+/-0.4 nm for PG3 and 7.4 nm+/-0.4 nm for PG4. The structure varies with progression along the fibers, and includes a double helix with a pitch of 7.0+/-0.4 nm for PG3 and 9.0+/-0.4 nm for PG4. The formation of the double strands is attributed to the hydrophobic effect and limited crowding in the dendron shell of the third and fourth generation denpols investigated. From solutions of lower concentrations (around 10 mg L(-1)), isolated molecular fibers were adsorbed onto high-energy surfaces and examined by performing scanning force microscopy (SFM) on mica, and after staining, TEM on glow-discharged carbon films. In both cases, characteristic undulations of single strands were observed, which are attributed largely to the adsorption process. PMID:15736148

  17. Alpha to Omega Phase Change in Zr under Shock and Static Pressures: A TEM Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, G.; Dey, G. K.; Joshi, K. D.; Tiwari, R.; Gupta, Satish C.; Banerjee, S.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    To compare the mode of formation of ω phase from the α phase in Zr under dynamic and static high pressures, we have carried out a TEM study on Zr samples partially transformed to ω phase under the two conditions. In the present paper, we present this comparative TEM study on Zr. Comparison of the selected area diffraction patterns shows the identical orientation relationship between the α and the ω phases for the two cases. The micrographs for the two cases, however, show considerably different morphology. The shock transformed sample displays the formation of large plates of ω structure from the α structure, whereas the statically transformed sample shows ω grains of irregular shape and sizes. This implies that although the orientation relations between the α and the ω phase i.e the relation between the end states are identical, it does not necessarily imply that the mode of formation of the ω phase is the same under the two conditions. The high resolution electron microscopy results especially pertaining to the coherency of the atomic planes on the (α/ω) interface for the static and dynamically transformed sample will be presented.

  18. High-resolution methane emission estimates using the InTEM inversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, S.; Manning, A.; Robinson, A. D.; Riddick, S. N.; Forster, G.; Oram, D.; O'Doherty, S.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing need for comparisons between emission estimates produced using bottom-up and top-down techniques at high spatial resolution. In response to this, an inversion approach, InTEM, was adapted to estimate methane emissions for a region in the South East of the UK (~100 x 150 km). We present results covering a 2-year period (July 2012 - July 2014) in which atmospheric methane concentrations were recorded at 1 - 2 minute time-steps at four locations within the region of interest. Precise measurements were obtained using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) for all sites except one, which used a PICARRO Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS). These observations, along with the UK Met Office's Lagrangian particle dispersion model (NAME) were used within InTEM to produce the methane emission fields. Emission estimates were produced at varying spatial resolutions, for annual and seasonal time frames . We present results indicating the optimum number of observation sites required for this region, and how this can affect our uncertainty estimates. These results are compared with the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) which is compiled using bottom-up methods and available at 1x1 km resolution. To our knowledge, no inversion technique has been implemented on such a fine spatial resolution. This is a pilot project which, given proof of concept, could be scaled up as an alternative method for producing national scale emission inventories.

  19. Characterization of mineral particles in winter fog of Beijing analyzed by TEM and SEM.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi

    2010-02-01

    Aerosol samples were collected during winter fog and nonfog episodes in Beijing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study morphologies, sizes, and compositions of aerosol particles. TEM observation indicates that most mineral particles collected in fog episode are scavenged in fog droplets. Number-size distributions of mineral particles collected in fog and nonfog episodes show two main peaks at the ranges of 0.1-0.3 and 1-2.5 microm, respectively. Based on their major compositions, mineral particles mainly include Si-rich, Ca-rich, and S-rich. Average S/Ca ratio of mineral particles collected in fog episode is 6.11, being eight times higher than that in nonfog episodes. Development mechanism of individual mineral particles in fog droplets is proposed. It is suggested that mineral particles with abundant alkaline components (e.g., "Ca-rich" particles) occurred in air should alleviate acidic degree of fog and contribute to complexity of fog droplets in Beijing.

  20. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polarsubstrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2006-01-05

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the 'seed' area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity are 10 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  1. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO2 in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects.

  2. In Situ Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon for TFT Applications: Controlled Ultrafast Studies in the Dynamic TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, M; Teslich, N; Lu, J P; Morgan, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-08

    An in situ method for studying the role of laser energy on the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline Si is presented. By monitoring both laser energy and microstructural evolution simultaneously in the dynamic transmission electron microscope, information on grain size and defect concentration can be correlated directly with processing conditions. This proof of principle study provides fundamental scientific information on the crystallization process that has technological importance for the development of thin film transistors. In conclusion, we successfully developed a method for studying UV laser processing of Si films in situ on nanosecond time scales, with ultimate implications for TFT application improvements. In addition to grain size distribution as a function of laser energy density, we found that grain size scaled with laser energy in general. We showed that nanosecond time resolution allowed us to see the nucleation and growth front during processing, which will help further the understanding of microstructural evolution of poly-Si films for electronic applications. Future studies, coupled with high resolution TEM, will be performed to study grain boundary migration, intergranular defects, and grain size distribution with respect to laser energy and adsorption depth.

  3. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  4. Nanoscale characterization of the thermal interface resistance of a heat-sink composite material by in situ TEM.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Kakefuda, Yohei; Mori, Takao; Hirose, Kenji; Mitome, Masanori; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-20

    We developed an original method of in situ nanoscale characterization of thermal resistance utilizing a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The focused electron beam of the HRTEM was used as a contact-free heat source and a piezo-movable nanothermocouple was developed as a thermal detector. This method has a high flexibility of supplying thermal-flux directions for nano/microscale thermal conductivity analysis, and is a powerful way to probe the thermal properties of complex or composite materials. Using this method we performed reproducible measurements of electron beam-induced temperature changes in pre-selected sections of a heat-sink α-Al(2)O(3)/epoxy-based resin composite. Observed linear behavior of the temperature change in a filler reveals that Fourier's law holds even at such a mesoscopic scale. In addition, we successfully determined the thermal resistance of the nanoscale interfaces between neighboring α-Al(2)O(3) fillers to be 1.16 × 10(-8) m(2)K W(-1), which is 35 times larger than that of the fillers themselves. This method that we have discovered enables evaluation of thermal resistivity of composites on the nanoscale, combined with the ultimate spatial localization and resolution sample analysis capabilities that TEM entails.

  5. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication. PMID:27277232

  6. TEM study of PM2.5 emitted from coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station.

    PubMed

    Gieré, Reto; Blackford, Mark; Smith, Katherine

    2006-10-15

    The research presented here was conducted within the scope of an experiment investigating technical feasibility and environmental impacts of tire combustion in a coal-fired power station. Previous work has shown that combustion of a coal+tire blend rather than pure coal increased bulk emissions of various elements (e.g., Zn, As, Sb, Pb). The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical and structural properties of emitted single particles with dimensions <2.5 microm (PM2.5). This transmission electron microscope (TEM)-based study revealed that, in addition to phases typical of coal fly ash (e.g., aluminum-silicate glass, mullite), the emitted PM2.5 contains amorphous selenium particles and three types of crystalline metal sulfates never reported before from stack emissions. Anglesite, PbSO4, is ubiquitous in the PM2.5 derived from both fuels and contains nearly all Pb present in the PM. Gunningite, ZnSO4-H2O, is the main host for Zn and only occurs in the PM derived from the coal+tire blend, whereas yavapaiite, KFe3+(SO4)2, is present only when pure coal was combusted. We conclude that these metal sulfates precipitated from the flue gas, may be globally abundant aerosols, and have, through hydration or dissolution, a major environmental and health impact.

  7. AFM, ellipsometry, XPS and TEM on ultra-thin oxide/polymer nanocomposite layers in organic thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Fian, A; Haase, A; Stadlober, B; Jakopic, G; Matsko, N B; Grogger, W; Leising, G

    2008-03-01

    Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin nanocomposite layers used as gate dielectric in low-voltage and high-performance flexible organic thin film transistors (oTFTs). Reactive sputtered zirconia layers were deposited with low thermal exposure of the substrate and the resulting porous oxide films with high leakage currents were spin-coated with an additional layer of poly-alpha-methylstyrene (P alphaMS). After this treatment a strong improvement of the oTFT performance could be observed; leakage currents could be eliminated almost completely. In ellipsometric studies a higher refractive index of the ZrO(2)/P alphaMS layers compared to the "as sputtered" zirconia films could be detected without a significant enhancement of the film thickness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of the surface topography clearly showed a surface smoothing after the P alphaMS coating. Further studies with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also indicated that the polymer definitely did not form an extra layer. The polymer chains rather (self-)assemble in the nano-scaled interspaces of the porous oxide film giving an oxide-polymer "nanocomposite" with a high oxide filling grade resulting in high dielectric constants larger than 15. The dielectric strength of more than 1 MV cm(-1) is in good accordance with the polymer-filled interspaces. PMID:17952415

  8. Nanoscale characterization of the thermal interface resistance of a heat-sink composite material by in situ TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Kakefuda, Yohei; Mori, Takao; Hirose, Kenji; Mitome, Masanori; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-01

    We developed an original method of in situ nanoscale characterization of thermal resistance utilizing a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The focused electron beam of the HRTEM was used as a contact-free heat source and a piezo-movable nanothermocouple was developed as a thermal detector. This method has a high flexibility of supplying thermal-flux directions for nano/microscale thermal conductivity analysis, and is a powerful way to probe the thermal properties of complex or composite materials. Using this method we performed reproducible measurements of electron beam-induced temperature changes in pre-selected sections of a heat-sink α-Al2O3/epoxy-based resin composite. Observed linear behavior of the temperature change in a filler reveals that Fourier’s law holds even at such a mesoscopic scale. In addition, we successfully determined the thermal resistance of the nanoscale interfaces between neighboring α-Al2O3 fillers to be 1.16 × 10-8 m2K W-1, which is 35 times larger than that of the fillers themselves. This method that we have discovered enables evaluation of thermal resistivity of composites on the nanoscale, combined with the ultimate spatial localization and resolution sample analysis capabilities that TEM entails.

  9. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  11. Using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Method for Mapping Deep Groundwater Tables in Mars Analog Environments: a Baseline Field Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    person, with square Tx wire loops 100 m on a side, and a ferrite-core magnetic coil Rx antenna in the center of each Tx loop. Maximum useful depth of investigation achieved was ~600 m. For control, there are 4 USGS test wells in the area, that have shown water levels from 116.27 m to 124.68 m. In order to evaluate the best frequency to use for the survey, several test soundings were collected at two locations: Station 50 (first station) on Line 1, and again at Station 650 (seventh station) on Line 2. At Line 1/ Station 50, test soundings were collected at 8 Hz, 16 Hz, and 32 Hz. It is clear from the test data that 16 Hz provides the cleanest data out to the latest decay times. At Line 2/ Station 650, test soundings were collected at 8 Hz and 16 Hz. Again 16 Hz provides the cleanest data out to the latest times. Based on the results from the test soundings at Line 1/ Station 50, 16 Hz was used as the sounding frequency throughout the survey, with the additional test soundings at Line 2/ Station 650 confirming the soundness of this choice. CONCLUSIONS: TEM provides a cost-efficient way of mapping deep groundwater, and can be carried out with very small crews and relatively low-cost equipment. The very conductive subsurface environment and abundance of powerline noise sources in the field area makes this an appropriately difficult environment in which to carry out these continued baseline studies. Data from Lines 1, 2, and 3, all show resistivities in the range of 10 to 100 m from the surface down to the water table, consistent with the clay-rich soil in the area. The resistivity gradient seen at ~120 m roughly matches the USGS well data.

  12. Using TEM for sounding conductive and deep groundwater in Mars analog environments: Comparing two field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-11-01

    A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, using a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells sur-rounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 Ωm) clay-rich soil above the water table. During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conduc-tive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show con-ductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

  13. Optical and TEM study of shock metamorphism from the Sedan test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, A. J.

    Thus far, detailed petrologic studies of shock metamorphism have been performed on samples recovered from laboratory experiments and on a few natural impactites. The loading history of these samples is quite different: In particular, laboratory experiments spend only a short time (less than 1 microsec) at peak pressure, whereas natural impactites may have stress pulses from 0.1 - 1 ms. On the other hand, laboratory experiments have known stress histories; natural impactites do not. Natural samples are also subjected to thousands or millions of years of postshock annealing and/or weathering. A useful intermediate case is that of nuclear detonation. Stress pulses for these events can reach 0.1 ms or higher, and samples are obtained in pristine condition. All three types of loading produce stresses of hundreds of kilobars. Samples studied were taken from the Sedan nulcear test site, and consist of a coarse-grained granodiorite containing quartz, K-feldspar, cordierite, and hornblende. Samples were studied optically in this section, then were thinned with an ion mill and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optically, quartz and K-feldspar displayed numerous sets of planar deformation features (PDF's) identical to the nondecorated PDF's seen in laboratory samples and many natural impactites. TEM study showed that the PDF's in quartz and feldspar corresponded to densely packed wide transformation lamellae identical to those described in laboratory studies. The transformation lamellae in both minerals were amorphous, with no sign of high-pressure phases. In the case of K-feldspar only, narrow sublamellae extended outward from some wide lamellae. Quartz, which was more abundant and studied more extensively, contained no shock-induced dislocations. Some planar features were also seen in cordierite, but could not be identified due to rapid beam damage. No shock defects were seen in hornblende in TEM. The shock-induced defects present at the Sedan site are very

  14. Characterization of nanoscale local lattice strains in silicon CMOS devices by TEM/CBED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang

    Strained-Si technology has become one of the leading approaches to further improve the performance of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) as traditional device scaling faces its physical limitation. In particular, mechanical strain induced in the Si channel region is used to increase the carrier mobility and the transistor drive current. To be able to understand and engineer the local lattice strain incorporated in the nanoscale device region, a strain measurement technique with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity is essential. Currently, transmission electron microscope (TEM)/convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) is the only method to measure local changes in lattice parameters due to strain in advanced CMOS devices, because this technique provides nanometer spatial resolution and strain sensitivity on the order of 10-4. In this study, a novel experimental methodology is developed to measure the strain effectively and efficiently. Site-specific TEM samples are prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) with controlled thickness. Zone axes such as <230>, <340>, <560> and <910> are evaluated for obtaining CBED patterns. The specimen-tilt projection and dynamical effects related to the zone axis are discussed. CBED pattern simulation and matching procedures are explained to extract the strain tensors. The accuracy of the strain measurement depends on the clarity of the CBED pattern, which can be improved by using an energy-filter or sample cooling stage. The direct strain measurements are performed in sub-100 nm CMOS devices with either structure-induced or process-induced strains. It is found that the compressive strains are induced when the shallow trench structure (STI) is filled with isolation films. The compressive strains on the order of 10 -3 are observed under the gate region in a Si <110> PMOS transistor with a 37 nm gate length. One-dimensional quantitative strain-mapping is demonstrated using the nanometer probe. The

  15. Optical and TEM study of shock metamorphism from the Sedan test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Thus far, detailed petrologic studies of shock metamorphism have been performed on samples recovered from laboratory experiments and on a few natural impactites. The loading history of these samples is quite different: In particular, laboratory experiments spend only a short time (less than 1 microsec) at peak pressure, whereas natural impactites may have stress pulses from 0.1 - 1 ms. On the other hand, laboratory experiments have known stress histories; natural impactites do not. Natural samples are also subjected to thousands or millions of years of postshock annealing and/or weathering. A useful intermediate case is that of nuclear detonation. Stress pulses for these events can reach 0.1 ms or higher, and samples are obtained in pristine condition. All three types of loading produce stresses of hundreds of kilobars. Samples studied were taken from the Sedan nulcear test site, and consist of a coarse-grained granodiorite containing quartz, K-feldspar, cordierite, and hornblende. Samples were studied optically in this section, then were thinned with an ion mill and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optically, quartz and K-feldspar displayed numerous sets of planar deformation features (PDF's) identical to the nondecorated PDF's seen in laboratory samples and many natural impactites. TEM study showed that the PDF's in quartz and feldspar corresponded to densely packed wide transformation lamellae identical to those described in laboratory studies. The transformation lamellae in both minerals were amorphous, with no sign of high-pressure phases. In the case of K-feldspar only, narrow sublamellae extended outward from some wide lamellae. Quartz, which was more abundant and studied more extensively, contained no shock-induced dislocations. Some planar features were also seen in cordierite, but could not be identified due to rapid beam damage. No shock defects were seen in hornblende in TEM. The shock-induced defects present at the Sedan site are very

  16. Quasi-TEM electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov, I. N. Kuzelev, M. V.

    2014-12-15

    Electromagnetic modes of a plasma waveguide with a nonsimply connected cross section in an external magnetic field are investigated. The existence of quasi-TEM modes in a finite-strength magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that, in the limits of infinitely strong and zero magnetic fields, this mode transforms into a true TEM mode. The possibility of excitation of such modes by an electron beam in the regime of the anomalous Doppler effect is analyzed.

  17. TEM Study of Precipitation in a NiAl-3Ti-0.5Hf Single-Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Howe, J. M.; Wilson, A. W.; Levit, V.

    1996-01-01

    Samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were prepared from 3 mm diameter cylinders electro-discharge machined from the heat-treated ingots. Slices sectioned from the cylinders were mechanically ground and electrochemically thinned in a twinjet Tenupol-3 polisher. Microstructural and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) studies were conducted in a Philips 400T TEM equipped with a double tilt goniometer and a KEVEX Si/Li X-ray detector.

  18. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dám, Karel; Lejček, Pavel; Michalcová, Alena

    2013-02-15

    Dynamic changes in microstructure of the superplastic ultrafine-grained Al–3Mg–0.2Sc (wt.%) alloy refined by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). were observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy at temperatures up to 300 °C (annealing and tensile deformation) in order to simulate the initial stages of superplastic testing. It was found that the microstructure changes significantly during the preheating before the superplastic deformation, which was accompanied by decreased microhardness. During the deformation at 300 °C, high dislocation activity as well as motion of low-angle grain boundaries was observed while high-angle grain boundaries did not move due to the presence of scandium in the alloy. - Highlights: ► We performed in situ TEM annealing and straining on superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy. ► We simulated the conditions of early stages of superplastic testing. ► Significant changes in microstructure occur during preheating before deformation.

  19. A TEM Investigation of the Fine-Grained Matrix of the Martian Basaltic Breccia NWA 7034

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muttik, N.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.; McCubbin, F. M.; Santos, A. R.; Rahman, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The martian basaltic breccia NWA 7034 is characterized by fine-grained groundmass containing several different types of mineral grains and lithologic clasts. The matrix composition closely resembles Martian crustal rock and soil composition measured by recent rover and orbiter missions. The first results of NWA 7034 suggest that the brecciation of this martian meteorite may have formed due to eruptive volcanic processes; however, impact related brecciation processes have been proposed for paired meteorites NWA 7533 and NWA 7475]. Due to the very fine grain size of matrix, its textural details are difficult to resolve by optical and microprobe observations. In order to examine the potential nature of brecciation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies combined with focused ion-beam technique (FIB) has been undertaken. Here we present the preliminary observations of fine-grained groundmass of NWA 7034 from different matrix areas by describing its textural and mineralogical variations and micro-structural characteristics.

  20. Laser Based In Situ Techniques: Novel Methods for Generating Extreme Conditions in TEM Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, M; Lagrange, T; Reed, B; Armstrong, M; Campbell, G; DeHope, W; Kim, J; King, W; Masiel, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-25

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM to as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.

  1. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  2. Nanoribbons from conjugated macromolecules on amorphous substrates observed by SFM and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samori, Paolo; Sikharulidze, Irakli; Francke, Viola; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P.

    1999-03-01

    Micrometre long nanoribbons have been grown from solutions of functionalized poly( para-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE)s on noncrystalline insulating substrates including glass and carbon coated copper grids. Tapping mode scanning force microscopy (SFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that these nanostructures possess a molecular cross section with a typical thickness of 2-3 molecular layers and a width which reflects the distribution of macromolecular lengths. The ribbons are therefore quite similar to the ones found on the crystalline mica substrate except that they are not oriented within the surface plane. This indicates that the growth of these architectures from solution is mainly governed by intermolecular interactions between the π-conjugated macromolecules. The possibility to self-assemble these nanoribbons also on amorphous silica opens a prospect for their application as molecular nanowires bridging gold nanoelectrodes grown on oxidized silicon wafers.

  3. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  4. Materials science applications of a 120 kV FEG TEM/STEM: Triskaidekaphilia

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.; Fisher, A.T.; Kenik, E.A.; Wang, Z.L.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction by several manufacturers of 200kV transmission electron microscopes (TEM) equipped with field emission guns affords the opportunity to assess their potential impact on materials science by examining applications of similar 100-120kV instruments that have been in use for more than a decade. This summary is based on results from a Philips EM400T/FEG configured as an analytical electron microscope (AEM) with a 6,585 scanning transmission (STEM) unit, EDAX 9100/70 or 9900 energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) systems, and Gatan 607 serial- or 666 parallel-detection electron energy-loss spectrometers (EELS). Examples in four areas that illustrate applications that are impossible or so difficult as to be impracticable with conventional thermionic electron guns are described.

  5. In situ TEM/SEM electronic/mechanical characterization of nano material with MEMS chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuelin, Wang; Tie, Li; Xiao, Zhang; Hongjiang, Zeng; Qinhua, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Our investigation of in situ observations on electronic and mechanical properties of nano materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with the help of traditional micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology has been reviewed. Thanks to the stability, continuity and controllability of the loading force from the electrostatic actuator and the sensitivity of the sensor beam, a MEMS tensile testing chip for accurate tensile testing in the nano scale is obtained. Based on the MEMS chips, the scale effect of Young's modulus in silicon has been studied and confirmed directly in a tensile experiment using a transmission electron microscope. Employing the nanomanipulation technology and FIB technology, Cu and SiC nanowires have been integrated into the tensile testing device and their mechanical, electronic properties under different stress have been achieved, simultaneously. All these will aid in better understanding the nano effects and contribute to the designation and application in nano devices.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Three-dimensional size and orientation of the precipitates in AZ91 magnesium alloys measured by TEM techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ou; Ma, Jia-Yan; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Jia-Ping; Jin, Lei; Zhao, Dong-Shan; Wang, Ren-Hui

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge of the microscopic structure, including three-dimensional (3-D) size and orientation of the precipitates, is essential to fully understand the mechanical properties of the magnesium alloys and designing the alloys with better performance. Analytical TEM with high spatial resolution offers the simultaneous measurements of 3-D size, structure, orientation, composition of the precipitates from one typical sample along an established crystallographic axis. Besides popular Burgers orientation relationship (OR), other ORs such as Pitsch-Schrader OR, Crawley OR, Potter OR and a new OR with the form of [0001]α 1.0° from [311]γ and (11bar 20)α 2.0°? from (03bar 3)γ between the magnesium matrix and the precipitate γ-Mg17Al12 are identified by TEM imaging and diffraction techniques. As a case study, the thicknesses of the individual precipitates with Burgers OR are further measured to be 100-200 nm through both electron energy-loss spectroscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy combining differential x-ray absorption and extrapolation, which are in agreement with the overall 3-D size statistic distribution results obtained through analysing various samples along various directions. Furthermore, the fabricated wedge-shape structure provides a platform on which to study the dependence of the interfacial strain on the variation of the thickness.

  7. Citrate sol gel synthesis, phase formation, optical-properties and TEM analysis of nanocrystalline TaSr2SmCu2O8 materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, S.; George, Jincymol; Parthiban, P.

    2016-05-01

    We report the citrate sol gel (CSG) derived synthesis of nanocrystalline tantalo-cuprate, TaSr2SmCu2O8 (Ta1212Sm) materials and studied the thermal, phase formation, photoluminescence (PL) and photo-catalytic properties and TEM analysis. Like Ta1212Eu phase, the present Ta1212Sm phase is also successfully crystallized in tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameter, a = 0.3875(1) nm and c = 1.1690(5) nm with average crystalline size of ~61.5 nm upon subsequent annealing of the combustion product at 1100°C for 24 h under O2 atmosphere. The room temperature PL emission spectrum of nanocrystalline Ta1212Sm materials exhibits an emission peak at ~605 nm under excitation wavelength of 404 nm. The photo-degradation (~89 %) of methyl orange (MO) by the Ta1212Sm catalyst in the presence of H2O2 is explored. The TEM micro-images reveal that the particles are in nano-scale and irregular morphology.

  8. HRTEM and TEM studies of amorphous structures in ZrNiTiCu base alloys obtained by rapid solidification or ball milling.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Lityńska, L; Maziarz, W; Kocisko, R; Molnarová, M; Kovácová, A

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous structure of Ti(25)Zr(17)Ni(29)Cu(29) composition was studied. Alloys were prepared either by rapid solidification using melt spinning or by high-energy ball milling. The composition of multi-component eutectic in slowly cooled samples of ZrNiTiCu alloy was determined using EDS measurements in scanning microscope of slowly cooled cast samples. The alloys of eutectic composition were melt-spun or ball-milled. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of melt-spun ribbons from alloys near eutectic composition did not show presence of nanocrystals within the amorphous structure. TEM studies of ball-milled powders showed presence of nanocrystallites of size 2-5 nm. The electron diffraction pattern showed intense diffused ring due to the presence of the amorphous phase and a weak spot due to crystalline phases which were difficult to identify. The high temperature high-pressure compaction in vacuum of amorphous ball-milled powders resulted in a similar structure like in the powders showing nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous matrix. The crystallites were imaged using HREM. Interplanar distances were measured in pictures obtained by inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of atomic planes to obtain better contrast. Analysis of the IFFT from high-resolution micrographs allowed to identify Cu(10)Zr(7) phase. Point analysis and elemental mapping performed using nondispersive X-ray energy spectroscopy showed uniform elements distribution indicating that chemical segregation to nanocrystals is within measurement error. PMID:18614372

  9. Design of high-brightness TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser for renewable material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, D.; Almeida, J.

    2014-08-01

    The conversion of sunlight into laser light by direct solar pumping is of ever-increasing importance because broadband, temporally constant, sunlight is converted into laser light, which can be a source of narrowband, collimated, rapidly pulsed, radiation with the possibility of obtaining extremely high brightness and intensity. Nonlinear processes, such as harmonic generation, might be used to obtain broad wavelength coverage, including the ultraviolet wavelengths, where the solar flux is very weak. The direct excitation of large lasers by sunlight offers the prospect of a drastic reduction in the cost of coherent optical radiation for high average power materials processing. This renewable laser has a large potential for many applications such as high-temperature materials processing, renewable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle and so on. We propose here a scalable TEM00 mode solar laser pumping scheme, which is composed of four firststage 1.13 m diameter Fresnel lenses with its respective folding mirrors mounted on a two-axis automatic solar tracker. Concentrated solar power at the four focal spots of these Fresnel lenses are focused individually along a common 3.5 mm diameter, 70 mm length Nd:YAG rod via four pairs of second-stage fused-silica spherical lenses and third-stage 2D-CPCs (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), sitting just above the laser rod which is also double-pass pumped by four V-shaped pumping cavities. Distilled water cools both the rod and the concentrators. 15.4 W TEM00 solar laser power is numerically calculated, corresponding to 6.7 times enhancement in laser beam brightness.

  10. Crystal polymer interaction with new injectable bone substitute; SEM and Hr TEM study.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, G; Rohanizadeh, R; Weiss, P; Bouler, J M

    2000-04-01

    A composite constituted of calcium phosphate (CaP) granules and a hydrophilic polymer as a carrier (hydroxy-propyl-methyl cellulose, HPMC) was developed to be an injectable bone substitute (IBS, CNRS patent). IBS is a composite and not an ionic cement. The composite obtained is ready to use and sterile. Chemical interactions between organic and inorganic components appeared during the association of the two. The interactions of the CaP and the polymer have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HrTEM) SEM revealed a degradation of the granules into smaller particles while EDX was unable to show significant changes in the Ca/P ratio during aging of the composite. With Hr TEM, however, we observed hydrolysis (process of dissolution and precipitation) from the surface to about 13 nm into the HA crystals and occasional dissolution with precipitation of beta-TCP crystals. In HA, the first zone of interaction consisted of a single layer of small globular crystals of 2 to 3 nm in diameter. Numerous lattice patterns in all three axes could be observed. Under the globular crystals zone, the inter-reticular distances of the single crystals appeared enlarged by 1.2% (from 0.817 to 0.827 nm). The enlargement seems to correspond to diffusion of HPO(4) into the crystal lattice. In beta-TCP crystals, dissolution was observed to be several nanometers deep, but globular surface precipitation rarely was observed. With time or after steam sterilization, no changes were observed. These data demonstrate the strong interactions of the hydrophylic polymer with calcium phosphate, but only in the first several nanometers of thickness.

  11. High-resolution methane emission estimates using surface measurements and the InTEM inversion system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Sarah; Manning, Alistair; Robinson, Andrew; Riddick, Stuart; Forster, Grant; Oram, Dave; O'Doherty, Simon; Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    High quality GHG emission estimates will be required to successfully tackle climate change. There is a growing need for comparisons between emission estimates produced using bottom-up and top-down techniques at high spatial resolution. Here, a top-down inversion approach combining multi-year atmospheric measurements and an inversion model, InTEM, was used to estimate methane emissions for a region in the South East of the UK (~100 x 150 km). We present results covering a 2-year period (July 2012 - July 2014) in which atmospheric methane concentrations were recorded at 1 - 2 minute time-steps at four locations within the region of interest. Precise measurements were obtained using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) for all sites except one, which used a PICARRO Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS). These observations, along with the UK Met Office's Lagrangian particle dispersion model, NAME, were used within InTEM to produce the methane emission fields. We present results from both Bayesian and non-prior based inversion analysis at varying spatial resolutions, for annual, seasonal and monthly time frames. These results are compared with the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) which is compiled using bottom-up methods and available at 1x1 km resolution. A thorough assessment of uncertainty is incorporated into this technique which is represented in the results. This project is part of the UK GAUGE campaign which aims to produce robust estimates of the UK GHG budget using new and existing measurement networks (e.g. the UK DECC GHG network) and modelling activities at a range of scales.

  12. Imaging and characterization of fine gamma' precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy.

    PubMed

    Sarosi, P M; Viswanathan, G B; Whitis, D; Mills, M J

    2005-04-01

    Empirical datasets of volume fractions and size distributions of small gamma' precipitates from "real" multi-component engineering nickel-based superalloys are vital to calibrate and validate the computer models which predict high sensitivities of mechanical properties to size and volume fraction of these fine gamma precipitates, and in order to accelerate microstructure and alloy development. Consequently, we investigated a number of imaging techniques available in a Tecnai F-20 FEG/TEM and selected the technique which best enabled rapid and extensive acquisition of these datasets using the engineering alloy, René 88'DT. The EFTEM technique was found to be the most appropriate method for imaging fine gamma' precipitates while further investigation showed that the Cr-M-edge, in comparison with other ionization-edges provided the best images based largely on contrast-to-noise ratio. Imaging of the Cr-M-edge elemental maps were further improved by investigating the effects of microscope parameters, imaging filter parameters and analysis of the experimental electron energy loss spectra obtained from this alloy. In addition, a novel technique to determine the volume fraction of the fine gamma' precipitates without the need to determine the absolute thickness of the TEM foil is proposed. PMID:15777602

  13. Imaging and characterization of fine gamma' precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy.

    PubMed

    Sarosi, P M; Viswanathan, G B; Whitis, D; Mills, M J

    2005-04-01

    Empirical datasets of volume fractions and size distributions of small gamma' precipitates from "real" multi-component engineering nickel-based superalloys are vital to calibrate and validate the computer models which predict high sensitivities of mechanical properties to size and volume fraction of these fine gamma precipitates, and in order to accelerate microstructure and alloy development. Consequently, we investigated a number of imaging techniques available in a Tecnai F-20 FEG/TEM and selected the technique which best enabled rapid and extensive acquisition of these datasets using the engineering alloy, René 88'DT. The EFTEM technique was found to be the most appropriate method for imaging fine gamma' precipitates while further investigation showed that the Cr-M-edge, in comparison with other ionization-edges provided the best images based largely on contrast-to-noise ratio. Imaging of the Cr-M-edge elemental maps were further improved by investigating the effects of microscope parameters, imaging filter parameters and analysis of the experimental electron energy loss spectra obtained from this alloy. In addition, a novel technique to determine the volume fraction of the fine gamma' precipitates without the need to determine the absolute thickness of the TEM foil is proposed.

  14. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1

    PubMed Central

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae divides asymmetrically and is an excellent model system for asymmetric cell division. As for other asymmetrically dividing cells, proper spindle positioning along the mother-daughter polarity axis is crucial for balanced chromosome segregation. Thus, a surveillance mechanism named Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC) inhibits mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented, thereby preventing the generation of cells with aberrant ploidies. The small GTPase Tem1 is required to trigger a Hippo-like protein kinase cascade, named Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), that is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis but also contributes to correct spindle alignment in metaphase. Importantly, Tem1 is the target of the SPOC, which relies on the activity of the GTPase-activating complex (GAP) Bub2-Bfa1 to keep Tem1 in the GDP-bound inactive form. Tem1 forms a hetero-trimeric complex with Bub2-Bfa1 at spindle poles (SPBs) that accumulates asymmetrically on the bud-directed spindle pole during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning. PMID:26507466

  15. Images and properties of individual nucleated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Zoltán; Pósfai, Mihály; Nyirő-Kósa, Ilona; Aalto, Pasi; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected in Budapest, Hungary in April-June onto lacey Formvar substrates by using an electrostatic precipitator during the beginning phase of the particle growth process in ten nucleation and growth events. Median contribution of the nucleated particles - expressed as the concentration of particles with a diameter between 6 and 25 nm to the total particle number concentration - was 55%, and the median electrical mobility diameter of the particles was approximately 20 nm. The sample was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Major types of individual particles such as soot, sulphate/organic and tar ball particles were identified in the sample. In addition, particles with an optical diameter range of 10-30 nm were also observed. They clearly differed from the other particle types, showed homogeneous contrast in the bright-field TEM images, and evaporated within tens of seconds when exposed to the electron beam. They were interpreted as representatives of freshly nucleated particles.

  16. Identification of magnetic properties of few nm sized FePt crystalline particles by characterizing the intrinsic atom order using aberration corrected S/TEM.

    PubMed

    Biskupek, Johannes; Jinschek, Joerg R; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bendele, Markus; Han, Luyang; Ziemann, Paul; Kaiser, Ute

    2010-06-01

    Hard-magnetic nanomaterials like nanoparticles of FePt are of great interest because of their promising potential for data storage applications. The magnetic properties of FePt structures strongly differ whether the crystal phases are face centered cubic (fcc) or face centered tetragonal (fct). We evaluated aberration corrected HRTEM, electron diffraction and aberration corrected HAADF-STEM as methods to measure the chemical degree of order S that describes the ordering of Pt and Fe atoms within the crystals unit cells. S/TEM experiments are accompanied by image calculations. The findings are compared with results obtained from X-ray diffraction on a FePt film. Our results show that STEM is a reasonable fast approach over HRTEM and electron diffraction to locally determine the chemical degree of order S.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Imaging of magnetic and electric fields by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zweck, Josef

    2016-10-12

    Nanostructured materials become more and more a part of our daily life, partly as self-assembled particles or artificially patterned. These nanostructures often possess intrinsic magnetic and/or electric fields which determine (at least partially) their physical properties. Therefore it is important to be able to measure these fields reliably on a nanometre scale. A rather common instrument for the investigation of these fields is the transmission electron microscope as it offers high spatial resolution. The use of an electron microscope to image electric and magnetic fields on a micron down to sub-nanometre scale is treated in detail for transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). The formation of contrast is described for the most common imaging modes, the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed and examples are given. In addition, the experimental requirements for the use of the techniques described are listed and explained.

  20. Imaging of magnetic and electric fields by electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweck, Josef

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured materials become more and more a part of our daily life, partly as self-assembled particles or artificially patterned. These nanostructures often possess intrinsic magnetic and/or electric fields which determine (at least partially) their physical properties. Therefore it is important to be able to measure these fields reliably on a nanometre scale. A rather common instrument for the investigation of these fields is the transmission electron microscope as it offers high spatial resolution. The use of an electron microscope to image electric and magnetic fields on a micron down to sub-nanometre scale is treated in detail for transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). The formation of contrast is described for the most common imaging modes, the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed and examples are given. In addition, the experimental requirements for the use of the techniques described are listed and explained.

  1. Imaging of magnetic and electric fields by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zweck, Josef

    2016-10-12

    Nanostructured materials become more and more a part of our daily life, partly as self-assembled particles or artificially patterned. These nanostructures often possess intrinsic magnetic and/or electric fields which determine (at least partially) their physical properties. Therefore it is important to be able to measure these fields reliably on a nanometre scale. A rather common instrument for the investigation of these fields is the transmission electron microscope as it offers high spatial resolution. The use of an electron microscope to image electric and magnetic fields on a micron down to sub-nanometre scale is treated in detail for transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). The formation of contrast is described for the most common imaging modes, the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed and examples are given. In addition, the experimental requirements for the use of the techniques described are listed and explained. PMID:27536873

  2. A TEM and XRD Study of (BiS) 1+δ(Nb 1+ɛS 2) n Misfit Layer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, L. C.; Withers, R. L.; Gomez-Herrero, A.; Welberry, T. R.; Schmid, S.

    1995-02-01

    Monolayer and bilayer lamellar misfit layered chalcogenides within the BiS-NbS 2 system have been synthesized and studied via TEM and XRD. Both BiS and NbS 2 parent substructures are shown to have very close to orthorhombic symmetry in the former case, but definite monoclinic symmetry in the latter. Stacking disorder and its effect upon electron diffraction patterns is investigated via higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) diffraction. In addition to the usual set of reflections for such systems, an additional set of weak, somewhat diffuse satellite reflections (not previously reported before for any other misfit layered chalcogenide) have been observed. Bilayer tubular crystals have also been studied by XRD. A close relationship with the corresponding lamellar bilayer phase is established, and some unusual features of its reciprocal lattice are pointed out.

  3. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  6. He Transport and Fate of Tempered Martensitic Steels: Summary of Recent TEM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, G Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2010-02-26

    As an extension of prior work [1-4], we summarize recent observations made on a He-implanted tempered martensitic steel (TMS), F82H mod 3, irradiated in the HFIR, in both as-tempered (AT) and cold-worked (CW) conditions. A novel implantation technique was used to uniformly inject He into 3-mm diameter TEM discs to depths ranging from ≈ 5-8 µm. The He is generated by two-step transmutation reactions in Ni contained in a NiAl coating layer adjacent to paired 3 mm TEM discs. NiAl layers from 1 to 4 μm thick produced He/dpa ratios between 5 and 40 appm/dpa. The irradiations were at temperatures of 300, 400 and 500°C from 3.9 to 9 dpa and 90 to 380 appm He. Electron transparent samples were prepared by a cross-sectional thinning technique that allowed investigating microstructural evolution over a range of implantation depths. Irradiation of the AT alloy to 9 dpa at 500°C and 380 appm He resulted in relatively large, faceted cavities, that are likely voids, along with a much higher density of smaller He bubbles. The cavities were most often aligned in pearl necklace like strings, presumably due to their formation on pre-existing dislocations. A finer distribution of cavities was also present on precipitate interfaces, lath and grain boundaries. Nine dpa irradiations that produced 190 appm He resulted in a somewhat more random distribution and lower density of smaller matrix cavities; but lower He levels had a less noticeable effect on bubbles in the lath and precipitate boundaries. Corresponding irradiations of the CW F82H produced a larger number of smaller cavities. Irradiation of the AT alloy to 3.9 dpa and 90 ppm He at 400°C produced a similar cavity population to that observed at 500°C at 190 appm He, while the corresponding cavities at 500°C are slightly larger and more numerous at 380 appm He. The cavity strings were less obvious for the 400°C irradiations, and the bubble distribution appeared to be more random. No cavities were observed in the case of

  7. Shell structure of natural rubber particles: evidence of chemical stratification by electrokinetics and cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Christophe N; Crassous, Jérôme J; Drechsler, Markus; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Eloy, Marie; de Gaudemaris, Benoît; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2013-11-26

    The interfacial structure of natural rubber (NR) colloids is investigated by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and electrokinetics over a broad range of KNO3 electrolyte concentrations (4-300 mM) and pH values (1-8). The asymptotic plateau value reached by NR electrophoretic mobility (μ) in the thin double layer limit supports the presence of a soft (ion- and water-permeable) polyelectrolytic type of layer located at the periphery of the NR particles. This property is confirmed by the analysis of the electron density profile obtained from cryo-TEM that evidences a ∼2-4 nm thick corona surrounding the NR polyisoprene core. The dependence of μ on pH and salt concentration is further marked by a dramatic decrease of the point of zero electrophoretic mobility (PZM) from 3.6 to 0.8 with increasing electrolyte concentration in the range 4-300 mM. Using a recent theory for electrohydrodynamics of soft multilayered particles, this "anomalous" dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration is shown to be consistent with a radial organization of anionic and cationic groups across the peripheral NR structure. The NR electrokinetic response in the pH range 1-8 is indeed found to be equivalent to that of particles surrounded by a positively charged ∼3.5 nm thick layer (mean dissociation pK ∼ 4.2) supporting a thin and negatively charged outermost layer (0.6 nm in thickness, pK ∼ 0.7). Altogether, the strong dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration suggests that the electrostatic properties of the outer peripheral region of the NR shell are mediated by lipidic residues protruding from a shell containing a significant amount of protein-like charges. This proposed NR shell interfacial structure questions previously reported NR representations according to which the shell consists of either a fully mixed lipid-protein layer, or a layer of phospholipids residing exclusively beneath an outer proteic film. PMID:24152085

  8. Shell structure of natural rubber particles: evidence of chemical stratification by electrokinetics and cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Christophe N; Crassous, Jérôme J; Drechsler, Markus; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Eloy, Marie; de Gaudemaris, Benoît; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2013-11-26

    The interfacial structure of natural rubber (NR) colloids is investigated by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and electrokinetics over a broad range of KNO3 electrolyte concentrations (4-300 mM) and pH values (1-8). The asymptotic plateau value reached by NR electrophoretic mobility (μ) in the thin double layer limit supports the presence of a soft (ion- and water-permeable) polyelectrolytic type of layer located at the periphery of the NR particles. This property is confirmed by the analysis of the electron density profile obtained from cryo-TEM that evidences a ∼2-4 nm thick corona surrounding the NR polyisoprene core. The dependence of μ on pH and salt concentration is further marked by a dramatic decrease of the point of zero electrophoretic mobility (PZM) from 3.6 to 0.8 with increasing electrolyte concentration in the range 4-300 mM. Using a recent theory for electrohydrodynamics of soft multilayered particles, this "anomalous" dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration is shown to be consistent with a radial organization of anionic and cationic groups across the peripheral NR structure. The NR electrokinetic response in the pH range 1-8 is indeed found to be equivalent to that of particles surrounded by a positively charged ∼3.5 nm thick layer (mean dissociation pK ∼ 4.2) supporting a thin and negatively charged outermost layer (0.6 nm in thickness, pK ∼ 0.7). Altogether, the strong dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration suggests that the electrostatic properties of the outer peripheral region of the NR shell are mediated by lipidic residues protruding from a shell containing a significant amount of protein-like charges. This proposed NR shell interfacial structure questions previously reported NR representations according to which the shell consists of either a fully mixed lipid-protein layer, or a layer of phospholipids residing exclusively beneath an outer proteic film.

  9. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    We conducted pulsed infrared laser irradiation experiments, in order to simulate space weathering triggered modifications of planetary surfaces not protected by an enveloping atmosphere [1,2], e.g., Mercury. Our work is embedded in the framework of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury [3]. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), an onboard spectrometer will deliver surface data in the range of 7 - 14 μm once it reaches orbit in 2024 [4]. Space weathering effects known from other Solar System bodies are likely to be very prominent on Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, the lack of a protective atmosphere and its weak magnetic field [5]. Space weathering effects, e.g., implantation of solar wind in regolith material, sputtering and (micro) meteorite impacts modify the planetary surface and thus, therefrom obtained spectral data in the VIS/NIR range considerably (e.g., reddening and darkening of spectra) [6-9]. We expect modifications induced by space weathering, known from the VIS/NIR range also to show in the mid infrared range, probably by amorphisation or similar still unknown effects [2,10]. Our approach is therefore threefold: a) alter analog material artificially by pulsed laser experiments, b) investigate altered analog material spectrally (VIS/NIR and MIR range) and c) conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on selected weathered grains to better understand the nanostratigraphy developed by irradiation and its impact on the resulting infrared spectra. Here, we report on results obtained from the first set of experiments. Characteristic upper mantle minerals were taken as analog material, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, were ground into a powder (< 160 μm), slightly compressed into pellets and subsequently irradiated under high vacuum conditions (˜ 10-6 mbar) with a pulsed (˜ 8ns) infrared laser at a fluence of ˜ 2 Jcm-2. From the irradiated pellet surfaces, VIS/NIR and MIR spectra were obtained and

  10. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    We conducted pulsed infrared laser irradiation experiments, in order to simulate space weathering triggered modifications of planetary surfaces not protected by an enveloping atmosphere [1,2], e.g., Mercury. Our work is embedded in the framework of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury [3]. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), an onboard spectrometer will deliver surface data in the range of 7 - 14 μm once it reaches orbit in 2024 [4]. Space weathering effects known from other Solar System bodies are likely to be very prominent on Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, the lack of a protective atmosphere and its weak magnetic field [5]. Space weathering effects, e.g., implantation of solar wind in regolith material, sputtering and (micro) meteorite impacts modify the planetary surface and thus, therefrom obtained spectral data in the VIS/NIR range considerably (e.g., reddening and darkening of spectra) [6‑9]. We expect modifications induced by space weathering, known from the VIS/NIR range also to show in the mid infrared range, probably by amorphisation or similar still unknown effects [2,10]. Our approach is therefore threefold: a) alter analog material artificially by pulsed laser experiments, b) investigate altered analog material spectrally (VIS/NIR and MIR range) and c) conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on selected weathered grains to better understand the nanostratigraphy developed by irradiation and its impact on the resulting infrared spectra. Here, we report on results obtained from the first set of experiments. Characteristic upper mantle minerals were taken as analog material, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, were ground into a powder (< 160 μm), slightly compressed into pellets and subsequently irradiated under high vacuum conditions (˜ 10‑6 mbar) with a pulsed (˜ 8ns) infrared laser at a fluence of ˜ 2 Jcm‑2. From the irradiated pellet surfaces, VIS/NIR and MIR spectra were obtained and

  11. Prevalence of β-lactam (blaTEM) and Metronidazole (nim) Resistance Genes in the Oral Cavity of Greek Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Koukos, Georgios; Konstantinidis, Antonios; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Arsenakis, Minas; Slini, Theodora; Sakellari, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of blaTEM and nim genes that encode resistance to β-lactams and nitroimidazoles, respectively, in the oral cavity of systemically healthy Greek subjects. Materials and Methodology: After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 subjects were recruited for the study, including 50 periodontally healthy patients, 52 cases of gingivitis and 52 cases of chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters were assessed with an automated probe. Various samples were collected from the tongue, first molars and pockets >6mm, and analysed by polymerase chain reaction-amplification of the blaTEM and nim genes, using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. Results: There was a high rate of detection of blaTEM in plaque and tongue samples alike in all periodontal conditions (37% of plaque and 60% of tongue samples, and 71% of participants). The blaTEM gene was detected more frequently in the tongue samples of the periodontally healthy (56%) and chronic periodontitis (62%) groups compared to the plaque samples from the same groups (36% and 29%, respectively; z-test with Bonferroni corrections-tests, P<0.05). The nim gene was not detected in any of the 343 samples analysed. Conclusion: The oral cavity of Greek subjects often harbours blaTEM but not nim genes, and therefore the antimicrobial activity of β-lactams might be compromised. PMID:27099637

  12. Resistance to β-Lactamase Inhibitor Protein Does Not Parallel Resistance to Clavulanic Acid in TEM β-Lactamase Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, William A.; Locke, Troy R.; Jensen, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare patterns of resistance to inhibition by clavulanic acid with patterns of resistance to inhibition by a β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), R164S, R244S, and R164S/R244S mutant forms of TEM β-lactamase were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. When kinetic parameters were determined for these mutant and wild-type forms of TEM, the single mutants showed properties that were similar to those in the literature but the double mutant showed properties that were very different. The R164S/R244S double mutant form of TEM retained its resistance to inhibition by clavulanic acid (characteristic of the R244S mutation) but lost all its ability to hydrolyze ceftazidime (characteristic of the R164S mutation). While these characteristics are contrary to those previously reported for an R164S/R244S double mutant, this discrepancy resulted from the use of a defective mutant in the earlier study. Both the single and double mutant forms of TEM remained highly sensitive when tested for inhibition by BLIP, showing only slightly increased resistance compared to that of the wild type; this pattern of resistance is quite different from the pattern of clavulanic acid resistance. The slight increases in resistance to inhibition by BLIP seen in the mutants may have been related to the fact that all of the mutations effected changes in the net charge on the TEM protein that could impede interactions with BLIP. PMID:12384366

  13. Advanced TEM specimen preparation methods for replication of P91 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.R.G. . E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Sulaiman, S.

    2006-01-15

    A range of advanced transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation methods, based on replication, have been developed for P91 steel. The results obtained have been compared with conventional replication and thin foil methods. The aim has been to obtain complimentary information from thin foil and replica specimens from the same region of interest either sequentially or simultaneously. The effects of various reagents for dissolution of the steel matrix and replica release have been investigated, and chemical methods for removing amorphous iron oxide contaminants from replicas have been identified. A method of region-specific replication is demonstrated whereby regions of thin foils previously characterised by TEM, can be subsequently replicated. This enables the former location of extracted particles, such as on grain/lath/subgrain boundaries etc., to be determined prior to microanalysis. It also permits the identification of artefacts such as stray particles and failed extractions. A second method of thin foil partial replication was developed in which both replica and thin foil are present on the same specimen. At the interface between the two regions, thin foil information such as dislocation interactions with fine scale particles and replica information such as microanalysis of particles within the same grain or lath can be obtained. Double replication of thin foils has also been successfully demonstrated. These methods are applied to a creep resistant martensitic steel (P91), but should be broadly applicable to a wide range of alloy steels.

  14. Metal biosorption capacity of the organic solvent tolerant Pseudomonas fluorescens TEM08.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Atac; Ozdemir, Guven

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of biomass are being tested as a biosorption material for metal removal from the contaminated waters. In the present study the biosorption capacity of an organic solvent tolerant (OST) bacterium was investigated against Cr(VI) and Ni(II). The OST strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens TEM08 was isolated from an oil contaminated soil sample and grown in normal culture conditions (type I) and in the presence of the cyclohexane (type II). Two types of cells were used in the biosorption experiments to compare the organic solvent effect on the biosorption capacity. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The value of Q(0) was higher for type I cells (40.8 for Cr(VI); 12.4 for Ni(II)) then the type II (40.7 for Cr(VI); 11.2 for Ni(II)). The adsorption capacity constants (K(F)) of Freundlich model for type I cells and for type II cells were 10.87 and 8.78 for Ni(II) and 13.60 and 10.99 for Cr(VI), respectively. PMID:18657416

  15. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  16. TEM examination of microstructural evolution during processing of 14CrYWTi nanostructured ferritic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, H.; Alinger, M. J.; Odette, G. R.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-08-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was carried out on the co-evolution of the coarser-scale microstructural features in mechanically alloyed (MA) powders and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidated Fe-14Cr-3W-0 and 0.4Ti-0.25Y 2O 3 nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The pancake shaped nanoscale grains in the as-MA powders are textured and elongated parallel to the particle surface. Powder annealing results in re-crystallization at 850 °C and grain growth at 1150 °C. The grains also recrystallize and may grow in the alloys HIPed at 850 °C, but appear to retain a polygonized sub-grain structure. The grains are larger and more distinct in the alloys HIPed at 1000 and 1150 °C. However, annealing resulted in bi-modal grain size distribution. Finer grains retained a significant dislocation density and populations of small precipitates with crystal structures distinct form the matrix. The grains and precipitates were much larger in alloys without Ti.

  17. Observation of thermally etched grain boundaries with the FIB/TEM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Palizdar, Y.; San Martin, D.; Ward, M.; Cochrane, R.C.; Brydson, R.; Scott, A.J.

    2013-10-15

    Thermal etching is a method which is able to reveal and characterize grain boundaries, twins or dislocation structures and determine parameters such as grain boundary energies, surface diffusivities or study phase transformations in steels, intermetallics or ceramic materials. This method relies on the preferential transfer of matter away from grain boundaries on a polished sample during heating at high temperatures in an inert/vacuum atmosphere. The evaporation/diffusion of atoms at high temperatures results in the formation of grooves at the intersections of the planes of grain/twin boundaries with the polished surface. This work describes how the combined use of Focussed Ion Beam and Transmission Electron Microscopy can be used to characterize not only the grooves and their profile with the surface, but also the grain boundary line below the groove, this method being complementary to the commonly used scanning probe techniques. - Highlights: • Thermally etched low-carbon steel samples have been characterized by FIB/TEM • Grain boundary (GB) lines below the groove have been characterized in this way • Absence of ghost traces and large θ angle suggests that GB are not stationary but mobile • Observations correlate well with previous works and Mullins' investigations [22].

  18. TEM observation of bacteria-induced plagioclase dissolution and secondary mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Nishimiya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Silicate minerals are the most common minerals in the earth's crust. Bacteria are also distributed throughout the earth's surface environment. The silicate minerals are known to be dissolved by organic acids and polysaccharides known as bacteria metabolites. The metabolic activity of bacteria therefore plays an important role in the interaction between dissolution of the silicate minerals and formation of secondary minerals. However, little is known about the secondary mineral formation process associated with the bacterial metabolism. To clarify the bacterial effect on the mineral dissolution and the secondary mineral formation, we closely investigated the effect of bacterial activity on surface texture modification and chemical composition changes of plagioclase which is the most abundant silicate mineral in the earth's crust. The bacteria were isolated from soil and then added in a suitable medium with several plagioclase fragments (Ab100% and An100%). It was incubated for 10 days. Al and Si concentrations in the medium were measured by ICP-AES to monitor the dissolution of the plagioclase. Secondary mineral formation during the incubation was observed by TEM, EDS and SAED methods. The authors will give the experiment results and discuss the effect of bacterial activity on the plagioclase dissolution and the secondary mineral formation in detail.

  19. In-situ TEM observation of dislocation evolution in Kr-irradiated UO2 single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lingfeng He; Mahima Gupta; Clarissa A. Yablinsky; Jian Gan; Marquis A. Kirk; Xian-Ming Bai; Janne Pakarinen; Todd R. Allen

    2013-11-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of UO2 single crystal irradiated with Kr ions at high temperatures was conducted to understand the dislocation evolution due to high-energy radiation. The dislocation evolution in UO2 single crystal is shown to occur as nucleation and growth of dislocation loops at low-irradiation doses, followed by transformation to extended dislocation segments and networks at high doses, as well as shrinkage and annihilation of some loops and dislocations due to high temperature annealing. Generally the trends of dislocation evolution in UO2 are similar under Kr irradiation at different ion energies and temperatures (150 keV at 600 degrees C and 1 MeV at 800 degrees C) used in this work, although the specific dislocation loop size and density are quite different. Interstitial-type dislocation loops with Burgers vector along <110> were observed in the Kr-irradiated UO2.The irradiated specimens were denuded of dislocation loops near the surface.

  20. An in situ heating TEM analysis method for an interface reaction.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Ito, Katsuji; Nagakubo, Yasuhira; Asakawa, Takayuki; Kanemura, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    In order to analyze the thermal property of nano-sized materials, an in situ observation technique that allows highly sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDX) analyses and high-resolution in situ heating observation of precision specimens is required. A method for the in situ observation of the interface reaction using an analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a specimen-heating holder was developed. The specimen holder used in this study was a direct-heating type having a fine tungsten wire heater. For sensitive analyses including an EDX map of composition changes during the interface reaction, a space toward the EDX detector with a take-off angle of 20 degrees was made in the specimen holder. Samples were prepared by attaching a micro-sample directly to the heater using the focused ion beam (FIB) micro-sampling technique. It was confirmed that the sensitive EDX map and electron diffraction analyses were possible during the reaction, and that the resolution of this technique was of the order of 0.223 nm at 550 degrees C. PMID:19376815

  1. Role of pleiotropy during adaptation of TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Martijn F; Witte, Sariette; Salverda, Merijn L M; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Krug, Joachim; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotropy is a key feature of the genotype–phenotype map, and its form and extent have many evolutionary implications, including for the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of specialization. Similarly, pleiotropic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the simultaneous or fluctuating presence of different antibiotics. Here, we study the role of pleiotropy during the in vitro adaptation of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase to two novel antibiotics, cefotaxime (CTX) and ceftazidime (CAZ). We subject replicate lines for four rounds of evolution to selection with CTX and CAZ alone, and in their combined and fluctuating presence. Evolved alleles show positive correlated responses when selecting with single antibiotics. Nevertheless, pleiotropic constraints are apparent from the effects of single mutations and from selected alleles showing smaller correlated than direct responses and smaller responses after simultaneous and fluctuating selection with both than with single antibiotics. We speculate that these constraints result from structural changes in the oxyanion pocket surrounding the active site, where accommodation of CTX and the larger CAZ is balanced against their positioning with respect to the active site. Our findings suggest limited benefits from the combined or fluctuating application of these related cephalosporins for containing antibiotic resistance. PMID:25861383

  2. Coevolutionary Landscape Inference and the Context-Dependence of Mutations in Beta-Lactamase TEM-1

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, Matteo; Jacquier, Hervé; Schug, Alexander; Tenaillon, Oliver; Weigt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of mutational landscapes is a task of outstanding importance in evolutionary and medical biology: It is, for example, of central importance for our understanding of the phenotypic effect of mutations related to disease and antibiotic drug resistance. Here we develop a novel inference scheme for mutational landscapes, which is based on the statistical analysis of large alignments of homologs of the protein of interest. Our method is able to capture epistatic couplings between residues, and therefore to assess the dependence of mutational effects on the sequence context where they appear. Compared with recent large-scale mutagenesis data of the beta-lactamase TEM-1, a protein providing resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics, our method leads to an increase of about 40% in explicative power as compared with approaches neglecting epistasis. We find that the informative sequence context extends to residues at native distances of about 20 Å from the mutated site, reaching thus far beyond residues in direct physical contact. PMID:26446903

  3. Power Line Noise in Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Data: Identification and Removal in a Practical Field Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the appropriateness of TEM in mapping deep groundwater tables (in Mars analog environmnets), a field study was carried out in the desert ~30 miles SW of Tucson, Arizona. The study was also designed to observe effects of powerline noise on TEM data. The clay-rich soil in the area is quite conductive. The study consisted of 40 in-loop TEM stations, divided into 3 lines, for 4 line-km of data. The survey was carried out by a crew of one person, with square Tx wire loops 100 m on a side, and a ferrite-core magnetic coil Rx antenna in the center of each Tx loop. Maximum useful depth of investigation achieved was ~600 m. TEM DATA: The field area is surrounded by powerlines on all 4 sides: Line 1 has the outside of the first Tx loop under the powerline to the West; Line 2 starts with the powerline to the North passing above just inside its first Tx loop, and ends with the outside of the last station's transmitter loop ~20 m shy of the powerline to the South; finally, Line 3 starts ~50 m East of the powerline to the West, and runs parallel to the powerline to the South along its entire length, at a separation distance of ~70 m. Line 3 was placed largely in an effort to obeserve powerline noise. The decay curve for the first station on Line 1(Line 1/Station 50) is raised above the other curves from Line 1. This is due to the charge (noise) from the adjacent powerline, which is at a distance of ~50 m from the Rx coil. In effect, the transient decay is recorded as being slower than it would be without the presence of the powerline. This also artficially lowers the apparent resistivity, readily observed in Line 1/Station 50 data. These effects are present to a lesser extent (lower magnitude noise) in the data from Line1/Station 150, the second station on Line 1. On the smooth-model inversion cross-section of the data from Line 1, the effects of the powerline noise appears as a pulling up of the low-resistivity water table contact towards the surface

  4. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  5. The Telemedical Rescue Assistance System "TemRas"--development, first results, and impact.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Christian; Elsner, Jesko; Schneiders, Marie-Thérèse; Thelen, Sebastian; Brodziak, Tadeusz; Seidenberg, Peter; Schilberg, Daniel; Tobias, Michael; Jeschke, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    German emergency medical services (EMS) face the challenge of ensuring high-quality emergency care against a background of continuously increasing numbers of emergency missions, resource shortages concomitant with greatly increased arrival times, particularly in rural areas. Because German EMS physicians are at maximum capacity, an immediate response is not always possible, and thus delays in commencing advanced life support measures sometimes occur. In such scenarios, paramedics start the initial treatment until the EMS physician arrives. The delayed availability of a physician can defer the decision process of the paramedics and thus postpone the start of the patient's essential treatment, which is particularly dangerous during the care of cardiovascular emergencies. Therefore, the project Telemedical Rescue Assistance System (TemRas) has developed an innovative concept to improve quality of emergency care. The objective is to introduce so-called tele-EMS physicians providing remote medical support for the emergency team on site by transmitting audio and video data as well as vital signs and 12-lead-ECG from the emergency site to a teleconsultation center. In this article, the development process as well as the first results of the evaluation phase and the impact for further use of telemedicine in EMS are presented. PMID:24445230

  6. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  7. Influence of TEM specimen preparation on chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Srot, Vesna; Gec, Medeja; van Aken, Peter A; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Ceh, Miran

    2014-07-01

    The influences of different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation techniques on the chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals was studied. Ion-milled samples where no cooling with liquid nitrogen (L-N2) was applied show permanently changed composition also deep inside the bulk material. When the PMN-PT samples were cooled to L-N2 temperature during the ion-milling process and in addition lower accelerating voltages were used, the chemical composition was altered only in the thinnest parts close to the specimen edge. Samples prepared using only tripod polishing technique show compositional irregularities close to the specimen edge. For the preparation of lead-containing samples, such as PMN-PT single crystals, a combination of tripod polishing and short Ar-ion-milling at low accelerating voltages while cooling the samples to liquid nitrogen temperature proved to be the most suitable to obtain artefact-free electron-transparent TEM lamellae. PMID:24811990

  8. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Observations of Female Oocytes From Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): Antibiotic Jinggangmycin (JGM)-Induced Stimulation of Reproduction and Associated Changes in Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Ding, Jun; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the agricultural antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) stimulates reproduction in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and that the stimulation of brown planthopper reproduction induced by JGM is regulated by the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) genes. However, a key issue in the stimulation of reproduction induced by pesticides involves the growth and development of oocytes. Therefore, the present study investigated oocyte changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and changes in hormone levels (juvenile hormones (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20 E)) in JGM-treated females. TEM observations showed that the size of the lipid droplets in the oocytes of JGM-treated females, compared with those in the oocytes of the control females, significantly reduced by 32.6 and 29.8% at 1 and 2 d after emergence (1 and 2 DAE), respectively. In addition, the JH levels of JGM-treated females at 1 and 2 DAE were increased by 49.7 and 45.7%, respectively, whereas 20 E levels decreased by 36.0 and 30.0%, respectively. We conclude that JGM treatments lead to substantial changes in lipid metabolism, which are directly and indirectly related to stimulation of reproduction of brown planthopper together with our previous findings. PMID:27247297

  9. In situ TEM studies of micron-sized all-solid-state fluoride ion batteries: Preparation, prospects, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hammad Fawey, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Reddy, Munnangi Anji; Rongeat, Carine; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst; Fichtner, Maximilian; Kübel, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Trustworthy preparation and contacting of micron-sized batteries is an essential task to enable reliable in situ TEM studies during electrochemical biasing. Some of the challenges and solutions for the preparation of all-solid-state batteries for in situ TEM electrochemical studies are discussed using an optimized focused ion beam (FIB) approach. In particular redeposition, resistivity, porosity of the electrodes/electrolyte and leakage current are addressed. Overcoming these challenges, an all-solid-state fluoride ion battery has been prepared as a model system for in situ TEM electrochemical biasing studies and first results on a Bi/La0.9 Ba0.1 F2.9 half-cell are presented. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:615-624, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145192

  10. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  11. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  12. An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun; Wang, Jing; Lin, Juqiang; Lin, Duo; Chen, Weiwei; Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong; Chen, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The existing electroporation method can rapidly deliver nanoparticles (NPs) into living cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. Unfortunately, the cellular SERS signals are major from molecules located near the two poles of the cell facing toward to the electrodes because most NPs enter cells through these two poles and easily happen to aggregate there. Here, we present an optimized electroporation method for transferring NPs into living cells to obtain a uniform NPs distribution. The distribution of intracellular NPs was monitored by the SERS signal of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, which is sandwiched between the Au-Ag core-shell and validated by TEM images. In addition, based on this uniform distribution of NPs, we then detected the distribution of cellular molecules like phenylalanine and lipid via SERS imaging. Results demonstrate the great potential for the optimized electroporation-based SERS imaging in cellular study.

  13. TEM Characterization of Stishovite and Post-Stishovite SiO2 Phases in the Meteorite Shergotty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.

    2001-12-01

    Stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO2, is an important index mineral for demonstrating shock metamorphism of rocks that contain SiO2 minerals. The structures and stabilities of post-stishovite SiO2 phases, polymorphs that are more dense than stishovite, have been debated in the literature because of their potential occurence in Earth's deep lower mantle. Recently, several high-pressure SiO2 polymorphs have been identified in the SNC meteorite Shergotty, including an orthorhombic phase similar to α -PbO2 (1) and a monoclinic baddeleyite-structured phase (2). Recent DAC experiments have shown that compression of cristobalite can produce α -PbO2-structured SiO2 that can be quenched (3, 4). The recovered material, space group Pnc2, is said to be the same as the α -PbO2-like mineral described by Sharp et al. (1). TEM imaging and electron diffraction of the SiO2 polymorphs in Shergotty shows complex intergrowths of four SiO2 polymorphs. The most abundant is the α -PbO2-like phase (a = 4.16Å, b = 5.11 Å, c = 4.55 Å) which has electron-diffraction symmetry consistent with the Pbcn space group. Orthogonal intergrowths of stishovite and cubic cristobalite are also observed. The cristobalite is likely a quench product from the phase XI of Tsuchida and Yagi (5) which was intergrown with stishovite or CaCl2-structured SiO2 at high pressure. The fourth polymorph, which is too irradiation sensitive to be characterized by electron diffraction, may be the baddeleyite-structured SiO2 described by El Goresey et al. (2). The SiO2 polymorphs in Shergotty represent the quench products from a mixture of post-stishovite structures, stishovite and phase XI that formed from the transformation of tridymite. This mixture of SiO2 structures suggests a modest shock pressure of around 45 GPa, the pressure at which silica Phase XI transforms into the α -PbO2 structure. (1) T. G. Sharp, A. El Goresy, B. Wopenka, M. Chen, Sciecne 284 (1999). (2) A. El Goresy, L. Dubrovinsky, T

  14. Implication of Ile-69 and Thr-182 residues in kinetic characteristics of IRT-3 (TEM-32) beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, S; Chaibi, E B; Peduzzi, J; Barthelemy, M; Labia, R; Blazquez, J; Baquero, F

    1996-01-01

    The substitution of a methionine for an isoleucine at position 69 (Met69Ile), which causes inhibitor resistance to TEM-type beta-lactamases (IRT-3 and IRT-I69), altered the positions of the Asn-170 and Glu-166 side chains as well as the position of the catalytic water molecule. A novel hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl of Thr-182 and the carbonyl of Glu-64 was expected to be responsible for the increase in the catalytic activity of the IST-T182 and IRT-3 enzymes compared with those of TEM-1 and IRT-169, respectively. PMID:8891161

  15. TEM characterization of dislocations in TiB2 particles after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Li, J F; Hou, L L; Sun, D L

    2014-12-01

    Characteristic of dislocations in TiB2 particles associated with hypervelocity impact craters in 65 vol.% TiB2/Al composite were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two kinds of dislocation networks in as-impacted TiB2 particles were identified. One is hexagonal dislocation networks including 1/3〈1̄21̄0〉, 〈0001〉, 1/3〈1̄21̄3〉 type dislocations on {0001}, {101̄0}, and {123̄0} planes. Another one is the hexagonal dislocation networks including 1/3〈112̄0〉, 〈0001〉, and 1/3〈112̄3〉 type dislocations on {0001}, {101̄0}, and {11̄00} planes. Formation of dislocation network should be contributed to the parallel sets of "a" type dislocations (1/3〈112̄0〉 or 1/3〈1̄21̄0〉 type dislocations) reacting with parallel sets of "b" type dislocations (〈0001〉 type dislocations) to form "c" type dislocations (1/3〈112̄3〉 or 1/3〈1̄21̄3〉 type dislocations). Moreover, dislocations reaction processes do not result in an energy reduction, and are called quasi-equilibrium configurations. Formation of dislocations may result from high temperature or pressure generated by hypervelocity impact. During the cooling from high temperature and unloading from high pressure, dislocations in TiB2 particles rearranged and transformed to dislocation networks to lower the defect energy. PMID:25108104

  16. From olivine to ringwoodite: a TEM study of a complex process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Ji, Gang; Yamaguchi, Akira; Schryvers, Dominique; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The study of shock metamorphism of olivine might help to constrain impact events in the history of meteorites. Although shock features in olivine are well known, so far, there are processes that are not yet completely understood. In shock veins, olivine clasts with a complex structure, with a ringwoodite rim and a dense network of lamellae of unidentified nature in the core, have been reported in the literature. A highly shocked (S5-6), L6 meteorite, Asuka 09584, which was recently collected in Antarctica by a Belgian-Japanese joint expedition, contains this type of shocked olivine clasts and has been, therefore, selected for detailed investigations of these features by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Petrographic, geochemical, and crystallographic studies showed that the rim of these shocked clasts consists of an aggregate of nanocrystals of ringwoodite, with lower Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. The clast's core consists of an aggregate of iso-oriented grains of olivine and wadsleyite, with higher Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. This aggregate is crosscut by veinlets of nanocrystals of olivine, with extremely low Mg/Fe ratio. The formation of the ringwoodite rim is likely due to solid-state, diffusion-controlled, transformation from olivine under high-temperature conditions. The aggregate of iso-oriented olivine and wadsleyite crystals is interpreted to have formed also by a solid-state process, likely by coherent intracrystalline nucleation. Following the compression, shock release is believed to have caused opening of cracks and fractures in olivine and formation of olivine melt, which has lately crystallized under postshock equilibrium pressure conditions as olivine.

  17. Ethiopian Geothermal Resources Inferred from Electromagnetic (AMT/MT, TEM) Data and Seismic Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, N. J.; Whaler, K. A.; Johnson, N.; Baptie, B.; Lemma, Y.; Desissa, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Keir, D.; Fisseha, S.; Dawes, G.; Hautot, S.

    2012-12-01

    In Ethiopia, modern energy (hydroelectricity and foreign petroleum) is expensive and unpredictable, yet energy access is key to sustainable development. Active volcanoes and hot springs located in the slow-spreading rift zone of the Afar Depression suggest an abundant geothermal energy resource; however, before this energy can be utilized subsurface geophysical analysis is needed to study the geothermal system, its potential and identify drilling targets. The aim of this project is to use geophysical data (audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), magnetotelluric (MT), transient-electromagnetic (TEM) and passive seismic data), recently recorded in the Northern Tendaho Graben of Afar, Ethiopia, to constrain geothermal system parameters (i.e. geology, temperature, fluid properties, etc.). Recovery of these parameters enables the understanding of reservoir heat flow, geothermal energy potential, economic viability and development of an optimal drilling strategy. The AMT/MT data were recorded at 28 sites along two parallel profiles oriented perpendicular to regional geologic strike. Two-dimensional joint inversion of the TE and TM modes from all sites identifies two very strong conducting layers (~1 Ohm-m), at <500 m and 5-10 km, separated by a more resistive layer (~50 Ohm-m). This model is strongly correlated with borehole information. The deeper high conductivity anomaly shallows toward the center of the profile, at the location of highest recorded fluid temperature from early drilling operations. MT impedance tensor decomposition, phase tensor analysis and induction vector calculations, as well as forward modelling of the inversion results are mutually consistent. Two-dimensional surface wave tomography results from seismic noise interferometry add another layer of geophysical information to this interdisciplinary study, complementing the AMT/MT survey. This project was funded by the US-UK Fulbright Commission and the University of Edinburgh, and benefited from strong

  18. Nanoanalytical TEM Studies and Micromagnetic Modelling of Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickler, Gregor A.; Toson, Peter; Asali, Ahmad; Fidler, Josef

    We have analysed the influence of the microstructural features, such as intergranular grain boundary (GB) phases and misalignment of the hard magnetic grains, on the optimization of magnetization reversal processes in order to improve the coercive field of Nd-Fe-B magnets. The microstructural model of the grains and intergranular phases, which is used for theoretical simulations, has been derived from a detailed nanoanalytical TEM/STEM study of a Dy/Tb free magnet and a high coercive (Nd,Tb)-Fe-B magnet. Special attention is laid on the EELS analysis of GB with a thickness ranging from 2 - 30 nm. This analysis identified the majority of the GB phases to have about 50 -70 at.% of iron and only a few GBs, which are connecting two nearby grain boundary junctions (GBj), possess a similar chemical composition as the adjacent GBj with a low iron content (< 10 at. %) and a high rare earth and oxygen content. Finite element micromagnetic simulations have been carried out in order to study the influence of internal demagnetizing fields determined by the microstructure on the magnetization switching behaviour. Special emphasis was put on the influence of the GB and their magnetic properties, due to their substantial influence on the nucleation of reverse magnetic domains and the pinning of domain walls. The strongest reduction of the coercive field is caused by GB with soft ferromagnetic properties. Shielding the Nd-Fe-B grains from the nucleation sites at the GBj with Dy or Tb shells, leads to an increase of the coercivity from 2.5 to 3.6 T and 2.5 to 4.3 T, respectively.

  19. TEM-EDS study of metals' partition at particle level after their sorption in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, Peter; Kovács Kis, Viktória; Németh, Tibor; Balázs, Réka

    2016-04-01

    Association of soil mineral particles could significantly modify the sorption capacity of the individual soil components. We studied this phenomena using single element and competitive batch Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn sorption experiments on six soil samples with contrasting characteristics. Their sorption properties were characterized by XRD and FTIRS analyses, as well as sorption curve evaluation. TEM-EDS analyses were used to characterize the soil mineral particle associations and their metal sorption capacities. Submicron sized smectite particles were found to be associated to tiny ferryhidrite and goethite patches in the acidic forest soil samples, whereas the alkaline meadow soils could be characterized by goethite and smectite particles attached to large carbonate grains. Point chemical analyses carried out on such associations showed that significant metal separation may occur at particle level within the mineral associations observed. This is primarily obvious for Cu and Pb, which are preferentially sorbed by iron oxides over clay mineral particles. This phenomenon is more pronounced in competitive situation. Highest affinity to clay minerals was found for Zn and it may be also characteristic for Cd in acid conditions. However, decrease in available sorption sites and increase in pH may result in enhanced precipitation for the studied metals. Our results suggest that estimation of the role of soil components in metals' sorption can not be adequate enough when the sorption properties of a set of bulk soils are studied exclusively. Direct observation of metals' partition at particle level may result in a deeper insight into soil-metal interaction. This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K105009).

  20. Swelling induced by alpha decay in monazite and zirconolite ceramics: A XRD and TEM comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschanels, X.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Magnin, V.; Mesbah, A.; Tribet, M.; Moloney, M. P.; Serruys, Y.; Peuget, S.

    2014-05-01

    Zirconolite and monazite matrices are potential ceramics for the containment of actinides (Np, Cm, Am, Pu) which are produced over the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Actinides decay mainly through the emission of alpha particles, which in turn causes most ceramics to undergo structural and textural changes (amorphization and/or swelling). In order to study the effects of alpha decays on the above mentioned ceramics two parallel approaches were set up. The first involved the use of an external irradiation source, Au, which allowed the deposited recoil energy to be simulated. The second was based on short-lived actinide doping with 238Pu, (i.e. an internal source), via the incorporation of plutonium oxide into both the monazite and zirconolite structures during synthesis. In both types of irradiation experiments, the zirconolite samples became amorphous at room temperature with damage close to 0.3 dpa; corresponding to a critical dose of 4 × 1018 α g-1 (i.e. ∼1.3 × 1021 keV cm-3). Both zirconolite samples also showed the same degree of macroscopic swelling at saturation (∼6%), with ballistic processes being the predominant damaging effect. In the case of the monazite however, the macroscopic swelling and amorphization were dependent on the nature of the irradiation. Externally, (Au), irradiated samples became amorphous while also demonstrating a saturation swelling of up to 8%. In contrast to this, the swelling of the 238Pu doped samples was much smaller at ∼1%. Also, unlike the externally (Au) irradiated monazite these 238Pu doped samples remained crystalline up to 7.5 × 1018 α g-1 (0.8 dpa). XRD, TEM and swelling measurements were used to fully characterize and interpret this behavior. The low swelling and the conservation of the crystalline state of 238Pu doped monazite samples indicates that alpha annealing took place within this material.

  1. Open half-volume quadrature transverse electromagnetic coil for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Peshkovsky, A S; Kennan, R P; Fabry, M E; Avdievich, N I

    2005-04-01

    A half-volume quadrature head transverse electromagnetic (TEM) coil has been constructed for 4 T imaging applications. This coil produces a sufficiently large homogeneous B(1) field region for the use as a volume coil. It provides superior transmission efficiency, resulting in significantly lower power deposition, as well as greater sensitivity and improved patient comfort and accessibility compared with conventional full-volume coils. Additionally, this coil suppresses the RF penetration artifact that distorts the RF magnetic field profile and alters the intensity in high-field images recorded with linear surface and volume coils. These advantages make it possible to apply this device as an efficient transmit/receive coil for high-field imaging with a restricted field of view.

  2. Synthesis of Multifunctional Cellulose Nanocrystals for Lectin Recognition and Bacterial Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Butchosa, Núria; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.; Park, JaeHyeung; Zhou, Qi; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional cellulose nanocrystals have been synthesized and applied as a new type of glyconanomaterial in lectin binding and bacterial imaging. The cellulose nanocrystals were prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and acidic hydrolysis, followed by functionalization with a quinolone fluorophore and carbohydrate ligands. The cellulose nanocrystals were subsequently applied in interaction studies with carbohydrate-binding proteins and in bacterial imaging. The results show that the functional cellulose nanocrystals could selectively recognize the corresponding cognate lectins. In addition, mannosylated nanocrystals were shown to selectively interact with FimH-presenting E. coli, as detected by TEM and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These glyconanomaterials provide a new application of cellulose nanocrystals in biorecognition and imaging. PMID:25738860

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Hollow cone illumination for fast TEM, and outrunning damage with electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, J. C. H.; Subramanian, G.; Musumeci, P.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the possibility of imaging individual bioparticles using snapshot diffraction from femotsecond pulses, using a 3 MeV electron beam, based on the recent experimental performance of these coherent beams. Assuming that radiation damage can be outrun using 100 fs pulses (or less), we find that a sufficient number of electrons are scattered per particle only if the beam diameter can be matched to that of the particle (e.g. a virus), about three orders of magnitude smaller than has currently been demonstrated (and limited by space-charge effects). We then propose the use of the hollow-cone illumination mode for fast transmission electron microscope imaging, because it can provide full-field atomic resolution imaging despite the use of the large incoherent annular source required for an efficient photocathode, so that coherent illumination is not needed for high-resolution imaging. Reciprocity arguments are used to compare this full-field mode with data aquisition times and source brightness in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Ultrasound assisted additive free synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Bhatte, Kushal D; Fujita, Shin-Ichiro; Arai, Masahiko; Pandit, Anirudha B; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide without any additive was developed using zinc acetate and 1,4-butanediol through sonication. The structure and morphology of prepared nanocrystalline zinc oxide was investigated by various techniques like TEM, XRD, EDAX, UV-Vis spectroscopy. The solvent 1,4-butanediol played a dual role of fuel as well as capping agent eliminating addition of any extraneous species. The results showed that using ultrasound sonication is green, cost effective compared to conventional wet chemical method for ZnO nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:20634118

  8. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  9. Homology modeling and virtual screening of inhibitors against TEM- and SHV-type-resistant mutants: A multilayer filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad H; Balaramnavar, Vishal M; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Khan, Asad U

    2015-01-01

    TEM and SHV are class-A-type β-lactamases commonly found in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Previous studies reported S130G and K234R mutations in SHVs to be 41- and 10-fold more resistant toward clavulanic acid than SHV-1, respectively, whereas TEM S130G and R244S also showed the same level of resistance. These selected mutants confer higher level of resistance against clavulanic acid. They also show little susceptibility against other commercially available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study, we have used docking-based virtual screening approach in order to screen potential inhibitors against some of the major resistant mutants of SHV and TEM types β-lactamase. Two different inhibitor-resistant mutants from SHV and TEM were selected. Moreover, we have retained the active site water molecules within each enzyme. Active site water molecules were placed within modeled structure of the mutant whose structure was unavailable with protein databank. The novelty of this work lies in the use of multilayer virtual screening approach for the prediction of best and accurate results. We are reporting five inhibitors on the basis of their efficacy against all the selected resistant mutants. These inhibitors were selected on the basis of their binding efficacies and pharmacophore features.

  10. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  11. Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Park, Chiwoo; Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-11

    An operando electrochemical stage for the transmission electron microscope has been configured to form a “Li battery” that is used to quantify the electrochemical processes that occur at the anode during charge/discharge cycling. Of particular importance for these observations is the identification of an image contrast reversal that originates from solid Li being less dense than the surrounding liquid electrolyte and electrode surface. This contrast allows Li to be identified from Li containing compounds that make up the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By correlating images showing the sequence of Li electrodeposition and the evolution of the SEI layer with simultaneously acquired and calibrated cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrodeposition and electrolyte breakdown processes can be quantified directly on the nanoscale. This approach opens up intriguing new possibilities to rapidly visualize and test the electrochemical performance of a wide range of electrode/electrolyte combinations for next generation battery systems.

  12. A Concept for the Development of Spatially Resolved Measurements for Soil Moisture with TEM Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Yulia; Schmidt, Felix; Bumberger, Jan

    2014-05-01

    's equations. It describes the one-dimensional wave propagation in a multi-layered medium, assuming the wave to be transverse electromagnetic (TEM). In the particular case of transmission lines with perpendicularly arranged layer transitions this assumption is very close to reality. Such waveguides and their frequency domain measurements in layered media are promising concerning a development ways working with soil moisture detection.

  13. TEM characterization of Au-based alloys to join YSZ to steel for SOFC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kun-Lin; Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Rajiv

    2012-01-15

    The microstructures of two gold-based alloys with compositions (in wt.%) of 96.4Au-3Ni-0.6Ti and 97.5Au-0.75Ni-1.75V following oxidation at 850 Degree-Sign C for 200 min were characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. In the oxidized 96.4Au-3Ni-0.6Ti interlayer, a dense scale composed of nickel oxide (NiO) and nickel titanate (NiTiO{sub 3}) formed at the alloy surface. No evidence of titanium oxide was found because there was not enough Ti present to form titanium oxide. In the oxidized 97.5Au-0.75Ni-1.75V interlayer, loose vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and nickel vanadate (Ni{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) formed and were distributed within the oxidized 97.5Au-0.75Ni-1.75V interlayer. Similarly, because of the low Ni content in the alloys, no NiO formed. The oxide products in the 96.4Au-3Ni-0.6Ti and 97.5Au-0.75Ni-1.75V interlayers after oxidation are consistent with the Pilling-Bedworth (PB) ratio considerations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two commercial Au-based reactive metallic interlayers were oxidized at 850 Degree-Sign C for 200 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidized products at the surface were characterized by TEM/EDS and SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO and NiTiO{sub 3} formed at the oxidized 96.4Au-3Ni-0.6Ti interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ni{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} were found in the oxidized 97.5Au-0.75Ni-1.75V interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These oxide products are consistent with the Pilling-Bedworth (PB) ratio considerations.

  14. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In order to generate a more efficient method of planning and dimensioning small- and medium sized geothermal power plants at quaternary subsurface a basic approach has been attempted. Within the EU-project CLIWAT, the coastal region of Denmark, Germany, Netherlands and Belgium has been investigated and air borne electro magnetic data was collected. In this work the regional focus was put on the isle of Föhr. To describe the subsurface with relevant parameters one need the information from drillings and geophysical well logging data. The approach to minimize costs and use existing data from state agencies led the investigation to the combination of specific electrical resistivity data and hydraulic and thermal conductivity. We worked out a basic soil/hydraulic conductivity statistic for the isle of Föhr by gathering all well logging data from the island and sorted the existing soil materials to associated kf -values. We combined specific electrical resistivity with hydraulic soil properties to generate thermal conductivity values by extracting porosity. Until now we generated a set of rough data for kf - values and thermal conductivity. The air borne TEM data sets are reliable up to 150 m below surface, depending on the conductivity of the layers. So we can suppose the same for the differentiated parameters. Since this is a very rough statistic of kf -values, further more investigation has to be made. Although the close connection to each area of investigation either over existing logging data or laboratory soil property values will remain necessary. Literature: Ahmed S, de Marsily G, Talbot A (1988): Combined Use of Hydraulic and Electrical Properties of an Aquifer in a Geostatistical Estimation of Transmissivity. - Groundwater, vol. 26 (1) Burschil T, Scheer W, Wiederhold H, Kirsch R (2012): Groundwater situation on a glacially affected barrier island. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences - an Interactive Open Access Journal of the European

  15. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Sample Preparation of Si(1-x)Gex in c-Plane Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sang H.; Bae, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Tae Woo

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-invented X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, including the total defect density measurement method and the spatial wafer mapping method, have confirmed super hetero epitaxy growth for rhombohedral single crystalline silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. However, the XRD method cannot observe the surface morphology or roughness because of the method s limited resolution. Therefore the authors used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with samples prepared in two ways, the focused ion beam (FIB) method and the tripod method to study the structure between Si1-xGex and sapphire substrate and Si1?xGex itself. The sample preparation for TEM should be as fast as possible so that the sample should contain few or no artifacts induced by the preparation. The standard sample preparation method of mechanical polishing often requires a relatively long ion milling time (several hours), which increases the probability of inducing defects into the sample. The TEM sampling of the Si1-xGex on sapphire is also difficult because of the sapphire s high hardness and mechanical instability. The FIB method and the tripod method eliminate both problems when performing a cross-section TEM sampling of Si1-xGex on c-plane sapphire, which shows the surface morphology, the interface between film and substrate, and the crystal structure of the film. This paper explains the FIB sampling method and the tripod sampling method, and why sampling Si1-xGex, on a sapphire substrate with TEM, is necessary.

  16. Imaging Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarkin, Jason M.; Dweck, Marc R.; Evans, Nicholas R.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Brown, Adam J.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  17. On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study.

    PubMed

    Agatha, Sabine; Simon, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall texture

  18. On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study

    PubMed Central

    AGATHA, Sabine; SIMON, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall

  19. [Multiple transmission electron microscopic image stitching based on sift features].

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Lu, Yanmeng; Han, Shuaihu; Wu, Zhuobin; Chen, Jiajing; Liu, Zhexing; Cao, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We proposed a new stitching method based on sift features to obtain an enlarged view of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images with a high resolution. The sift features were extracted from the images, which were then combined with fitted polynomial correction field to correct the images, followed by image alignment based on the sift features. The image seams at the junction were finally removed by Poisson image editing to achieve seamless stitching, which was validated on 60 local glomerular TEM images with an image alignment error of 62.5 to 187.5 nm. Compared with 3 other stitching methods, the proposed method could effectively reduce image deformation and avoid artifacts to facilitate renal biopsy pathological diagnosis. PMID:26403733

  20. HiTS additional supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Points, S.; Medina, G.; Munoz, R.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Pignata, G.; de Jaeger, Th.; Martinez, J.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-03-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #7099), reports the discovery of additional supernova candidates detected using an image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  1. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  7. Design and Performance Characteristics of the ORNL AdvancedMicroscopy Laboratory and JEOL 2200FS-AC Aberration-CorrectedSTEM/TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; O'Keefe, Michael A.; Mishina, S.

    2005-02-15

    At ORNL, the new Advanced Microscopy Laboratory (AML) has recently been completed, with two aberration-corrected instruments installed, and two more planned in the near future to fill the 4-laboratory building. The installed JEOL 2200FS-AC has demonstrated aTEM information limit of 0.9A. This limit is expected given the measured instrument parameters (HT and OL power supply stabilities, beam energy spread, etc.), and illustrates that the environmental influences are not adversely affecting the instrument performance. In STEM high-angle annular dark-field (HA-ADF) mode, images of a thin Si crystal in<110>zone axis orientation, after primary aberrations in the illuminating beam were optimally corrected, showed a significant vibration effect. The microscope is fitted with three magnetically levitated turbo pumps (one on the column at about the specimen position,and two near floor level) that pump the Omega energy filter and detector chamber. These pumps run at 48,000 rpm, precisely equivalent to 800Hz. It was determined that the upper turbo pump was contributing essentially all of the 800Hz signal to the image, and in fact that the pump was defective. After replacing the pump with one significantly quieter than the original, the Si atomic column image and associated diffractogram(Fig. 4b) show a much-reduced effect of the 800Hz signal, but still some residual effect from the turbo pump. The upper pump will be removed from the main column to an adjacent frame on the floor, and will have a large-diameter, well-damped, pump line to the original connection to the column to effectively isolate the pump from the column. If the 800Hz signal results from mechanical vibrations, they will be damped, and if the signal results from acoustic coupling to the column, it can be damped by appropriate acoustic materials.

  8. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Daniel; Laube, Jan; Zacharias, Margit; Kübel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value. PMID:25977867

  9. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes.

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Sebastian; Hiller, Daniel; Laube, Jan; Zacharias, Margit; Kübel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value. PMID:25977867

  10. Conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging beyond the diffraction and information limits.

    PubMed

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-29

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope. PMID:25215995

  11. Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy Imaging beyond the Diffraction and Information Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F.; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope.

  12. Nanocrystal size distribution analysis from transmission electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Martijn; van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Xie, Ling; Jarolimek, Karol; Santbergen, Rudi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Leifer, Klaus; Zeman, Miro

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect.We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06292f

  13. Novel extended-spectrum TEM-type beta-lactamase from an Escherichia coli isolate resistant to ceftazidime and susceptible to cephalothin.

    PubMed Central

    Chanal-Claris, C; Sirot, D; Bret, L; Chatron, P; Labia, R; Sirot, J

    1997-01-01

    A novel extended-spectrum TEM-type beta-lactamase was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate which was resistant to ceftazidime and susceptible to cephalothin. The corresponding bla gene was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the following three amino acid replacements with respect to the TEM-2 sequence: Glu-->Lys-104, Arg-->Ser-164, and Glu-->Lys-240. Since it confers a ceftazidimase-type resistance phenotype, we propose for this novel enzyme the designation CAZ-9, corresponding to TEM-46 in the sequential numbering scheme of TEM beta-lactamases. PMID:9056022

  14. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy

    2010-03-12

    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  15. Structural and biochemical evidence that a TEM-1 beta-lactamase N170G active site mutant acts via substrate-assisted catalysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas G; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy

    2009-11-27

    TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A beta-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser(70), Glu(166), and Asn(170) that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser(70) and Glu(166), the functional significance of residue Asn(170) is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu(166) and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn(170) for catalysis and substrate specificity of beta-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn(170) side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  16. Fibre-coupled red diode-pumped Alexandrite TEM00 laser with single and double-pass end-pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabzadah, E. A.; Damzen, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the investigation of an Alexandrite laser end-pumped by a fibre-coupled red diode laser module. Power, efficiency, spatial, spectral, and wavelength tuning performance are studied as a function of pump and laser cavity parameters. It is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of greater than 1 W power and also highest laser slope efficiency (44.2%) in a diode-pumped Alexandrite laser with diffraction-limited TEM00 mode operation. Spatial quality was excellent with beam propagation parameter M 2 ~ 1.05. Wavelength tuning from 737–796 nm was demonstrated using an intracavity birefringent tuning filter. Using a novel double pass end-pumping scheme to get efficient absorption of both polarisation states of the scrambled fibre-delivered diode pump, a total output coupled power of 1.66 W is produced in TEM00 mode with 40% slope efficiency.

  17. In-situ TEM crystallization of anorthite-glass films on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamaci, M.P.; Carter, C.B.; Bentley, J.

    1993-12-31

    Anorthite-glass films have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition on single-crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates which were pre-thinned to electron transparency. The glass films were crystallized in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which allowed direct observation and video-recording of the crystallization process. Crystallization of these films in the TEM resulted in the formation of hexagonal and orthorhombic anorthite. The orthorhombic phase was the predominant product of glass films grown at elevated substrate temperatures and displayed strong epitaxy with the underlying substrate. In contrast, the hexagonal phase was the major constituent of films grown at ambient substrate temperature and displayed no clear epitaxy with the substrate. The difference in degree of epitaxy and phase structure may be evidence of ordering at the original glass/oxide interface.

  18. Insights into the growth of bismuth nanoparticles on 2D structured BiOCl photocatalysts: an in situ TEM investigation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shuangbao; Qi, Qi; Gondal, Mohammed A; Rashid, Siddique G; Gao, Si; Yang, Deyuan; Shen, Kai; Xu, Qingyu; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-28

    The synthetic techniques for novel photocatalytic crystals had evolved by a trial-and-error process that spanned more than two decades, and an insight into the photocatalytic crystal growth process is a challenging area and prerequisite for achieving an excellent photoactivity. Bismuth nanoparticle based hybrids, such as Bi/BiOCl composites, have recently been investigated as highly efficient photocatalytic systems because of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of nanostructured bismuth. In this work, the observation towards the formation and growth of bismuth nanoparticles onto 2D structured BiOCl photocatalysts has been performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) directly in real time. The growth of bismuth nanoparticles on BiOCl nanosheets can be emulated and speeded up driven by the electron beam (e(-) beam) in TEM. The crystallinity, growth and the elemental evolution during the formation of bismuth nanoparticles have also been probed in this work.

  19. Resonant optical transmission through sub-wavelength annular apertures caused by a plasmonic transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, A.; Salvi, J.; Salut, R.; Bernal, M.-P.; Alaridhee, T.; Belkhir, A.; Baida, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate enhanced transmission through annular aperture arrays (AAA) by the excitation of the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) guided mode. A complete numerical study is performed to correctly design the structure before it is experimentally characterized. Actually, the challenge was to get efficient TEM-based transmission in the visible range. It turned out to be a hard task because of the strong absorption associated with this guided mode. Nevertheless, we have succeeded to experimentally prove its excitation thanks to the enhanced transmission measured in the far-field. This is the first time we demonstrate experimental evidence of this phenomenon with such AAA structure illuminated at oblique incidence in the visible range. This increases the potential applications of such structures as well, single molecule spectroscopy, photovoltaic, spectral filtering, optical trapping, etc...

  20. Efficient single-mode (TEM{sub 00}) Nd : YVO{sub 4} laser with longitudinal 808-nm diode pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Donin, V I; Yakovin, D V; Yakovin, M D

    2013-10-31

    A single-mode Nd : YVO{sub 4} laser with unidirectional longitudinal pumping by laser diodes with λ = 808 nm and a power of 40 W is studied. In the TEM{sub 00} mode, the output laser power is 24 W with the optical efficiency η{sub opt} = 57.1 % (slope efficiency 63.3 %), which, as far as we know, is the best result for Nd{sup 3+} : YVO{sub 4} lasers with longitudinal pumping at λ = 808 nm from one face of the active crystal. Estimates of thermal effects show that, using a Nd : YVO{sub 4} crystal (length 20 mm, diameter 3 mm, dopant concentration 0.27 at%) with two undoped ends and bidirectional diode pumping with a total power of 170 W, one can obtain an output power of ∼100 W in the TEM{sub 00} mode from one active element. (lasers)

  1. Fibre-coupled red diode-pumped Alexandrite TEM00 laser with single and double-pass end-pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabzadah, E. A.; Damzen, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the investigation of an Alexandrite laser end-pumped by a fibre-coupled red diode laser module. Power, efficiency, spatial, spectral, and wavelength tuning performance are studied as a function of pump and laser cavity parameters. It is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of greater than 1 W power and also highest laser slope efficiency (44.2%) in a diode-pumped Alexandrite laser with diffraction-limited TEM00 mode operation. Spatial quality was excellent with beam propagation parameter M 2 ~ 1.05. Wavelength tuning from 737-796 nm was demonstrated using an intracavity birefringent tuning filter. Using a novel double pass end-pumping scheme to get efficient absorption of both polarisation states of the scrambled fibre-delivered diode pump, a total output coupled power of 1.66 W is produced in TEM00 mode with 40% slope efficiency.

  2. In Vivo Inflammatory Effects of Ceria Nanoparticles on CD-1 Mouse: Evaluation by Hematological, Histological, and TEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Anna; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; de Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; De Marzi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The attention on CeO2-NPs environmental and in vivo effects is due to their presence in diesel exhaust and in diesel filters that release a more water-soluble form of ceria NPs, as well as to their use for medical applications. In this work, acute and subacute in vivo toxicity assays demonstrate no lethal effect of these NPs. Anyhow, performing in vivo evaluations on CD-1 mouse systems, we demonstrate that it is even not correct to assert that ceria NPs are harmless for living systems as they can induce status of inflammation, revealed by hematological-chemical-clinical assays as well as histological and TEM microscope observations. TEM analysis showed the presence of NPs in alveolar macrophages. Histological evaluation demonstrated the NPs presence in lungs tissues and this can be explained by assuming their ability to go into the blood stream and lately into the organs (generating inflammation). PMID:25032226

  3. Ion-beam implantation and cross-sectional TEM characterization of Gd 2Ti 2O 7 pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Jie; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Boatner, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation effects in a wide range of pyrochlore compositions have been extensively investigated due to the potential application of pyrochlores as host matrices for the immobilization of actinides - particularly Pu. In this study, we have performed 1.0 MeV Kr2+ ion implantations in bulk samples of single crystal Gd2Ti2O7 at room temperature at different ion fluences of 1.875, 3.125 and 5 × 1014 ions/cm2. The microstructural evolution upon ion-beam implantation was examined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The critical amorphization dose at room temperature for 1 MeV Kr2+ implanted Gd2Ti2O7 was determined to be ∼0.143 dpa, which is significantly lower than the dose obtained by ion-irradiation under in situ TEM observation.

  4. Characterization of laser-fired contacts in PERC solar cells: SIMS and TEM analysis applying advanced preparation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, U.; Houben, L.; Meertens, D.; Grohe, A.; Brammer, T.; Schneiderlöchner, E.

    2006-07-01

    In this study we apply ion-beam supported preparation techniques for both mesa formation by trench sputtering and FIB 'lift-out' lamella cutting for dynamic SIMS and TEM analysis of laser-fired Al point contacts on Si, respectively. Detailed compositional and structural informations about the metallurgical contact formation process are obtained combining both characterization techniques. While TEM micrographs and microdiffraction patterns reveal a mixture of Al- and Si-crystals within the ˜1 μm thick Al rich re-solidified surface layer according to the Al-Si phase diagram, spatially resolved SIMS depth profiling indicates ppm-range Al-diffusion a few hundred nm into the buried, substantially undisturbed Si-lattice.

  5. EBIC/TEM investigations of defects in solar silicon ribbon materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ast, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the defect structure of edge defined film growth (EFG) material, web dentritic ribbons (WEB), and ribbon to ribbon recrystallized material (RTR). The most common defects in all these materials are coherent first order twin boundaries. These coherent twins can be very thin, a few atomic layers. Bundles of the twins which contain odd numbers of twins will in optical images appear as a seemingly single first twin boundary. First-order coherent twin boundaries are not electrically active, except at locations where they contain intrinsic (grain boundary) dislocations. These dislocations take up small deviations from the ideal twin relation and play the same role in twin boundaries as conventional and play the some role in twin boundaries as conventional edge and screw dislocations in small angle tilt and twist boundaries.

  6. TEM Characterization of a Titanium Nitride (TiN) Inclusion in a Fe-Ni-Co Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes, Vincent; Migot, Sylvie; Robaut, Florence; Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Perrin-Guérin, Valérie; Witzke, Sylvain; Jardy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    A TEM observation of a TiN inclusion associated to a spinel (MgAl2O4) and calcium sulfide germs is reported. It shows an orientation relationship between these three phases, indicating an epitaxial growth of the TiN over the spinel and CaS. This observation strengthens the hypothesis of a heterogeneous nucleation of TiN particles during the solidification of a maraging steel.

  7. Efficient TEM(00)-mode operation of a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welford, D.; Rines, D. M.; Dinerman, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a laser-diode side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a novel pumping geometry that ensures efficient conversion of pump energy into the TEM(00) mode is reported. Of the 1064-nm output, 11.8 microJ of energy was obtained in a 200-microsec pulse with 64 microJ of pump energy at 808 nm. The overall conversion and slope efficiencies were 18 and 23 percent, respectively.

  8. Using ground-based geophysics to constrain the interpretation of airborne TEM data recorded across the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, J. E.; Kalscheuer, T.; Doetsch, J.; Rabenstein, L.; Tshoso, G.; Meier, P.; Horstmeyer, H.; Kgotlhang, L.; Ploug, C.; Auken, E.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Green, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is a near endorheic inland delta that has developed over the past ~2 MA in an active graben at the southwestern end of the East Africa Rift System. An annual flood from the north causes a slowly flowing surface water regime in the delta, but previous wetter climatic periods were responsible for intermittent lacustrine environments. The Okavango Delta is the largest permanent water body in the Kalahari Desert and, as such, represents an important resource for wildlife and humans alike. An airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) survey, commissioned by the Botswana government, was undertaken in 2007 for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology of the delta. Initial processing and inversion of these data show within the main fan of the delta a resistive 20-50 m thick surface layer underlain by a 30-200 m thick conductive layer. In the upper fan, the conductive layer is underlain by a resistive unit beginning at about 150 m depth. This unit exhibits a dendritic pattern implying a fluvial origin. To help interpret this and other structures, geophysical field work was initiated in early 2011 at various locations in the delta. Seismic reflection and refraction, electrical resistive tomography (ERT), and ground TEM methods were employed. The seismic methods are useful for delineating the boundaries of the weathering and basement layers, whereas ERT provides an independent estimate of the resistivity structure, particularly at shallow depths. Ground TEM allows for a direct comparison with the airborne TEM soundings, helping to estimate the accuracy of the latter. Though still evolving, the current large-scale hydrogeological interpretation of the airborne data set includes a fresh water-saturated surface layer underlain by a saline aquifer and clay aquitard. In the upper fan of the delta, a fresh water aquifer appears to lie between the aquitard and the basement rock.

  9. Advanced TEM characterization of oxide nanoparticles in ODS Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Pint, Bruce A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-07-11

    For oxide nanoparticles present in three oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys containing additions of (1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3 + ZrO2 (125YZ), and (3) Y2O3 + HfO2 (125YH), were investigated using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, in all three alloys nano-sized (<3.5 nm) oxide particles distributed uniformly throughout the microstructure were characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques. In the 125Y alloy, mainly Al2O3 and yttrium–aluminum garnet (YAG) phases (Y3Al5O12) were present, while in the 125YZ alloy, additional Zr(C,N) precipitates were identified. The 125YH alloy had the most complex precipitation sequence whereby in addition to the YAG and Al2O3 phases,more » Hf(C,N), Y2Hf2O7, and HfO2 precipitates were also found. The presence of HfO2 was mainly due to the incomplete incorporation of HfO2 powder during mechanical alloying of the 125YH alloy. The alloy having the highest total number density of the oxides, the smallest grain size, and the highest Vickers hardness was the 125YZ alloy indicating, that Y2O3 + ZrO2 additions had the strongest effect on grain size and tensile properties. Finally, high-temperature mechanical testing will be addressed in the near future, while irradiation studies are underway to investigate the irradiation resistance of these new ODS FeCrAl alloys.« less

  10. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  11. Transrotational Micro-, Nanocrystals Revealed by TEM: New Solid State Order or Novel Extended Imperfection in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Vladimir Yu.

    2012-02-01

    Unexpected transrotational structure [1] has been revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for crystal growth in thin (10-100nm) amorphous films of different chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) prepared by various methods. Primarily we use our TEM bend contour technique but also HREM, EDX, CBED and AFM are used in due cases. The unusual phenomenon can be traced in situ in TEM column: strong dislocation independent regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. Such transrotation (unit cell translation is complicated by small rotation realized round an axis lying in the film plane) can result in strong regular lattice orientation gradients (up to 300^o/μm) of different geometries: cylindrical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, etc. Transrotational crystal corresponds to ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. It can be considered also as hypothetical endless 2.5 D analogy of MW nanotube/nano-onion halves. Transrotation is strongly increasing as the film gets thinner. Transrotations supplement dislocations (in crystals) and disclinations (in liquid crystals). Transrotational order can be regarded as intermediate one between amorphous and crystalline. [1] V. Yu. Kolosov and A. R.Tholen, Acta Mater., 48 (2000) 1829.

  12. Duplex Oxide Formation during Transient Oxidation of Cu-5%Ni(001) Investigated by In situ UHV-TEM and XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.C.; Starr, D.; Kang, Y.; Luo, L.; Tong, X.; Zhou, G.

    2012-05-20

    The transient oxidation stage of a model metal alloy thin film was characterized with in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytic high-resolution TEM. We observed the formations of nanosized NiO and Cu{sub 2}O islands when Cu-5a5%Ni(100) was exposed to oxygen partial pressure, pO{sub 2} = 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr and various temperatures in situ. At 350 C epitaxial Cu{sub 2}O islands formed initially and then NiO islands appeared on the surface of the Cu{sub 2}O island, whereas at 750 C NiO appeared first. XPS and TEM was used to reveal a sequential formation of NiO and then Cu{sub 2}O islands at 550 C. The temperature-dependant oxide selection may be due to an increase of the diffusivity of Ni in Cu with increasing temperature.

  13. Investigation of a catalyst ink dispersion using both ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic TEM.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Zhang, HangYu; Ilavsky, Jan; Stanciu, Lia; Ho, Derek; Justice, Matthew J; Petrache, Horia I; Xie, Jian

    2010-12-21

    The dispersion of Nafion ionomer particles and Pt/C catalyst aggregates in liquid media was studied using both ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and cryogenic TEM. A systematic approach was taken to study first the dispersion of each component (i.e., ionomer particles and Pt/C aggregates), then the combination of the components, and last the catalyst ink. Multiple-level curve fitting was used to extract the particle size, size distribution, and geometry of the Pt/C aggregates and the Nafion particles in liquid media from the scattering data. The results suggest that the particle size, size distribution, and geometry are not uniform throughout the systems but rather vary significantly. It was found that the interaction of each component (i.e., the Nafion ionomer particles and the Pt/C aggregates) occurs in the dispersion. Cryogenic TEM was used to observe the size and geometry of the particles in liquid directly and to validate the scattering results. The TEM results showed excellent agreement.

  14. TEM microstructural characterization of melt-spun aged Al-6Si-3Cu-xMg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Ismeli Alfonso . E-mail: post18@jupiter.umich.mx; Zepeda, Cuauhtemoc Maldonado; Gonzalez Reyes, Jose Gonzalo; Flores, Ariosto Medina; Rodriguez, Juan Serrato; Gomez, Luis Bejar

    2007-06-15

    Three Al-6Si-3Cu-xMg alloys (x = 0.59, 3.80 and 6.78 wt.%) were produced using melt-spinning. As-melt-spun ribbons were aged at 150, 180 and 210 deg. C for times between 0.05 and 100 h. Microstructural changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness was measured. TEM analysis of the as-melt-spun alloys revealed 5 nm nanoparticles and larger particles (50 nm) composed of Al{sub 2}Cu ({theta}) for the 0.59% Mg alloy and Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} (Q) for 3.80% and 6.78% Mg alloys. Silicon solid solubility was extended to 9.0 at.% and Mg in solid solution reached 6.7 at.%. After aging treatments the 6.78% Mg alloy exhibited the most significant increase in microhardness, reaching 260 kg/mm{sup 2}. TEM analysis of aged specimens also showed {theta} and Q phase (5-20 nm nanoparticles and 35-40 nm particles). The combination of the volume fraction and size of the particles plays an important role in microhardness variation.

  15. Validation studies of gyrokinetic ITG and TEM turbulence simulations in a JT-60U tokamak using multiple flux matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Motoki; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Maiko; Urano, Hajime; Nunami, Masanori; Maeyama, Shinya; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative validation studies of flux-tube gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations on ion and electron heat transport are carried out for the JT-60U tokamak experiment. The ion temperature gradient (ITG) and/or trapped electron modes (TEM) driven turbulent transport and zonal flow generations are investigated for an L-mode plasma in the local turbulence limit with a sufficiently small normalized ion thermal gyroradius and weak mean radial electric fields. Nonlinear turbulence simulations by the GKV code successfully reproduce radial profiles of the ion and electron energy fluxes in the core region. The numerical results show that the TEM-driven zonal flow generation in the outer region is more significant than that in the core region with ITG- and ITG–TEM-dominated turbulence, leading to moderate transport shortfall of the ion energy flux. Error levels in the prediction of the ion and electron temperature gradient profiles in the core region are estimated as less than +/- 30% , based on a multiple flux matching technique, where the simulated ion and electron energy fluxes are simultaneously matched to the experimental values.

  16. High-field actively detuneable transverse electromagnetic (TEM) coil with low-bias voltage for high-power RF transmission.

    PubMed

    Avdievich, Nikolai I; Bradshaw, Ken; Kuznetsov, Andrey M; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2007-06-01

    The design and construction of a 4T (170 MHz) transverse electromagnetic (TEM) actively detuneable quadrature head coil is described. Conventional schemes for active detuning require high negative bias voltages (>300 V) to prevent leakage of RF pulses with amplitudes of 1-2 kW. To extend the power handling capacity and avoid the use of high DC bias voltages, we developed an alternate method of detuning the volume coil. In this method the PIN diodes in the detuning circuits are shorted when the RF volume coil is tuned, and negatively biased with -12 V when the coil is detuned. To preserve the high Q(U)/Q(L) ratio of the TEM coil, we modified the method of Nabetani and Watkins (Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of ISMRM, Kyoto, Japan, 2004, abstract 1574) by utilizing a high-impedance (approximately 200 Omega), lumped-element, quarter-wavelength transformer. A Q(U) of 500 was achieved for the detuneable TEM, such that incorporation of the detuning network had minimal effect (<1 dB) on the performance of the coil in vivo. PMID:17534919

  17. In situ targeting TEM8 via immune response and polypeptide recognition by wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Jie; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in real-time and in situ monitoring of living cell activities in life science and medicine. This paper reports a whole cell sensing protocol over the interface of Au film coupled in a wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance (WMSPR) biosensor. With dual parabolic mirrors integrated in the sensor, the compact and miniaturized instrument shows satisfactory refractive index sensitivity (2220 nm/RIU) and a high resolution of resonance wavelength shift of 0.3 nm to liquid samples. The affinity interactions between the biomarker of human tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and antibody (Ab) or specific polypeptide (PEP) were firstly introduced to WMSPR biosensor analysis. Both the interaction events of Ab-cell and PEP-cell over the Au film interface can be recognized by the sensor and the balance time of interactions is about 20 min. The concentration range of Ab for quantitative monitoring of the TEM8 expression on human colon carcinoma SW620 cells was investigated. The present low-cost and time-saving method provides a time resolution of binding specificity between Ab/PEP and TEM8 for real-time analysis of antigen on living tumor cell surface. PMID:26822761

  18. Validation studies of gyrokinetic ITG and TEM turbulence simulations in a JT-60U tokamak using multiple flux matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Motoki; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Maiko; Urano, Hajime; Nunami, Masanori; Maeyama, Shinya; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative validation studies of flux-tube gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations on ion and electron heat transport are carried out for the JT-60U tokamak experiment. The ion temperature gradient (ITG) and/or trapped electron modes (TEM) driven turbulent transport and zonal flow generations are investigated for an L-mode plasma in the local turbulence limit with a sufficiently small normalized ion thermal gyroradius and weak mean radial electric fields. Nonlinear turbulence simulations by the GKV code successfully reproduce radial profiles of the ion and electron energy fluxes in the core region. The numerical results show that the TEM-driven zonal flow generation in the outer region is more significant than that in the core region with ITG- and ITG-TEM-dominated turbulence, leading to moderate transport shortfall of the ion energy flux. Error levels in the prediction of the ion and electron temperature gradient profiles in the core region are estimated as less than +/- 30% , based on a multiple flux matching technique, where the simulated ion and electron energy fluxes are simultaneously matched to the experimental values.

  19. In situ targeting TEM8 via immune response and polypeptide recognition by wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Jie; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in real-time and in situ monitoring of living cell activities in life science and medicine. This paper reports a whole cell sensing protocol over the interface of Au film coupled in a wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance (WMSPR) biosensor. With dual parabolic mirrors integrated in the sensor, the compact and miniaturized instrument shows satisfactory refractive index sensitivity (2220 nm/RIU) and a high resolution of resonance wavelength shift of 0.3 nm to liquid samples. The affinity interactions between the biomarker of human tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and antibody (Ab) or specific polypeptide (PEP) were firstly introduced to WMSPR biosensor analysis. Both the interaction events of Ab-cell and PEP-cell over the Au film interface can be recognized by the sensor and the balance time of interactions is about 20 min. The concentration range of Ab for quantitative monitoring of the TEM8 expression on human colon carcinoma SW620 cells was investigated. The present low-cost and time-saving method provides a time resolution of binding specificity between Ab/PEP and TEM8 for real-time analysis of antigen on living tumor cell surface. PMID:26822761

  20. Electrical Sintering of Silver Nanoparticle Ink Studied by In-Situ TEM Probing

    PubMed Central

    Hummelgård, Magnus; Zhang, Renyun; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Olin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticle inks are used for printed electronics, but to reach acceptable conductivity the structures need to be sintered, usually using a furnace. Recently, sintering by direct resistive heating has been demonstrated. For a microscopic understanding of this Joule heating sintering method, we studied the entire process in real time inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with a movable electrical probe. We found an onset of Joule heating induced sintering and coalescence of nanoparticles at power levels of 0.1–10 mW/m3. In addition, a carbonization of the organic shells that stabilize the nanoparticles were found, with a conductivity of 4 105 Sm−1. PMID:21390314