Science.gov

Sample records for additional term due

  1. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  2. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  3. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    PubMed

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed.

  4. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  5. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  6. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  7. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  8. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  9. Long-term disability due to guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Hours, M; Cairncross, S

    1994-01-01

    The village-based surveillance system for guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis), which has been established in all endemic villages in Ghana, was used to carry out a retrospective study of long-term disability due to the disease. A sample of 195 cases was interviewed and examined, 12-18 months after emergence of the worm. Currently continuing pain when walking or working, attributable by its location and date of onset to the episode of dracunculiasis, was reported by 55 persons (28.2%). Some difficulty in performing at least one of 6 everyday physical activities, attributable after careful interview to the episode, was reported by 66 respondents (34.0%), of whom 10 (5.1%) were unable to carry out one of the activities. In one case, the disease had caused impairment of movement of the joints of the right thumb. The prevalence of serious permanent physical impairment among the cases in the study was thus 0.5%.

  10. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  11. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storkey, J.; MacDonald, A. J.; Poulton, P. R.; Scott, T.; Köhler, I. H.; Schnyder, H.; Goulding, K. W. T.; Crawley, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to ‘bounce back’ in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  12. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  13. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  14. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  15. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  16. Long term sleep disturbance due to traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, M.; Gagneux, J.-M.; Blanchet, V.; Favre, B.; Labiale, G.

    1983-09-01

    This contribution to the evaluation of the effects of traffic noise on sleep disturbance is focused on the responses of people living near a main road. Experiments were carried out in the homes of subjects who had habitually been exposed to noise for periods of more than four years. The chronic changes in overall sleep patterns and the temporary sleep responses to particular noise events caused by traffic are demonstrated. Young people show mainly stage 3 and 4 deficits whilst older people show REM sleep deficits. The cardiac response to noise during sleep was also examined. These results highlight that both long term average and peak levels are important in assessing sleep disturbance. The threshold levels, measured inside the bedroom and above which sleep quality starts to become impaired, are 37 Leq(A) and 45 dB (A) Lp max , respectively. For the type of traffic studied these two levels are coherent and it is therefore possible that a single noise index, Leq(A), is sufficient to scale sleep disturbance.

  17. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for ``far-side'' excitation than ``near-side''. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  19. Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan G C; Brunt, Tibor M; McMaster, Minni T B; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2012-04-01

    In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. In addition, various studies report incidents following risky GHB use or GHB overdosing. Other sedative drugs, like ketamine and alcohol have been shown to result in unintended neurotoxic harm at the level of memory and cognitive function. As outlined in the present review, GHB and ketamine have a common mode of action, which suggests that GHB may also lead to similar neurotoxicity as ketamine. GHB overdosing, as well as binge drinking (and high ketamine doses), induce profound coma which is probably neurotoxic for the brain especially in the maturing brain of young adults. It is therefore advocated to investigate possible long-term neurotoxic effects in recreational GHB users e.g. by studying the residual effects on cognition and memory.

  20. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for “far-side” excitation than “near-side”. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface. PMID:23903714

  1. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  2. Reversible weakness and encephalopathy while on long-term valproate treatment due to carnitine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-sharefi, Ahmed; Bilous, Rudy

    2015-09-02

    We describe a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with bilateral leg weakness and encephalopathy while on long-term valproate therapy. She was diagnosed with valproate-induced encephalopathy due to carnitine deficiency. Clinical improvement occurred with oral carnitine supplementation. Our case report highlights the importance of considering carnitine deficiency in patients presenting with unexplained neurological signs while on long-term valproate treatment.

  3. Accelerated Degradation Due to Weakened Adhesion from Li-TFSI Additives in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhwa; Yun, Jae Hoon; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Reliable integration of organometallic halide perovskite in photovoltaic devices is critically limited by its low stability in humid environments. Furthermore, additives to increase the mobility in the hole transport material (HTM) have deliquescence and hygroscopic properties, which attract water molecules and result in accelerated degradation of the perovskite devices. In this study, a double cantilever beam (DCB) test is used to investigate the effects of additives in the HTM layer on the perovskite layer through neatly delaminating the interface between the perovskite and HTM layers. Using the DCB test, the bottom surface of the HTM layers is directly observed, and it is found that the additives are accumulated at the bottom along the thickness (i.e., through-plane direction) of the films. It is also found that the additives significantly decrease the adhesion at the interface between the perovskite and HTM layers by more than 60% through hardening the HTM films. Finally, the adhesion-based degradation mechanism of perovskite devices according to the existence of additives is proposed for humid environments.

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Market-related contract term... Provisions § 223.52 Market-related contract term additions. (a) Contract provision. (1) Except as provided in... the Forest Service has determined that adverse wood products market conditions have resulted in...

  6. On the Changes in Lift of Hydrofoils Due to Surface Injections of Polymer Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    to xh in~jection~ olf polymer solutiow, .n to thoir ~u aes sho t t he i -t uit either decrease or increzise depn i i on the polymor,’ inject’lon...different boundary layer effects, and these., in turn, are iden- tical with the changes likely to be produced by polymer injections., No explicit...symmetric hydro- foils due to the injection of polymer solutions on to their surfaces show that the lift can either decrease or increase depending on

  7. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W; Langenbrunner, James R; Mack, Joseph M; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Douglas C; Evans, Scott C; Sedillo, Tom J; Kyrala, George A; Caldwell, Stephen E; Young, Carlton A; Nobile, Arthur; Wermer, Joseph R; Paglieri, Stephen N; Mcevoy, Aaron M; Kim, Yong Ho; Batha, Steven H; Horsfield, Colin J; Drew, Dave; Garbett, Warren; Rubery, Michael; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Roberts, Samuel; Frenje, Johan A

    2008-01-01

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  8. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  9. EFFECT ON 105KW NORTH WALL DUE TO ADDITION OF FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHO CS

    2010-03-08

    CHPRC D&D Projects is adding three filtration system on two 1-ft concrete pads adjacent to the north side of existing KW Basin building. This analysis is prepared to provide qualitative assessment based on the review of design information available for 105KW basin substructure. In the proposed heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filtration pad designs a 2 ft gap will be maintained between the pads and the north end of the existing 1 05KW -Basin building. Filtration Skids No.2 and No.3 share one pad. It is conservative to evaluate the No.2 and No.3 skid pad for the wall assessment. Figure 1 shows the plan layout of the 105KW basin site and the location of the pads for the filtration system or HVAC skids. Figure 2 shows the cross-section elevation view of the pad. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 directs the replacement of the existing 8-inch concrete pad with two new 1-ft think pads. The existing 8-inch pad is separated from the 105KW basin superstructure by an expansion joint of only half an inch. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 shows the gap between the new proposed pads and the north wall and any overflow pits and sumps is 2-ft. Following analysis demonstrates that the newly added filtration units and their pads do not exceed the structural capacity of existing wall. The calculation shows that the total bending moment on the north wall due to newly added filtration units and pads including seismic load is 82.636 ft-kip/ft and is within the capacity of wall which is 139.0ft-kip/ft.

  10. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  11. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis Due to Benign Diseases: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsumoto, Koichi; Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To clarify the immediate effect and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis due to benign diseases and the factors influencing the outcomes.Methods: One hundred and one patients (aged 34-89 years) received bronchial artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge for massive or continuing moderate hemoptysis caused by benign pulmonary diseases and resistant to medical treatment.Results: After BAE, bleeding stopped in 94 patients (94%). The immediate effect was unfavorable in cases where feeder vessels were overlooked or the embolization of the intercostal arteries was insufficient. Long-term cumulative hemoptysis non recurrence rates after the initial embolization were 77.7% for 1 year and 62.5% for 5 years. In bronchitis (n 9) and active tuberculosis (n = 4) groups, an excellent (100%) 5-year cumulative non recurrence rate was obtained. The rate was lower in groups with pneumonia/abscess/pyothorax (n = 8) or with pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 9) (53.3%, 1-year cumulative non recurrence). There were higher incidences of early recurrence among patients with massive hemorrhage or more marked vascularity and systemic artery-pulmonary artery shunt in angiography: however, these trends were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAE can yield long-term benefit in patients with hemoptysis due to benign diseases. Technical problems in the procedure had an impact on the short-term effect. The degree of hemorrhage or the severity of angiographical findings were not significant factors affecting the outcome. The most significant factor affecting long-term results was whether the inflammation caused by the underlying disease was medically well controlled.

  12. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  13. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  14. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  15. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  16. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  17. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  18. Effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment due to the addition of calcium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Tao, Yi; Zhou, Kuiyu; Zhang, Qiqi; Chen, Guangyao; Zhang, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    In situ sediment remediation technique is commonly used to control the release of pollutants from sediment. Addition of calcium nitrate to sediment has been applied to control the release of phosphorus from sediments. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of water quality improvement on the remediation of river sediment with the addition of calcium nitrate. The results demonstrated that the redox-potential of sediments increased from -282mV to -130mV after 28days of calcium nitrate treatment. The acid volatile sulphide in the sediments significantly decreased (by 54.9% to 57.1%), whereas the total organic carbon decreased by 9.7% to 10.2%. However, the difference between these and water quality improvement was not significant. Due to the addition of calcium nitrate, low phosphate concentration in the water column and interstitial phosphate in the sediment were observed, indicating that the calcium nitrate was beneficial to controlling the release of phosphorus from river sediment. The decrease in phosphorus release could be attributed to the fixation of iron-phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus due to the addition of calcium nitrate. The addition of calcium nitrate to sediment caused the oxidation of sulphide to sulphate, hence resulting in high nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the water column, and high interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment. The results also showed that only the water quality improvement had a significant effect on the interstitial nitrate and sulphate concentrations in the sediment.

  19. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  20. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  1. Childhood acromegaly due to X-linked acrogigantism: long term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rebecca J.; Bell, Jennifer; Chung, Wendy K.; David, Raphael; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Acromegaly in infancy is extremely rare. We describe a 32 year old woman who presented at 6 months of age with isolated macrocephaly, followed by accelerated linear growth. At 21 months of age, her head circumference was 55 cm (+5.5 SD), height was 97.6 cm (+4.4 SD) and weight was 20.6 kg (+6.2 SD). She had markedly elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) (135 ng/ml), IGF-1 (1540 ng/ml) and prolactin (370 ng/ml). A pituitary macroadenoma was surgically resected. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for GH. Post-operatively, she developed ACTH and TSH deficiency and diabetes insipidus. Methods Long term clinical follow-up and genetic testing with chromosomal microarray analysis. Results Despite GH deficiency, she grew well until 7 ½ years old, with subsequent decline in growth velocity, and received GH therapy for 5 years. Puberty was initiated with estrogen therapy. As an adult, she has no stigmata of acromegaly, with a height of 164.5 cm and non-acromegalic features. IGF-1 has remained in the low normal range. Prolactin has been mildly elevated. Serial MRIs have shown no evidence of tumor recurrence. She receives replacement therapy with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine and DDAVP. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed that she has X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) due to a de novo duplication of Xq26.3 (516 kb). She recently became pregnant following ovarian stimulation and chorionic villus sampling revealed that she is carrying a male with the same duplication. Conclusion This report provides detailed long term clinical follow-up of a patient with X-LAG syndrome. PMID:27631333

  2. Long-term follow-up of patients with choroidal neovascularization due to angioid streaks

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Serrano, Maria Guadalupe; Rodriguez-Reyes, Abelardo; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Background The following case series describes the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of a group of seven patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV), secondary to angioid streaks (AS), who were treated with antiangiogenic drugs in a pro re nata (PRN) regimen. After the 4-year mark, visual acuity tends to return to pretreatment level. Treatment delays and lack of awareness and self-referral by the patients are believed to be the cause of the PRN regimen failure. Purpose To assess the long-term outcomes (>4 years) of patients with CNV due to AS treated with a PRN regimen of antiangiogenic. Methods This was a retrospective, case series, single-center study. We reviewed the electronic medical records from patients with CNV due to AS. From each record, we noted general demographic data and relevant medical history; clinical presentation, changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over time, optical coherent tomography parameters, treatment and retreatment details, and systemic associations. Changes in BCVA and central macular thickness were assessed with a Wilcoxon two-sample test, with an alpha value of ≤0.05 for statistical significance. Results The mean follow-up time was 53.8±26.8 months. BCVA at baseline was: 1.001±0.62 logMAR; at the end of follow-up: 0.996±0.56 logMAR (P=0.9). Central macular thickness at baseline was: 360.85±173.82 μm; at the end of follow-up: 323.85±100.34 μm (P=0.6). Mean number of intravitreal angiogenic drugs: 6±4.16 injections (range 4–15). Mean time between injections was 3.8±2.7 months (range 1.9–5.8 months). Conclusion Despite initial anatomical and functional improvement, patients at the end of the follow-up had no visual improvement after a pro re nata regimen of antiangiogenic drugs. The amount of retreatments, number of recurrences, and time between intravitreal injections were similar to previous reports with shorter follow-up. PMID:28031699

  3. Long term effect of MnO2 powder addition on nitrogen removal by anammox process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Bi, Zhen; Zhou, Jiti; Cheng, Yingjun; Zhang, Jie; Bhatti, Zafar

    2012-11-01

    This study examined long-term effect of MnO(2) powder (average diameter of 4-7 μm) on nitrogen removal in anammox process. Two lab-scale up-flow anammox reactors were operated for 380 days, one with and one without MnO(2) powder addition. During the period when only substrate concentrations varied, the maximum nitrogen removal rate in the reactor with MnO(2) addition reached 920.9 g-N/m(3)/d. This value was 2-folds higher than that (464.6 g-N/m(3)/d) of the reactor without MnO(2) addition. The crude enzyme activities of the anammox biomass from the two reactors was measured as 0.531±0.019 and 0.298±0.007 μmol cytochrome c reduced/mg protein/min, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observation demonstrated more undefined particles existing inside anammox bacterial cell in the reactor with MnO(2) powder addition. Furthermore, filament-like structures inside anammoxosome were observed, which formed a net-like structure with particles as the connecting nodes. The experiment results demonstrated that MnO(2) improved nitrogen removal performance of anammox process.

  4. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  5. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  6. Effects of substrate addition on soil respiratory carbon release under long-term warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Xue, Kai; Xue, Xian; Xu, Xia; Yang, Yuanhe; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms of soil respiratory carbon (C) release induced by substrates (i.e., plant derived substrates) are critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we sampled soils from a long-term field manipulative experiment and conducted a laboratory incubation to explore the role of substrate supply in regulating the differences in soil C release among the experimental treatments, including control, warming, clipping, and warming plus clipping. Three types of substrates (glucose, C3 and C4 plant materials) were added with an amount equal to 1% of soil dry weight under the four treatments. We found that the addition of all three substrates significantly stimulated soil respiratory C release in all four warming and clipping treatments. In soils without substrate addition, warming significantly stimulated soil C release but clipping decreased it. However, additions of glucose and C3 plant materials (C3 addition) offset the warming effects, whereas C4 addition still showed the warming-induced stimulation of soil C release. Our results suggest that long-term warming may inhibit microbial capacity for decomposition of C3 litter but may enhance it for decomposition of C4 litter. Such warming-induced adaptation of microbial communities may weaken the positive C-cycle feedback to warming due to increased proportion of C4 species in plant community and decreased litter quality. In contrast, clipping may weaken microbial capacity for warming-induced decomposition of C4 litter but may enhance it for C3 litter. Warming- and clipping-induced shifts in microbial metabolic capacity may be strongly associated with changes in plant species composition and could substantially influence soil C dynamics in response to global change.

  7. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  8. Long-term nitrogen addition causes the evolution of less-cooperative mutualists.

    PubMed

    Weese, Dylan J; Heath, Katy D; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Lau, Jennifer A

    2015-03-01

    Human activities have altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, and as a result, elevated N inputs are causing profound ecological changes in diverse ecosystems. The evolutionary consequences of this global change have been largely ignored even though elevated N inputs are predicted to cause mutualism breakdown and the evolution of decreased cooperation between resource mutualists. Using a long-term (22 years) N-addition experiment, we find that elevated N inputs have altered the legume-rhizobium mutualism (where rhizobial bacteria trade N in exchange for photosynthates from legumes), causing the evolution of less-mutualistic rhizobia. Plants inoculated with rhizobium strains isolated from N-fertilized treatments produced 17-30% less biomass and had reduced chlorophyll content compared to plants inoculated with strains from unfertilized control plots. Because the legume-rhizobium mutualism is the major contributor of naturally fixed N to terrestrial ecosystems, the evolution of less-cooperative rhizobia may have important environmental consequences.

  9. Describing long-term trends in precipitation using generalized additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Fiona M.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryWith the current concern over climate change, descriptions of how rainfall patterns are changing over time can be useful. Observations of daily rainfall data over the last few decades provide information on these trends. Generalized linear models are typically used to model patterns in the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. These models describe rainfall patterns for an average year but are more limited when describing long-term trends, particularly when these are potentially non-linear. Generalized additive models (GAMs) provide a framework for modelling non-linear relationships by fitting smooth functions to the data. This paper describes how GAMs can extend the flexibility of models to describe seasonal patterns and long-term trends in the occurrence and intensity of daily rainfall using data from Mauritius from 1962 to 2001. Smoothed estimates from the models provide useful graphical descriptions of changing rainfall patterns over the last 40 years at this location. GAMs are particularly helpful when exploring non-linear relationships in the data. Care is needed to ensure the choice of smooth functions is appropriate for the data and modelling objectives.

  10. Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders Is Associated with Individual Features and Psychosocial Work Conditions

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aims Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). Methods The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. Results All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Conclusions Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the

  11. Outbreak of long-term intravascular catheter-related bacteremia due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans subspecies xylosoxidans in a hemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Tena, D; Carranza, R; Barberá, J R; Valdezate, S; Garrancho, J M; Arranz, M; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    2005-11-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare cause of bacteremia. Over a 2-week period, A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans was isolated from blood cultures of four hemodialysis patients with long-term intravascular catheters. A culture from one atomizer that contained diluted 2.5% chlorhexidine, which had been used to disinfect the skin, yielded A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans. No further cases were diagnosed once the use of this atomizer was discontinued. Five outbreak-related strains from the four patients and the atomizer were tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) under XbaI restriction. The isolates from the first three patients and the atomizer had identical PFGE patterns, confirming the atomizer as the source of the outbreak. The strain isolated from the fourth patient had six more bands than the outbreak strain and was considered possibly related to the outbreak strain. All patients were treated with intravenous levofloxacin. The catheter was removed in only one patient. The three patients in whom the catheter was left in place were also treated with antibiotic lock therapy with levofloxacin. All four patients were cured. This is believed to be the first reported outbreak of central venous catheter-related bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans and the second reported outbreak with this organism associated with chlorhexidine atomizers. The use of diluted chlorhexidine via atomizers can be dangerous for the care of venous catheters and should be called into question. Patients with long-term intravascular catheter-related bacteremia due to this organism can be treated successfully with systemic antimicrobial therapy in addition to antibiotic lock therapy without catheter removal.

  12. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  13. Nitrate addition has minimal short-term impacts on greenland ice sheet supraglacial prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Karen A; Stibal, Marek; Chrismas, Nathan; Box, Jason; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21(st) century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist. Estimated bulk and active cryoconite community cell abundance was unaltered by nitrate additions when compared to control holes using a quantitative PCR approach, and nitrate was found to have a minimal affect on the dominant 16S rRNA gene-based community composition. Together, these results indicate that sampled cryoconite communities were not nitrate limited at the time of sampling. Instead, temporal changes in biomass and community composition were more pronounced. As these in situ incubations were short (6 weeks), and the community composition across GrIS surface ice is highly variable, we suggest that further efforts should be considered to investigate the potential long-term impacts of increased nitrate across the GrIS.

  14. Short and mid-term effects of different biochar additions on soil GHG fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar (BC) to soils may have a positive influence on physico-chemical soil properties and the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Furthermore, biochar contributes to a long-term soil carbon sequestration. The aim of this study is to explore short and mid-term effects (one day up to six months) of different BC-compost applications on soil GHG emissions, particularly CO2, CH4, N2O and NOx. In addition, compounds of the nitrogen cycle like NH4+, NO3- and the microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) were measured. For this purpose a field experiment in Kaindorf (Styria/Austria, gleyic Cambisol, loamy, 376 m.a.s.l.) with 16 plots and four different treatments was conducted. K = no BC-compost mixture but fertilized (NH4SO4) corresponding to T3 in 2013; T1 = 1 % BC-compost mixture, no addition of N in 2013 and 2014; T2 = 0.5 % BC-compost mixture, + 175 kg N ha-1 in 2013 and 2014; T3 = 1% BC-compost mixture, + 350 kg N ha-1 in 2013. Nitrogen was added as (NH4)2SO4 directly to the freshly produced biochar before mixing it with compost. Greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured monthly from closed chambers in the field over a period of six months, starting 30 days before BC application and ended shortly before harvesting in September. For the analysis of nitric oxide (NO) fluxes intact soil cylinders were taken from each plot and incubated at the laboratory at ambient air temperature. Mineral N contents were measured by the extraction with KCl-solution and the microbial biomass with chloroform-fumigation extraction (CFE). Biochar application to our agricultural soil showed no reduction potential of NO emissions, but N2O fluxes were significantly lower at T1 and T3 compared to treatment K. Gaseous N fluxes of the pure BC-compost mixture and the additional N fertilization with (NH4)2SO4 led to enormous gaseous N losses in form of N2O and NO. However, after application to the soil, fluxes were only higher for a short time period. We suggest

  15. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  16. Elevated CO2 promotes long-term nitrogen accumulation only in combination with nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Melissa A; Megonigal, J Patrick; Langley, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical models that incorporate nitrogen (N) limitation indicate that N availability will control the magnitude of ecosystem carbon uptake in response to rising CO2 . Some models, however, suggest that elevated CO2 may promote ecosystem N accumulation, a feedback that in the long term could circumvent N limitation of the CO2 response while mitigating N pollution. We tested this prediction using a nine-year CO2 xN experiment in a tidal marsh. Although the effects of CO2 are similar between uplands and wetlands in many respects, this experiment offers a greater likelihood of detecting CO2 effects on N retention on a decadal timescale because tidal marshes have a relatively open N cycle and can accrue soil organic matter rapidly. To determine how elevated CO2 affects N dynamics, we assessed the three primary fates of N in a tidal marsh: (1) retention in plants and soil, (2) denitrification to the atmosphere, and (3) tidal export. We assessed changes in N pools and tracked the fate of a (15) N tracer added to each plot in 2006 to quantify the fraction of added N retained in vegetation and soil, and to estimate lateral N movement. Elevated CO2 alone did not increase plant N mass, soil N mass, or (15) N label retention. Unexpectedly, CO2 and N interacted such that the combined N+CO2 treatment increased ecosystem N accumulation despite the stimulation in N losses indicated by reduced (15) N label retention. These findings suggest that in N-limited ecosystems, elevated CO2 is unlikely to increase long-term N accumulation and circumvent progressive N limitation without additional N inputs, which may relieve plant-microbe competition and allow for increased plant N uptake.

  17. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  18. Detection of mental stress due to oral academic examination via ultra-short-term HRV analysis.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, R; Xu, W; Melillo, P; Pecchia, L; Santamaria, L; James, C

    2016-08-01

    Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools. Statistical and data mining analysis were then performed on the extracted HRV features. The best performing machine learning method was the C4.5 tree algorithm, which discriminated between stress and rest with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of 78%, 80% and 79% respectively.

  19. 15th order resonance terms using the decaying orbit of TETR-3. [perturbation due to gravitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteenth-order commensurability of the orbit of TETR-3 (1971-83B) is studied. The study is designed to obtain good discrimination of 15th-order resonances through a better range of inclinations. The first low inclination orbit, 33 deg, is used for this purpose; it is very sensitive to the high degree terms which were rather poorly represented by previously analyzed orbits.

  20. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  1. Reducing On-Board Computer Propagation Errors Due to Omitted Geopotential Terms by Judicious Selection of Uploaded State Vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor); Beckman, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Several future, and some current missions, use an on-board computer (OBC) force model that is very limited. The OBC geopotential force model typically includes only the J(2), J(3), J(4), C(2,2) and S(2,2) terms to model non-spherical Earth gravitational effects. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), and X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) all plan to use this geopotential force model on-board. The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) is already flying this geopotential force model. Past analysis has shown that one of the leading sources of error in the OBC propagated ephemeris is the omission of the higher order geopotential terms. However, these same analyses have shown a wide range of accuracies for the OBC ephemerides. Analysis was performed using EUVE state vectors that showed the EUVE four day OBC propagated ephemerides varied in accuracy from 200 m. to 45 km. depending on the initial vector used to start the propagation. The vectors used in the study were from a single EUVE orbit at one minute intervals in the ephemeris. Since each vector propagated practically the same path as the others, the differences seen had to be due to differences in the inital state vector only. An algorithm was developed that will optimize the epoch of the uploaded state vector. Proper selection can reduce the previous errors of anywhere from 200 m. to 45 km. to generally less than one km. over four days of propagation. This would enable flight projects to minimize state vector uploads to the spacecraft. Additionally, this method is superior to other methods in that no additional orbit estimates need be done. The definitive ephemeris generated on the ground can be used as long as the proper epoch is chosen. This algorithm can be easily coded in software that would pick the epoch within a specified time range that would

  2. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (original applications, other than... Examination Delay § 1.701 Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements... phrase is used in 35 U.S.C. 154(b)(2) as amended by section 532(a) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  3. Changes in erosion and flooding risk due to long-term and cyclic oceanographic trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Thomas; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We assess temporal variations in waves and sea level, which are driving factors for beach 23 erosion and coastal flooding in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We find that long-term trends in 24 the relevant variables have caused an increase of ~30% in the erosion/flooding risk since the 25 1980s. Changes in the wave climate-which have often been ignored in earlier assessments-26 were at least as important as sea-level rise (SLR). In the next decades, SLR will likely become 27 the dominating driver and may in combination with ongoing changes in the wave climate (and 28 depending on the emission scenario) escalate the erosion/flooding risk by up to 300% over the 29 next 30 years. We also find significant changes in the seasonal cycles of sea level and 30 significant wave height, which have in combination caused a considerable increase of the 31 erosion/flooding risk in summer and decrease in winter (superimposed onto the long-term 32 trends)

  4. Metabolic shifts due to long-term caloric restriction revealed in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Rezzi, Serge; Martin, François-Pierre J.; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Colman, Ricki J.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Weindruch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The long-term health benefits of caloric restriction (CR) are well known but the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood despite increasing knowledge of transcriptional and related metabolic changes. We report new metabolic insights into long-term CR in nonhuman primates revealed by the holistic inspection of plasma 1H-NMR spectroscopic metabolic and lipoprotein profiles. The results revealed attenuation of aging-dependant alterations of lipoprotein and energy metabolism by CR, noted by relative increase in HDL and reduction in VLDL levels. Metabonomic analysis also revealed animals exhibiting distinct metabolic trajectories from aging that correlated with higher insulin sensitivity. The plasma profiles of insulin-sensitive animals were marked by higher levels of gluconate and acetate suggesting a CR-modulated increase in metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. The metabonomic findings, particularly those that parallel improved insulin sensitivity, are consistent with diminished adiposity in CR monkeys despite aging. The metabolic profile and the associated pathways are compatible with our previous findings that CR-induced gene transcriptional changes in tissue suggest the critical regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as a key mechanism. The metabolic phenotyping provided in this study can be used to define a reference molecular profile of CR-associated health benefits and longevity in symbiotic superorganisms and man. PMID:19264119

  5. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Market-related contract term... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.52 Market-related contract term... adverse wood products market conditions have resulted in a drastic reduction in wood product...

  6. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Market-related contract term... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.52 Market-related contract term... adverse wood products market conditions have resulted in a drastic reduction in wood product...

  7. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Market-related contract term... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.52 Market-related contract term... adverse wood products market conditions have resulted in a drastic reduction in wood product...

  8. Long-term ocean oxygen depletion due to decomposition of methane hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming could decompose submarine methane hydrate and cause methane release into the ocean. The released methane causes oxygen depletion via oxidation; however, the global impact of this process is yet to be quantitatively investigated. We have projected the potential impact of oxygen depletion due to methane hydrate decomposition via numerical modeling. We find that the global methane hydrate inventory decreases by approximately 70% under four times CO2 concentration and is accompanied by significant global oxygen depletion on a timescale of thousands of years. In particular, we demonstrate the great expansion of suboxic and hypoxic regions, having adverse impact on marine organisms and ocean biogeochemical cycles. The expansion induced by methane release is half (same) of that induced by oxygen solubility decrease due to seawater warming, under the condition that half (all) the methane decomposed into free gas is released from the seafloor to the ocean. This is because methane hydrate decomposition primarily occurs in the Pacific Ocean, where present-day seawater has low oxygen concentration. Consequently, severe oxygen depletion occurs in this region, particularly in so-called oxygen minimum zones. Besides the decrease in oxygen solubility and reduced ventilation associated with global warming, the process described in this study is also important in oxygen depletion. We conclude that the ongoing emission of anthropogenic CO2 triggers ocean oxygen depletion on millennial timescales. Reference Yamamoto, A., Y. Yamanaka, A. Oka, and A. Abe-Ouchi (2014), Ocean oxygen depletion due to decomposition of submarine methane hydrate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060483.

  9. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Kroeger, K.D.; Tang, J.; Chao, W.C.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.; Green, A.; Shelton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m-2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged -33 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half the magnitude of typical

  10. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m−2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged −33 μmol N2O m−2 day−1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N2O m−2 day−1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  11. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  12. 77 FR 58499 - Substitution of Term in a Definition; Addition and Adoption of the Use of Specific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 41 CFR Parts 51-1 Substitution of Term in a Definition; Addition and Adoption of the Use of Specific Interchangeable or Synonymous Terms AGENCY: Committee...

  13. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. Results The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (±4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. Conclusions The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing. PMID:26391336

  14. Formation of laves phase in a refractory austenitic steel due to long-term heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, L. V.; Shal'kevich, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    Steels of the Fe - Cr - Ni -Mo - Nb - Al - C system are studied by methods of phase physicochemical analysis and electron microscopy with the aim to determine the causes of changes in mechanical properties after long-term heating at a temperature of 600 - 700°C. Grain-boundary formation of particles of a Laves phase is shown to cause decrease in the impact toughness and transformation of particles of γ'-phase under conditions of creep. The effect of alloying elements on the chemical composition of the multicomponent Laves phase is studied depending on the temperatures of hardening, aging, and subsequent heating. Concentration correspondence between the chemical composition of the austenite and the intermetallic tcp phase formed in aging is discovered. A computational scheme for predicting the possibility of formation of Laves phases in multicomponent alloys is suggested.

  15. Long-term Effects of Ethanol Addition on Denitrification At The Uranium Mill Tailing Site In Monument Valley, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. L.; Borden, A. K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Akyol, N. H.; Berkompas, J. L.; Miao, Z.; Jordan, F.; Tick, G. R.; Waugh, J.; Glenn, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to mining and processing of uranium at a site near Monument Valley, AZ, an extensive nitrate plume was produced in a shallow alluvial aquifer. Two pilot tests were conducted to evaluate the addition of ethanol as a carbon substrate to enhance natural denitrification. Aqueous geochemistry was characterized based upon groundwater samples collected before and after the addition of ethanol. Compound specific stable isotope analysis was also conducted. The results of the field tests showed that the concentration of nitrate decreased, while the concentration of nitrous oxide (a product of denitrification) increased. In addition, changes in aqueous concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese indicated that the ethanol amendment caused a change in prevailing redox conditions. The results of compound-specific stable isotope analysis for nitrate-nitrogen indicated that the nitrate concentration reductions were biologically mediated. Denitrification rate coefficients estimated for the pilot tests were approximately 50 times larger than resident-condition (non-enhanced) values obtained from prior characterization studies conducted at the site. Using the time at which nitrate concentrations began to decline for downgradient monitoring wells, and the associated inter-well distances, rough estimates of approximately 0.1-0.17 m/day were obtained for the effective reactive-front velocity. These values are within the range of mean pore-water velocities expected for the measured hydraulic conductivities and gradient. The nitrate concentrations in the injection zone have remained at levels three orders of magnitude below the initial values for many months, indicating that the ethanol amendments had a long-term impact on the local subsurface environment.

  16. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    PubMed

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined.

  17. Historical arsenic contamination of soil due to long-term phosphate fertiliser applications.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Tom N; Macdonald, Andy J; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Archived samples from the Park Grass Experiment, established in 1856, were analysed to determine the impacts of long-term phosphate fertiliser applications on arsenic concentrations in soil and herbage. In plots receiving 35 kg P ha(-1) annually (+P), topsoil As concentrations almost doubled from an initial value of ∼10 mg kg(-1) during 1888-1947 and remained stable thereafter. The phosphate fertilisers used before 1948 contained 401-1575 mg As kg(-1), compared to 1.6-20.3 mg As kg(-1) in the later samples. Herbage samples from the +P plots collected during 1888-1947 contained significantly more As than those from the -P plots, but later samples did not differ significantly. Mass-balance calculations show that the increase in soil As can be explained by the As input from P fertiliser applications before 1948. The results demonstrate that the P fertilisers used on the Park Grass Experiment before 1948 caused substantial As contamination of the soil.

  18. Metabolic programming of long-term outcomes due to fatty acid nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Innis, Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the importance of dietary fatty acids has grown beyond a simple source of energy to complex roles in regulating gene expression and cell and intracellular communication. This is important because the metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus and infant plays a key role in guiding the set point of neural receptors that regulate energy homeostasis and expression of genes that control energy storage and oxidation. Early deviations in these pathways have the potential to lead to lasting adaptations, termed metabolic programming, which may combine to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in later life. The quality of fatty acids in human diets has undergone major changes in the last 50 years, characterized by an increase in ω-6 and decrease in ω-3 fatty acids. Evidence is accumulating to support the concept that the maternal intake of ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in gestation and lactation, possibly involving both excess ω-6 and inadequate ω-3 fatty acids, can impact the developing infant tissue lipids and neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways relevant to metabolic programming. Further work is needed to understand the needs for different ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids during fetal and infant life, and their roles with respect to development of energy homeostasis and metabolism.

  19. Long-term changes to flood conditions due to varying management strategies, Rock River, WI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrick, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rock River is a 300-mile tributary of the Mississippi River in southern Wisconsin. Its source is a protected migratory bird habitat called the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Below the refuge, the Rock River flows through mostly rural, agricultural areas, with wide floodplain of mixed land use. Between the dam at Horicon and a hydroelectric dam in Watertown, WI, lie the townships of Lebanon, Ashippun, and Ixonia. These rural townships boast productive agricultural lands of mostly corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Large portions of their land are within the floodplain, underlain by vast expanses of outwash sands and gravels, glaciolacustrine deposits, and tills. Throughout the region, spring floods are common from snowmelt and spring rain. These annual floods may be exacerbated by frozen ground and slow infiltration, making it an accepted part of life for residents. Over the last 8 years, and possibly as many as 20, this segment of the Rock River has seen an increase in flooding both in periodicity and retention of flood waters. Due to the delicate habitat of the wildlife refuge and the commissioned hydroelectric installation at the upper dam in Watertown, the residents and local governments of the Lebanon/Ashippun/Ixonia segment of the river have mostly been left to their own devices to monitor and manage flood events. Lebanon Township has been recording water levels for several years. Recent events at the hydroelectric plant seem to indicate that it may be playing a more important role in the flooding. High water events and flood retention do not correlate well with precipitation for the region. It appears that releases at the dam, or periods of water retention, are driving the long flooding periods upstream. Negative impacts to the region from the flooding include property damage, loss of arable land, and environmental effects.

  20. Simulated long-term changes in river discharge and soil moisture due to global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manabe, S.; Milly, P.C.D.; Wetherald, R.

    2004-01-01

    By use of a coupled ocean atmosphere-land model, this study explores the changes of water availability, as measured by river discharge and soil moisture, that could occur by the middle of the 21st century in response to combined increases of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols based upon the "IS92a" scenario. In addition, it presents the simulated change in water availability that might be realized in a few centuries in response to a quadrupling of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Averaging the results over extended periods, the radiatively forced changes, which are very similar between the two sets of experiments, were successfully extracted. The analysis indicates that the discharges from Arctic rivers such as the Mackenzie and Ob' increase by up to 20% (of the pre-Industrial Period level) by the middle of the 21st century and by up to 40% or more in a few centuries. In the tropics, the discharges from the Amazonas and Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers increase substantially. However, the percentage changes in runoff from other tropical and many mid-latitude rivers are smaller, with both positive and negative signs. For soil moisture, the results of this study indicate reductions during much of the year in many semiarid regions of the world, such as the southwestern region of North America, the northeastern region of China, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the grasslands of Australia and Africa. As a percentage, the reduction is particularly large during the dry season. From middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, soil moisture decreases in summer but increases in winter.

  1. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  2. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  3. Salt additions alter short-term nitrogen and carbon mobilization in a coastal Oregon Andisol.

    PubMed

    Compton, Jana E; Church, M Robbins

    2011-01-01

    Deposition of sea salts is commonly elevated along the coast relative to inland areas, yet little is known about the effects on terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry. We examined the influence of NaCl concentrations on N, C, and P leaching from a coastal Oregon forest Andisol in two laboratory studies: a rapid batch extraction (approximately 1 d) and a month-long incubation using microlysimeters. In the rapid extractions, salt additions immediately mobilized significant amounts of ammonium and phosphate but not nitrate. In the month-long incubations, salt additions at concentrations in the range of coastal precipitation increased nitrate leaching from the microcosms by nearly 50% and reduced the mobility of dissolved organic carbon. Our findings suggest that coupled abiotic-biotic effects increase nitrate mobility in these soils: exchange of sodium for ammonium, then net nitrification. Changes in sea salt deposition to land and the interactions with coastal soils could alter the delivery of N and C to sensitive coastal waters.

  4. 41 CFR 102-72.69 - What additional terms and conditions apply to an Executive agencies' delegation of ancillary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What additional terms...? 102-72.69 Section 102-72.69 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 72-DELEGATION OF...

  5. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  6. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    PubMed

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  7. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  8. Sativex long-term use: an open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Michael G; Notcutt, William; Collin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sativex is an endocannabinoid system modulator principally containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). During a 6-week randomised controlled trial, Sativex had a clinically relevant effect on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients self-titrated oromucosal Sativex to symptom relief or maximum tolerated dose (maximum of 130 mg THC and 120 mg CBD daily). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of long-term treatment by recording the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes were to determine evidence of developing tolerance and to assess the long-term dosing profile of Sativex. A validated 11-point Numerical Rating Scale of spasticity severity was used to assess efficacy. A total of 146 patients elected to enter this open-label follow-up safety trial. Mean treatment exposure was 334 days (standard deviation, SD = 209 days), and patients administered on average 7.3 (SD = 4.42) actuations per day. Fifty-two (36 %) patients withdrew from the study in the first year, 14 % due to AEs and 9 % due to lack of efficacy. Most AEs were mild/moderate in severity. Common (>10 %) treatment-related AEs were dizziness (24.7 %) and fatigue (12.3 %). Serious AEs occurred in five patients (3.4 %), with two psychiatric events reported by one patient. No psychoses, psychiatric AE trends, or withdrawal symptoms occurred following abrupt cessation of treatment. Baseline symptoms including spasticity did not deteriorate but were maintained to study completion in those patients who did not withdraw. No new safety concerns were identified with chronic Sativex treatment, and serious AEs were uncommon. There was no evidence of tolerance developing, and patients who remained in the study reported continued benefit.

  9. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  10. Long-term follow-up of a female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450-oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bonamichi, Beatriz D S F; Santiago, Stella L M; Bertola, Débora R; Kim, Chong A; Alonso, Nivaldo; Mendonca, Berenice B; Bachega, Tania A S S; Gomes, Larissa G

    2016-10-01

    P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test. Little is known about the PORD long-term evolution. We described a 46,XX patient with mild atypical genitalia associated with severe bone malformation, who was diagnosed after 13 years due to sexual infantilism. She developed large ovarian cysts and late onset adrenal insufficiency during follow-up, both of each regressed after hormone replacement therapies. We also described a late surgical approach for the correction of facial hypoplasia in a POR patient.

  11. Improving the long-term cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries at elevated temperature with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Ma, Lin; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of vinylene carbonate-based and prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolyte additives on the cycling behavior of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite pouch type cells at elevated temperature have been systematically studied. Capacity fade during cycling, charge-transfer resistance before and after cycling as well as gas evolution during formation and also during cycling were examined and compared. For vinylene carbonate-based additive blends, only 3% vinylene carbonate, 2% vinylene carbonate + 1% 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide + 1% tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite or 2% vinylene carbonate + 1% methylene methyl disulfonate + 1% tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite showed less capacity fade than 2% vinylene carbonate alone. Cells with all of these vinylene carbonate-based electrolyte additive blends lost more than 20% of their initial capacity after ∼1000 cycles at 55 °C and all the vinylene carbonate-based cells swelled more than 10% of their initial volume during this test. Cells containing all prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based additive blends generally produced much less gas than the vinylene carbonate-based blends. Many cells containing prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based additive blends lost less than 20% of their initial capacity after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the impedance of these prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolytes decreased after long-term cycling. These results suggest that prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolytes are more useful than vinylene carbonate-based electrolytes at high temperatures in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite cells.

  12. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer.

  13. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  14. Shifts and dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes in coastal marshes: Responses to short- and long-term nitrogen additions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Tang, J.; Fisher, K.; Bratton, J. F.; Crusius, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are estimated to sequester carbon at faster rates than most ecosystems, and thus they are appealing targets for efforts to ameliorate climate change through biological C storage. However, to accurately estimate the climatic impact of such strategies, we must simultaneously consider fluxes of greenhouse gases from these ecosystems, including CH4 and N2O. Coastal salt marshes are currently thought to represent minor sources of greenhouse gases relative to freshwater wetlands, but the few measurements that exist for N2O and CH4 fluxes in these systems have not spanned the range of their dynamic environmental conditions. Further, multiple anthropogenic sources have disproportionately increased nitrogen loads in coastal ecosystems, which we hypothesized may significantly enhance N2O emissions from salt marshes. We tested this hypothesis with short- and long-term manipulative experiments at low to moderate nitrogen loads in pristine temperate Spartina patens marshes at Plum Island (MA). In July 2009, we compared background greenhouse gas fluxes with those measured immediately after either a single addition of nitrate (equivalent to 1.4g N m -2) or a control solution of artificial seawater. Prior to manipulations, the salt marsh sediments represented small sinks of N2O, as fluxes averaged -33 μmol N2O m-2 day-1. Yet, within one hour of manipulations, the plots with nitrate additions became sources of N2O, with fluxes averaging 42 and 108 μmol N2O m-2 day-1 in light and dark chambers, respectively. These exceeded fluxes in control plots by more than an order of magnitude. Respiratory CO2 fluxes were also significantly higher in nitrate-enriched plots (4.4 +/- 1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than in controls (2.4 +/- 0.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) immediately following the nitrate additions. Methane fluxes were not affected by nitrogen, but they varied spatially, ranging from 7.5 to 2200 μmol CH4 m-2 day-1. Although the enhanced N2O fluxes did not persist after 2 days, the

  15. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  16. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  17. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment.

  18. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  19. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  20. Variation in mechanical behavior due to different build directions of Titanium6Aluminum4Vanadium fabricated by electron beam additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Lalit

    Titanium has always been a metal of great interest since its discovery especially for critical applications because of its excellent mechanical properties such as light weight (almost half of that of the steel), low density (4.4 gm/cc) and high strength (almost similar to steel). It creates a stable and adherent oxide layer on its surface upon exposure to air or water which gives it a great resistance to corrosion and has made it a great choice for structures in severe corrosive environment and sea water. Its non-allergic property has made it suitable for biomedical application for manufacturing implants. Having a very high melting temperature, it has a very good potential for high temperature applications. But high production and processing cost has limited its application. Ti6Al4V is the most used titanium alloy for which it has acquired the title as `workhouse' of the Ti family. Additive layer Manufacturing (ALM) has brought revolution in manufacturing industries. Today, this additive manufacturing has developed into several methods and formed a family. This method fabricates a product by adding layer after layer as per the geometry given as input into the system. Though the conception was developed to fabricate prototypes and making tools initially, but its highly economic aspect i.e., very little waste material for less machining and comparatively lower production lead time, obviation of machine tools have drawn attention for its further development towards mass production. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is the latest addition to ALM family developed by Arcam, ABRTM located in Sweden. The electron beam that is used as heat source melts metal powder to form layers. For this thesis work, three different types of specimens have been fabricated using EBM system. These specimens differ in regard of direction of layer addition. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus and yield strength, have been measured and compared with standard data

  1. Long-term changes in soil erosion due to forest fires. A rainfall simulation approach in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Matrix-Solera, Jorge; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Francos, Marcos; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Soils are affected by the impacts of wildfires (Dlapa et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2014; Tsibart et al., 2014; Dlapa et al., 2015, Hedo et al., 2015; Tessler et al., 2015). Soil erosion rates are highly affected by forest fires due to the removal of the above ground vegetation, the heat impact on the soil, the reduction of the organic matter, the ash cover, and the changes introduced by the rainfall on the soil surface (Lasanta and Cerdà, 2005; Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Novara et al., 2011; Novara et al., 2013; Keesstra et al., 2014; Hedo et al., 2015; Pereira, 2015). Most of the research carried out on forest fire affected land paid attention to the "window of disturbance", which is the period that the soil losses are higher than before the forest fire and that last for few years (Cerdà, 1998a; Cerdà 1998b, Pérez-Cabello et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013: Pereira et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of soil erosion is very high as a result of the uneven temporal and spatial distribution of the rainfall (Novara et al., 2011; Bisantino et al., 2015; Gessesse et al., 2015; Ochoa et al., 2015), and the window of disturbance cannot be easily found under natural rainfall. In order to understand the evolution of soil erosion after forest fires it is necessary to monitor fire affected sites over a long period of time, which will enable the assessment of the period affected by the window of disturbance (see Cerdà and Doerr, 2005). However, it is also possible to do measurements and experiments in areas with a different fire history. This will give us information about the temporal changes in soil erosion after forest fire. To reduce the spatial variability of rainfall we can use simulated rainfall that can be applied at multiple site with the same rainfall intensity and duration. For this purpose rainfall simulation can be of great help, in the laboratory (Moreno et al., 2014; Sadegui et al., 2015

  2. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01). Total VFA concentrations were not affected (P = 0.12); however, molar proportion of acetate was reduced and that for propionate increased when NOP was added (P < 0.01), which reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs. 4.0; P < 0.01). The total copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria was not affected (P = 0.50) by NOP, but the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens was reduced (P < 0.01) and the copy number of the 18S rRNA gene of protozoa was increased (P = 0.03). The residual effect of NOP for

  3. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity.

  4. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Real, Eva; Jover, Lluís; Verdaguer, Ricard; Griera, Antoni; Segalàs, Cinto; Alonso, Pino; Contreras, Fernando; Arteman, Antoni; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis. Methods Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression) between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days) due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008–2012. Results Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables). Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to ‘improvement’) and with working in the transport sector and public administration. Conclusions Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders. PMID:26730603

  5. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  6. Metal concentrations in soil and seepage water due to infiltration of roof runoff by long term numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, J; Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Klinger, C; Stubbe, H; Coldewey, W G

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative effects of stormwater infiltration on soil and seepage water are investigated with long term numerical modelling. The retention behaviour of different soils and materials used in infiltration devices is determined with batch and column tests. Results of the laboratory tests are adsorption isotherms which represent input data for numerical transport modelling. The long term simulations are performed with combinations of different solutions (types of roof runoff) and infiltration devices (swale and trench) under different hydrogeological conditions. The presented results contain the infiltration of low polluted roof runoff, runoff from a roof with zinc sheets and from a roof with copper sheets concerning the heavy metals zinc, copper and lead. The increase of concentrations in the infiltration body is high. For the infiltrated water, the results show a migration to groundwater only for the low adsorbing soil.

  7. Long-term ACTH and corticosteroid therapy in two siblings with polyneuropathy due to acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Jusić, A; Sostarko, M; Majić, D

    1976-01-01

    The influence of long-term corticosteroid and ACTH therapy in two sisters was followed up. The periods of observation were 4 and 2 years. The high levels of corticosteroids obviously reversed the fatal progress of the disease. The relapses in the elder sister occurred during longer periods of discontinued corticosteroid therapy. In the younger the therapy was continuous. There was no relapse except for a short one appearing after the tooth extraction and discontinuation of the therapy for 10 days. Some correlation between neurological signs and symptoms and porphobilinogen androporphyrin levels were found. The question arises how it is possible to influence the genetically determined disease by corticosteroids or ACTH.

  8. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucilene Silva; Fugate, Karen Klotz; Ferrareze, Jocleita Perruzo; Bolton, Melvin D; Deckard, Edward L; Finger, Fernando L

    2017-04-01

    Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, "Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots" (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017) [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  9. X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) due to WAS mutations: clinical characteristics, long-term outcome, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael H; Bittner, Tanja C; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Burns, Siobhan; Imai, Kohsuke; Espanol, Teresa; Fasth, Anders; Pellier, Isabelle; Strauss, Gabriele; Morio, Tomohiro; Gathmann, Benjamin; Noordzij, Jeroen G; Fillat, Cristina; Hoenig, Manfred; Nathrath, Michaela; Meindl, Alfons; Pagel, Philipp; Wintergerst, Uwe; Fischer, Alain; Thrasher, Adrian J; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Ochs, Hans D

    2010-04-22

    A large proportion of patients with mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein gene exhibit the milder phenotype termed X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). Whereas stem cell transplantation at an early age is the treatment of choice for patients with WAS, therapeutic options for patients with XLT are controversial. In a retrospective multicenter study we defined the clinical phenotype of XLT and determined the probability of severe disease-related complications in patients older than 2 years with documented WAS gene mutations and mild-to-moderate eczema or mild, infrequent infections. Enrolled were 173 patients (median age, 11.5 years) from 12 countries spanning 2830 patient-years. Serious bleeding episodes occurred in 13.9%, life-threatening infections in 6.9%, autoimmunity in 12.1%, and malignancy in 5.2% of patients. Overall and event-free survival probabilities were not significantly influenced by the type of mutation or intravenous immunoglobulin or antibiotic prophylaxis. Splenectomy resulted in increased risk of severe infections. This analysis of the clinical outcome and molecular basis of patients with XLT shows excellent long-term survival but also a high probability of severe disease-related complications. These observations will allow better decision making when considering treatment options for individual patients with XLT.

  10. Premature loss of primary anterior teeth due to trauma--potential short- and long-term sequelae.

    PubMed

    Holan, Gideon; Needleman, Howard L

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) can result in the premature loss of primary anterior teeth due to an immediate avulsion, extraction later after the injury because of poor prognosis or late complications, or early exfoliation. There are a number of potential considerations or sequelae as a result of this premature loss that have been cited in the dental literature, which include esthetics, quality of life, eating, speech development, arch integrity (space loss), development and eruption of the permanent successors, and development of oral habits. This article provides a comprehensive review of the dental literature on the possible consequences of premature loss of maxillary primary incisors following TDI.

  11. Variability of modal behavior in terms of critical speeds of a gear pair due to manufacturing errors and shaft misalignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driot, N.; Perret-Liaudet, J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the variability of the dynamic behavior induced by transmission error of a mass production gear pair. The origins of this variability are due to the manufacturing errors. The tolerances that are associated with shaft misalignment errors, gear tooth profile and lead errors, are considered as geometric independent random parameters. A procedure based on Taguchi's method is used to treat the tolerances statistically. The efficiency of this methodology is demonstrated by considering a simple dynamic model of a single spur gear pair. The predicted variations in dynamic behavior due to tolerances are verified by comparison with results obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. The analyzed parameters are firstly the static transmission error and the time-average mesh stiffness. As a consequence of the variability of the mesh stiffness, statistical variations of natural frequencies are observed for critical modes (high-energy modes). The related critical speed ranges are given too. At last, the variations of the high-energy mode shapes are also observed.

  12. STROBE-Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospitalization Due to Peptic Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Tsang, Hilda; Lai, Hak-Kan; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Thomas, G. Neil; Chan, King-Pan; Lee, Siu-Yin; Ayres, Jon G.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the effect of air pollution on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. We investigated the association between long-term exposures to outdoor fine particles (PM2.5) and hospitalization for peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs) in a large cohort of Hong Kong Chinese elderly. A total of 66,820 subjects aged ≥65 years who were enrolled in all 18 Government Elderly Health Service centers of Hong Kong participated in the study voluntarily between 1998 and 2001. They were prospectively followed up for more than 10 years. Annual mean exposures to PM2.5 at residence of individuals were estimated by satellite data through linkage with address details including floor level. All hospital admission records of the subjects up to December 31, 2010 were retrieved from the central database of Hospital Authority. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for PUD hospitalization associated with PM2.5 exposure after adjustment for individual and ecological covariates. A total of 60,273 subjects had completed baseline information including medical, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data at recruitment. During the follow-up period, 1991 (3.3%) subjects had been hospitalized for PUD. The adjusted HR for PUD hospitalization per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02). Further analysis showed that the associations with PM2.5 were significant for gastric ulcers (HR 1.29; 1.09–1.53, P = 0.003) but not for duodenal ulcers (HR 0.98; 0.78 to 1.22, P = 0.81). Long-term exposures to PM2.5 were associated with PUD hospitalization in elder population. The mechanism underlying the PM2.5 in the development of gastric ulcers warrants further research. PMID:27149464

  13. Long-term observation of lateral medullary infarction due to vertebral artery dissection assessed with multimodal neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Koichi; Mishina, Masahiro; Okubo, Seiji; Suda, Satoshi; Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old man presented with a lateral medullary infarction, vertigo, and nausea. At the time of hospital admission, he had Wallenberg syndrome. Although initial magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities, subsequent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity area in the right lateral medulla oblongata. The right vertebral artery was shown to be dilated on basi-parallel anatomical scanning but to be stenosed on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography 7 days after onset showed the "pearl and string sign" in the right vertebral artery. Follow-up MRA showed gradual improvement of the stenosis in the right vertebral artery. Multiple neuroimaging studies, such as MRA, basi-parallel anatomical scanning, 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography, and cerebral angiography, should be performed soon after onset in suspected cases of cerebral artery dissection. In addition, serial imaging examinations increase diagnostic accuracy, and the medical history and neurological examination are important.

  14. Land subsidence and uplift due to long-term groundwater extraction and artificial recharge in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun; Wang, Zhecheng; Yao, Yiguang; Yan, Xuexin; Wang, Hanmei

    2015-12-01

    Increasing artificial water recharge and restriction on groundwater pumpage have caused land displacements in Shanghai (China) to shift from subsidence to uplift. On the basis of field and laboratory data, the characteristics and mechanism of land subsidence and uplift are analyzed and discussed. Under the condition of long-term groundwater extraction, the deformation of aquifer and aquitard units consists of elastic, plastic, visco-elastic, and visco-plastic components. The recoverable elastic and visco-elastic deformation is only a small portion of the total deformation for both aquitard and aquifer units, especially when the groundwater level in the units is lower than the historically lowest values. When the groundwater level in aquifer and aquitard units rises, whether their expansion occurs immediately or not, depends on the changing modes of groundwater level they have experienced. Even aquifer units do not always rebound closely following the rise of groundwater level in them. The lagging of the occurrence of arrested land subsidence and uplift, clearly behind the rise of groundwater level in aquifer units, can be attributed to the visco-plastic deformation of all units and the consolidation deformation of aquitard units. Artificial recharge and limitation of pumpage are efficient measures for controlling land subsidence, but earlier actions are necessary to keep groundwater levels in all aquifer units above their historically lowest values all the time, if a more effective outcome is expected.

  15. Changes in bacterial community structure of agricultural land due to long-term organic and chemical amendments.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Rehman, Ateequr; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-08-01

    Community level physiological profiling and pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V1-V2 16S rRNA gene region were used to characterize and compare microbial community structure, diversity, and bacterial phylogeny from soils of chemically cultivated land (CCL), organically cultivated land (OCL), and fallow grass land (FGL) for 16 years and were under three different land use types. The entire dataset comprised of 16,608 good-quality sequences (CCL, 6,379; OCL, 4,835; FGL, 5,394); among them 12,606 sequences could be classified in 15 known phylum. The most abundant phylum were Proteobacteria (29.8%), Acidobacteria (22.6%), Actinobacteria (11.1%), and Bacteroidetes (4.7%), while 24.3% of the sequences were from bacterial domain but could not be further classified to any known phylum. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes were found to be significantly abundant in OCL soil. On the contrary, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were significantly abundant in CCL and FGL, respectively. Our findings supported the view that organic compost amendment (OCL) activates diverse group of microorganisms as compared with conventionally used synthetic chemical fertilizers. Functional diversity and evenness based on carbon source utilization pattern was significantly higher in OCL as compared to CCL and FGL, suggesting an improvement in soil quality. This abundance of microbes possibly leads to the enhanced level of soil organic carbon, soil organic nitrogen, and microbial biomass in OCL and FGL soils as collated with CCL. This work increases our current understanding on the effect of long-term organic and chemical amendment applications on abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial community inhabiting the soil for the prospects of agricultural yield and quantity of soil.

  16. Biases in Long-term NO2 Averages Inferred from Satellite Observations Due to Cloud Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Celarier, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrievals of atmospheric trace gas column densities from space are compromised by the presence of clouds, requiring most studies to exclude observations with significant cloud fractions in the instrument's field of view. Using NO2 observations at three ground stations representing urban, suburban, and rural environments, and tropospheric vertical column densities measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over each site, we show that the observations from space represent monthly averaged ground-level pollutant conditions well (R=0.86) under relatively cloud-free conditions. However, by analyzing the ground-level data and applying the OMI cloud fraction as a filter, we show there is a significant bias in long-term averaged NO2 as a result of removing the data during cloudy conditions. For the ground-based sites considered in this study, excluding observations on days when OMI-derived cloud fractions were greater than 0.2 causes 12:00-14:00 mean summer mixing ratios to be underestimated by 12%+/-6%, 20%+/-7%, and 40%+/-10% on average (+/-1 standard deviation) at the urban, suburban, and rural sites respectively. This bias was investigated in particular at the rural site, a region where pollutant transport is the main source of NO2, and where longterm observations of NOy were also available. Evidence of changing photochemical conditions and a correlation between clear skies and the transport of cleaner air masses play key roles in explaining the bias. The magnitude of a bias is expected to vary from site to site depending on meteorology and proximity to NOx sources, and decreases when longer averaging times of ground station data (e.g. 24-h) are used for the comparison.

  17. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers were enrolled to study the effect of G. biloba and R. rosea on PVT and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects, the central cognitive effect was assessed by critical flicker-fusion frequency, PVT, and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure P > 0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, G. biloba or R. rosea improve PVT and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to more significant effect on PVT, all levels of short-term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker P < 0.01, more than of G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to a more significant effect on cognitive function than either G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. PMID:27069717

  18. Tracking short-term effects of 15N addition on N2O fluxes using FTIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) additions to soils have significantly increased atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, and advanced methods are needed to track the amount of applied N that is transformed to N2O in the field. Here, we present a method for continuous measurement of N2O isotopologu...

  19. Tracking short-term effects of nitrogen-15 addition on nitrous oxide fluxes using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca; Griffith, David W T; Dijkstra, Feike; Lugg, Glenys; Lawrie, Roy; Macdonald, Ben

    2013-09-01

    Synthetic fertilizer N additions to soils have significantly increased atmospheric NO concentrations, and advanced methods are needed to track the amount of applied N that is transformed to NO in the field. We have developed a method for continuous measurement of NO isotopologues (NNO, NNO, NNO, and NNO) following 0.4 and 0.8 g N m of N-labeled substrate as KNO or urea [CO(NH)] using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We evaluated this method using two 4-wk experimental trials on a coastal floodplain site near Nowra, New South Wales, Australia, which is managed for silage production. We deployed an automated five-chamber system connected to a portable FTIR spectrometer with multipass cell to measure NO isotopologue fluxes. Emissions of all isotopologues were evident immediately following N addition. All isotopologues responded positively to rainfall events, but only for 7 to 10 d following N addition. Cumulative N-NO fluxes (sum of the three N isotopologues) per chamber for the 14 d following N addition ranged from 1.5 to 10.3 mg N m. Approximately 1% (range 0.7-1.9%) of the total amount of N applied was emitted as NO. Repeatability (1σ) for all isotopologue measurements was better than 0.5 nmol mol for 1-min average concentration measurements, and minimum detectable fluxes for each isotopologue were <0.1 ng N m s. The results indicate that the portable FTIR spectroscopic technique can effectively trace transfer of N to the atmosphere as NO after N addition, allowing powerful quantification of NO emissions under field conditions.

  20. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar.

  1. Additional studies on side effects of melperone in long-term therapy for 1 to 15 years in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, A; Kirkegaard, G; Geismar, L; Christensen, I

    1981-01-01

    The present study which reports on the hitherto longest continuous melperone treatment recorded in the literature, was conducted in order to reveal side effects of long-term melperone therapy. 17 female and 20 male patients, aged 33-97 years, most of them with the diagnoses: schizophrenia (11 patients), dementia organica (11 patients) and dementia senilis (11 patients) were treated with melperone (Buronil) in doses of 15--800 mg/day for 1 to 15 years. The patients were examined for clinical side effects, abnormal electrocardiograms and ophthalmological diseases as well as abnormal values in sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, leucocytes, creatinine, alanine-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and bilirubin. Also the thymol reaction was done. The electrocardiograms and laboratory investigations were controlled by specialists in internal medicine and the eye diseases by an ophthalmologist. We did not find any severe side effects which could be related with any certainty to melperone therapy.

  2. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1).

  3. Modeling long-term changes in tundra carbon balance following wildfire, climate change, and potential nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rastetter, Edward B; Shaver, Gaius R; Rocha, Adrian V; Zhuang, Qianlai; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms that control long-term recovery of tundra carbon (C) and nutrients after fire, we employed the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to simulate 200-yr post-fire changes in the biogeochemistry of three sites along a burn severity gradient in response to increases in air temperature, CO2 concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, and phosphorus (P) weathering rates. The simulations were conducted for severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned arctic tundra. Our simulations indicated that recovery of C balance after fire was mainly determined by the internal redistribution of nutrients among ecosystem components (controlled by air temperature), rather than the supply of nutrients from external sources (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fixation, phosphorus weathering). Increases in air temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration resulted in (1) a net transfer of nutrient from soil organic matter to vegetation and (2) higher C : nutrient ratios in vegetation and soil organic matter. These changes led to gains in vegetation biomass C but net losses in soil organic C stocks. Under a warming climate, nutrients lost in wildfire were difficult to recover because the warming-induced acceleration in nutrient cycles caused further net nutrient loss from the system through leaching. In both burned and unburned tundra, the warming-caused acceleration in nutrient cycles and increases in ecosystem C stocks were eventually constrained by increases in soil C : nutrient ratios, which increased microbial retention of plant-available nutrients in the soil. Accelerated nutrient turnover, loss of C, and increasing soil temperatures will likely result in vegetation changes, which further regulate the long-term biogeochemical succession. Our analysis should help in the assessment of tundra C budgets and of the recovery of biogeochemical function following fire, which is in turn necessary for the maintenance of wildlife habitat and tundra

  4. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage.

  5. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  6. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  7. Addition and correction: the NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity observed in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts is due to the GBF transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Traincard, F; Ponte, E; Pun, J; Coukell, B; Veron, M

    2001-10-01

    We have previously reported that a NF-kappa B transduction pathway was likely to be present in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This conclusion was based on several observations, including the detection of developmentally regulated DNA binding proteins in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts that bound to bona fide kappa B sequences. We have now performed additional experiments which demonstrate that the protein responsible for this NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity is the Dictyostelium GBF (G box regulatory element binding factor) transcription factor. This result, along with the fact that no sequence with significant similarity to components of the mammalian NF-kappa B pathway can be found in Dictyostelium genome, now almost entirely sequenced, led us to reconsider our previous conclusion on the occurrence of a NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway in Dictyostelium.

  8. Long-Term Outcomes of Radio-Frequency Catheter Ablation on Ventricular Tachycardias Due to Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yumei; Fang, Xianhong; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Deng, Hai; Liang, Yuanhong; Liao, Zili; Liu, Fangzhou; Lin, Weidong; Zhan, Xianzhang; Wu, Shulin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To summarize our experience of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for recurrent drug-refractory ventricular tachycardias (VTs) due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in our center over the past 11 years and its related factors. Methods and Results We reviewed 48 adults (mean age 39.9 ± 12.9 years, range: 14 to 65) who met the present ARVC diagnostic criteria and accepted RFCA for VTs from December 2004 to April 2016. The patients received a total of 70 procedures using two ablation approaches, the endocardial approach in 52 RFCAs, and the combined epicardial and endocardial approach (the combined approach) in 18 RFCAs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the combined approach achieved better acute procedural success (p = 0.003) and better long-term outcomes (p = 0.028) than the endocardial approach. Patients who obtained acute procedural success with non-inducibility had better long-term outcomes (p < 0.001). COX regression of multivariate analysis showed that procedural success was the only factor that benefited long-term outcome, irrespective of the endocardial or the combined approach (p = 0.001). The rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients without procedural success was significantly higher than that in patients with procedural success (p = 0.005). All patients without implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation who had successful final RFCA survived. Conclusions The combined approach resulted in better procedural success and long-term VT-free survival compared with the endocardial approach in ARVC patients with recurrent VTs. Acute procedural success with non-inducibility was strongly related to better long-term VT-free survival and reduced SCD, irrespective of whether this was achieved by the endocardial approach or the combined approach. PMID:28122031

  9. Effect of reaction pH and CuSO4 addition on the formation of catechinone due to oxidation of (+)-catechin.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, T; Wataoka, I; Urakawa, H; Yasunaga, H

    2013-08-01

    A novel hair dyeing technique being milder and safer for a human body is desired. The oxidation product of (+)-catechin, catechinone, was invented as a safer dyestuff for hair colouring under such the situation. The preparation of catechinone by a chemical oxidation is a practical way and the objective of the study is clarify the effect of the solution pH and in the presence or absence of Cu(2+) on the formation rate and yield of catechinone in order to improve the efficiency of the dye formation. The catechinone formation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Catechinone was prepared chemically from (+)-catechin in aqueous solution with O2 gas introduced over a pH range of 7.1-11.7. The rate and amount of the dye formation increase with increasing pH. Dissociation of the hydroxyl group of the catechol part of (+)-catechin is significant for the oxidation of (+)-catechin and promotes the dye production. This is because the deprotonated (+)-catechin has a higher reactivity with O2 . The production of catechinone is accelerated by the addition of CuSO4 and the production rate reaches the maximum at pH = 8.8. (+)-Catechin - Cu(2+) complexes are formed and the formation promotes the oxidation of the catechol part of (+)-catechin at pH ≤ 8.8. On the other hand, the complex becomes too stable to proceed for the oxidation reaction at pH > 8.8.

  10. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  11. Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Thalib, Lukman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on short-term mortality in Kuwait. We analyzed respiratory and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality in relation to dust storm events over a 5-year study period, using data obtained through a population-based retrospective ecological time series study. Dust storm days were identified when the national daily average of PM10 exceeded 200 μg/m3. Generalized additive models with Poisson link were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of age-stratified daily mortality associated with dust events, after adjusting for potential confounders including weather variables and long-term trends. There was no significant association between dust storm events and same-day respiratory mortality (RR = 0.96; 95 %CI 0.88-1.04), cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.98; 95 %CI 0.96-1.012) or all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95 %CI 0.97-1.00). Overall our findings suggest that local dust, that most likely originates from crustal materials, has little impact on short-term respiratory, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

  12. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  13. Did a Stress Change due to a Long-Term Slow Slip Event in the Tokai Region Cause Distant Seismic Quiescence in the Tamba Region, Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaya, K.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Katao, H.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic quiescence is useful information for the earthquake prediction. Relationships between seismicity rate change and stressing rate change have been reported by theoretical and observational studies (Dieterich, 1994; Toda et al., 2002). Recently, Ogata (2007) showed that a silent slip event might occur within the source region of an intraplate earthquake preceding the rupture from seismicity rate changes and GPS anomalies. The Tamba region in southwest Japan is located to the northeast of the rupture zone of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (Mjma 7.3). In the region, the seismicity was activated by a coseismic static stress change (+20kPa; Hiramatsu et al., 2000) due to the event. A distinct decrease in seismicity rate of microearthquakes was recognized in 2003 (Katao, 2005). Such a seismic quiescence had continued for two and a half years before the event (DPRI, 1999). It has, therefore, been controversial whether a major earthquake follows the quiescence or not (e.g., Umeda et al., 2005). We showed that the Tamba region was located in a region where Δ CFS decreased (-0.5kPa/yr) due to the long-term slow slip event (SSE) in the Tokai region and indicated that the beginning of the quiescence seemed to be associated with that of the event (Sugaya et al., 2007IUGG). Our purpose in this study is to investigate whether the quiescence in the Tamba region is caused by the stress change due to the long-term SSE or not based on the rate- and state- friction law (Dieterich, 1994). We use the hypocentral catalog of the DPRI from 1987 to 2001 and that relocated in this study from 2002 to 2006. We use declustered earthquakes (Reasenberg, 1985) greater than or equal to M 2.5 for following analyses. We find that the seismicity in the Tamba region after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake is explained by the Omori"fs law (p=1) than the ETAS model (Ogata, 1986). The seismicity is, thus, interpreted as the aftershock-type activity of the earthquake. We estimate Aσ (A is

  14. Release of heavy metals during long-term land application of sewage sludge compost: Percolation leaching tests with repeated additions of compost.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Leaching assessment procedures have been used to determine the leachability of heavy metals as input for evaluating the risk from sewage sludge compost land application. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding leaching from soils with repeated application of sewage sludge compost with elevated levels of heavy metals. In this paper, leaching assessment is extended to evaluate the potential leaching of heavy metals during repetitive application of composted sewage sludge to soils. Four cycling of compost additions and percolation leaching were conducted to investigate how leaching behavior of heavy metals changed with repeated additions of compost. Results showed that repetitive additions of compost to soil significantly increased the content of organic matter, which favored the formation of reducing condition due to improved microbial activities and oxygen consumption. Establishment of reducing conditions can enhance the leaching concentrations of As by approximately 1 order of magnitude, especially for the soil rich in organic matter. For Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, repeated additions of compost will cause accumulation in total contents but not enhancement in leaching concentrations. The infiltration following compost additions will leach out the mobile fraction and the residual fraction might not release in the next cycling of compost addition and infiltration. The cumulative release of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb accounted for less than 5% of the total contents during four times of compost applications.

  15. Assessment of short-term PM2.5-related mortality due to different emission sources in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiandong; Wang, Shuxiao; Voorhees, A. Scott; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Jiang, Jingkun; Fu, Joshua S.; Ding, Dian; Zhu, Yun; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. In this study, short-term premature mortality due to particulate matter equal to or less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is estimated by using a PC-based human health benefits software. The economic loss is assessed by using the willingness to pay (WTP) method. The contributions of each region, sector and gaseous precursor are also determined by employing brute-force method. The results show that, in the YRD in 2010, the short-term premature deaths caused by PM2.5 are estimated to be 13,162 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10,761-15,554), while the economic loss is 22.1 (95% CI: 18.1-26.1) billion Chinese Yuan. The industrial and residential sectors contributed the most, accounting for more than 50% of the total economic loss. Emissions of primary PM2.5 and NH3 are major contributors to the health-related loss in winter, while the contribution of gaseous precursors such as SO2 and NOx is higher than primary PM2.5 in summer.

  16. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution.

  17. Long-term measurement of gastric motility using passive telemetry and effect of guar and cellulose as food additives in dogs.

    PubMed

    Burger, D M; Wiestner, T; Montavon, P M; Kündig, H; Hubler, M; Binder, H; Arnold, S

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of passive telemetry for long-term measurements of gastric motility in two groups of dogs with different body weights, four Beagles and four Labrador Retrievers, was investigated. An intra-abdominal measuring device, with a pressure sensor and electrodes within the gastric wall, allowed the continuous recording of the intensity and frequency of contractions simultaneously with an electromyogram (EMG). In fasting dogs a typical inter-digestive motility cycle was reproducible. Within 15 min of feeding the integral of the pressure curve increased significantly, reaching its maximum 30-45 min post-prandially. The peak frequency also significantly increased immediately after feeding, reaching the maximum of 22 contractions per 5 min. The post-prandial motility patterns of the groups were significantly different. The pressure amplitudes of the Labradors were significantly higher and the peak frequencies significantly lower than the Beagles. The addition of guar to the food (2.5% or 5%) leads to a significant reduction of the intensity of the antral contractions, whereas the frequency was hardly affected. In comparison, the effect of cellulose, as a food additive (2.5% or 5%), was rather modest. The intensity of the post-prandial contractions, influenced by cellulose, was significantly increased in Beagles, but was decreased in Labradors. Passive telemetry has been proven to be a suitable method for the long-term investigation of the physiological gastric motility and the effect of food additives. The measuring device was still functional after removal 8 weeks later.

  18. Caudal granular insular cortex is sufficient and necessary for the long-term maintenance of allodynic behavior in the rat due to mononeuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Benison, Alexander M.; Chumachenko, Serhiy; Harrison, Jacqueline A.; Maier, Steven F.; Falci, Scott P.; Watkins, Linda R.; Barth, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical allodynia, the perception of innocuous tactile stimulation as painful, is a severe symptom of chronic pain often produced by damage to peripheral nerves. Allodynia affects millions of people and remains highly resistant to classic analgesics and therapies. Neural mechanisms for the development and maintenance of allodynia have been investigated in the spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, and forebrain, but manipulations of these regions rarely produce lasting effects. We found that long-term alleviation of allodynic manifestations is produced by discreetly lesioning a newly discovered somatosensory representation in caudal granular insular cortex (CGIC) in the rat, either before or after a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. However, CGIC lesions alone have no effect on normal mechanical stimulus thresholds. In addition, using electrophysiological techniques, we reveal a corticospinal loop that could be the anatomical source of CGIC’s influence on allodynia. PMID:21525272

  19. Analysis of problems posed by sixth-grade middle school students for the addition of fractions in terms of semantic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Tuğrul

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the semantic structures of problems posed by sixth-grade middle school students for the addition of fractions affect their problem-posing performance. The students were presented with symbolic operations involving the addition of fractions and asked to pose two different problems related to daily-life situations for each item, which could only be solved using the given operations. The problems posed were analyzed in terms of their semantic structures and conceptual validity. The results of the study showed that students who posed problems using the two different structures 'part-part-whole' and 'join' demonstrated higher performance in problem posing. The performance of the students using only one category - join or part-part-whole - was lower, with the latter being the lowest.

  20. Microsurgical DREZotomy for pain due to spinal cord and/or cauda equina injuries: long-term results in a series of 44 patients.

    PubMed

    Sindou, M; Mertens, P; Wael, M

    2001-05-01

    According to the literature estimations, 10-25% of patients with spinal cord and cauda equina injuries eventually develop refractory pain. Due to the fact that most classical neurosurgical methods are considered of little or no efficacy in controlling this type of pain, the authors had recourse to microsurgery in the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). This article reports on the long-term results of the microsurgical approach to the dorsal root entry zone (DREZotomy) in a series of 44 patients suffering from unbearable neuropathic pain secondary to spine injury. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 20 years (6 years on average). The series includes 25 cases with conus medullaris, 12 with thoracic cord, four with cauda equina and three with cervical cord injuries. Surgery was performed in 37 cases at the pathological spinal cord levels that corresponded to the territory of the so-called 'segmental pain', and in seven cases, on the spinal cord levels below the lesion for 'infralesional pain' syndromes. The post-operative analgesic effect was considered to be 'good' when a patient's estimation of pain relief exceeded 75%, 'fair' if pain was reduced by 25-75%, and 'poor' when the residual pain was more than 75% of preoperative estimations. Immediate pain relief was obtained in 70% of patients and was long-lasting in 60% of the total series. The results varied essentially according to the distribution of pain. Good long-term results were obtained in 68% of the patients who had a segmental pain distribution, compared with 0% in patients with predominant infralesional pain. Regarding pain characteristics, a good result was obtained in 88% of the cases with predominantly paroxysmal pain, compared with 26% with continuous pain. There were no perioperative mortalities. Morbidity included cerebrospinal fluid leak (three patients), wound infection (two patients), subcutaneous hematoma (one patient) and bacteremia (in one patient). The above data justify the inclusion of DREZ

  1. Long-term follow-up of vitrectomy, with or without 360° encircling buckle, for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment due to inferior retinal breaks

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hamouda Hamdy; Zaky, Adel Galal; Ellakwa, Amin Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report and compare the anatomic and functional results of primary vitrectomy with and without 360° encircling scleral buckle (SB) for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) due to inferior retinal break(s). Background A variety of options, including SB, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without SB, and pneumatic retinopexy have been described as methods to repair RRDs. The use of additional SB with vitrectomy for RRD associated with inferior breaks has been a recent controversy after the introduction of transconjunctival cannula systems. Patients and methods A retrospective, interventional, comparative case study was performed. In this study, we reviewed 105 consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy for primary RRD with inferior retinal break(s) at the vitreoretinal center, performed by a single surgeon. Ninety four patients (94 eyes) were followed up for at least 4 months after silicon oil removal (SOR), and were analyzed. They were divided into two groups: group I included 50 patients who underwent PPV alone + silicon oil (SO); and group II included 44 patients who underwent PPV with 360° SB + SO. The essential parameters were single-operation success rate (SOSR) before SOR, incidence of retinal redetachment after SOR, and final visual acuity. Results SOSR was obtained in 89 eyes (47 [94%] in group I and 42 [95.5%] in group II). From overall 59 phakic retinal detachments (RDs), SOSR was obtained in 56 eyes (30 in group I [93.8%] and 26 in group II [96.3%]) while from overall 35 aphakic or pseudophakic RDs, SOSR was obtained in 33 eyes (17 in group I [94.4%] and 16 in group II [94.1%]). Retinal redetachments after SOR occurred in three patients in group I and two patients in group II. Visual acuity improvement was greater in group I than in group II before SOR. Conclusion Both surgical procedures had similar reattachment rates. The addition of 360° SB to PPV + SO might not have additional benefits

  2. The Effect of Endoscopic Resection on Short-Term Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Additional Laparoscopic Gastrectomy after Non-Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Eom, Bang-Wool; Yoon, Hong-Man; Kim, Yong-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Yeul; Kim, Young-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in early gastric cancer causes an artificial gastric ulcer and local inflammation that has a negative intraprocedural impact on additional laparoscopic gastrectomy in patients with noncurative ESD. In this study, we analyzed the effect of ESD on short-term surgical outcomes and evaluated the risk factors. Materials and Methods From January 2003 to January 2013, 1,704 patients of the National Cancer Center underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection because of preoperative stage Ia or Ib gastric cancer. They were divided into 2 groups: (1) with preoperative ESD or (2) without preoperative ESD. Clinicopathologic factors and short-term surgical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated along with risk factors such as preoperative ESD. Results Several characteristics differed between patients who underwent ESD-surgery (n=199) or surgery alone (n=1,505). The mean interval from the ESD procedure to the operation was 43.03 days. Estimated blood loss, open conversion rate, mean operation time, and length of hospital stay were not different between the 2 groups. Postoperative complications occurred in 23 patients (11.56%) in the ESD-surgery group and in 189 patients (12.56%) in the surgery-only group, and 3 deaths occurred among patients with complications (1 patient [ESD-surgery group] vs. 2 patients [surgery-only group]; P=0.688). A history of ESD was not significantly associated with postoperative complications (P=0.688). Multivariate analysis showed that male sex (P=0.008) and laparoscopic total or proximal gastrectomy (P=0.000) were independently associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions ESD did not affect short-term surgical outcomes during and after an additional laparoscopic gastrectomy. PMID:28337361

  3. Utility of birefringence changes due to collagen thermal denaturation rate process analysis: vessel wall temperature estimation for new short term heating balloon angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Gotoh, Maya; Nakatani, Eriko; Arai, Tsunenori

    2007-02-01

    Our photo thermal reaction heating architecture balloon realizes less than 10 s short term heating that can soften vessel wall collagen without damaging surrounding tissue thermally. New thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PTDBA) has experimentally shown sufficient opening with 2 atm low pressure dilation and prevention of chronic phase restenosis and acute phase thrombus in vivo. Even though PTDBA has high therapeutic potential, the most efficient heating condition is still under study, because relationship of treatment and thermal dose to vessel wall is not clarified yet. To study and set the most efficient heating condition, we have been working on establishment of temperature history estimation method from our previous experimental results. Heating target of PTDBA, collagen, thermally denatures following rate process. Denaturation is able to be quantified with measured collagen birefringence value. To express the denaturation with equation of rate process, the following ex vivo experiments were performed. Porcine extracted carotid artery was soaked in two different temperature saline baths to enforce constant temperature heating. Higher temperature bath was set to 40 to 80 degree Celsius and soaking duration was 5 to 40 s. Samples were observed by a polarizing microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The birefringence was measured by polarizing microscopic system using Brace-Koehler compensator 1/30 wavelength. The measured birefringence showed temperature dependency and quite fit with the rate process equation. We think vessel wall temperature is able to be estimated using the birefringence changes due to thermal denaturation.

  4. Numerical simulation on the long-term variation of radioactive cesium concentration in the North Pacific due to the Fukushima disaster.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Furuno, Akiko; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations on oceanic (134)Cs and (137)Cs dispersions were intensively conducted in order to assess an effect of the radioactive cesium on the North Pacific environment with a focus on the long-term variation of the radioactive cesium concentration after the Fukushima disaster that occurred in March 2011. The amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs released into the ocean were estimated using oceanic monitoring data, whereas the atmospheric deposition was calculated through atmospheric dispersion simulations. The highly accurate ocean current reanalyzed through a three-dimensional variational data assimilation enabled us to clarify the time series of the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in the North Pacific. It was suggested that the main radioactive cesium cloud due to the direct oceanic release reached the central part of the North Pacific, crossing 170°W one year after the Fukushima disaster. The radioactive cesium was efficiently diluted by meso-scale eddies in the Kuroshio Extension region and its concentration in the surface, intermediate, and deep layers had already been reduced to the pre-Fukushima background value in the wide area within the North Pacific 2.5 years after the Fukushima disaster.

  5. Community-Based Health Education Programs Designed to Improve Clinical Measures Are Unlikely to Reduce Short-Term Costs or Utilization Without Additional Features Targeting These Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burton, Joe; Eggleston, Barry; Brenner, Jeffrey; Truchil, Aaron; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-07

    Stakeholders often expect programs for persons with chronic conditions to "bend the cost curve." This study assessed whether a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program offered as part of a multicomponent initiative could affect emergency department (ED) visits, hospital stays, and the associated costs for an underserved population in addition to the clinical indicators that DSME programs attempt to improve. The program was implemented in Camden, New Jersey, by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers to address disparities in diabetes care. Data used are from medical records and from patient-level information about hospital services from Camden's hospitals. Using multivariate regression models to control for individual characteristics, changes in utilization over time and changes relative to 2 comparison groups were assessed. No reductions in ED visits, inpatient stays, or costs for participants were found over time or relative to the comparison groups. High utilization rates and costs for diabetes are associated with longer term disease progression and its sequelae; thus, DSME or peer support may not affect these in the near term. Some clinical indicators improved among participants, and these might lead to fewer costly adverse health events in the future. DSME deployed at the community level, without explicit segmentation and targeting of high health care utilizers or without components designed to affect costs and utilization, should not be expected to reduce short-term medical needs for participating individuals or care-seeking behaviors such that utilization is reduced. Stakeholders must include financial outcomes in a program's design if those outcomes are to improve. (Population Health Management 20XX;XX:XXX-XXX).

  6. Long-term drainage reduces CO2 uptake and increases CO2 emission on a Siberian floodplain due to shifts in vegetation community and soil thermal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Luus, Kristina A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey A.; Göckede, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    With increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns forecast for the Arctic over the coming decades, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost is expected to increasingly alter hydrological conditions by creating mosaics of wetter and drier areas. The objective of this study is to investigate how 10 years of lowered water table depths of wet floodplain ecosystems would affect CO2 fluxes measured using a closed chamber system, focusing on the role of long-term changes in soil thermal characteristics and vegetation community structure. Drainage diminishes the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of organic soil, leading to warmer soil temperatures in shallow layers during the daytime and colder soil temperatures in deeper layers, resulting in a reduction in thaw depths. These soil temperature changes can intensify growing-season heterotrophic respiration by up to 95 %. With decreased autotrophic respiration due to reduced gross primary production under these dry conditions, the differences in ecosystem respiration rates in the present study were 25 %. We also found that a decade-long drainage installation significantly increased shrub abundance, while decreasing Eriophorum angustifolium abundance resulted in Carex sp. dominance. These two changes had opposing influences on gross primary production during the growing season: while the increased abundance of shrubs slightly increased gross primary production, the replacement of E. angustifolium by Carex sp. significantly decreased it. With the effects of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production combined, net CO2 uptake rates varied between the two years, which can be attributed to Carex-dominated plots' sensitivity to climate. However, underlying processes showed consistent patterns: 10 years of drainage increased soil temperatures in shallow layers and replaced E. angustifolium by Carex sp., which increased CO2 emission and reduced CO2 uptake rates. During the non-growing season, drainage

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition is altered by long-term litter removal but not litter addition in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, Merlin; Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Revillini, Daniel; Olsson, Pål Axel; Mangan, Scott; Sayer, Emma J; Wallander, Håkan; Turner, Benjamin L; Tanner, Edmund V J

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forest productivity is sustained by the cycling of nutrients through decomposing organic matter. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a key role in the nutrition of tropical trees, yet there has been little experimental investigation into the role of AM fungi in nutrient cycling via decomposing organic material in tropical forests. We evaluated the responses of AM fungi in a long-term leaf litter addition and removal experiment in a tropical forest in Panama. We described AM fungal communities using 454-pyrosequencing, quantified the proportion of root length colonised by AM fungi using microscopy, and estimated AM fungal biomass using a lipid biomarker. AM fungal community composition was altered by litter removal but not litter addition. Root colonisation was substantially greater in the superficial organic layer compared with the mineral soil. Overall colonisation was lower in the litter removal treatment, which lacked an organic layer. There was no effect of litter manipulation on the concentration of the AM fungal lipid biomarker in the mineral soil. We hypothesise that reductions in organic matter brought about by litter removal may lead to AM fungi obtaining nutrients from recalcitrant organic or mineral sources in the soil, besides increasing fungal competition for progressively limited resources.

  8. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  9. Estimation of excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Japan using a high-resolution model for present and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kayo; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Takami, Akinori; Ariga, Toshinori; Matsuhashi, Keisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm, known as PM2.5, can affect human health, especially in elderly people. Because of the imminent aging of society in the near future in most developed countries, the human health impacts of PM2.5 must be evaluated. In this study, we used a global-to-regional atmospheric transport model to simulate PM2.5 in Japan with a high-resolution stretched grid system (∼10 km for the high-resolution model, HRM) for the present (the 2000) and the future (the 2030, as proposed by the Representative Concentrations Pathway 4.5, RCP4.5). We also used the same model with a low-resolution uniform grid system (∼100 km for the low-resolution model, LRM). These calculations were conducted by nudging meteorological fields obtained from an atmosphere-ocean coupled model and providing emission inventories used in the coupled model. After correcting for bias, we calculated the excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 among the elderly (over 65 years old) based on different minimum PM2.5 concentration (MINPM) levels to account for uncertainty using the simulated PM2.5 distributions to express the health effect as a concentration-response function. As a result, we estimated the excess mortality for all of Japan to be 31,300 (95% confidence intervals: 20,700 to 42,600) people in 2000 and 28,600 (95% confidence intervals: 19,000 to 38,700) people in 2030 using the HRM with a MINPM of 5.8 μg/m3. In contrast, the LRM resulted in underestimates of approximately 30% (for PM2.5 concentrations in the 2000 and 2030), approximately 60% (excess mortality in the 2000) and approximately 90% (excess mortality in 2030) compared to the HRM results. We also found that the uncertainty in the MINPM value, especially for low PM2.5 concentrations in the future (2030) can cause large variability in the estimates, ranging from 0 (MINPM of 15 μg/m3 in both HRM and LRM) to 95,000 (MINPM of 0 μg/m3 in HRM) people.

  10. Long-term Results for Primary Bypass vs. Primary Angioplasty/Stent for Intermittent Claudication Due to Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Kristina A.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Nedeau, April E.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty +/− stent (PTA/S) and surgical bypass are both accepted treatments for claudication due to superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusive disease. However, long-term results comparing these modalities for primary intervention in patients who have had no prior intervention has not been reported. We report our results with three year follow-up. Methods We reviewed all lower extremity bypass procedures at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from 2001–2009 and all PTA/S performed from 2005 through 2009 for claudication. We excluded all limb salvage procedures and included only those that were undergoing their first intervention for claudication due to SFA disease. We recorded patient demographics, comorbidities, perioperative medications, TASC classification, and runoff. Outcomes included complications, restenosis, symptom recurrence, reinterventions, major amputation, and mortality. Results We identified 113 bypass grafts and 105 PTA/S of femoral-popliteal lesions without prior interventions. Bypasses were above the knee in 62% (45% vein) and below the knee in 38% (100% vein). Mean age was 63 (bypass) vs. 69 (PTA/S) (P<.01). Mean length of stay (LOS) was 3.9 vs. 1.2 days (P<.01). Bypass grafts were used less for TASC A (17% vs. 40%, P<.01), and more for TASC C (36% vs. 11%, P<.01) and TASC D (13% vs. 3%, P<.01) lesions. There were no differences in perioperative (2% vs. 0%, NS) or 3 year mortality (9 vs. 8%, NS). Wound infection was higher with bypass (16% vs. 0%, P<.01). None involved grafts. Bypass showed improved freedom from restenosis (73% vs. 42% - 3 years, HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.23–0.71), symptom recurrence (70% and 36% at 3 years, HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.2–0.56), and freedom from symptoms at last follow-up (83% vs. 49%, (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.08–0.40). There was no difference in freedom from reintervention (77% vs. 66% at 3 years, NS). Multivariable analysis of all patients showed that restenosis was predicted by PTA

  11. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  12. Long-term changes in flood event patterns due to changes in hydrological distribution parameters in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Goro; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the principal control parameters of flood events and precipitation and the relationships between corresponding hydrologic and climatologic parameters. The long-term generation of runoff and associated processes is important in understanding floods and droughts under changes in climate and land use. This study presents detailed analyses of flood events in a coastal amphitheatre catchment with a total area of 445 km 2 in western Japan, followed by analyses of flood events in both urban and forest areas. Using long-term (1962 to 2002) hydrological and climatological data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, the contributions of precipitation, river discharge, temperature, and relative humidity to flood events were analysed. Flood events could be divided into three types with respect to hydrologic and climatologic principal control parameters: the long-term tendency; medium-term changes as revealed by hydrographs and hyetographs of high-intensity events such as the relative precipitation, river discharge, and temperature; and large events, as shown by the flow-duration curve, with each cluster having particular characteristics. River discharge showed a decreasing tendency of flow quantity during small rainfall events of less than 100 mm/event from the 1980s to the present. An approximately 7% decrease from 44.8 to 37.3% occurred in the percentage of river water supplied by precipitation in the years after the 1980s. For the medium-term changes, no marked change occurred in the flow quantity of the peak point over time in event hydrographs. However, flow quantities before and after the peak tended to decrease by 1 to 2 m 3/s after the 1980s. Theoretical considerations with regard to the influence of hydrologic and climatologic parameters on flood discharge are discussed and examined in terms of observational data. These findings provide a sound foundation for use in hydrological catchment modelling.

  13. Soil Mineral Composition Matters: Response of Microbial Communities to Phenanthrene and Plant Litter Addition in Long-Term Matured Artificial Soils

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  14. [Responses of Soil and Plant 15N Natural Abundance to Long-term N Addition in an N-Saturated Pinus massoniana Forest in Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-jing; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Jing; Duan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Increasing N deposition in China will possibly cause N saturation of forest ecosystem, further resulting in a series of serious environmental problems. In order to explore the response of forest ecosystem to N deposition in China, and further evaluate and predict the N status of ecosystem, the 15N natural abundance (delta 15N) of soil and plants was measured in a typical Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest in southwest China to examine the potential use of delta 15N enrichment factor (epsilon(p/s)) as an effective indicator of N status. Long-term high N addition could significantly increase delta 15N of soil and plants, which was suggested by an on-going N fertilizing experiment with NH4NO3 or NaNO3 for 7 years. Meanwhile, delta 15N of soil and plants under NH, deposition was significantly higher than that under NO- deposition, suggesting different responses of ecosystem to different N-forms of deposition. The "N enrichment factor (epsilon(p/s)) had positive correlations with N deposition, N nitrification, and N leaching in the soil water. Linear correlation between "N enrichment factor and N deposition was found for all Masson pine forests investigated in this and previous studies in China, demonstrating that 15N enrichment factor could be used as an indicator of N status. The NH3 emission control should also be carried out accompanying with NOx emission control in the future, because NH4- deposition had significantly greater impact on the forest ecosystem than NO3- deposition with the same equivalence.

  15. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    PubMed

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  16. Locking-In Effects Due to Early Interventions? An Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Screening Programs for Avoiding Long-Term Sickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Per; Lindahl, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we estimate the effect of a multidisciplinary collaboration program on the length of sickness absence. The intention with the program was to avoid long-term sickness absence by providing an early and holistic evaluation of the sick-listed individuals' conditions. The target group was individuals who were at risk of…

  17. Long-term experimental warming, shading and nutrient addition affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in arctic-alpine deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anja H; Jonasson, Sven; Michelsen, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2006-02-01

    Environmental changes are likely to alter the chemical composition of plant tissues, including content and concentrations of secondary compounds, and thereby affect the food sources of herbivores. After 10 years of experimental increase of temperature, nutrient levels and light attenuation in a sub-arctic, alpine ecosystem, we investigated the effects on carbon based secondary compounds (CBSC) and nitrogen in one dominant deciduous dwarf shrub, Salix herbacea x polaris and two dominant evergreen dwarf shrubs, Cassiope tetragona and Vaccinium vitis-idaea throughout one growing season. The main aims were to compare the seasonal course and treatment effects on CBSC among the species, life forms and leaf cohorts and to examine whether the responses in different CBSC were consistent across compounds. The changes in leaf chemistry both during the season and in response to the treatments were higher in S. herbacea x polaris than in the corresponding current year's leaf cohort of the evergreen C. tetragona. The changes were also much higher than in the 1-year-old leaves of the two evergreens probably due to differences in dilution and turnover of CBSC in growing and mature leaves paired with different rates of allocation. Most low molecular weight phenolics in the current year's leaves decreased in all treatments. Condensed tannins and the tannin-to-N ratio, however, either increased or decreased, and the strength and even direction of the responses varied among the species and leaf cohorts, supporting views of influential factors additional to resource-based or developmental controls, as e.g. species specific or genetic controls of CBSC. The results indicate that there is no common response to environmental changes across species and substances. However, the pronounced treatment responses imply that the quality of the herbivore forage is likely to be strongly affected in a changing arctic environment, although both the direction and strength of the responses will be

  18. Long-term AOD timeseries by Precision Filter Radiometer and assessment of radiative forcing due to the aerosol direct effect at four sites in Switzerland over the last two decades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Giovanni; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In association with the WMO GAW Precision Filter Radiometer network, MeteoSwiss operates four automatic stations measuring the direct solar irradiance in 16 narrow spectral bands within the range 305-1024 nm since 1998. The four sites are (i) Payerne (timeseries 2002-2016), characterized by rural environment (Swiss plateau), (ii) Davos (timeseries 1998-2016), characterized by alpine environment, (iii) Jungfraujoch (timeseries 1999-2016), characterized by alpine environment and partial free tropospheric conditions (mainly in winter, Hermann et al, 2015), and (iv) Locarno-Monti (timeseries 2001-2016), characterized by semi-alpine and urban environment (southern side of the Swiss-Italian Alps). WE present the long-term, almost uninterrupted, timeseries of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the spectral range 368-1024 nm that has been calculated for each of the four sites along the last two decades. Additionally, we present a study of the trends over almost twenty years of the AOD at different wavelengths. Based on the simulations of the LibRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (Meyer and Kylling, 2005) and on the PFR-based timeseries of AOD it has been possible to assess the radiative forcing due to the direct effect of aerosols over Switzerland since 1998.

  19. A GIS-based evaluation of the effect of decontamination on effective doses due to long-term external exposures in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Iwasaki, Yumi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Naito, Wataru; Ono, Kyoko; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Yoshida, Kikuo; Murakami, Michio; Kawaguchi, Isao; Oka, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-10-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination, there has been almost no quantitative discussion on how much it would reduce the long-term external radiation exposure in the Evacuation Zone and Planned Evacuation Zone (restricted zone) in Fukushima. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of decontamination and return options and to identify important parameters for estimating the long-term cumulated effective dose (CED) during 15, 30 and 70 year period using data on land-use, population and decontamination in the restricted zone (about 1100 km(2)) in Fukushima. Decontamination of the land is assumed to have a certain efficacy in terms of the reduction of CED. The EeCC (external exposure conversion coefficient) is the parameter having the greatest effect on the percentage of area having CED during the 30 years above 100 m Sv after decontamination, ranging from 13% (EeCC=0.2) to 55% (EeCC=0.6). Therefore, we recommend a detailed investigation of the EeCC in Japan.

  20. Effect of nitrogen content and additional straw on changes in chemical composition, volatile losses, and ammonia emissions from dairy manure during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Hunt, T; Lobos, N E

    2012-06-01

    Twelve 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of N content and straw addition on changes in chemical composition and volatile losses measured by mass balance of dairy manure during a 136-d storage period. In addition, on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 28, 56, and 136, rate of NH₃-N emission was measured, and core samples were collected to characterize fermentation pattern. High N (3.06% N, HN) and low N (2.75% N, LN) manures were obtained from cows fed diets with 17.2 and 15.2% crude protein (dry matter basis), respectively. On d 0, manure scraped from a freestall barn floor was diluted with water to 10% dry matter and loaded in barrels with (+S) or without (-S) mixing 22g of chopped wheat straw per kilogram of undiluted manure. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 3 replications. We observed no interaction between treatments for the reported measurements, but several day-of-storage by treatment interactions were found. Throughout storage, total NH₃-N (TAN, NH₃-N + NH₄⁺-N; 71.9 vs. 104.3 mg/dL), pH (6.40 vs. 6.74), and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, starting on d 12) were lower for LN relative to HN manure. In the presence of straw, crust formation occurred between d 12 and 28, and pH became lower and TVFA became higher starting on d 56, compared with no straw. Treatments did not influence loss of organic matter, organic N, organic C, or N, which averaged 31, 29, 26, and 20%, respectively. However, neutral detergent fiber loss was 44% higher for +S relative to -S manure. Consistent reductions in the C:N ratio indicated proportionally higher volatile C loss than volatile N loss during storage. Overall rate of NH₃-N emission was 36% lower for LN than for HN manure. In the presence of straw, rate of NH₃-N emission did not differ until after crust formation, but was 67% lower on d 56 and 95% lower on d 136, when it was barely detectable, compared with manure with no straw. Manure pH was highly

  1. Short-Term PTH(1-34) Therapy in Children to Correct Severe Hypocalcemia and Hyperphosphatemia due to Hypoparathyroidism: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pooja E.; Schwartz, Betsy L.; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Hook, Kristen; Kim, Youngki

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment of hypoparathyroidism is to control hypocalcemia using calcitriol and calcium supplementation. However, in severe cases this approach is insufficient, and the risks of intravenous (i.v.) calcium administration and prolonged hospitalization must be considered. While the use of recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34 [rhPTH(1-34)] for long-term control of hypocalcemia has been established, the benefits of short-term rhPTH(1-34) treatment in children have not been explored. We report two patients with hypoparathyroidism treated with rhPTH(1-34). Patient 1 is a 10-year-old female with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1. Patient 2 is a 12-year-old female with hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Both patients showed poor response to i.v. and oral calcium and calcitriol, and patient 1 did not respond to phosphate binders. Patient 1 had rapid increase in serum calcium with a decrease in serum phosphate after a 3-day course of subcutaneous rhPTH(1-34). Patient 2 had normalization of calcium and phosphate levels after a 7-day course of rhPTH(1-34). These cases support a role for rhPTH(1-34) in the acute management of hypoparathyroidism in hospitalized patients to more rapidly correct hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, shorten hospitalization, and reduce the need for frequent i.v. calcium boluses. PMID:27957353

  2. Short-Term PTH(1-34) Therapy in Children to Correct Severe Hypocalcemia and Hyperphosphatemia due to Hypoparathyroidism: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pooja E; Schwartz, Betsy L; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Hook, Kristen; Kim, Youngki; Petryk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment of hypoparathyroidism is to control hypocalcemia using calcitriol and calcium supplementation. However, in severe cases this approach is insufficient, and the risks of intravenous (i.v.) calcium administration and prolonged hospitalization must be considered. While the use of recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34 [rhPTH(1-34)] for long-term control of hypocalcemia has been established, the benefits of short-term rhPTH(1-34) treatment in children have not been explored. We report two patients with hypoparathyroidism treated with rhPTH(1-34). Patient 1 is a 10-year-old female with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1. Patient 2 is a 12-year-old female with hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Both patients showed poor response to i.v. and oral calcium and calcitriol, and patient 1 did not respond to phosphate binders. Patient 1 had rapid increase in serum calcium with a decrease in serum phosphate after a 3-day course of subcutaneous rhPTH(1-34). Patient 2 had normalization of calcium and phosphate levels after a 7-day course of rhPTH(1-34). These cases support a role for rhPTH(1-34) in the acute management of hypoparathyroidism in hospitalized patients to more rapidly correct hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, shorten hospitalization, and reduce the need for frequent i.v. calcium boluses.

  3. Long-Term Palliative Effect of Stenting in Gastric Outlet Obstruction Due to Transarterial Chemoembolization with Yttrium-90 in a Patient with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caglar, Erkan; Doğusoy, Gulen; Kabasakal, Levent; Dobrucali, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Internal radioembolization with yttrium-90 is a promising treatment method, predominantly for liver tumors. However, the shifting of yttrium-90-loaded spherules into the arteries and veins that supply the duodenum and stomach, leading to ulceration, hemorrhage, perforation, and outlet obstruction of these organs, is one of the major undesirable consequences of this technique. We report a case of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) due to antropyloric stenosis with ulceration, edema, and inflammation following transarterial yttrium-90 treatment for a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor in a 58-year-old man. Stenting was used for palliation in this case. GOO improved after stenting and recovery of oral intake was permanent after stent removal. PMID:27353368

  4. On the relationship between time-series studies, dynamic population studies, and estimating loss of life due to short-term exposure to environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Richard T; Dewanji, Anup; Dominici, Francesca; Goldberg, Mark S; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel

    2003-07-01

    There is a growing concern that short-term exposure to combustion-related air pollution is associated with increased risk of death. This finding is based largely on time-series studies that estimate associations between daily variations in ambient air pollution concentrations and in the number of nonaccidental deaths within a community. Because these results are not based on cohort or dynamic population designs, where individuals are followed in time, it has been suggested that estimates of effect from these time-series studies cannot be used to determine the amount of life lost because of short-term exposures. We show that results from time-series studies are equivalent to estimates obtained from a dynamic population when each individual's survival experience can be summarized as the daily number of deaths. This occurs when the following conditions are satisfied: a) the environmental covariates vary in time and not between individuals; b) on any given day, the probability of death is small; c) on any given day and after adjusting for known risk factors for mortality such age, sex, smoking habits, and environmental exposures, each subject of the at-risk population has the same probability of death; d) environmental covariates have a common effect on mortality of all members of at-risk population; and e) the averages of individual risk factors, such as smoking habits, over the at-risk population vary smoothly with time. Under these conditions, the association between temporal variation in the environmental covariates and the survival experience of members of the dynamic population can be estimated by regressing the daily number of deaths on the daily value of the environmental covariates, as is done in time-series mortality studies. Issues in extrapolating risk estimates based on time-series studies in one population to estimate the amount of life lost in another population are also discussed.

  5. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date.

  6. Analysis of Problems Posed by Sixth-Grade Middle School Students for the Addition of Fractions in Terms of Semantic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kar, Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the semantic structures of problems posed by sixth-grade middle school students for the addition of fractions affect their problem-posing performance. The students were presented with symbolic operations involving the addition of fractions and asked to pose two different problems related to daily-life situations…

  7. Changes in the contents of anthocyanins and other compounds in blackberry fruits due to freezing and long-term frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina; Cunja, Vlasta; Zupan, Anka; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2014-07-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fast and slow freezing and frozen storage on the metabolite content of six blackberry cultivars. The content of metabolites determined with HPLC RI/PDA-MS in stored blackberries was compared with the initial content of the fruit. During frozen storage of fruits a loss of vitamin C up to 80% has been recorded along with changes of color values, which shifted to blue and yellow hues. The color changes were accompanied with increased pH levels and content of anthocyanins. Most of the phenolic groups, sugars, and organic acids showed a better extraction after storage, especially in the slow freezing treatment due to a higher degree of tissue damage by freezing. The 'Thornless Evergreen' cultivar was especially rich in sugars, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds, but the highest levels of anthocyanins were determined in 'Loch Ness' cultivar.

  8. Testing local position and fundamental constant invariance due to periodic gravitational and boost using long-term comparison of the SYRTE atomic fountains and H-masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, M. E.; Stanwix, P. L.; McFerran, J. J.; Guéna, J.; Abgrall, M.; Bize, S.; Clairon, A.; Laurent, Ph.; Rosenbusch, P.; Rovera, D.; Santarelli, G.

    2013-06-01

    The frequencies of three separate Cs fountain clocks and one Rb fountain clock have been compared to various hydrogen masers to search for periodic changes correlated with the changing solar gravitational potential at the Earth and boost with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. The data sets span over more than 8 yr. The main sources of long-term noise in such experiments are the offsets and linear drifts associated with the various H-masers. The drift can vary from nearly immeasurable to as high as 1.3×10-15 per day. To circumvent these effects, we apply a numerical derivative to the data, which significantly reduces the standard error when searching for periodic signals. We determine a standard error for the putative local position invariance coefficient with respect to gravity for a Cs-fountain H-maser comparison of |βH-βCs|≤4.8×10-6 and |βH-βRb|≤10-5 for a Rb-Fountain H-maser comparison. From the same data, the putative boost local position invariance coefficients were measured to a precision of up to parts in 1011 with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. By combining these boost invariance experiments to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator vs H-maser comparison, independent limits on all nine coefficients of the boost-violation vector with respect to fundamental constant invariance, Bα, Be, and Bq (fine structure constant, electron mass, and quark mass, respectively), were determined to a precision of parts up to 1010.

  9. Short-term Curcuminoid Supplementation for Chronic Pulmonary Complications due to Sulfur Mustard Intoxication: Positive Results of a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Y; Ghanei, M; Bashiri, S; Hajihashemi, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary problems are among the most frequent chronic complications of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication and are often accompanied by deregulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Curcuminoids, comprising curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are phytochemicals with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties that are derived from dried rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric). The present pilot study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on markers of pulmonary function and systemic inflammation in SM-intoxicated subjects. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 89 male subjects who were suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications were recruited and assigned to either curcuminoids (500 mg TID per oral; n=45) or placebo (n=44) for a period of 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and serum levels of inflammatory mediators including interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). 78 subjects completed the trial. Although FEV1 and FVC remained comparable between the groups, there was a greater effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in improving FEV1/FVC (p=0.002). Curcuminoids were also significantly more efficacious compared to placebo in modulating all assessed inflammatory mediators: IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p=0.035), TNFα (p<0.001), TGFβ (p<0.001), substance P (p=0.016), hs-CRP (p<0.001), CGRP (p<0.001) and MCP-1 (p<0.001). Curcuminoids were safe and well-tolerated throughout the trial. Short-term adjunctive therapy with curcuminoids can suppress systemic inflammation in patients suffering from SM-induced chronic pulmonary complications.

  10. Hydrological responses in water loss due to thinning of forested watersheds in Japan using the short-term water balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Gomi, T.; Hiraoka, M.; Sato, T.; Onda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the changes in seasonal patterns of catchment-scale evapotranspiration (i.e., water loss) using Short-Term Water Balance Model (STWBM) developed. STWBM is applied to estimate the value of water loss based on precipitation minus discharge volume during short-periods(8 to 80 days). This method can be applicable for examining seasonal characteristics of water loss that relets to ET. We applied STWBM for investigating the effects of 50% thinning in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Cryptomeria japonica) and cedar (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forests. Study areas is located to 70 km north of Tokyo with 1250 mm annual precipitation and 14℃ mean annual temperature. 50% of the stems (46% of timber volume) were removed by strip thinning in 17 ha treatment catchment, 9 ha catchment remained untreated as a control. We installed 4 nested gauging stations in treated and control catchments with 3 to 10 ha of drainage areas. Runoff in each nested gauging station was measured in the pre- (from April, 2010 to June 2011) and the post-thinning periods (from January 2012 to December 2012). Total runoff coefficient in treated and control catchment was 54% and 26%, respectively. , . Estimated annual water loss by STWBM was 585 mm in treated and 969 mm in control catchments. Because annual evapotranspiration of Japanese cypress and cedar was about ranging from 400 to 800 mm in this catchment, our estimated water loss mostly associated with ET and partially by water loss by deep bedrock percolation. Estimated water loss after thinning in growth season (May to October) decreased 45 to 60 (in 2012) % and 51 to 60 (in 2013) % for all nested gauging station, while estimated water loss in control catchment was consistent. This result suggested that 50% of thinning decreased water loss by ET but changes can be varied among nested gauging station.

  11. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  12. Effect of long-term phosphorus addition on the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon in a freshwater wetland of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Rong; Li, Si-Yue; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Wang, Xian-Wei; Song, Chang-Chun

    2017-05-15

    Understanding how P enrichment alters the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is important, because of their role in regulating the C cycle. Here, we established a four-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6gPm(-2)year(-1)) in a N-limited freshwater wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of eight years of P addition on DOC concentration, SUVA254 (Abs(254)/DOC concentration, indicating the aromaticity of DOC), C:C ratio (Abs(400)/DOC concentration, indicating the proportion of colored humic substances in DOC), and E4:E6 ratio (Abs(465)/Abs(665), indicating the molecular size of humic substances) in surface water and soil pore water (0-15cm depth) during the growing season (June through September). Our results showed similar changing trends in concentration and optical properties of DOC following eight years of P addition in the both surface water and soil pore water across the sampling dates. Generally, P addition decreased DOC concentration, SUVA254, and C:C ratio, and increased E4:E6 ratio, irrespective of P addition levels. These altered optical properties of DOC indicated that P addition decreased the molecular weight and aromaticity of DOC, and thus increased the quality of DOC. These results suggest P enrichment substantially reduces the quantity of DOC in N-limited temperate freshwater wetlands, and imply that increased DOC quality following P addition can further provide a positive feedback to decreased DOC pool.

  13. YMDD Motif Mutation Profile Among Patients Receiving Liver Transplant Due to Hepatitis B Virus Infection With Long Term Lamivudine/Immunoglobulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Rahim; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Alireza; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali; Nejabat, Maryam; Khodadad, Mahboobeh; Ardebili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrence of Hepatitis B Virus infection in patients undergoing liver transplanted (LT) is a serious and often fatal problem. Lamivudine (LAM) and Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin (HBIG) are widely used to manage hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. However, the outcomes in patients are less elucidated. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the YMDD motif mutations profile among the patients undergoing LT infected with HBV and treated with LAM/HBIG at least for one year. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with liver transplantation due to HBV were enrolled, while DNA level remained under detection limit of 50 IU/mL before transplantation and abnormal higher levels of liver enzymes after LT. The HBV genome detection was performed by two different Polymerase Chain Reaction methods following viral quantification by commercial Real-Time PCR. HbsAg detection, besides liver function tests were conducted as complementary assays. To assess nucleotide analogue mutations, the major part of polymerase gene (aa 80 - 240) was amplified by Nested-PCR, introduced to sequencing and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Results: Totally, according to the laboratory criteria there were 13 cases with detectable HBV genome, while the mean liver enzyme levels were higher in recurrent patients and HBsAg was detected only in four out of the 13 cases. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all isolated genomes belonged to genotype D. Critical M204I mutation, as a proof for resistance to LAM, was detected among 46% of the subjects and natural entecavir resistance (S202I) was also distinguished in one subject. Viral quantification showed higher titer in LAM resistant group in comparison to the group with undetectable drug resistance mutant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although the patients carrying M204I mutation were more likely to show lack of responses to LAM therapy, LAM replacing by other nucleoside/tide analogs plus HBIG maybe still effective in

  14. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  15. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  16. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  17. The panorama of future sick-leave diagnoses among young adults initially long-term sickness absent due to neck, shoulder, or back diagnoses. An 11-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Marjan; Hagberg, Jan; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about future sick-leave diagnoses among individuals on long-term sickness absence. The aim of this study was to describe the panorama of sick-leave diagnoses over time among young adults initially sick-listed for ≥ 28 days due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses Methods An 11-year prospective population-based cohort study including all 213 individuals in a Swedish municipality who, in 1985, were aged 25–34 years and had a new sick-leave spell ≥ 28 days due to neck, shoulder, or back diagnoses. Results Over the 11-year period, the young adults in this cohort had 176,825 sick-leave days in 7,878 sick-leave periods (in 4,610 sick-leave spells) due to disorders in 17 of the 18 ICD-8 diagnostic categories (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 8). Musculoskeletal or mental diagnoses accounted for most of the sick-leave days, whereas most of the sick-leave periods were due to musculoskeletal, respiratory, or infectious disorders, or to unclassified symptoms. Most cohort members had had four to eight different sick-leave diagnoses over the 11 years, although some had had up to 11 diagnoses. Only two individuals (1%) had been sickness absent solely due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Conclusion Although the young adults initially were sick listed with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses, their sickness absence during the follow up were due to a wide variety of other medical diagnoses. It might be that the ill-health content of sickness absence due to back pain is greater than usually assumed. More research on prognoses of sick-leave diagnoses among long-term sick listed is warranted.

  18. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  19. Boar spermatozoa and prostaglandin F2alpha. Quality of boar sperm after the addition of prostaglandin F2alpha to the short-term extender over cooling time.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-10-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) has been used to improve reproductive performance in swine. The goal of the present work was to determine how the addition of PGF2alpha affects boar sperm quality. Eleven different treatments were evaluated: eight with only PGF2alpha (0.625, 1.25, 2.50, 5, 10, 12.50, 25 and 50mg PGF2alpha/100ml) and three binary treatments (0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA), 1.25mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml HA, 0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+7.5microM caffeine (Caf)). All these substances were added to 16 ejaculates from 16 healthy and sexually mature boars (n=16), and each ejaculate was considered as a replicate. Our study also assessed the effects of these 11 treatments over different periods of preservation. Sperm quality was tested immediately after the addition of treatments (time 0), and after 1, 3, 6 and 10 days of cooling at 15 degrees C. To evaluate sperm quality, five parameters were analysed: (1) sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity (using a multiple fluorochrome-staining test), (2) sperm motility, (3) sperm morphology and (4) agglutination (using a computer assisted system) and (5) osmotic resistance (using the ORT). Parametric (analysis of variance for repeated measures) and non-parametric tests (Friedman test) were used as statistical analyses. Treatments with PGF2alpha concentrations higher than 12.5mg/100ml were cytotoxic while the others did not damage boar spermatozoa. Thus, the other treatments may be used to produce profitable effects without adverse effects. Moreover, the addition of PGF2alpha at 5mg/100ml to sperm diluted in BTS may maintain sperm viability and motility better after 6 days of cooling, because significant differences were observed (P<0.05) compared with control at the same time.

  20. Effect of biochar addition on short-term N2O and CO2 emissions during repeated drying and wetting of an anthropogenic alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Lee, Xinqing; Theng, Benny K G; Wang, Bing; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Qian

    2016-06-07

    Agricultural soils are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Biochar application to such soils has the potential of mitigating global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Under irrigation, the topsoils in arid regions experience repeated drying and wetting during the crop growing season. Biochar incorporation into these soils would change the soil microbial environment and hence affect GHG emissions. Little information, however, is available regarding the effect of biochar addition on carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils undergoing repeated drying and wetting. Here, we report the results of a 49-day aerobic incubation experiment, incorporating biochar into an anthropogenic alluvial soil in an arid region of Xinjiang Province, China, and measuring CO2 and N2O emissions. Under both drying-wetting and constantly moist conditions, biochar amendment significantly increased cumulative CO2 emission. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (up to ~20 %) in cumulative N2O emission, indicating that the addition of biochar to irrigated agricultural soils may effectively slow down global warming in arid regions of China.

  1. Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, Northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Robert R; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous shrubs and a graminoid species, including: instantaneous rates of leaf gas exchange, and δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and nitrogen (N) concentrations of Betula nana, Salix pulchra, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Leaf-level measurements were complemented by measurements of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and depth of thaw. Reductions in snow lowered summer leaf photosynthesis, conductance, and transpiration rates by up to 40% compared to ambient and deep snow conditions for Eriophorum vaginatum, and reduced Salix pulchra conductance and transpiration by up to 49%. In contrast, Betula nana exhibited no changes in leaf gas exchange in response to lower or deeper snow. Canopy LAI increased with added snow, while reduced winter snow resulted in lower growing season soil temperatures and reduced thaw depths. Our findings indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of future snow depth will have individualistic consequences for leaf-level C fixation and water flux by tundra species, and that these responses will be manifested over the longer term by changes in canopy traits, depth of thaw, soil C and N processes, and trace gas (CO2 and H2O) exchanges between the tundra and the atmosphere.

  2. Short-term prediction of Betula airborne pollen concentration in Vigo (NW Spain) using logistic additive models and partially linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotos-Yáñez, Tomas R.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.; Jato, M. V.

    Betula pollen is a common cause of pollinosis in localities in NW Spain and between 13% and 60% of individuals who are immunosensitive to pollen grains respond positively to its allergens. It is important in the case of all such people to be able to predict pollen concentrations in advance. We therefore undertook an aerobiological study in the city of Vigo (Pontevedra, Spain) from 1995 to 2001, using a Hirst active-impact pollen trap (VPPS 2000) situated in the city centre. Vigo presents a temperate maritime climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.9 °C and 1,412 mm annual total precipitation. This paper analyses two ways of quantifying the prediction of pollen concentration: first by means of a generalized additive regression model with the object of predicting whether the series of interest exceeds a certain threshold; second using a partially linear model to obtain specific prediction values for pollen grains. Both models use a self-explicative part and another formed by exogenous meteorological factors. The models were tested with data from 2001 (year in which the total precipitation registered was almost twice the climatological average overall during the flowering period), which were not used in formulating the models. A highly satisfactory classification and good forecasting results were achieved with the first and second approaches respectively. The estimated line taking into account temperature and a calm S-SW wind, corresponds to the real line recorded during 2001, which gives us an idea of the proposed model's validity.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  5. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril

    2013-04-01

    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the

  6. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  7. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  8. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  9. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect.

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Analyses of the ``allowed'' inversion barriers of H2O and NH3: Incompleteness of the Woodward-Hoffmann HOMO-LUMO symmetry ideas due to neglect of <φ0i‖ΔNA‖φ0i> molecular orbital terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmiston, C.; Jarvie, J.; Bartleson, J.

    1986-06-01

    Walsh's rules correctly attribute the ``bent'' structures of H2O and NH3 to the occupation of the 1πz→3a1 HOMO not occupied in linear BeH2 and planar BH3. In Walsh's molecular orbital (MO) diagram E(3a1) decreases sharply with bending angle S. This has always been attributed incorrectly to changes in the 3a1 MO, mainly due to symmetry-allowed mixing with the LUMO, 4a*1. The forbidden bending of BeH2 and BH3 has been similarly ``explained.'' Using large-basis-set self-consistent field molecular orbital (SCF MO) ψs, we show that the integral Hellmann-Feynman theorem ΔEIHF≂ΔESCF much better than does the analogous second-order perturbation theory λE''(SE'=0 and λ=S2/2, ΔH≂SH'+λH''). ΔEIHF=<ψ0‖ΔNA‖ψ0>+<ψ0‖ ΔNA‖Δψ˜>+ΔNR≂Σni2Δ EIHFi+ΔNR, Δψ˜=(ψ/η)-ψ0, η=<ψ0‖ψ>, ΔEIHFi=<φ0i‖ ΔNA‖φ0i>+<φ0i‖ ΔNA‖Δφ˜i>, Δφ˜i=(φi/ηi)-φ0i, ηi=<φ0i‖φi>, ΔNA=ΔH-ΔNR. Both theories show a large negative <1πz‖ΔNA‖1πz> term and small <1πz‖ΔNA‖Δ1π˜z> HOMO-UMO mixing term, which is positive in ΔEIHF. The <1πz‖SH'‖3σ*g> HOMO-LUMO mixing term is small even when 3σ*g is optimized for the excited state. The ΔEIHFis and λE`is give the usual Walsh diagrams for bending of H2O and NH3, with or without MO partitioning of the nuclear repulsion change (ΔNR). However ``decoupling'' of the φ'is in ψ' makes the λE`is unreliable. The <1πz‖ΔNA‖1πz> term acts to create a large allowed barrier to inversion for H2O and CH4, but a strong ΔNR nearly destroys an otherwise large barrier for NH3. <1πz‖ΔNA‖1πz> acts to bend the linear H2O, planar NH3, and planar CH4, with HOMO-LUMO mixing being ``antibending.'' We show that understanding of MO correlation diagrams demands consideration of the ``static'' <φ0i‖ΔNA‖φ0i> terms as well as the OMO-UMO mixing terms, which has not been appreciated by earlier workers so far as we are aware.

  13. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes inthe EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic andCrystaline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-11-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperativeproject initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, withparticipation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEXstands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation againstExperiments. The general goal of this project is to encouragemultidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modelingcoupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performanceassessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-yearproject stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade,mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalprocesses.Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX isunder way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal,Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stageaims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previousDECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes importantfor repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leadsTask D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled "Long-termPermeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC andTHM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems." In itsleadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction forthe cooperative research activities of the international research teamsengaged in Task D.

  14. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  15. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  16. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  17. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  18. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  19. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  20. An integral-free expression for short-term changes in fault stability due to pore pressure induced when a point load is placed on the pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space containing a fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Ramesh; Tomar, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    A concentrated load with step-function time behaviour is placed normal to the planar, pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space (PEHS) with compressible constituents. A planar fault exists in the PEHS in such a way that the poroelastic behaviour of the medium is unhindered. We derive an approximate but integral-free expression for CFSCPP, i.e., changes in fault stability due to changes in pore pressure, at a point not too far off the line along which the load acts. But, in the interest of simplicity, the main discussion is focussed on a consideration of CFSCPP at a point P located on the fault at depth z directly beneath the load. It is convenient to introduce dimensionless time t D directly proportional to real time t. The constant of proportionality is 4 c/ z 2, where c is hydraulic diffusivity. The derived approximate expression gives results with an accuracy of greater than 99% for limited values of t D after the load is imposed. We learn from the derived expression that, for a given z, fault stability undergoes an initial sudden decrease commensurate with the undrained pore pressure induced in the PEHS. This is followed by a more gradual decrease in fault stability with increasing t D until a minimum is reached. The real time t to minimum fault stability increases with z. The magnitude of CFSCPP decreases with z as z -2 for a given t D in the permissible range. The derived expression and the inferences based on it should be useful during earth science investigations of the possible hazards due to reactivation of a pre-existing shallow fault when a civil engineering project involving imposition of a heavy load on the earth's surface is to be executed nearby. They should be useful also for investigations if a shallow earthquake occurs near such a project soon after its execution.

  1. Short-Term Effects of the Particulate Pollutants Contained in Saharan Dust on the Visits of Children to the Emergency Department due to Asthmatic Conditions in Guadeloupe (French Archipelago of the Caribbean)

    PubMed Central

    Cadelis, Gilbert; Tourres, Rachel; Molinie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma in children is a significant phenomenon in the Caribbean. Among the etiologic factors aggravating asthma in children, environmental pollution is one of the main causes. In Guadeloupe, pollution is primarily transported by Saharan dust including inhalable particles. Methods This study assesses, over one year (2011), the short-term effects of pollutants referred to as PM10 (PM10: particulate matter <10 µm) and PM2.5–10 (PM2.5–10: particulate matter >2.5 µm and <10 µm) contained in Saharan dust, on the visits of children aged between 5 and 15 years for asthma in the health emergency department of the main medical facility of the archipelago of Guadeloupe. A time-stratified case-crossover model was applied and the data were analysed by a conditional logistic regression for all of the children but also for sub-groups corresponding to different age classes and genders. Results The visits for asthma concerned 836 children including 514 boys and 322 girls. The Saharan dust has affected 15% of the days of the study (337 days) and involved an increase in the average daily concentrations of PM10 (49.7 µg/m3 vs. 19.2 µg/m3) and PM 2.5–10 (36.2 µg/m3 vs. 10.3 µg/m3) compared to days without dust. The excess risk percentages (IR%) for visits related to asthma in children aged between 5 and 15 years on days with dust compared to days without dust were, for PM10, ((IR %: 9.1% (CI95%, 7.1%–11.1%) versus 1.1%(CI95%, −5.9%–4.6%)) and for PM2.5–10 (IR%: 4.5%(CI95%, 2.5%–6.5%) versus 1.6% (CI95%, −1.1%–3.4%). There was no statistical difference in the IR% for periods with Saharan dust among different age group of children and between boys and girls for PM10 and PM2.5–10. Conclusion The PM10 and PM2.5–10 pollutants contained in the Saharan dust increased the risk of visiting the health emergency department for children with asthma in Guadeloupe during the study period. PMID:24603899

  2. The Due Care Paradigm of School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Bill

    The Due Care paradigm for the successful restructuring of organizations is presented in this paper, with attention to the paradigm's role in creating a fundamental shift from vertical (top/down) decision making to shared governance. The first section explains how due care is linked to three legal terms in tort law--substantive due process, due…

  3. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  4. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  5. High-Performance Long-Term-Stable Dopant-Free Perovskite Solar Cells and Additive-Free Organic Solar Cells by Employing Newly Designed Multirole π-Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Kim, Hyunji; Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Seonha; Kim, Bumjoon J; Nishikubo, Ryosuke; Saeki, Akinori; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2017-04-10

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising renewable light-harvesting technologies with high performance, but the utilization of hazardous dopants and high boiling additives is harmful to all forms of life and the environment. Herein, new multirole π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) are developed via a rational design approach through theoretical hindsight, further successfully subjecting them into dopant-free PSCs as hole-transporting materials and additive-free OSCs as photoactive donors, respectively. Especially, P3-based PSCs and OSCs not only show high power conversion efficiencies of 17.28% and 8.26%, but also display an excellent ambient stability up to 30 d (for PSCs only), owing to their inherent superior optoelectronic properties in their pristine form. Overall, the rational approach promises to support the development of environmentally and economically sustainable PSCs and OSCs.

  6. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    The aerosol properties of the atmosphere were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of their additional cloud and NO2 correction. The application of cloud correction according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard dataset. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and the NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud correction removes a local AOT maximum in February, and lowered the December artificial high AOT values. The pronounced negative AOT trends of about -1-5 % yr-1 have been obtained for most months, which could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 116 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 78 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and 272 Gg yr-2 in ECO over European territory of Russia. No influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  7. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    The atmospheric aerosol properties were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over the 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of additional cloud screening and NO2 correction. The application of additional cloud screening according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in monthly average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard data set. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET version 2 data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method, we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and a minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud screening removes a local AOT maximum in February. Statistically significant negative trends in annual AOT for UV and mid-visible spectral range have been obtained both for average and 50 % quantile values. The pronounced negative changes were observed in most months with the rate of about -1-5 % yr-1 and could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 135 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 54 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and slight negative changes in NOx over the European part of Russia. No significant influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  8. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  9. Dimensional changes in stone models simulating full crown preparations with adjacent teeth resulting from long-term immersion of medium-viscosity addition-type silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Iwasaki, Yukiko; Iwasaki, Eriko; Kikuchi, Hisaji; Hirose, Hideharu; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    If impression materials could be immersed in disinfectant solutions for a longer period, then this form of disinfection would be easier to incorporate into dental preparation procedures. This study investigated the dimensional changes in stone models resulting from immersion of medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impression material in disinfectant solutions for 30 min and 24 h. Impressions of a master die designed to simulate a full crown preparation with adjacent teeth were immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde solutions. The dimensional changes in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions in the stone models were then measured using a three-dimensional coordinate system. It was found that the dimensional changes in the stone models caused by immersion of the impression materials were less than 15 μm. Immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde for 24 h was as clinically acceptable for medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impressions as immersion for 30 min.

  10. Reverse attenuation in interaction terms due to covariate measurement error.

    PubMed

    Muff, Stefanie; Keller, Lukas F

    2015-11-01

    Covariate measurement error may cause biases in parameters of regression coefficients in generalized linear models. The influence of measurement error on interaction parameters has, however, only rarely been investigated in depth, and if so, attenuation effects were reported. In this paper, we show that also reverse attenuation of interaction effects may emerge, namely when heteroscedastic measurement error or sampling variances of a mismeasured covariate are present, which are not unrealistic scenarios in practice. Theoretical findings are illustrated with simulations. A Bayesian approach employing integrated nested Laplace approximations is suggested to model the heteroscedastic measurement error and covariate variances, and an application shows that the method is able to reveal approximately correct parameter estimates.

  11. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  12. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  13. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional funds. 1274.917 Section 1274.917... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.917 Additional funds. Additional Funds July 2002... under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional...

  14. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C.F.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2000-03-23

    New bond additivity correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) Moller-Plesset (MP)2 method, BAC-hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-hybrid method is expected to scale well for large molecules. The BAC-hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 predictions as an indication of the method's accuracy, whereas the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to accomplish this. A statistical analysis of the error in each of the methods is presented on the basis of calculations performed for large sets (more than 120) of molecules.

  15. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  16. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  17. Credit where It's Due

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    For most people, a long-term illness is something they will never have to deal with, but for those who do, the ability to understand and cope with their condition is an essential part of their recuperation. One of the main contributing factors to recovery is having the confidence to deal with an ailment without needing to ask for medical…

  18. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  19. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of maintaining.... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of...

  20. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of maintaining.... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of...

  1. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    PubMed

    Odum, L; Jensen, K T; Slotsbjerg, T D

    1984-06-01

    Four cases of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation of Kingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused by Kingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection with Kingella kingae.

  2. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  3. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed.

  4. Credit where due.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  7. Feasibility of a multi-component additive for efficient control of activated sludge filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Seka, A M; Van De Wiele, T; Verstraete, W

    2001-08-01

    Instantaneous improvement of the settling of bulking filamentous activated sludge can be achieved by the addition of a polymer or a large amount (up to 100% of the MLSS concentration) of talc powder to the sludge. Long-term improvement relies on repeated additions, as these additives have no adverse effects on the causative filaments. A multi-component additive was compared to the traditional additives in lab-scale activated sludge units using three highly filamentous sludges from different industrial treatment plants. The study demonstrated that the multi-component additive was superior to the traditional remedies. It was shown that, in the case of severe filamentous bulking, a single addition of the new additive immediately improved sludge settling and exerted a destructive effect on the causative filamentous bacteria. Thus, the latter additive also ensured a long-term sludge sedimentation improvement. The traditional additives exhibited an immediate and short-term effect. The novel additive also retarded sludge rising due to denitrification and it improved sludge dewaterability. The study revealed Nostocoido limicola II, with slightly hydrophobic cell wall, to be somewhat resistant to the quaternary ammonium salt present as biocide in the additive.

  8. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  9. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  10. On the Addition of Planar Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Eli

    1974-01-01

    An interpretation of the transformation formulas for rotations in a plane in terms of the exponential function is given. Addition of two rotations is shown to correspond to the multiplication of the two corresponding matrices. (Author/LS)

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  20. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  1. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  2. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  3. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  4. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  6. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy losses in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-28

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. We found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  7. The Course of Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Laura A.; Summy, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    Discussion of due process rights for children with disabilities considers common issues leading to due process requests, due process procedures, hearing officers, procedural violations, effects of due process meetings, and areas for improvement (i.e., accountability, paperwork). Tables list categories of procedural violations with examples and…

  8. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  9. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  10. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  11. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  12. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  13. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ...

  14. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  15. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  16. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  19. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  20. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  1. Risk Factors for Additional Surgery after Iatrogenic Perforations due to Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gi Jun; Ji, Jeong Seon; Kim, Byung Wook; Choi, Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Endoscopic resection (ER) is commonly performed to treat gastric epithelial neoplasms and subepithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to predict the risk factors for surgery after ER-induced perforation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the data on patients who received gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) between January 2010 and March 2015. Patients who were confirmed to have perforation were classified into surgery and nonsurgery groups. We aimed to determine the risk factors for surgery in patients who developed iatrogenic gastric perforations. Results. A total of 1183 patients underwent ER. Perforation occurred in 69 (5.8%) patients, and 9 patients (0.8%) required surgery to manage the perforation. In univariate analysis, anterior location of the lesion, a subepithelial lesion, two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs, and increased heart rate within 24 hrs after the procedure were the factors related to surgery. In logistic regression analysis, the location of the lesion at the anterior wall and using two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs were risk factors for surgery. Conclusion. Most cases of perforations after ER can be managed conservatively. When a patient requires two or more postprocedure pain killers within 24 hrs and the lesion is located on the anterior wall, early surgery should be considered instead of conservative management. PMID:28316622

  2. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  3. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  6. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  7. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  8. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  9. 17 CFR 37.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions, terms and conditions or trading protocols or providing for a new system product functionality, by... conditions or trading protocols. (c) Voluntary request for Commission approval of rules or products. (1) A... TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.7 Additional requirements. (a) Products. Notwithstanding the...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  11. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  12. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  13. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  14. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  15. Onychomycosis Due to Nondermatophytic Molds

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there have been many studies about onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds (NDM), few studies about etiologic agents including NDM in onychomycosis have been reported in Korea. Objective: This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Objective This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Methods In the 10-year period from 1999~2009, we reviewed 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM. The etiologic agents were identified by cultures on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. In some cases, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis was done. NDM isolated considered pathogens when the presence of fungal elements was identified by direct microscopy observation and in follow-up cultures yielding the same fungi. Results Onychomycosis due to NDM comprised 2.3% of all onychomycosis. Of the 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM, 84.7% were toenail onychomycosis and 15.3% were fingernail onychomycosis. The incidence rate was highest in the fifth decade (27.1%). The ratio of male to female patients was 1:1.6. The frequency of associated diseases, in descending order, was hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebral hematoma. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (86.4%) was the most common clinical type of onychomycosis. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent of onychomycosis due to NDM (83.0%). Other causative agents were Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (10.2%), Acremonium spp. (3.4%), Fusarium solani (1.7%), and Chaetomium globosum (1.7%). Conclusion Because of the increase in onychomycosis due to NDM, we suggest the need of a careful mycological examination in patients with onychomycosis. PMID:22577268

  16. Occupational asthma due to azodicarbonamide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Leem, Jong-Han; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Hong-Lyeol; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2004-04-30

    Azodicarbonamide is a low molecular weight foaming agent for plastics and rubbers. Azodicarbonamide can elicit acute and chronic health related problems due to its potential for pulmonary and cutaneous sensitization. Some cases of occupational asthma associated with exposure to azodicarbonamide have been reported, of which only a few cases were confirmed by specific inhalation challenges. Here, the first case of occupational asthma due to azodicarbonamide in Korea, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge, is reported.

  17. [Otomycosis due to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis].

    PubMed

    Besbes, M; Makni, F; Cheikh-Rouhou, F; Sellami, H; Kharrat, K; Ayadi, A

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of otomycosis due to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in a patient with left cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media who presented with otorrhea associated with left otalgia. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is a fungus which is rarely described as causing otomycosis although it is a saprophyte and widespread in the environment. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive gardening with poor hygiene. Its mycologic diagnosis is relatively easy and nystatin remains the most effective treatment in this region.

  18. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  19. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  20. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  1. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  2. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  3. Intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoars: An update

    PubMed Central

    Dikicier, Enis; Altintoprak, Fatih; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Yagmurkaya, Orhan; Uzunoglu, Mustafa Yener

    2015-01-01

    The term bezoar refers to an intraluminal mass in the gastrointestinal system caused by the accumulation of indigestible ingested materials, such as vegetables, fruits, and hair. Bezoars are responsible for 0.4%-4% of cases of mechanical intestinal obstruction. The clinical findings of bezoar-induced ileus do not differ from those of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to other causes. The appearance and localization of bezoars can be established with various imaging methods. Treatment of choice depends on the localization of the bezoar which makes the clinical findings. PMID:26301232

  4. Physicians in transition: practice due diligence.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Timothy E

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of healthcare is changing rapidly. That landscape is now a business model of medicine. That rapid change resulting in a business model is affecting physicians professionally and personally. The new business model of medicine has led to large healthcare organizations hiring physicians as employees. The role of a physician as an employee has many limitations in terms of practice and personal autonomy. Employed physicians sign legally binding employment agreements that are written by the legal team working for the healthcare organization. Thus physicians should practice due diligence before signing the employment agreement. "Due diligence" refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement with another party. That reasonable person should seek expertise to represent his or her interests when searching a balanced agreement between the physician and organization.

  5. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... drug products, medical devices, food additives, and color additives are eligible for extension. The..., or a method of manufacturing the approved product. In addition, the application for patent term.... The term of a patent which claims a product, a method of using a product, or a method of...

  6. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    PubMed

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  7. Dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Saeed; Bansal, Meghana; Agarwal, Abhishek

    2012-05-01

    Cervical bony outgrowths or osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic. In some cases, they may be associated with dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea and pulmonary aspiration. The most common causes of cervical osteophytes are osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and ankylosing hyperostosis or Diffuse Idiopathic Spinal Hyperostosis (DISH), also known as Forestier's Disease. Other causes are hypoparathyroidism, trauma, acromegaly, ochronosis and flourosis. However, while dysphagia due to osteophytes is reported in the setting of DISH, it is very rare with osteoarthritis. We report a case of a patient who developed dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytes in the setting of osteoarthritis.

  8. Hypercalcemia due to talc granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Woywodt, A; Schneider, W; Goebel, U; Luft, F C

    2000-04-01

    Pulmonary disease due to talc, a group of hydrous magnesium silicates, is almost exclusively encountered after occupational exposure. One form of this rare disorder is talc granulomatosis. In varying degrees, hypercalcemia is typical of granulomatous disease but has not yet been reported in talcosis. We report the case of a former mold maker who presented with hypercalcemia. Laboratory findings indicated extra-renal 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Pulmonary infiltrates prompted a lung biopsy that disclosed talc granulomatosis. We suggest that talc granulomatosis should be added to the list of granulomatous disorders capable of causing hypercalcemia due to increased extra-renal 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

  9. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Ben is a 16-year-old student who resides with his family in an unnamed School District. He is eligible for special education by reason of specific learning disability and ADHD. His parents requested a due process hearing, alleging that the District failed to provide him with a free appropriate public education (FAPE) and requesting reimbursement…

  10. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  11. Elephantine nose due to rhinoentomophthoromycosis.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Ashok; Sarma, Podila S A; Iqbal, Syed Md

    2006-01-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an immunocompetent Indian male due to Basidiobolus species resulting in a huge (elephantine) nasal deformity, is reported. The diagnosis was done by demonstration of hyphae in direct tissue smear examination in potassium hydroxide, histopathological examination and by cultural characteristics. He showed an excellent response to oral potassium iodide solution.

  12. Chylothorax due to tuberculosis lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Orkide; Demirbas, Soner; Sakin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare clinical condition characterized by high triglyceride and low cholesterol levels in milky pleural aspirate. Generally, it occurs through leakage of chyle as result of trauma or malignancy. Chylothorax due to tuberculous lymphadenitis is very rare clinical condition that has only been documented in a few cases. Although precise pathogenesis is not known, enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are thought to be associated with opening of collateral anastomosis between thoracic duct and the azygos and intercostal veins by creating pressure on thoracic duct and cisterna chyli. Presently described is case of chylothorax thought to be due to compression from mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis, and which had complete remission after antituberculosis treatment. PMID:28275756

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis due to appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Groth, D; Henderson, S O

    1999-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, although rare, is one of the more serious, life-threatening complications of missed acute appendicitis. Patients who are predisposed to developing necrotizing fasciitis, regardless of the cause, are typically immunocompromised. We present a case of a 49-year-old immunocompetent female whose diagnosis of acute appendicitis was missed and who subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and flank. She recovered 1 month after admission due to aggressive surgical and medical therapy.

  14. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  15. Neuroimaging Complication of Neonatal Meningitis in Full-Term and Near-Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Chatue Kamga, Herve Berenger

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine complication of neonatal meningitis due to streptococcus group B in full-term and near–full-term newborns in a tertiary-level neonate intensive care unit. PMID:28229093

  16. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  17. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  18. Calcaneal apophysitis due to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem; Sen, Yasar; Ardicoğlu, Ozge

    2003-02-01

    Brucellosis is still a major health problem in many geographical areas. Osteoarticular complications are important owing to their high prevalence. We report an unusual case of childhood brucellosis presenting with septic apophysitis of the calcaneus and abscess formation in a 12-year-old boy. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics. The importance of early recognition of the disease and differential diagnosis is emphasized. Early recognition of infection, prolonged treatment, and long-term follow-up may improve the outcome.

  19. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Phialophora richardsiae.

    PubMed

    Tam, M; Freeman, S

    1989-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis, an infection characterised by dematiaceous yeast-like cells, hyphae and pseudohyphae in tissue, is an uncommon condition, often affecting immunosuppressed patients. A sixty four year old boat-builder, receiving treatment with prednisone and azathioprine developed multiple cutaneous nodules on the extremities. Histology showed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate with scattered spores and hyphae. Culture revealed two organisms, Phialophora richardsiae and Exophiala jeanselmei. Fluorocytosine was initially given but the organism was found to be resistant. Since side effects have been associated with long term ketoconazole therapy, a less toxic and more potent triazole compound, itraconazole, was used. After three months, the lesions had completely resolved without adverse clinical or biochemical changes.

  20. Treatable newborn and infant seizures due to inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Jaume; Plecko, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    About 25% of seizures in the neonatal period have causes other than asphyxia, ischaemia or intracranial bleeding. Among these are primary genetic epileptic encephalopathies with sometimes poor prognosis and high mortality. In addition, some forms of neonatal infant seizures are due to inborn errors of metabolism that do not respond to common AEDs, but are amenable to specific treatment. In this situation, early recognition can allow seizure control and will prevent neurological deterioration and long-term sequelae. We review the group of inborn errors of metabolism that lead to newborn/infant seizures and epilepsy, of which the treatment with cofactors is very different to that used in typical epilepsy management.

  1. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  2. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  3. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  4. All your data are always missing: incorporating bias due to measurement error into the potential outcomes framework.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiologists often use the potential outcomes framework to cast causal inference as a missing data problem. Here, we demonstrate how bias due to measurement error can be described in terms of potential outcomes and considered in concert with bias from other sources. In addition, we illustrate how acknowledging the uncertainty that arises due to measurement error increases the amount of missing information in causal inference. We use a simple example to show that estimating the average treatment effect requires the investigator to perform a series of hidden imputations based on strong assumptions.

  5. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  6. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  7. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  8. Decoherence due to Scattering Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Perreault, John; Cronin, Alex

    2004-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of a quantum system is difficult because of uncontrolled interactions with the system's environment. The study of decoherence so introduced is important for progress in quantum mechanical engineering, and for understanding the transition from quantum to classical behavior. We have observed loss of fringe contrast in a Mach-Zhender atom interferometer due to scattering background gas atoms and propose that this might be interpreted as quantum decoherence. Progress will be reported on the use of a general model of decoherence incorporating a semi-classical picture of atom scattering to explain the contrast loss [1]. A formal analogy is made to decoherence due to scattering photons from atoms in an interferometer [2]. [1] S.M. Tan, D.F. Waals, ``Loss of coherence in interferometry", Phys. Rev. A 47 p.4663 (1993) [2] D.A. Kokorowski, A.D. Cronin, T.D. Roberts, and D.E. Pritchard, ``From single- to multiple-photon decoherence in an atom interferometer", Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 p. 2191 (2001)

  9. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  10. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  11. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  12. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  13. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    PubMed

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed.

  14. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  15. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT... shall be extended by the time as calculated in days in the manner indicated by this section. The patent...) The number of days in the period beginning on the date a major health or environmental effects test...

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  17. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  18. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  19. [Intermittent focal cerebral ischemia in hypotension due to pacemaker syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hagendorff, A; Pizzulli, L; Dettmers, C; Block, A; Omran, H; Hartmann, A; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1994-12-01

    A pacemaker syndrome manifested as transient sensoric aphasia in a 68-year-old woman with a VVI-pace-maker implanted after SA-block. The attack occurred during long-term blood pressure recording and Holter monitoring. Borderline hypotension was documented during ventricular pacing which induced a retrograde excitation of the atrium. Clinical investigations excluded any intracranial abnormality, any source of embolism or stenosis of extra- and intracranial cerebral arteries. Cerebral blood flow measurements revealed a significant increase during pacing at elevated heart rate. Therefore, a device for AV-sequential pacing was implanted and basic pacing rate was elevated. The present case report indicates that focal and not only global cerebral ischemia can be produced by an impairment of systemic hemodynamics due to hypotension and a pacemaker syndrome. Improvement of cerebral blood flow during pacing is an unexpected finding contrasting with the concept of autoregulation. In addition, pacemaker implantation should be discussed in patients with transient cerebral perfusion deficits if an improvement of cerebral blood flow is documented along with rising heart rate.

  20. Recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism due to Type 1 parathyromatosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Monica; Krasne, David L; Singer, Frederick R; Giuliano, Armando E

    2017-02-01

    Parathyromatosis is a rare condition consisting of multiple nodules of benign hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue scattered throughout the neck and superior mediastinum. As a potential cause of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism, parathyromatosis is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. The optimal evaluation and management of patients with parathyromatosis is not well established. The reported case involves a patient who was initially diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnosis of Type 1 parathyromatosis was made after the patient developed recurrent hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia and osteoporosis 17 years after the initial operation and underwent two additional operations. The majority of parathyromatosis cases are diagnosed in the setting of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Consensus regarding the preoperative diagnosis and evaluation is lacking due to the paucity of cases of this rare clinical entity. Management involves complete surgical extirpation of all identifiable rests of parathyroid tissue. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone level monitoring and frozen section examination are excellent tools that could increase the rates of initial operative success. Despite this, long-term disease remission is rare, and medical therapy, including calcimimetics and bisphosphonates, may be required for postoperative or non-operative management.

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  3. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  4. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  5. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  6. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  7. Development of autoclavable addition type polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two highly promising approaches to yield autoclavable addition-type polyimides were identified and evaluated in the program. Conditions were established for autoclave preparation of Hercules HMS graphite fiber reinforced composites in the temperature range of 473 K to 505 K under an applied pressure of 0.7 MN/m2 (100 psi) for time durations up to four hours. Upon oven postcure in air at 589 K, composite samples demonstrated high mechanical property retention at 561 K after isothermal aging in air for 1000 hours. Promise was shown for shorter term mechanical property retention at 589 K upon exposure in air at this temperature.

  8. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  9. Plasma equilibrium in a semiclassical plasma due to non-resonant wave particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Anirban; Janaki, M. S.

    2013-03-15

    A nonresonant perturbative approach has been utilized to probe the modification of the equilibrium plasma distribution function due to plasma interaction with externally launched high-frequency large-amplitude RF waves in the presence of quantum effects. The quantum distribution function from the complete Wigner equation has been obtained for a high-frequency wave with constant amplitude. For waves with weak spatial or temporal modulation, the equilibrium distribution function has been obtained by solving the Wigner equation as an initial or boundary-value problem and retaining only lowest-order quantum effects. In the dipole approximation, a higher order diffusion has been identified in addition to quantum modified ponderomotive and quasilinear diffusion effects. Additional terms of the Wigner equation give the impression of higher order diffusion effects in the system.

  10. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  11. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  12. Isotropic Contraction Of Mercury Due To Despinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Bills, B. G.

    2009-09-01

    Mercury's slow rotation period of 59 days is presumably the result of solar tides driving its initial rotational state to the present 3:2 spin-orbit resonance. The observed large gravity coefficients can be explained as due to a remnant rotational bulge recording an initial rotation period of a few days (Matsuyama and Nimmo 2009). Despinning changes the shape of the rotational bulge, generating both compressional and extensional stresses (Melosh 1977). However, Mercury's surface is dominated by compressional tectonic features (Watters et al. 1998), and the inferred global contraction has been explained as due to thermal cooling (Solomon 1976). In addition to non-isotropic changes associated with the rotational flattening, despinning causes isotropic contraction of the entire planet. We consider the effect of the compressional stresses generated by this isotropic contraction on the predicted tectonic pattern. References Matsuyama and Nimmo. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury: Effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, nonzero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation. J. Geophys. Res. (2009) vol. 114 pp. E01010 Melosh. Global tectonics of a despun planet. Icarus (1977) vol. 31 pp. 221-243 Solomon. Some aspects of core formation in Mercury. Icarus (1976) vol. 28 pp. 509-521 Watters et al. Topography of lobate scarps on Mercury: New constraints on the planet's contraction. Geology (1998) vol. 26 pp. 991-994

  13. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  15. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  16. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  17. When the Due Date Is Not the "Do" Date!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrianni, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Our students consistently hand in assignments late, or complete them at the last minute. Why is it that they know about assignments all term long yet only begin them the night before the assignment is due? Based on a career-focused learning community at Kingsborough Community College of the City University of New York, this article looks at ways…

  18. 34 CFR 674.41 - Due diligence-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... loans by complying with the provisions in this subpart. In exercising this responsibility, each... information on the availability of the Student Loan Ombudsman's office if the borrower disputes the terms of... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.41...

  19. 34 CFR 674.41 - Due diligence-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... loans by complying with the provisions in this subpart. In exercising this responsibility, each... information on the availability of the Student Loan Ombudsman's office if the borrower disputes the terms of... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.41...

  20. 34 CFR 674.41 - Due diligence-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... loans by complying with the provisions in this subpart. In exercising this responsibility, each... information on the availability of the Student Loan Ombudsman's office if the borrower disputes the terms of... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.41...

  1. 12 CFR 34.5 - Due-on-sale clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS... State law limitations to the contrary. For the purposes of this section, the term real property includes..., secured by a lien on real property, that includes a due-on-sale clause. Except as set forth in 12...

  2. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  3. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  4. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  5. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  7. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  8. [Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:D100-8) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2013-12-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need.

  10. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  11. Carbon materials as additives to WO3 for an enhanced conversion of simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rocío; Velasco, Leticia; Laurenti, Enzo; Maurino, Valter; Ania, Conchi

    2016-02-01

    We have explored the impact of the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as additives to tungsten oxide on the photocatalytic degradation of two recalcitrant pollutants: rhodamine B and phenol, under simulated solar light. For this purpose, WO3/carbon mixtures were prepared using three carbon materials with different properties (in terms of porosity, structural order and surface chemistry). Despite the low carbon content used (2 wt. %), a significant increase in the photocatalytic performance of the semiconductor was observed for all the catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the carbon additive on the performance of the photocatalysts was found to be very different for the two pollutants. Carbon additives of hydrophobic nature increased the photodegradation yield of phenol compared to bare WO3, likely due to the higher affinity and stronger interactions of phenol molecules towards basic nanoporous carbons. Oppositely, the use of acidic carbon additives led to higher rhodamine B conversions due to increased acidity of the WO3/carbon mixtures and the stronger affinity of the pollutant for acidic catalyst’s surfaces. As a result, the photooxidation of rhodamine B is favored by means of a coupled (photosensitized and photocatalytic) degradation mechanism. All these results highlight the importance of favoring the interactions of the pollutant with the catalyst’s surface through a detailed design of the features of the photocatalyst.

  12. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  14. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  16. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  18. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  19. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  20. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  1. 10 CFR 611.107 - Loan terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan terms. 611.107 Section 611.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Direct Loan Program § 611.107 Loan terms. (a) All loans provided under this part shall be due and payable... or installed as a result of the Eligible Project carried out using funds from the loan, as...

  2. 10 CFR 611.107 - Loan terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan terms. 611.107 Section 611.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Direct Loan Program § 611.107 Loan terms. (a) All loans provided under this part shall be due and payable... or installed as a result of the Eligible Project carried out using funds from the loan, as...

  3. 14 CFR 1300.15 - Loan terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan terms. 1300.15 Section 1300.15... DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures § 1300.15 Loan terms. (a) A loan guaranteed under the program shall be due and payable in full no later...

  4. 10 CFR 611.107 - Loan terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 611.107 Section 611.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Direct Loan Program § 611.107 Loan terms. (a) All loans provided under this part shall be due and payable... or installed as a result of the Eligible Project carried out using funds from the loan, as...

  5. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  6. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  8. Long-term carbon loss in fragmented Neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Sandro; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Henle, Klaus; Knogge, Christoph; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Metz, Markus; Metzger, Jean Paul; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; de Paula, Mateus Dantas; Huth, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combination of remote sensing and knowledge on ecological processes, we present long-term carbon loss estimates due to fragmentation of Neotropical forests: within 10 years the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has lost 69 (±14) Tg C, and the Amazon 599 (±120) Tg C due to fragmentation alone. For all tropical forests, we estimate emissions up to 0.2 Pg C y(-1) or 9 to 24% of the annual global C loss due to deforestation. In conclusion, tropical forest fragmentation increases carbon loss and should be accounted for when attempting to understand the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance.

  9. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  10. The magnetic field inside a layered anisotropic spherical conductor due to internal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuronal current imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and in invasive measurement of neuronal magnetic fields have given a need for methods to compute the magnetic field inside a volume conductor due to source currents that are within the conductor. In this work, we derive, verify, and demonstrate an analytical expression for the magnetic field inside an anisotropic multilayer spherically symmetric conductor due to an internal current dipole. We casted an existing solution for electric field to vector spherical harmonic (VSH) form. Next, we wrote an ansatz for the magnetic field using toroidal-poloidal decomposition that uses the same VSHs. Using properties of toroidal and poloidal components and VSHs and applying magnetic scalar potential, we then formulated a series expression for the magnetic field. The convergence of the solution was accelerated by formulating the solution using an addition-subtraction method. We verified the resulting formula against boundary-element method. The verification showed that the formulas and implementation are correct; 99th percentiles of amplitude and angle differences between the solutions were below 0.5% and 0.5°, respectively. As expected, the addition-subtraction model converged faster than the unaccelerated model; close to the source, 250 terms gave relative error below 1%, and the number of needed terms drops fast, as the distance to the source increases. Depending on model conductivities and source position, field patterns inside a layered sphere may differ considerably from those in a homogeneous sphere. In addition to being a practical modeling tool, the derived solution can be used to verify numerical methods, especially finite-element method, inside layered anisotropic conductors.

  11. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  12. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  13. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  14. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  15. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  16. On long-term ozone trends at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claude, H.; Vandersee, W.; Wege, K.

    1994-01-01

    More than 2000 ozone soundings and a large number of Dobson observations have been performed since 1967 in a unique procedure. The achieved very homogeneous data sets were used to evaluate significant long-term trends both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The trend amounts to about plus 2 percent per year in the troposphere and to about minus 0.5 percent per year in the stratosphere. Extremely low ozone records obtained during winter 1991/92 are discussed in the light of the long term series. The winter mean of the ozone column is the lowest one of the series. The ozone deficit occurred mainly in the lower stratosphere. One cause may be the Pinatubo cloud. Even compared with the extreme winter mean following the El Chichon eruption the ozone content was lower. Additionally ozone was reduced by dynamical effects due to unusual weather situations.

  17. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  18. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  19. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  20. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  1. Invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy athlete due to long-term anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene A; Thompson, Christopher F; Kedeshian, Paul A; Palma-Diaz, Fernando; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a potentially fatal infection that affects immunocompromised patients. Prognosis is generally poor despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments. We present the first reported case of invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy 18-year-old male athlete who was taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The effects of excessive AAS use on the immune system are not fully understood, but there may be consequences at supraphysiological concentrations. This case demonstrates potential immunomodulatory effects of anabolic steroids and highlights a previously unknown cause of invasive fungal sinusitis.

  2. Does Long Term Use of Piracetam Improve Speech Disturbances Due to Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Levent; Terzi, Murat; Onar, Musa Kazim

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia causes significant disability and handicap among stroke survivors. Language therapy is recommended for aphasic patients, but not always available. Piracetam, an old drug with novel properties, has been shown to have mild beneficial effects on post-stroke aphasia. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 6 months treatment with…

  3. Does long term use of piracetam improve speech disturbances due to ischemic cerebrovascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Güngör, Levent; Terzi, Murat; Onar, Musa Kazim

    2011-04-01

    Aphasia causes significant disability and handicap among stroke survivors. Language therapy is recommended for aphasic patients, but not always available. Piracetam, an old drug with novel properties, has been shown to have mild beneficial effects on post-stroke aphasia. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 6 months treatment with piracetam on aphasia following stroke. Thirty patients with first-ever ischemic strokes and related aphasia were enrolled in the study. The scores for the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Gülhane Aphasia Test were recorded. The patients were scheduled randomly to receive either 4.8 g piracetam daily or placebo treatment for 6 months. At the end of 24 weeks, clinical assessments and aphasia tests were repeated. The level of improvement in the clinical parameters and aphasia scores was compared between the two groups. All patients had large lesions and severe aphasia. No significant difference was observed between the piracetam and placebo groups regarding the improvements in the NIHSS, BI and mRS scores at the end of the treatment. The improvements observed in spontaneous speech, reading fluency, auditory comprehension, reading comprehension, repetition, and naming were not significantly different in the piracetam and placebo groups, the difference reached significance only for auditory comprehension in favor of piracetam at the end of the treatment. Piracetam is well-tolerated in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Piracetam taken orally in a daily dose of 4.8 g for 6 months has no clear beneficial effect on post-stroke language disorders.

  4. Deformed neutron stars due to strong magnetic field in terms of relativistic mean field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Kota; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2014-09-01

    Some observations suggest that magnetic field intensity of neutron stars that have particularly strong magnetic field, magnetars, reaches values up to 1014-15G. It is expected that there exists more strong magnetic field of several orders of magnitude in the interior of such stars. Neutron star matter is so affected by magnetic fields caused by intrinsic magnetic moments and electric charges of baryons that masses of neutron stars calculated by using Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is therefore modified. We calculate equation of state (EOS) in density-dependent magnetic field by using sigma-omega-rho model that can reproduce properties of stable nuclear matter in laboratory Furthermore we calculate modified masses of deformed neutron stars.

  5. Modeling of Long-Term Fate of Mobilized Fines due to Dam-Embankment Interfacial Dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascoe, L. G.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Transverse cracks in embankment dams can develop as a result of post-construction settlements, earthquake deformations, or anthropogenic loads such as emplaced explosives. During these dislocations, fine particles are released from the damaged zones and can create unwanted inertial erosion and piping through the transverse cracks. These processes are equally critical to the overall stability of the dam. We present numerical results related to the problem of the fluid flow, transport, and filtration of particulates from damaged zones between the concrete sections of a gravity dam and the embankment wraparound sections. The model solves simultaneously the flow, attachment, and washout of fine particles within a wraparound heterogeneous porous media. We used a state-of-the-art finite element method with adaptive mesh refinement to capture 1) the interface between water dense with fines and clear water, and 2) the non-linearity of the free surface itself. A few scenarios of sediment entrapment in the filter layers of a gravity dam were considered. Several parameterizations of the filtration model and constitutive laws of soil behavior were also investigated. Through these analyses, we concluded that the attachment kinetic isotherm is the key function of the model. More parametric studies need to be conducted to assess the sensitivity of the kinetic isotherm parameters on the overall stability of the embankment. These kinetic parameters can be obtained, for example, through numerical micro- and meso-scale studies. It is worth mentioning that the current model, for the more realistic non-linear kinetic isotherms, has predicted a self-rehabilitation of the breached core with retention of 50% of the mobilized fines using a very conservative filtration length. A more realistic value should exceed the assumed one, resulting in a retention exceeding 50%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate.

  6. Nicolau Syndrome due to Penicillin Injection: A Report of 3 Cases without Long-Term Complication

    PubMed Central

    Memarian, Sara; Gharib, Behdad; Gharagozlou, Mohammd; Alimadadi, Hosein; Ahmadinejad, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome (NS) or livedo-like dermatitis is a rare complication of injection of various medications such as penicillin. The pathophysiology of this events is not clear, but some hypotheses are suggested, such as sympathetic nerve stimulation, embolic occlusion, inflammation, or mechanical injury. In this paper we report 3 cases of NS following benzathine penicillin. Clinical symptoms improved in 2 cases during 2-month follow-up, but one of them had a residual necrosis in the distal phalanges of the toes. PMID:27882254

  7. A fatality due to cyproheptadine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica; Molina, D Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    Cyproheptadine (Periactin) is a first-generation antihistamine available in over-the-counter cold medications and is used to treat allergic-type symptoms. Although antihistamines in general have long been known to cause serious side effects, especially when taken in overdose, few reports that specifically address cyproheptadine-related fatalities exist. A 42-year-old healthy female was found dead at her home with no anatomic cause of death and a recent history of suicidal ideations. Toxicology revealed cyproheptadine and citalopram in the femoral postmortem blood at concentrations of 0.49 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Vitreous, urine, and bile analysis were also performed, yielding concentrations of < 0.04 and 0.80 mg/L in the vitreous for cyproheptadine and citalopram, respectively; 0.23 and 8.2 mg/L in the urine; and 30.7 and 9.0 mg/L in the bile. The cause of death was determined to be cyproheptadine and citalopram intoxication, and the manner was ruled a suicide. Although cyproheptadine is widely available in the United States and Europe, there are only two published fatalities due to this antihistamine and only one that specifically cites blood and tissue concentrations. Therefore, this case study will be beneficial to the forensic toxicology community by providing additional information regarding postmortem interpretation.

  8. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  9. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin

    2017-03-09

    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Probable Health Risks Due to Exposure to Outdoor PM2.5 in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Chowdhury, S.

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter of size <2.5 μm (commonly referred to as PM2.5) is considered to be the best indicator of health risks due to exposure to particulate pollution. Unlike the decreasing trends in the developed countries, aerosol loading continues to increase over the Indian subcontinent in the recent past, exposing ~1.6 billion population at risk. Lack of direct measurements prompted us to utilize satellite data in establishing a robust long-term database of surface PM2.5 at high spatial resolution. The hybrid approach utilizes a chemical transport model to constrain the relation between columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface PM2.5 and establish mean monthly conversion factor. Satellite-derived daily AODs for the period 2000-2012 are then converted to PM2.5 using the conversion factors. The dataset (after validation against coincident in-situ measurements and bias-correction) was used to carry out the exposure assessment. 51% of the population is exposed to PM2.5 concentration exceeding WHO air quality interim target-3 threshold (35 μg m-3). The health impacts are categorized in terms of four diseases - cardio ortho-pulmonary disease (COPD), stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and lung cancer (LC). In absence of any region-specific cohort study, published studies are consulted to estimate risk. The risks relative to the background concentration of 10 μg m-3 are estimated by logarithmic fitting of the individual cohort studies against the corresponding PM2.5 concentration. This approach considers multiple (>100) cohort studies across a wide variety of adult population from various socio-economic backgrounds. Therefore, the calculated risks are considered to be better estimates in relative to any one particular type of risk function model (e.g. linear 50 or linear 70 or exponential). The risk values are used to calculate the additional mortality due to exposure to PM2.5 in each of the administrative districts in India to identify the vulnerable regions

  11. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  12. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  13. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  14. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  16. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  17. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  18. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered HLA alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from Clinical, Registry, and Histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians, and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching, and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve; thus, the definitions agreed on today probably will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  19. Spleen rupture due to primary angiosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koutelidakis, Ioannis M; Tsiaousis, Panagiotis Z; Papaziogas, Basilios Th; Patsas, Aristeides G; Atmatzidis, Stefanos K; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos S

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 79-year-old female with rupture of the spleen due to primary angiosarcoma is presented. Symptoms were non-specific. Diagnosis was based on histology postoperatively. Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is a very rare and aggressive neoplasm with a high metastatic rate and almost uniformly fatal. Due to small number of reported cases, there are no guidelines concerning adjuvant or palliative treatment or any beneficial protocols of chemotherapy or radiotherapy up to date. Splenectomy prior to rupture seems to have a positive impact on long-term survival.

  20. Is VHF Fresnel reflectivity due to low frequency buoyancy waves?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.; Vincent, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    VHF radar echoes are greatly enhanced near the zenith relative to other directions. This enhancement must be due to reflection from horizontally stratified laminate of refractive index. The refractivity laminate are due to the displacements of low frequency buoyancy (internal gravity) waves acting on the background vertical gradient of refractivity. VANZANDT (1982) has shown that the observed spectra of mesoscale wind fluctuations in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are modeled by a universal spectrum of buoyancy (internal gravity) waves. Since the observed frequency spectrum is red, the buoyancy wave model of the vertical displacement spectrum is strongly enhanced near the zenith. In other terms, the resulting refractivity irregularities are strongly stratified.

  1. When you pass your due date

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  2. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  3. The Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Thomas T.

    1996-11-01

    A recent claim (Weiss, H. J. Chem. Ed. 1993, 70, 873 - 874) that vinyl cations are not the predominant intermediates in the electrophilic addition to alkynes in disputed on the following grounds: (1) these is a linear free energy correlation between the rates of acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes and alkynes, and since carbocations are accepted as intermediates in the former reaction, they are implicated in the latter as well; (2) rearrangements are known to be energetically less favorable in vinyl cations compared to alkyl cations, and so the lesser observed tendency for rearrangement in the former case does not argue for the absence of vinyl cation intermediates; (3) there is evidence that alkenes and alkynes react with HBr and HCl in some cases with anti addition and a kinetic term in [HX]2, but this is not an argument for a difference in behavior between the two, or for a pi-complex mechanism; (4) thermochemical calculations show that vinyl cations are not prohbitively destabilized compared to analogous alkyl cations; (5) the observation of an HCl/acetylene pi-complex in the gas phase is not an argument that this represents a rate-limiting transition state in solution.

  4. Polymer additives improve cementing in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, P. )

    1988-12-05

    Recently, new anionic aromatic polymers (AAP's) have been identified that simultaneously impart to salt-rich cement slurries improved fluid-loss control and exceptional rheological properties. At the same time, these materials do not significantly extend the slurry-thickening time or impair the compressive strength development of the cement. Thus, the casing strings are protected in plastic zones very soon after completing the cement job. The cementing of wells penetrating massive salt formations has posed a number of problems over the years. Contributing to the problem was the fact that some cements displayed poor characteristics in saline environments, and that conventional additives were of limited use in these systems. Other additives, designed for salt water, were found to provide characteristics far from the optimum, while at the same time causing detrimental effects on other slurry properties, notably rheology, thickening time, and early compressive strength. In several areas, the presence of salt domes and massive evaporite sequences cause problems in the drilling, completion, and long-term production of oil and gas wells that penetrate these zones.

  5. 29 CFR 4007.11 - Due dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Due dates. (a) In general. For flat-rate and variable-rate premiums, the premium filing due date for... variable-rate premium payment must be made by the last day of the sixteenth full calendar month following... payment year. (ii) The due date for the variable-rate premium required by § 4006.3(b) of this chapter...

  6. New Insights Into the Evolution of Color Terms or an Effect of Saturation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Through their thorough investigation of the Hadza, a nonindustrialized language community in Tanzania, Lindsey and colleagues (2015) developed a new approach to understand the evolution of color terms. In the present commentary, I discuss the possibility that some of their results might be explained by the lacking control of saturation of their color stimuli. The saturation of colors plays an important yet widely neglected role in color naming. The additional analyses presented here suggest that the results on Hadzane color naming could be due to variations in saturation in the stimulus set rather than being evidence for universal constraints on color term evolution. PMID:27698987

  7. Added noise due to the effect of an upstream wake on a propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Spence, P. L.; Block, P. J. W.

    1987-10-01

    An analytical/computational study has been conducted to predict the effect of an upstream wing or pylon on the noise of an operating propeller. The wing trailing edge was placed at variable distances (0.1 and 0.3 chord) upstream of a scaled model propeller (SR-2). The wake was modeled using a similarity formulation. The instantaneous pressure distribution on the propeller blades during the passage through the wake was formulated in terms of a time-dependent variation of each blade section's angle of attack and in terms of the shed vortices from the blade trailing edge. It was found that the final expressions for the unsteady loads considerably altered the radiated noise pattern. Predicted noise for various observer positions, rotational speeds, and propeller/pylon distances were computed and are presented in terms of the pressure time history, harmonics of the Fourier analysis, and overall sound pressure levels (OASPL). The addition of the tangential stress due to skin friction was found to have a damping effect on the acoustic pressure time history and the resulting spectrum of the generated noise. It is shown that the positioning of a pylon upstream of a propeller indeed increases the overall noise.

  8. Effects of long-term and short-term warming on VOC emissions from a Subarctic heath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2013-04-01

    It is predicted that the temperature increase during the next 100 years will be highest in the high latitudes. Temperature is also the main factor affecting the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by plants. In the Subarctic, the VOC emissions appear to be even more sensitive to temperature changes than in temperate systems, probably because the plant species are adapted to colder climate. The arctic ecosystems are very sensitive to any disturbances, and therefore it is important to study climate change effects and predict future responses in these areas. Long-term climate change experiment with elevated temperature and litter addition treatments has been running on a subarctic heath in Abisko, North Sweden since 1999. Five treatments (1. unmanipulated control, 2. long-term warming, 3. short-term warming, 4. litter addition and 5. litter addition + warming) are replicated in six blocks. In 2010, eight vegetation-soil-chamber-based VOC collection campaigns were made. VOCs were collected into adsorbent cartridges, which were analyzed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Point quadrant analysis was used to investigate the species composition in the different treatments, and the vegetation data was used as an explaining factor for the different VOC emission profiles between treatments. Elevated temperature significantly increased the total VOC emission from the subarctic heath. Most significant effects were found for the emissions of isoprene and sesquiterpenes. The short-term and long-term temperature treatments differed for the emissions of total terpenoids. According to these results, elevated temperature has both long- and short term effects on VOC-emissions. In the short term, direct temperature effect increases VOC-emissions. In the long term, indirect effects via vegetation changes dominate. After the release into the atmosphere, the lifetime of VOCs is from seconds to days. They participate in secondary organic aerosol formation

  9. Forebody flow physics due to rotary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, Kenneth Paul

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of an isolated forebody undergoing rotary motion was conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel. Force balance, surface pressure, and flow visualization data was acquired over a range of AOA, for a round and chined configuration of a generic tangent ogive shape. The nature of the fixed location of separation of the chined forebody develops a strong, symmetrical leeward side flowfield. In comparison, the round forebody develops a lateral asymmetry, as a function of AOA, from the naturally occurring separated flow. Quantifying the side force behavior due to the rotary motion of the two distinctively different forebody configurations will lead to a better understanding of the flowfield which plays a primary role in the overall stability and control of an air vehicle. For the round forebody, the side force behavior due to the rotary motion ( CYW ) is dependent upon flow speed (ReD), AOA, as well as the direction and magnitude of rotation ( W=wLV ). In the low AOA range, the rotary-induced flowfield is insufficient in promoting a side force development. In the high AOA range a damping in side force behavior is a result of the "moving wall" effect where the flow along the windward region of the forebody is the predominant influence. In the AOA range where an asymmetrical flowfield is established in a static environment, the rotary motion does not disrupt the natural asymmetric state of the vortices. Additionally, neither the presence of a static side force nor its direction is apparently sufficient in determining the CYW behavior from the axially-varying flowfield. The CYW behavior of the chined forebody is related to the leeward side vortices' vertical trajectory, which is a function of AOA. A slight propelling side force behavior develops in an AOA range where an increased suction develops from the upwind vortex. In the high AOA range there is a diminishing influence from the leeward side vortex suction resulting

  10. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  11. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  12. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  13. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  14. Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Waqar; Batool, Asma; Ahmed, Tahir Aziz; Bashir, Muhammad Mukarram

    2012-03-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is the term applied to a group of rare genetic disorders characterised by defective or absent T and B cell functions. Patients usually present in first 6 months of life with respiratory/gastrointestinal tract infections and failure to thrive. Among the various types of severe combined immunodeficiency, enzyme deficiencies are relatively less common. We report the case of a 6 years old girl having severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

  15. The relative contribution of short-term versus long-term effects in shrub-understory species interactions under arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Chaieb, Mohamed; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Michalet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Plant-plant interactions (competition and facilitation) in terrestrial ecosystems include: (1) short-term effects, primarily quantified with experimental removals; and (2) long-term effects, mostly due to soil weathering processes, primarily quantified with observational methods. It has been argued that these effects are likely to vary in contrasting directions with increasing drought stress in arid systems. However, few studies have used appropriate methodology to assess both types of effects and their variation across nurse species and environmental conditions, in particular in arid systems. This knowledge is crucial for predicting variation in the mediating role of facilitation with climate change and assessing the importance of nurse effects in ecological restoration. In the arid climate of central-south Tunisia, understory species' biomass, abundance and composition and soil parameters were compared in shrub-control, shrub-removed and open areas for three shrub species and in two habitats with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Long-term effects were dominant, positive for all three shrub species and associated with increasing nutrient content in shrub patches. Short-term effects, mainly related to water consumption, were weaker, mostly negative and dependent on shrub species. Additionally, long-term effects were less positive and short-term effects more negative in the dry habitat than in the wet habitat. Our study provides evidence of the primary influence of positive (facilitative) long-term effects in this arid system. However, the net effects of shrubs could be less beneficial for other species with increasing aridity under climate change, due to both a decrease in positive long-term effects and an increase in negative short-term effects.

  16. [Endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria. A case report of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae].

    PubMed

    Lepori, M; Bochud, P Y; Owlya, R; Broccard, A; Schaller, M D

    2001-01-01

    Endocarditis is a common disease in hospital practice. Identification of the microorganism responsible for the valvular damage is essential to establish the prognosis and to determine the optimal antibiotic treatment. In some cases of endocarditis the diagnosis is laborious, especially when the responsible microorganism is difficult to detect using standard culture techniques. Here we report a case of native aortic valve endocarditis due to Kingella kingae, a Gram negative organism of the HACEK group. In addition we review 6 other cases of endocarditis caused by organism belonging to this group, treated in our hospital between 1983 and 1999. Epidemiological studies show that less than 5% of all cases of endocarditis are caused by organisms of the HACEK group. The diagnosis is often delayed because their slow growth on a standard culture medium. We describe clinical and microbiological characteristics of this group of endocarditis.

  17. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  18. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P; Foster, Norman L; Hoffman, John M

    2015-05-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Morbidity and Mortality Due to Bordetella pertussis: A Significant Pathogen in West Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, Beate; Mackenzie, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of specific surveillance platforms for pertussis and availability of suitable diagnostics at the hospital level, reliable data that describe morbidity and mortality from pertussis are difficult to obtain in any setting, as is the case in West Africa. Here, we summarize the available evidence of the burden of pertussis in the region, given historical data, and describe recent and ongoing epidemiological studies that offer opportunities for additional data collection. The available seroepidemiological data provide evidence of ongoing circulation of Bordetella pertussis in the region. Due to the lack of systematic and targeted surveillance with laboratory confirmation of B. pertussis infection, we cannot definitively conclude that pertussis disease is well controlled in West Africa. However, based on observations by clinicians and ongoing demographic surveillance systems that capture morbidity and mortality data in general terms, currently there is no evidence that pertussis causes a significant burden of disease in young children in West Africa. PMID:27838666

  20. KTP laser selective vaporization of the prostate in the management of urinary retention due to BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, M. W.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2003-06-01

    High-powered photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is a relatively new addition in the armamentarium against bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH. With BPH, the prostate undergoes stromal and epithelial hyperplasia, particularly in the transitional zone, mediated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This periurethral enlargement can compress the prostatic urethra leading to bladder outlet obstruction and eventually urinary retention. Treatment of uncomplicated symptomatic BPH has evolved from the standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to multiple medical therapies and the putative minimally invasive surgical procedures. These include microwave ablation, needle ablation, balloon dilation, stents, as well as fluid based thermo-therapy, ultrasound therapy and cryotherapy. Different forms of lasers have been applied to treat BPH with variable short and long term benefits of urinary symptoms. However, the controversy remains about each laser regarding its technical applicability and efficacy.

  1. 76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... 5.35 5.28 5.38 5.39 Fort Berthold 2.98 2.96 2.66 2.83 Fort Peck Reservation 3.99 4.22 3.98 4.56... Berthold 2.68 4.20 4.13 4.68 Fort Peck Reservation 4.17 5.98 6.49 6.22 Navajo Allotted Leases in the Navajo... 3.57 3.53 2.70 2.41 Fort Belknap 5.93 5.58 5.41 5.45 Fort Berthold 4.94 3.88 2.94 2.77 Fort...

  2. 75 FR 22159 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ....74 8.35 8.77 Rocky Boys Reservation 5.81 6.38 7.00 7.41 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray....49 7.82 Rocky Boys Reservation 8.18 9.28 7.95 5.70 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray... Boys Reservation 4.66 4.41 4.13 3.91 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray Reservation..........

  3. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... 6.76 6.22 Navajo Allotted Leases in the Navajo Reservation 5.95 5.48 4.65 3.82 Rocky Boys....01 Rocky Boys Reservation 2.47 2.67 2.27 2.13 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and Ouray Reservation... 3.47 3.39 4.13 Rocky Boys Reservation 2.24 2.16 2.46 2.60 Ute Tribal Leases in the Uintah and...

  4. 78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Reservation 4.16 4.05 3.70 3.98 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.84 3.64 3.63 3.72 ONRR-Designated areas May 2011 Jun... Reservation 4.04 4.07 4.11 4.14 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.82 3.95 3.78 3.58 ONRR-Designated areas Sep 2011 Oct... Reservation 3.78 3.57 3.38 3.29 Rocky Boys Reservation 3.54 3.13 3.00 2.82 For information on how to...

  5. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  6. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  7. A Bayesian Algorithm for Assessing Uncertainty in Radionuclide Source Terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Inferring source term parameters for a radionuclide release is difficult, due to the large uncertainties in forward dispersion modelling as a consequence of imperfect knowledge pertaining to wind vector fields and turbulent diffusion in the Earth's atmosphere. Additional sources of error include the radionuclide measurements obtained from sensors. These measurements may either be subject to random fluctuations or are simple indications that the true, unobserved quantity is below a detection limit. Consequent large reconstruction uncertainties can render a "best" estimate meaningless. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian Algorithm is presented that attempts to account for uncertainties in atmospheric transport modelling and radionuclide sensor measurements to quantify uncertainties in radionuclide release source term parameters. Prior probability distributions are created for likely release locations at existing nuclear facilities and seismic events. Likelihood models are constructed using CTBTO adjoint modelling output and probability distributions of sensor response. Samples from the resulting multi-isotope source term parameters posterior probability distribution are generated that can be used to make probabilistic statements about the source term. Examples are given of marginal probability distributions obtained from simulated sensor data. The consequences of errors in numerical weather prediction wind fields are demonstrated with a reconstruction of the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident from International Monitoring System radionuclide particulate sensor data.

  8. Pediatric Sialadenosis Due to Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Derin, Hatice; Derin, Serhan; Oltulu, Pembe; Özbek, Orhan; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2016-12-23

    Sialadenosis is a rare entity characterized by bilateral diffuse, painless swelling of the parotid glands. Its etiology is not clear; however, it may occur due to adverse effects of some drugs. To our knowledge, sialadenosis due to valproic acid has not been reported in the literature up to date in any child. In this article, the authors presented a child who developed sialadenosis due to valproic acid, and improved after stopping use of the drug.

  9. Additives to Prevent Deleterious Effects Associated with Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    source of carbon for bacteria than the fuel itself. When the material is used it must be protected by a bactericide . 50. Sulfate-reducing bacteria... Bactericides have been widely used to control microbial effects in petroleum storage. Most of these compounds dissolve in the petroleum product but, move into...the bactericides . Generally these materials would be deactivated by absorp- tion on particulates or oxidation. Testing of bactericides for use in long

  10. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in... Commission (NRC) has entered into an effective agreement under Subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of... team that accompanies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors during...

  11. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in... Commission (NRC) has entered into an effective agreement under Subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of... team that accompanies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors during...

  12. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in... Commission (NRC) has entered into an effective agreement under Subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of... team that accompanies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors during...

  13. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in... Commission (NRC) has entered into an effective agreement under Subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of... team that accompanies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors during...

  14. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in... Commission (NRC) has entered into an effective agreement under Subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of... team that accompanies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors during...

  15. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL... of the timber, such as, timber is subject to rapid deterioration, timber is in a...

  16. Additional Evidence for the Accuracy of Biographical Data: Long-Term Retest and Observer Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Garnett Stokes; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated accuracy of responses to biodata questionnaire using a test-retest design and informed external observers for verification. Responses from 237 subjects and 200 observers provided evidence that many responses to biodata questionnaire were accurate. Assessed sources of inaccuracy, including social desirability effects, and noted…

  17. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  18. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  19. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  20. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  1. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  2. On Dissipation Function of Ocean Waves due to Whitecapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. E.; Korotkevich, A. O.; Prokofiev, A. O.

    2009-09-09

    The Hasselmann kinetic equation provides a statistical description of waves ensemble. Several catastrophic events are beyond statistical model. In the case of gravity waves on the surface of the deep fluid may be the most frequent and important events of such kind are whitecapping and wave breaking. It was shown earlier that such effects leads to additional dissipation in the energy contaning region around waves spectral peak, which can be simulated by means of empiric dissipative term in kinetic equation. In order to find dependence of this term with respect to nonlinearity in the system (steepness of the surface) we preformed two numerical experiments: weakly nonlinear one in the framework of 3D hydrodynamics and fully nonlinear one for 2D hydrodynamic. In spite of significantly different models and initial conditions, both these experiments yielded close results. Obtained data can be used to define analytical formula for dependence of the dissipative term of dissipation coefficient with respect to mean steepness of the surface.

  3. Children's Additive Concepts: Promoting Understanding and the Role of Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Dube, Adam K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the promotion of children's understanding and acquisition of arithmetic concepts and the effects of inhibitory skills. Children in Grades 3, 4, and 5 solved two sets of three-term addition and subtraction problems (e.g., 3 + 24 - 24, 3 + 24 - 22) and completed an inhibition task. Half of the participants received a…

  4. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Some Additional Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement and some additional considerations. He states that the concept of negative reinforcement has caused confusion, and he believes that the difficulty stems from conventions of ordinary speech, in which the term "negative" usually denotes the opposite of…

  5. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels.

  6. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Gil, Ángel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models), duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function) and disability (weights published in the literature) for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population), 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs) predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability. PMID:19183440

  7. Additional historical solid rocket motor burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Homeister, Maren; Oswald, Michael; Stabroth, Sebastian; Klinkrad, Heiner; Vörsmann, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The use of orbital solid rocket motors (SRM) is responsible for the release of a high number of slag and Al 2O 3 dust particles which contribute to the space debris environment. This contribution has been modeled for the ESA space debris model MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference). The current model version, MASTER-2005, is based on the simulation of 1076 orbital SRM firings which mainly contributed to the long-term debris environment. SRM firings on very low earth orbits which produce only short living particles are not considered. A comparison of the modeled flux with impact data from returned surfaces shows that the shape and quantity of the modeled SRM dust distribution matches that of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array measurements very well. However, the absolute flux level for dust is under-predicted for some of the analyzed Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces. This indicates that some past SRM firings are not included in the current event database. Thus it is necessary to investigate, if additional historical SRM burns, like the retro-burn of low orbiting re-entry capsules, may be responsible for these dust impacts. The most suitable candidates for these firings are the large number of SRM retro-burns of return capsules. This paper focuses on the SRM retro-burns of Russian photoreconnaissance satellites, which were used in high numbers during the time of the LDEF mission. It is discussed which types of satellites and motors may have been responsible for this historical contribution. Altogether, 870 additional SRM retro-burns have been identified. An important task is the identification of such missions to complete the current event data base. Different types of motors have been used to de-orbit both large satellites and small film return capsules. The results of simulation runs are presented.

  8. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol.

    PubMed

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S

    2017-01-18

    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity with a rationally designed microarchitecture and biofunctionalized surface. The rational design based on triply periodic minimal surfaces aimed to properly adjust the pore size, increase the surface area (thereby amplifying the effects of surface biofunctionalization), and resemble the curvature characteristics of trabecular bone. The surface of additively manufactured (AM) porous nitinol was biofunctionalized using polydopamine-immobilized rhBMP2 for better control of the release kinetics. The actual morphological properties of porous nitinol measured by microcomputed tomography (e.g., open/close porosity, and surface area) closely matched the design values. The superelasticity originated from the austenite phase formed in the nitinol porous structure at room temperature. Polydopamine and rhBMP2 signature peaks were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests. The release of rhBMP2 continued until 28 days. The early time and long-term release profiles were found to be adjustable independent of each other. In vitro cell culture showed improved cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology (spreading, spindle-like shape), and cell coverage as well as elevated levels of ALP activity and increased calcium content for biofunctionalized surfaces as compared to as-manufactured specimens. The demonstrated functionalities of porous nitinol could be used as a basis for deployable orthopedic implants with rationally designed microarchitectures that maximize bone tissue regeneration performance by release of biomolecules with adjustable and well-controlled release profiles.

  9. Transformation of Breast Reconstruction via Additive Biomanufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Chhaya, Mohit P.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to current breast reconstruction options. However, the conventional approach of using a scaffold in combination with adipose-derived precursor cells poses several problems in terms of scalability and hence clinical feasibility. Following the body-as-a-bioreactor approach, this study proposes a unique concept of delayed fat injection into an additive biomanufactured and custom-made scaffold. Three study groups were evaluated: Empty scaffold, Scaffold containing 4 cm3 lipoaspirate and Empty scaffold +2-week prevascularisation period. In group 3, of prevascularisation, 4 cm3 of lipoaspirate was injected into scaffolds after 2 weeks. Using a well-characterised additive biomanufacturing technology platform, patient-specific scaffolds made of medical-grade-polycaprolactone were designed and fabricated. Scaffolds were implanted in subglandular pockets in immunocompetent minipigs (n = 4) for 24-weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue regeneration were observed in all constructs. Histological evaluation showed that the prevascularisation + lipoaspirate group had the highest relative area of adipose tissue (47.32% ± 4.12) which was significantly higher than both lipoaspirate-only (39.67% ± 2.04) and empty control group (8.31% ± 8.94) and similar to native breast tissue (44.97% ± 14.12). This large preclinical animal study provides proof-of-principle that the clinically applicable prevascularisation and delayed fat-injection techniques can be used for regeneration of large volumes of adipose tissue. PMID:27301425

  10. Recurrent hyperparathyroidism due to proliferation of autotransplanted parathyroid tissue in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Jina

    2016-01-01

    About 20%–30% of all cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is accompanied by primary hyperparathyroidism. These patients undergo parathyroidectomy and, if needed, autotransplantation. In rare cases, autotransplanted parathyroid tissues can cause hypoparathyroidism due to failure of transplantation or hyperparathyroidism due to proliferation of the transplanted tissue. A 68-year-old female with MEN 2A underwent left adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 15 years prior to presentation and total thyroidectomy, central and right lateral neck lymph node dissection, and subtotal parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation for medullary thyroid cancer and primary hyperparathyroidism 6 years previous. Recently, a doubtful parathyroid adenoma was detected in the left sternocleidomastoid muscle on ultrasonography and on an additional sestamibi scan. The mass was excised and histologically confirmed as parathyroid adenoma. This is a very rare case, and it suggests that long-term regular monitoring of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels is necessary after parathyroid autotransplantation. PMID:27617256

  11. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  12. Sudden death due to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bhagavath, Prashantha; Rastogi, Prateek; Menezes, Ritesh G; Valiathan, Manna; Mohan Kumar, T S; Raghavendra Babu, Y P; Kanchan, Tanuj; Monteiro, Francis N P; Nayak, Vinod C

    2009-01-01

    Sudden death due to respiratory pathology is not uncommon and tuberculosis with its complications is well known to cause death. We report a case of a male, train passenger, who started coughing out blood and died on reaching the hospital. Medicolegal autopsy confirmed the sudden unexpected death to be due to pulmonary aspergillosis in the person with past medical history of tuberculosis.

  13. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  14. Due Process in Adverse Personnel Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A detailed checklist and timeline for ensuring due process are provided for adverse personnel actions, and the need to supplement this with expert, same-jurisdiction legal advice is stressed. This approach emphasizes the importance of treating due process as an ethical as well as a legal requirement. (SLD)

  15. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  16. Potential breeding distributions of U.S. birds predicted with both short-term variability and long-term average climate data.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; Flather, Curtis H; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Akçakaya, H Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Albright, Thomas P; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Climate conditions, such as temperature or precipitation, averaged over several decades strongly affect species distributions, as evidenced by experimental results and a plethora of models demonstrating statistical relations between species occurrences and long-term climate averages. However, long-term averages can conceal climate changes that have occurred in recent decades and may not capture actual species occurrence well because the distributions of species, especially at the edges of their range, are typically dynamic and may respond strongly to short-term climate variability. Our goal here was to test whether bird occurrence models can be predicted by either covariates based on short-term climate variability or on long-term climate averages. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) based on either short-term variability or long-term average climate covariates for 320 bird species in the conterminous USA and tested whether any life-history trait-based guilds were particularly sensitive to short-term conditions. Models including short-term climate variability performed well based on their cross-validated area-under-the-curve AUC score (0.85), as did models based on long-term climate averages (0.84). Similarly, both models performed well compared to independent presence/absence data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (independent AUC of 0.89 and 0.90, respectively). However, models based on short-term variability covariates more accurately classified true absences for most species (73% of true absences classified within the lowest quarter of environmental suitability vs. 68%). In addition, they have the advantage that they can reveal the dynamic relationship between species and their environment because they capture the spatial fluctuations of species potential breeding distributions. With this information, we can identify which species and guilds are sensitive to climate variability, identify sites of high conservation value where climate

  17. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  18. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.

  19. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  20. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  1. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  2. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is nomore » strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.« less

  3. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-11-02

    Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  4. Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of α effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of α, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.

  5. Radiative forcing due to trends in stratospheric water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Claire A.; Haigh, Joanna D.; Toumi, Ralf

    Trends derived from the latest version of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) data are used in a two-dimensional atmospheric model to estimate their radiative effects over the last decade. The results show a stratospheric cooling in regions of H2O increase, of magnitude similar to that due to stratospheric ozone loss indicating a significant additional cause of observed stratospheric temperature decreases. Radiative forcings are derived and it is found that global average radiative forcing due to stratospheric water vapour changes probably lies in the range 0.12 to 0.20 Wm-2 decade-1. This could have more than compensated for the negative radiative forcing due to decadal ozone loss.

  6. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  7. Heroin fatality due to penile injection.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Rozin, L

    1999-03-01

    Death due to heroin overdose and/or rapid injection of heroin is a frequent occurrence among opioid addicts. We present an unusual case of heroin fatality due to the injection of the drug in the penis. Blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor concentrations of morphine were 0.68, 0.49, 0.32 and 0.062 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanol was detected at concentrations of 104, 124, 106, and 94 mg/dl in the blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be due to heroin and ethanol intoxication.

  8. Inspection of additive-manufactured layered components.

    PubMed

    Cerniglia, D; Scafidi, M; Pantano, A; Rudlin, J

    2015-09-01

    Laser powder deposition (LPD) is a rapid additive manufacturing process to produce, layer upon layer, 3D geometries or to repair high-value components. Currently there is no nondestructive technique that can guarantee absence of flaws in LPD products during manufacturing. In this paper a laser ultrasonic technique for in-line inspection of LPD components is proposed. Reference samples were manufactured from Inconel and machined flaws were created to establish the sensitivity of the technique. Numerical models of laser-generated ultrasonic waves have been created to gain a deeper understanding of physics, to optimize the set-up and to verify the experimental measurements. Results obtained on two sets of reference samples are shown. A proof-of-concept prototype has been demonstrated on some specific deposition samples with induced flaws, that were confirmed by an ultra-high sensitivity X-ray technique. Experimental outcomes prove that typical micro-defects due to the layer-by-layer deposition process, such as near-surface and surface flaws in a single layer deposit, can be detected.

  9. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  10. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500 mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50 V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80 min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times.

  11. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  12. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  13. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  14. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  15. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  16. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  17. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  18. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  19. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  20. Declines in Soil pH due to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs Alter Buffering and Exchange Reactions in Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs may alter tropical soil buffering and exchange reactions that have important implications for nutrient cycling, forest productivity, and downstream ecosystems. In contrast to relatively young temperate soils that are typically buffered from N inputs by base cation reactions, aluminum reactions may serve to buffer highly weathered tropical soils and result in immediate increases in aluminum mobility and toxicity. Increased nitrate losses due to chronic N inputs may also deplete residual base cations in already weathered base cation-poor soils, further acidify soils, and thereby reduce nitrate mobility through pH-dependent anion exchange reactions. To test these hypotheses, I determined soil pH and cation and anion exchange capacity (CEC and AEC) and measured base cation and aluminum soil solution losses following first-time and long-term experimental N additions from two Hawaiian tropical forest soils, a 300 year old Andisol and a 4.1 million year old Oxisol. I found that elevated base cation losses accompanied increased nitrate losses after first time N additions to the young Andisol whereas immediate and large aluminum losses were associated with increased nitrate losses from the Oxisol. In the long-term, base cation and aluminum losses increased in proportion to nitrate losses. Long-term N additions at both sites resulted in significant declines in soil pH, decreased CEC and increased AEC. These results suggest that even chronic N inputs resulting in small but elevated nitrate losses may deplete residual base cations, increase mobility and toxicity of aluminum, and potentially lead to declines in forest productivity and acidification of downstream ecosystems. These findings also suggest that AEC may provide a long-term mechanism to delay nitrate losses in tropical forests with significant variable charge that are experiencing chronic anthropogenic N inputs.

  1. THE COMPOSITIONAL STRUCTURE OF GENE ONTOLOGY TERMS

    PubMed Central

    OGREN, P. V.; COHEN, K. B.; ACQUAAH-MENSAH, G. K.; EBERLEIN, J.; HUNTER, L.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the term names in the Gene Ontology reveals the prevalence of substring relations between terms: 65.3% of all GO terms contain another GO term as a proper substring. This substring relation often coincides with a derivational relationship between the terms. For example, the term regulation of cell proliferation (GO:0042127) is derived from the term cell proliferation (GO:0008283) by addition of the phrase regulation of. Further, we note that particular substrings which are not themselves GO terms (e.g. regulation of in the preceding example) recur frequently and in consistent subtrees of the ontology, and that these frequently occurring substrings often indicate interesting semantic relationships between the related terms. We describe the extent of these phenomena—substring relations between terms, and the recurrence of derivational phrases such as regulation of—and propose that these phenomena can be exploited in various ways to make the information in GO more computationally accessible, to construct a conceptually richer representation of the data encoded in the ontology, and to assist in the analysis of natural language texts. PMID:14992505

  2. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  3. Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choon Aun; Sun, Darren; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wai, Soon Han; Wong, Ling Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-06-01

    It was found that with replenishment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) would develop biologically activated carbon (BAC) which could enhance filtration performance of a conventional MBR. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of PAC size on MBR (BAC) performance; and (ii) effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the MBR performance with and without PAC. To interpret the trends, particle/floc size, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS), total organic carbon (TOC), short-term filtration properties and transmembrane pressure (TMP) versus time are measured. The results showed improved fouling control with fine, rather than coarse, PAC provided the flux did not exceed the deposition flux for the fine PAC. Without PAC, the longer SRT operation gave lower fouling at modest fluxes. With PAC addition, the shorter SRT gave better fouling control, possibly due to greater replenishment of the fresh PAC.

  4. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  5. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  6. Termination of Faculty due to Financial Exigency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John P.

    1980-01-01

    Recent court cases involving termination of faculty due to financial exigency are summarized. Sections include an introduction, definition, a survey of recent cases, recommendations, conclusions and questions, and a bibliography. (Author/LC)

  7. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  8. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at ...

  9. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities.

  10. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  11. Evolution and failure of liquid bridges between grains due to evaporation and due to extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueckel, T.; Mielniczuk, B.; Said El Youssoufi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Evolution and rupture of liquid bridges between glass spheres during liquid evaporation and during mechanical extension was examined. The latter type of the tests has been widely studied, while a number of pertinent measurements during transient evaporation have not yet been reported. Also the resultant total capillary forces were measured and geometrical characteristics (curvature radii)were recorded with a photo camera and high-speed camera and subsequently digitalized. The obtained results reveal substantial differences in geometry of liquid bridges during extension and evaporation. On the other hand, evaporation and extension of liquid bridgelead to a similar qualitative response in terms of the pressure within the liquid bridge, starting with a significant suction, which initially somewhat increases during evaporation to reach a maximum, followed by a rapid monotonic decrease until zero, to become a sizable positive pressure prior to rupture. Extension same pattern is followed, except that there is no initial suction increase. Hence, in both cases, rupture consistently occurs at a positive fluid pressure. The pressure evolution is a simple resultant of the evolution of radii of curvature, with the neck radius becoming smaller than meridian radius. In terms of resultant capillary force, as the area of the bridge cross-section decreases with the square of the neck radius, the pressure difference is almost entirely negative, in part also due to surface tension component. Nevertheless, the suction decreases nearly monotonically during both processes. Rupture during evaporation of the bridges occurs most abruptly for larger separations, as early as after 25% volume evaporated. It is seen as a bifurcation of the geometry of equilibrium, as demonstrated on a movie with 27, 000 shots per second. The evolution of a bridge between three spheres exhibits a centrally located thin film instability with a circular hole growing within 1/3000th of a second. All these findings

  12. Superconductivity due to soft super-symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Rajput, Balwant

    2017-03-01

    Revisiting the super-symmetric dyons in N = 2 super-symmetric theory and analyzing the possible soft breaking of N = 2 super-symmetric Yang Mills theory to N = 0 by making the dynamically generated mass scale ∧ a function of dilation spurion, it has been demonstrated that the scalar and auxiliary components of pre-potential, constructed in terms of dilation, are frozen to be constant to generate soft breaking of N = 2 theory and it has been shown that, as soon as these soft breaking terms are turned on, monopole condensation appears and we get a unique ground state and the superconducting phase. It is also shown that in this soft breaking of N = 2 super-symmetry, the superconductivity phase occurs due to condensation of monopoles only and the dyons do not condensate near the real u -plane.

  13. Modeling of concrete cracking due to corrosion process of reinforcement bars

    SciTech Connect

    Bossio, Antonio; Monetta, Tullio; Bellucci, Francesco; Lignola, Gian Piero; Prota, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    The reinforcement corrosion in Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a major reason of degradation for structures and infrastructures throughout the world leading to their premature deterioration before design life was attained. The effects of corrosion of reinforcement are: (i) the reduction of the cross section of the bars, and (ii) the development of corrosion products leading to the appearance of cracks in the concrete cover and subsequent cover spalling. Due to their intrinsic complex nature, these issues require an interdisciplinary approach involving both material science and structural design knowledge also in terms on International and National codes that implemented the concept of durability and service life of structures. In this paper preliminary FEM analyses were performed in order to simulate pitting corrosion or general corrosion aimed to demonstrate the possibility to extend the results obtained for a cylindrical specimen, reinforced by a single bar, to more complex RC members in terms of geometry and reinforcement. Furthermore, a mechanical analytical model to evaluate the stresses in the concrete surrounding the reinforcement bars is proposed. In addition, a sophisticated model is presented to evaluate the non-linear development of stresses inside concrete and crack propagation when reinforcement bars start to corrode. The relationships between the cracking development (mechanical) and the reduction of the steel section (electrochemical) are provided. Finally, numerical findings reported in this paper were compared to experimental results available in the literature and satisfactory agreement was found.

  14. Astrophysical terms in Armenian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghikian, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    There are quite a few astrophysical textbooks (to say nothing about monographs) in Armenian, which are, however out of date and miss all the modern terms concerning space sciences. Many terms have been earlier adopted from English and, especially, from Russian. On the other hand, teachers and lecturers in Armenia need scientific terms in Armenian adequately reproducing either their means when translating from other languages or (why not) creating new ones. In short, a permanently updated astrophysical glossary is needed to serve as explanation of such terms. I am not going here to present the ready-made glossary (which should be a task for a joint efforts of many professionals) but instead just would like to describe some ambiguous examples with comments where possible coming from my long-year teaching, lecturing and professional experience. A probable connection between "iron" in Armenian as concerned to its origin is also discussed.

  15. What Is Full Term?

    MedlinePlus

    ... born earlier or later. What are the new definitions? The definitions are: Early term: Your baby is ... after 42 weeks, 0 days. Why did the definitions change? In the past, a pregnancy that lasted ...

  16. [Long-term digitalis therapy of elderly patients. Is digitalization unnecessary in the majority of cases?].

    PubMed

    Häcki, M A; Angehrn, W; Cavegn, H R; Brändli, O

    1982-12-18

    More than 40% of patients hospitalized in the Wald Altitude Clinic of Zürich are already on long-term digitalis therapy upon admission. During a 6 month period long-term digoxin therapy was discontinued in 97 patients (age 74 +/- 9 years) with stable cardiac insufficiency (NYHA class I-III) and sinus rhythm. During the hospitalization (37 +/- 20 days), clinical signs and symptoms, body weight, radiological heart size, and systolic time intervals were monitored. After an observation period of one week, digoxin was discontinued in all patients. Body weight, cardio-thoracic ratio and left ventricular ejection time remained unchanged after cessation of digoxin therapy during hospitalization. The pre-ejection period showed a significant increase from 89 +/- 17 to 95 +/- 19 msec. Six patients were re-instituted on digoxin therapy, 3 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency, 2 due to atrial fibrillation, and 1 at his own request. After telephone follow-up six months later with the family physician an additional 20 patients were put back on digitalis. Among the total of 26 patients requiring further digitalization an absolute indication was found only in 12 (14%), 8 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency and 4 due to atrial fibrillation. In this study digitalis therapy could be discontinued without ill effects in 86% of elderly clinically stable patients in sinus rhythm. The authors therefore recommend a more cautious use of long-term digitalis therapy and, in already digitalized patients in sinus rhythm, a controlled trial period of discontinuation.

  17. Changes of instability thresholds of rotor due to bearing misalignments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, H.; Ecker, H.; Gunter, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of bearing misalignment upon the dynamic characteristics of statistically indeterminant rotor bearing systems is investigated. Both bearing loads and stability speed limits of a rotor may be changed significantly by magnitude and direction of bearing misalignment. The useful theory of short journal bearings is introduced and simple analytical expressions, governing the misalignment problem, are carried out. Polar plots for the bearing load capacities and stability maps, describing the speed limit in terms of misalignment, are presented. These plots can be used by the designer to estimate deviations between calculation and experimental data due to misalignment effects.

  18. Uterine rupture due to invasive metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David I; Pritchard, Amy M; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  19. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  20. Trigeminal hypoplasia due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: A new entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Gupta, Prakhar; Haroon, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurav; Gupta, Gagan; Khalid, Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The term “vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia” refers to anomalous dilatation of the intracranial arteries associated with elongation or tortuosity of the affected vessels. The etiology of the disease is unknown and is usually detected incidentally. The predominant clinical manifestations arise due to the mass effect of the dilated vessels and may include cranial nerve compression, extrinsic aqueductal compression, motor and sensory disturbances. Trigeminal hypoplasia is a very uncommon condition, usually described in association with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome and has not yet been attributed to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. The current case report highlights this rare association of trigeminal nerve hypoplasia and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, leading to hemifacial and corneal anesthesia. PMID:26167222