Science.gov

Sample records for additional terms arising

  1. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  2. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  3. Selective short-term memory deficits arise from impaired domain-general semantic control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have their greatest impact on demanding STM tasks. In this study, mild semantic processing impairments were demonstrated in 2 semantic STM patients. They performed well on untimed semantic tasks but were deficient in accuracy and reaction times on speeded tasks. Demanding semantic production tasks were also affected. These patients were compared with a case series of individuals with semantic aphasia whose multimodal semantic difficulties stemmed from poor cognitive control. STM and semantic performance were more impaired in this group, but there were qualitative similarities to the semantic STM patients. The difference between the 2 patient types may be a matter of degree. In semantic aphasia, severe disruption to semantic control leads to global semantic impairments, whereas in semantic STM milder disruption might impact mainly on STM tests because of the high control demands of these tasks. PMID:19210086

  4. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    PubMed

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed.

  5. Data mining on long-term barometric data within the ARISE2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupe, Patrick; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) led to the implementation of an international infrasound array network. The International Monitoring System (IMS) network includes 48 certified stations, each providing data for up to 15 years. As part of work package 3 of the ARISE2 project (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe, phase 2) the data sets will be statistically evaluated with regard on atmospheric dynamics. The current study focusses on fluctuations of absolute air pressure. Time series have been analysed for 17 monitoring stations which are located all over the world between Greenland and Antarctica along the latitudes to represent different climate zones and characteristic atmospheric conditions. Hence this enables quantitative comparisons between those regions. Analyses are shown including wavelet power spectra, multi-annual time series of average variances with regard to long-wave scales, and spectral densities to derive characteristics and special events. Evaluations reveal periodicities in average variances on 2 to 20 day scale with a maximum in the winter months and a minimum in summer of the respective hemisphere. This basically applies to time series of IMS stations beyond the tropics where the dominance of cyclones and anticyclones changes with seasons. Furthermore, spectral density analyses illustrate striking signals for several dynamic activities within one day, e.g., the semidiurnal tide.

  6. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional terms of loans. 17.805 Section 17.805 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.805 Additional terms of loans. In the operation of each residence established with the assistance of...

  7. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may modify a...

  8. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may modify a...

  9. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may modify a...

  10. 14 CFR 435.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 435.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may amend a...

  11. 14 CFR 435.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 435.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may amend a...

  12. 14 CFR 435.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 435.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may amend a...

  13. 14 CFR 435.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) General § 435.11 Additional license terms and conditions. The FAA may amend a...

  14. 14 CFR 431.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 431.11 Section 431.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... time by modifying or adding license terms and conditions to ensure compliance with 49 U.S.C....

  15. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.11 Additional license...

  16. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  17. 14 CFR 415.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 415.11 Section 415.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... and conditions. The FAA may modify a launch license at any time by modifying or adding license...

  18. 14 CFR 431.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 431.11 Section 431.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE...

  19. 14 CFR 431.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 431.11 Section 431.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE...

  20. 14 CFR 431.11 - Additional license terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional license terms and conditions. 431.11 Section 431.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE...

  1. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  2. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storkey, J.; MacDonald, A. J.; Poulton, P. R.; Scott, T.; Köhler, I. H.; Schnyder, H.; Goulding, K. W. T.; Crawley, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to ‘bounce back’ in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  3. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  4. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  5. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  6. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  7. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  8. Overcoming artificial broadening in Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance distributions arising from dipolar pseudo-secular terms in DEER experiments.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marie Ramirez; Frydman, Veronica; Milko, Petr; Iron, Mark A; Abdelkader, Elwy H; Lee, Michael D; Swarbrick, James D; Raitsimring, Arnold; Otting, Gottfried; Graham, Bim; Feintuch, Akiva; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2016-05-14

    By providing accurate distance measurements between spin labels site-specifically attached to bio-macromolecules, double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy provides a unique tool to probe the structural and conformational changes in these molecules. Gd(3+)-tags present an important family of spin-labels for such purposes, as they feature high chemical stability and high sensitivity in high-field DEER measurements. The high sensitivity of the Gd(3+) ion is associated with its high spin (S = 7/2) and small zero field splitting (ZFS), resulting in a narrow spectral width of its central transition at high fields. However, under the conditions of short distances and exceptionally small ZFS, the weak coupling approximation, which is essential for straightforward DEER data analysis, becomes invalid and the pseudo-secular terms of the dipolar Hamiltonian can no longer be ignored. This work further explores the effects of pseudo-secular terms on Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) DEER measurements using a specifically designed ruler molecule; a rigid bis-Gd(3+)-DOTA model compound with an expected Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm and a very narrow central transition at the W-band (95 GHz). We show that the DEER dipolar modulations are damped under the standard W-band DEER measurement conditions with a frequency separation, Δν, of 100 MHz between the pump and observe pulses. Consequently, the DEER spectrum deviates considerably from the expected Pake pattern. We show that the Pake pattern and the associated dipolar modulations can be restored with the aid of a dual mode cavity by increasing Δν from 100 MHz to 1.09 GHz, allowing for a straightforward measurement of a Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm. The increase in Δν increases the contribution of the |-5/2〉→|-3/2〉 and |-7/2〉→|-5/2〉 transitions to the signal at the expense of the |-3/2 〉→|-1/2〉 transition, thus minimizing the effect of dipolar pseudo-secular terms and restoring the validity of the weak

  9. Overcoming artificial broadening in Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance distributions arising from dipolar pseudo-secular terms in DEER experiments.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marie Ramirez; Frydman, Veronica; Milko, Petr; Iron, Mark A; Abdelkader, Elwy H; Lee, Michael D; Swarbrick, James D; Raitsimring, Arnold; Otting, Gottfried; Graham, Bim; Feintuch, Akiva; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2016-05-14

    By providing accurate distance measurements between spin labels site-specifically attached to bio-macromolecules, double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy provides a unique tool to probe the structural and conformational changes in these molecules. Gd(3+)-tags present an important family of spin-labels for such purposes, as they feature high chemical stability and high sensitivity in high-field DEER measurements. The high sensitivity of the Gd(3+) ion is associated with its high spin (S = 7/2) and small zero field splitting (ZFS), resulting in a narrow spectral width of its central transition at high fields. However, under the conditions of short distances and exceptionally small ZFS, the weak coupling approximation, which is essential for straightforward DEER data analysis, becomes invalid and the pseudo-secular terms of the dipolar Hamiltonian can no longer be ignored. This work further explores the effects of pseudo-secular terms on Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) DEER measurements using a specifically designed ruler molecule; a rigid bis-Gd(3+)-DOTA model compound with an expected Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm and a very narrow central transition at the W-band (95 GHz). We show that the DEER dipolar modulations are damped under the standard W-band DEER measurement conditions with a frequency separation, Δν, of 100 MHz between the pump and observe pulses. Consequently, the DEER spectrum deviates considerably from the expected Pake pattern. We show that the Pake pattern and the associated dipolar modulations can be restored with the aid of a dual mode cavity by increasing Δν from 100 MHz to 1.09 GHz, allowing for a straightforward measurement of a Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distance of 2.35 nm. The increase in Δν increases the contribution of the |-5/2〉→|-3/2〉 and |-7/2〉→|-5/2〉 transitions to the signal at the expense of the |-3/2 〉→|-1/2〉 transition, thus minimizing the effect of dipolar pseudo-secular terms and restoring the validity of the weak

  10. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  11. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  12. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. The FAA may modify an experimental permit at any time...

  13. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information § 437.13 Additional experimental permit terms...

  14. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information § 437.13 Additional experimental permit terms...

  15. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information § 437.13 Additional experimental permit terms...

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term supported housing includes facilities to provide temporary shelter to eligible individuals as well as...

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from long-term (50-year) Lupus vulgaris: is there a need for a close medical follow-up in such chronic diseases?

    PubMed

    Leocata, P; Crisman, G; Vitale, A R; Siniscalchi, G; Biondi, P; Colella, G

    2009-12-01

    Skin manifestations of tuberculous infection (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are represented by miliary tuberculosis of the skin, tuberculous chancre, scrofuloderma, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, periorificial tuberculosis, and lupus vulgaris (LV). Among this group, LV is the most common skin condition, diagnosed in 10% of tuberculotic patients. The authors report herein a case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from long-standing (50-year) LV and underline the need of an extensive follow-up of tuberculotic lesions.

  19. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placement in permanent housing or in a living environment appropriate to his or her health and social needs... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  20. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  1. 14 CFR 437.13 - Additional experimental permit terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional experimental permit terms and conditions. 437.13 Section 437.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS General Information §...

  2. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  3. Generalized additive mixed models for disentangling long-term trends, local anomalies, and seasonality in fruit tree phenology

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Leo; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying temporal patterns of ephemeral plant structures such as leaves, flowers, and fruits gives insight into both plant and animal ecology. Different scales of temporal changes in fruits, for example within- versus across-year variability, are driven by different processes, but are not always easy to disentangle. We apply generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to study a long-term fruit presence–absence data set of individual trees collected from a high-altitude Afromontane tropical rain forest site within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda. Our primary aim was to highlight and evaluate GAMM methodology, and quantify both intra- and interannual changes in fruit production. First, we conduct several simulation experiments to study the practical utility of model selection and smooth term estimation relevant for disentangling intra- and interannual variability. These simulations indicate that estimation of nonlinearity and seasonality is generally accurately identified using asymptotic theory. Applied to the empirical data set, we found that the forest-level fruiting variability arises from both regular seasonality and significant interannual variability, with the years 2009–2010 in particular showing a significant increase in the presence of fruits-driven by increased productivity of most species, and a regular annual peak associated occurring at the end of one of the two dry seasons. Our analyses illustrate a statistical framework for disentangling short-term increases/decreases in fruiting effort while pinpointing specific times in which fruiting is atypical, providing a first step for assessing the impacts of regular and irregular (e.g., climate change) abiotic covariates on fruiting phenology. Some consequences of the rich diversity of fruiting patterns observed here for the population biology of frugivores in BINP are also discussed. PMID:24102000

  4. Generalized additive mixed models for disentangling long-term trends, local anomalies, and seasonality in fruit tree phenology.

    PubMed

    Polansky, Leo; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-09-01

    Quantifying temporal patterns of ephemeral plant structures such as leaves, flowers, and fruits gives insight into both plant and animal ecology. Different scales of temporal changes in fruits, for example within- versus across-year variability, are driven by different processes, but are not always easy to disentangle. We apply generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to study a long-term fruit presence-absence data set of individual trees collected from a high-altitude Afromontane tropical rain forest site within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda. Our primary aim was to highlight and evaluate GAMM methodology, and quantify both intra- and interannual changes in fruit production. First, we conduct several simulation experiments to study the practical utility of model selection and smooth term estimation relevant for disentangling intra- and interannual variability. These simulations indicate that estimation of nonlinearity and seasonality is generally accurately identified using asymptotic theory. Applied to the empirical data set, we found that the forest-level fruiting variability arises from both regular seasonality and significant interannual variability, with the years 2009-2010 in particular showing a significant increase in the presence of fruits-driven by increased productivity of most species, and a regular annual peak associated occurring at the end of one of the two dry seasons. Our analyses illustrate a statistical framework for disentangling short-term increases/decreases in fruiting effort while pinpointing specific times in which fruiting is atypical, providing a first step for assessing the impacts of regular and irregular (e.g., climate change) abiotic covariates on fruiting phenology. Some consequences of the rich diversity of fruiting patterns observed here for the population biology of frugivores in BINP are also discussed.

  5. Approximate solution of two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph models arising in mathematical physics using optimal homotopy asymptotic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the analytical approximate solutions for two-term fractional-order diffusion, wave-diffusion, and telegraph equations. The fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], (1,2), and [1,2], respectively. In this paper, we extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) for two-term fractional-order wave-diffusion equations. Highly approximate solution is obtained in series form using this extended method. Approximate solution obtained by OHAM is compared with the exact solution. It is observed that OHAM is a prevailing and convergent method for the solutions of nonlinear-fractional-order time-dependent partial differential problems. The numerical results rendering that the applied method is explicit, effective, and easy to use, for handling more general fractional-order wave diffusion, diffusion, and telegraph problems.

  6. Long-term stabilization of organic solar cells using hydroperoxide decomposers as additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkovic, Vida; Engmann, Sebastian; Tsierkezos, Nikos; Hoppe, Harald; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Ritter, Uwe; Gobsch, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Stability of organic solar cells (OPV) remains a big problem on the way to their commercialization. Different approaches are being investigated: development of intrinsically more photochemically stable materials, optimization of encapsulation, and implementation of getter and UV blocking layers. In this study, we investigate stabilization of OPV devices using hydroperoxide decomposers as stabilizing additives. A set of five commercially available additives of organophosphorus, organosulfur, Ni chelate, and blocked thiol type are compared, ternary blended into the active layer, under exposure to aging under ISOS-3 degradation conditions. Improvements in long-term performance of OPV devices were observed upon stabilization with Advapak NEO-1120, lifetime was prolonged by a factor of 1.7, and accumulated power generation increased by a factor of 1.4. The stabilizing mechanisms are discussed using spectroscopic and microscopic measurements.

  7. Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz model: impact of an additional heating term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the streamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, which appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): "If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can

  8. Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz Model: impact of an additional heating term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the steamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, that appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can

  9. Long-term nitrogen addition causes the evolution of less-cooperative mutualists.

    PubMed

    Weese, Dylan J; Heath, Katy D; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Lau, Jennifer A

    2015-03-01

    Human activities have altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, and as a result, elevated N inputs are causing profound ecological changes in diverse ecosystems. The evolutionary consequences of this global change have been largely ignored even though elevated N inputs are predicted to cause mutualism breakdown and the evolution of decreased cooperation between resource mutualists. Using a long-term (22 years) N-addition experiment, we find that elevated N inputs have altered the legume-rhizobium mutualism (where rhizobial bacteria trade N in exchange for photosynthates from legumes), causing the evolution of less-mutualistic rhizobia. Plants inoculated with rhizobium strains isolated from N-fertilized treatments produced 17-30% less biomass and had reduced chlorophyll content compared to plants inoculated with strains from unfertilized control plots. Because the legume-rhizobium mutualism is the major contributor of naturally fixed N to terrestrial ecosystems, the evolution of less-cooperative rhizobia may have important environmental consequences.

  10. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  11. Short and mid-term effects of different biochar additions on soil GHG fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The application of biochar (BC) to soils may have a positive influence on physico-chemical soil properties and the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Furthermore, biochar contributes to a long-term soil carbon sequestration. The aim of this study is to explore short and mid-term effects (one day up to six months) of different BC-compost applications on soil GHG emissions, particularly CO2, CH4, N2O and NOx. In addition, compounds of the nitrogen cycle like NH4+, NO3- and the microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) were measured. For this purpose a field experiment in Kaindorf (Styria/Austria, gleyic Cambisol, loamy, 376 m.a.s.l.) with 16 plots and four different treatments was conducted. K = no BC-compost mixture but fertilized (NH4SO4) corresponding to T3 in 2013; T1 = 1 % BC-compost mixture, no addition of N in 2013 and 2014; T2 = 0.5 % BC-compost mixture, + 175 kg N ha-1 in 2013 and 2014; T3 = 1% BC-compost mixture, + 350 kg N ha-1 in 2013. Nitrogen was added as (NH4)2SO4 directly to the freshly produced biochar before mixing it with compost. Greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured monthly from closed chambers in the field over a period of six months, starting 30 days before BC application and ended shortly before harvesting in September. For the analysis of nitric oxide (NO) fluxes intact soil cylinders were taken from each plot and incubated at the laboratory at ambient air temperature. Mineral N contents were measured by the extraction with KCl-solution and the microbial biomass with chloroform-fumigation extraction (CFE). Biochar application to our agricultural soil showed no reduction potential of NO emissions, but N2O fluxes were significantly lower at T1 and T3 compared to treatment K. Gaseous N fluxes of the pure BC-compost mixture and the additional N fertilization with (NH4)2SO4 led to enormous gaseous N losses in form of N2O and NO. However, after application to the soil, fluxes were only higher for a short time period. We suggest

  12. Elevated CO2 promotes long-term nitrogen accumulation only in combination with nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Melissa A; Megonigal, J Patrick; Langley, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical models that incorporate nitrogen (N) limitation indicate that N availability will control the magnitude of ecosystem carbon uptake in response to rising CO2 . Some models, however, suggest that elevated CO2 may promote ecosystem N accumulation, a feedback that in the long term could circumvent N limitation of the CO2 response while mitigating N pollution. We tested this prediction using a nine-year CO2 xN experiment in a tidal marsh. Although the effects of CO2 are similar between uplands and wetlands in many respects, this experiment offers a greater likelihood of detecting CO2 effects on N retention on a decadal timescale because tidal marshes have a relatively open N cycle and can accrue soil organic matter rapidly. To determine how elevated CO2 affects N dynamics, we assessed the three primary fates of N in a tidal marsh: (1) retention in plants and soil, (2) denitrification to the atmosphere, and (3) tidal export. We assessed changes in N pools and tracked the fate of a (15) N tracer added to each plot in 2006 to quantify the fraction of added N retained in vegetation and soil, and to estimate lateral N movement. Elevated CO2 alone did not increase plant N mass, soil N mass, or (15) N label retention. Unexpectedly, CO2 and N interacted such that the combined N+CO2 treatment increased ecosystem N accumulation despite the stimulation in N losses indicated by reduced (15) N label retention. These findings suggest that in N-limited ecosystems, elevated CO2 is unlikely to increase long-term N accumulation and circumvent progressive N limitation without additional N inputs, which may relieve plant-microbe competition and allow for increased plant N uptake.

  13. Elevated CO2 promotes long-term nitrogen accumulation only in combination with nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Melissa A; Megonigal, J Patrick; Langley, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical models that incorporate nitrogen (N) limitation indicate that N availability will control the magnitude of ecosystem carbon uptake in response to rising CO2 . Some models, however, suggest that elevated CO2 may promote ecosystem N accumulation, a feedback that in the long term could circumvent N limitation of the CO2 response while mitigating N pollution. We tested this prediction using a nine-year CO2 xN experiment in a tidal marsh. Although the effects of CO2 are similar between uplands and wetlands in many respects, this experiment offers a greater likelihood of detecting CO2 effects on N retention on a decadal timescale because tidal marshes have a relatively open N cycle and can accrue soil organic matter rapidly. To determine how elevated CO2 affects N dynamics, we assessed the three primary fates of N in a tidal marsh: (1) retention in plants and soil, (2) denitrification to the atmosphere, and (3) tidal export. We assessed changes in N pools and tracked the fate of a (15) N tracer added to each plot in 2006 to quantify the fraction of added N retained in vegetation and soil, and to estimate lateral N movement. Elevated CO2 alone did not increase plant N mass, soil N mass, or (15) N label retention. Unexpectedly, CO2 and N interacted such that the combined N+CO2 treatment increased ecosystem N accumulation despite the stimulation in N losses indicated by reduced (15) N label retention. These findings suggest that in N-limited ecosystems, elevated CO2 is unlikely to increase long-term N accumulation and circumvent progressive N limitation without additional N inputs, which may relieve plant-microbe competition and allow for increased plant N uptake. PMID:26577708

  14. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  15. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  16. 77 FR 58499 - Substitution of Term in a Definition; Addition and Adoption of the Use of Specific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... 51-1 continues to read as follows: Authority: 56 FR 48976, Sept. 26, 1991, unless otherwise noted. 0...; Addition and Adoption of the Use of Specific Interchangeable or Synonymous Terms AGENCY: Committee...

  17. Addition of Japanese terms to MEDLINE File-Service through JOIS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoe, Takao; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Kawano, Koreni

    This paper describes new service through JOIS-III(JICST Online Information System-III) which enabled English databases, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, and CANCERLIT, to search and output both with Japanese MeSH terms and with English MeSH terms by adding terms of MeSH translated into Japanese to these three files. In this paper, circumstances and background of this plan, cooperation of the work between JICST and The Japan Medical Library Association(JMLA) , fundamental conception and rules for translation of MeSH thesaurus terms into Japanese, practical translation work, search and output by JOIS-III using Japanese MeSH terms translated, relation between JOIS-III and Japanese version of MeSH in book style published by JMLA, and future issues are also described.

  18. Short-Term Memory as an Additional Predictor of School Achievement for Immigrant Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Resing, Wilma; Tolboom, Elsbeth; Bleichrodt, Nico

    2004-01-01

    The predictive validity and utility of assessment procedures can be increased by adding predictors to the prediction supplied by general ability tests. Of Jensen's early work comes the suggestion of focusing on the cognitive ability short-term memory (STM), especially for low-"g" Black children. Meta-analysis convincingly shows high predictive…

  19. Biofiltration of high formaldehyde loads with ozone additions in long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Diaz, G; Arriaga, S

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) biofiltration was evaluated over 310 days with and without ozone addition. Without ozone, the biofilter was able to treat formaldehyde at inlet loads (ILs) lower than 40 g m(-3) h(-1), maintaining, under this condition, an average removal efficiency (RE) of 88 % for a few days before collapsing to zero. The continuous addition of ozone (90 ppbv) helped to recover the RE from zero to 98 ± 2 % and made it possible to operate at an IL of 40 g m(-3) h(-1) for long periods of operation (107 days). Furthermore, the ozone addition aided in operating the biofilter at a formaldehyde IL of up to 120 g m(-3) h(-1) values that have never before been reached. GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that dimethoxymethane was the common compound in leachate during the performance decay. Also, the addition of ozone aided in maintaining an optimal pH in the biofilter with values between 7.5 and 8.2, due to the carbonate species formed during the ozone reactions with formaldehyde and its by-products. Thus, the pH control was confirmed and the alkalinity of the biofilter increased from 334.1 ± 100.3 to 1450 ± 127 mg CaCO3 L(-1) when ozone was added. Ozone addition diminished the exopolymeric substances (EPS) content of biofilm and biofilm thickness without affecting cell viability. Kinetic parameters suggested that the best conditions for carrying out FA biofiltration were reached under ozone addition. The addition of ozone during formaldehyde biofiltration could be a good strategy to maintain the pH and the steady state of the system under high ILs and for long periods of operation.

  20. Short-term CO2 mineralization after additions of biochar and switchgrass to a Typic Kandiudult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar was applied to infertile South American soils for millennia to increase fertility and organic carbon (OC) content. Biochar additions to degraded agricultural soil in the southeastern USA Coastal Plain may also increase their fertility and OC status. A laboratory column incubation study was c...

  1. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated by diameter and delay may change the treatment as a result of trees growing into or out of the specified diameter range(s). (2) For each additional consecutive quarter in which a contract qualifies for... interface area, or hazard trees adjacent to developed sites. (b) Determination of drastic wood product...

  2. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated by diameter and delay may change the treatment as a result of trees growing into or out of the specified diameter range(s). (2) For each additional consecutive quarter in which a contract qualifies for... interface area, or hazard trees adjacent to developed sites. (b) Determination of drastic wood product...

  3. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be reduced by the incremental amount of evaporation which occurs as a result of the increased surface area of the reservoir due to the additional storage. The evaporation rate used will be either the net evaporation measured or the net historical average after precipitation is taken into account. The method...

  4. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be reduced by the incremental amount of evaporation which occurs as a result of the increased surface area of the reservoir due to the additional storage. The evaporation rate used will be either the net evaporation measured or the net historical average after precipitation is taken into account. The method...

  5. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be reduced by the incremental amount of evaporation which occurs as a result of the increased surface area of the reservoir due to the additional storage. The evaporation rate used will be either the net evaporation measured or the net historical average after precipitation is taken into account. The method...

  6. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be reduced by the incremental amount of evaporation which occurs as a result of the increased surface area of the reservoir due to the additional storage. The evaporation rate used will be either the net evaporation measured or the net historical average after precipitation is taken into account. The method...

  7. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be reduced by the incremental amount of evaporation which occurs as a result of the increased surface area of the reservoir due to the additional storage. The evaporation rate used will be either the net evaporation measured or the net historical average after precipitation is taken into account. The method...

  8. Graph model for calculating the properties of saturated monoalcohols based on the additivity of energy terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebeshkov, V. V.; Smolyakov, V. M.

    2012-05-01

    A 16-constant additive scheme was derived for calculating the physicochemical properties of saturated monoalcohols CH4O-C9H20O and decomposing the triangular numbers of the Pascal triangle based on the similarity of subgraphs in the molecular graphs (MGs) of the homologous series of these alcohols. It was shown, using this scheme for calculation of properties of saturated monoalcohols as an example, that each coefficient of the scheme (in other words, the number of methods to impose a chain of a definite length i 1, i 2, … on a molecular graph) is the result of the decomposition of the triangular numbers of the Pascal triangle. A linear dependence was found within the adopted classification of structural elements. Sixteen parameters of the schemes were recorded as linear combinations of 17 parameters. The enthalpies of vaporization L {298/K 0} of the saturated monoalcohols CH4O-C9H20O, for which there were no experimental data, were calculated. It was shown that the parameters are not chosen randomly when using the given procedure for constructing an additive scheme by decomposing the triangular numbers of the Pascal triangle.

  9. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    PubMed

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  10. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth.

  11. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth. PMID:27520599

  12. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post‐operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported. PMID:17213351

  14. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post-operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported.

  15. Effects of substrate addition on soil respiratory carbon release under long-term warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Xue, Kai; Xue, Xian; Xu, Xia; Yang, Yuanhe; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms of soil respiratory carbon (C) release induced by substrates (i.e., plant derived substrates) are critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we sampled soils from a long-term field manipulative experiment and conducted a laboratory incubation to explore the role of substrate supply in regulating the differences in soil C release among the experimental treatments, including control, warming, clipping, and warming plus clipping. Three types of substrates (glucose, C3 and C4 plant materials) were added with an amount equal to 1% of soil dry weight under the four treatments. We found that the addition of all three substrates significantly stimulated soil respiratory C release in all four warming and clipping treatments. In soils without substrate addition, warming significantly stimulated soil C release but clipping decreased it. However, additions of glucose and C3 plant materials (C3 addition) offset the warming effects, whereas C4 addition still showed the warming-induced stimulation of soil C release. Our results suggest that long-term warming may inhibit microbial capacity for decomposition of C3 litter but may enhance it for decomposition of C4 litter. Such warming-induced adaptation of microbial communities may weaken the positive C-cycle feedback to warming due to increased proportion of C4 species in plant community and decreased litter quality. In contrast, clipping may weaken microbial capacity for warming-induced decomposition of C4 litter but may enhance it for C3 litter. Warming- and clipping-induced shifts in microbial metabolic capacity may be strongly associated with changes in plant species composition and could substantially influence soil C dynamics in response to global change. PMID:25490701

  16. Effects of substrate addition on soil respiratory carbon release under long-term warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Xue, Kai; Xue, Xian; Xu, Xia; Yang, Yuanhe; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms of soil respiratory carbon (C) release induced by substrates (i.e., plant derived substrates) are critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we sampled soils from a long-term field manipulative experiment and conducted a laboratory incubation to explore the role of substrate supply in regulating the differences in soil C release among the experimental treatments, including control, warming, clipping, and warming plus clipping. Three types of substrates (glucose, C3 and C4 plant materials) were added with an amount equal to 1% of soil dry weight under the four treatments. We found that the addition of all three substrates significantly stimulated soil respiratory C release in all four warming and clipping treatments. In soils without substrate addition, warming significantly stimulated soil C release but clipping decreased it. However, additions of glucose and C3 plant materials (C3 addition) offset the warming effects, whereas C4 addition still showed the warming-induced stimulation of soil C release. Our results suggest that long-term warming may inhibit microbial capacity for decomposition of C3 litter but may enhance it for decomposition of C4 litter. Such warming-induced adaptation of microbial communities may weaken the positive C-cycle feedback to warming due to increased proportion of C4 species in plant community and decreased litter quality. In contrast, clipping may weaken microbial capacity for warming-induced decomposition of C4 litter but may enhance it for C3 litter. Warming- and clipping-induced shifts in microbial metabolic capacity may be strongly associated with changes in plant species composition and could substantially influence soil C dynamics in response to global change.

  17. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  18. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects. PMID:27074374

  19. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m−2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged −33 μmol N2O m−2 day−1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N2O m−2 day−1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  20. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Kroeger, K.D.; Tang, J.; Chao, W.C.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.; Green, A.; Shelton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m-2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged -33 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half the magnitude of typical

  1. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  2. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  3. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  4. Non-additive effects of delayed connexin hemichannel blockade and hypothermia after cerebral ischemia in near-term fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joanne O; Rout, Alexandra L; Wassink, Guido; Yuill, Caroline A; Zhang, Frank G; Green, Colin R; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothermia is partially neuroprotective after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Blockade of connexin hemichannels can improve recovery of brain activity and cell survival after ischemia in near-term fetal sheep. In this study, we investigated whether combining delayed hypothermia with connexin hemichannel blockade with intracerebroventricular infusion of a mimetic peptide can further improve outcomes after cerebral ischemia. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received 30 minutes of cerebral ischemia followed by a 3-hour recovery period before treatment was started. Fetuses were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: normothermia (n=8), hypothermia for 3 days (n=8), connexin hemichannel blockade (50 μmol/L intracerebroventricular over 1 hour followed by 50 μmol/L over 24 hours, n=8) or hypothermia plus hemichannel blockade (n=7). After 7 days recovery, hypothermia was associated with reduced seizure burden, improved electroencephalographic (EEG) power, and a significant increase in neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival and reduced induction of Iba1-positive microglia. In contrast, although hemichannel blockade reduced seizure burden, there was no effect on EEG power or histology (P<0.05). There was no further improvement in outcomes with combined hypothermia plus hemichannel blockade. In conclusion, these data show that there is no additive neuroprotection with combined hypothermia and hemichannel blockade after cerebral ischemia in near-term fetal sheep.

  5. Non-additive effects of delayed connexin hemichannel blockade and hypothermia after cerebral ischemia in near-term fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joanne O; Rout, Alexandra L; Wassink, Guido; Yuill, Caroline A; Zhang, Frank G; Green, Colin R; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothermia is partially neuroprotective after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Blockade of connexin hemichannels can improve recovery of brain activity and cell survival after ischemia in near-term fetal sheep. In this study, we investigated whether combining delayed hypothermia with connexin hemichannel blockade with intracerebroventricular infusion of a mimetic peptide can further improve outcomes after cerebral ischemia. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received 30 minutes of cerebral ischemia followed by a 3-hour recovery period before treatment was started. Fetuses were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: normothermia (n=8), hypothermia for 3 days (n=8), connexin hemichannel blockade (50 μmol/L intracerebroventricular over 1 hour followed by 50 μmol/L over 24 hours, n=8) or hypothermia plus hemichannel blockade (n=7). After 7 days recovery, hypothermia was associated with reduced seizure burden, improved electroencephalographic (EEG) power, and a significant increase in neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival and reduced induction of Iba1-positive microglia. In contrast, although hemichannel blockade reduced seizure burden, there was no effect on EEG power or histology (P<0.05). There was no further improvement in outcomes with combined hypothermia plus hemichannel blockade. In conclusion, these data show that there is no additive neuroprotection with combined hypothermia and hemichannel blockade after cerebral ischemia in near-term fetal sheep. PMID:26174327

  6. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  7. Urea as a long-term stable alternative to guanidium thiocyanate additive in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-09-01

    Photovoltaic performance of 0.05 M urea-contained redox electrolyte is compared to that of 0.05 M guanidinium thiocyanate (GSCN)-contained one in dye-sensitized solar cell. No significant difference in the initial photovoltaic performance is observed, which means that the role of urea additive is similar to that of GSCN. Initial solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the device containing GSCN shows 7% that is diminished to 5.8% after 40 days, whereas the device containing urea exhibits stable photovoltaic performance showing that initial efficiency of 7.2% is almost remained unchanged after 40 days (7.1%). The lowered efficiency of the GSCN-contained device is mainly due to the decreased photocurrent density, which is ascribed to the formation of needle-shaped crystals on TiO2 layer. Infrared spectroscopic study confirms that the crystals are dye analogue, which is indicative of dye desorption in the presence of GSCN. On the other hand, no crystals are formed in the urea-contained electrolyte, which implies that dye desorption is negligible. Urea additive is thus found to be less reactive in dye desorption than GSCN, leading to long-term stability.

  8. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  9. Long-term nitrogen additions increase likelihood of climate stress and affect recovery from wildfire in a lowland heath.

    PubMed

    Southon, Georgina E; Green, Emma R; Jones, Alan G; Barker, Chris G; Power, Sally A

    2012-09-01

    Increases in the emissions and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) have the potential to cause significant changes to the structure and function of N-limited ecosystems. Here, we present the results of a long-term (13 year) experiment assessing the impacts of N addition (30 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) on a UK lowland heathland under a wide range of environmental conditions, including the occurrence of prolonged natural drought episodes and a severe summer fire. Our findings indicate that elevated N deposition results in large, persistent effects on Calluna growth, phenology and chemistry, severe suppression of understorey lichen flora and changes in soil biogeochemistry. Growing season rainfall was found to be a strong driver of inter-annual variation in Calluna growth and, although interactions between N and rainfall for shoot growth were not significant until the later phase of the experiment, N addition exacerbated the extent of drought injury to Calluna shoots following naturally occurring droughts in 2003 and 2009. Following a severe wildfire at the experimental site in 2006, heathland regeneration dynamics were significantly affected by N, with a greater abundance of pioneering moss species and suppression of the lichen flora in plots receiving N additions. Significant interactions between climate and N were also apparent post fire, with the characteristic stimulation in Calluna growth in +N plots suppressed during dry years. Carbon (C) and N budgets demonstrate large increases in both above- and below-ground stocks of these elements in N-treated plots prior to the fire, despite higher levels of soil microbial activity and organic matter turnover. Although much of the organic material was removed during the fire, pre-existing treatment differences were still evident following the burn. Post fire accumulation of below-ground C and N stocks was increased rapidly in N-treated plots, highlighting the role of N deposition in ecosystem C sequestration

  10. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer.

  11. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  12. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  13. Schwannoma arising from intramasseteric region.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Fu, Hong Hai; He, Jie; Zhu, Han Guang; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Schwannoma in the head and neck is usually arising in the parapharyngeal space, but intramasseteric schwannoma is very rare. We report a schwannoma arising from masseter muscle in a middle-aged woman, who presented with a history of a painless right cheek mass for 3 years. Computed tomography scan suggested that the mass was located within the masseter muscle. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and showed spindle neoplastic cells, which were suspected to be of mesenchymal tissue origin. The mass was completely resected under general anesthesia. It was a well-circumscribed and lobulated mass, 4 × 3 × 2 cm in size. Histological examination gave the diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings for S-100 and vimentin. Neurologic sequelae and recurrence were not found at 2 years after surgery. PMID:21119484

  14. Shifts and dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes in coastal marshes: Responses to short- and long-term nitrogen additions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Tang, J.; Fisher, K.; Bratton, J. F.; Crusius, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are estimated to sequester carbon at faster rates than most ecosystems, and thus they are appealing targets for efforts to ameliorate climate change through biological C storage. However, to accurately estimate the climatic impact of such strategies, we must simultaneously consider fluxes of greenhouse gases from these ecosystems, including CH4 and N2O. Coastal salt marshes are currently thought to represent minor sources of greenhouse gases relative to freshwater wetlands, but the few measurements that exist for N2O and CH4 fluxes in these systems have not spanned the range of their dynamic environmental conditions. Further, multiple anthropogenic sources have disproportionately increased nitrogen loads in coastal ecosystems, which we hypothesized may significantly enhance N2O emissions from salt marshes. We tested this hypothesis with short- and long-term manipulative experiments at low to moderate nitrogen loads in pristine temperate Spartina patens marshes at Plum Island (MA). In July 2009, we compared background greenhouse gas fluxes with those measured immediately after either a single addition of nitrate (equivalent to 1.4g N m -2) or a control solution of artificial seawater. Prior to manipulations, the salt marsh sediments represented small sinks of N2O, as fluxes averaged -33 μmol N2O m-2 day-1. Yet, within one hour of manipulations, the plots with nitrate additions became sources of N2O, with fluxes averaging 42 and 108 μmol N2O m-2 day-1 in light and dark chambers, respectively. These exceeded fluxes in control plots by more than an order of magnitude. Respiratory CO2 fluxes were also significantly higher in nitrate-enriched plots (4.4 +/- 1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than in controls (2.4 +/- 0.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) immediately following the nitrate additions. Methane fluxes were not affected by nitrogen, but they varied spatially, ranging from 7.5 to 2200 μmol CH4 m-2 day-1. Although the enhanced N2O fluxes did not persist after 2 days, the

  15. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  16. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  17. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment.

  18. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment. PMID:25662244

  19. Leiomyosarcoma arising in a lipoleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Scurry, J; Hack, M

    1990-12-01

    A leiomyosarcoma arising in a uterine lipoleiomyoma is described in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor measured 11 cm and was located in the corpus uteri. It was composed of a mixture of firm, pale tan, whorled tissue and soft, white or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the firm tissue was a mixture of bland smooth muscle, fat and fibrous tissue, whereas the soft areas showed a malignant spindle cell tumor with smooth muscle differentiation. Pure sarcoma similar to the malignant portion of the lipoleiomyoma had metastasized to the vaginal wall.

  20. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01). Total VFA concentrations were not affected (P = 0.12); however, molar proportion of acetate was reduced and that for propionate increased when NOP was added (P < 0.01), which reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs. 4.0; P < 0.01). The total copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria was not affected (P = 0.50) by NOP, but the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens was reduced (P < 0.01) and the copy number of the 18S rRNA gene of protozoa was increased (P = 0.03). The residual effect of NOP for

  1. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01). Total VFA concentrations were not affected (P = 0.12); however, molar proportion of acetate was reduced and that for propionate increased when NOP was added (P < 0.01), which reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs. 4.0; P < 0.01). The total copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria was not affected (P = 0.50) by NOP, but the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens was reduced (P < 0.01) and the copy number of the 18S rRNA gene of protozoa was increased (P = 0.03). The residual effect of NOP for

  2. Spontaneous automaticity arising from a successfully ablated Mahaim fiber.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Schernthaner, Christiana; Hwang, Chun

    2007-11-01

    The authors describe a 22-year-old woman with regular and irregular arrhythmias exhibiting left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology at various heart rates. An atriofascicular fiber was diagnosed as the underlying mechanism for the antidromic reciprocating tachycardia. In addition, spontaneous automaticity of the Mahaim fiber was present during electrophysiologic study. The accessory pathway was ablated successfully, targeting a Mahaim potential at the supero-anterior tricuspid valve annulus. Relatively slow automatic rhythms with identical LBBB morphology were recorded immediately after ablation, as well as during long-term follow-up in a more sporadic and subclinical form. Abnormal automaticity arising from the distal portions of the remnant pathway was considered to be the origin of the slow ventricular rhythms in this peculiar case.

  3. Melanoma arising after imiquimod use.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P

    2014-01-01

    Imiquimod belongs to the class of 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolones-drugs originally developed as nucleoside analogues with the aim of finding new potential antiviral agents (Harrison et al., 1988). Indeed, Imiquimod was first released as treatment for genital warts before its actions against skin cancer were studied. Imiquimod is a relatively small sized molecule (Mr = 240.3) and is hydrophobic, allowing it to penetrate the skin epidermal barrier and therefore making it suitable for topical formulations (Gerster et al., 2005). Imiquimod has shown itself effective against skin cancers and precancerous lesions, especially basal cell cancers and actinic keratosis (Salasche et al., 2002, Beutner et al., 1999). There have been reports of Imiquimod being used as topical treatment against cutaneous metastases of melanoma and some authors have reported its use as first-line therapy against melanoma in situ (Smyth et al., 2011, Gagnon, 2011). We report a case of an invasive malignant melanoma arising de novo at the specific site of application of Imiquimod (Aldara cream 5%) for a biopsy-proven superficial BCC. Therefore while Imiquimod has added to our topical armamentarium against skin cancer, care must be exercised in prescribing this treatment and it is especially important to follow up patients regularly. PMID:25431597

  4. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  5. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Van, Henricus L; Dekker, Jack; Koelen, Jurrijn; Kool, Simone; van Aalst, Gerda; Hendriksen, Marielle; Peen, Jaap; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in adherence and outcome. About half of the early nonresponders refused the additional medication. However, no clear effect of medication addition on ultimate outcome could be demonstrated. In total, 37% of the patients achieved remission. The study suggested that randomization of patients does not induce a great influence on outcome. It might be warranted to continue an initially ineffective psychotherapy for depression, because a considerable number of patients do have a pattern of delayed response.

  6. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers were enrolled to study the effect of G. biloba and R. rosea on PVT and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects, the central cognitive effect was assessed by critical flicker-fusion frequency, PVT, and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure P > 0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, G. biloba or R. rosea improve PVT and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to more significant effect on PVT, all levels of short-term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker P < 0.01, more than of G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of R. rosea and G. biloba leading to a more significant effect on cognitive function than either G. biloba or R. rosea when they used alone. PMID:27069717

  7. Tracking short-term effects of 15N addition on N2O fluxes using FTIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) additions to soils have significantly increased atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, and advanced methods are needed to track the amount of applied N that is transformed to N2O in the field. Here, we present a method for continuous measurement of N2O isotopologu...

  8. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar.

  9. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar. PMID:22751062

  10. Cabergoline and cardiac valve disease in prolactinoma patients: additional studies during long-term treatment are required.

    PubMed

    Kars, M; Pereira, A M; Bax, J J; Romijn, J A

    2008-10-01

    The increased risk of cardiac valve disease in patients treated for Parkinson's disease with cabergoline has raised concerns about the safety of treatment with ergot-derived dopamine agonists in patients with endocrine diseases, especially prolactinoma. Six cross-sectional studies have been published recently, of which five studies do not show an association between the treatment of prolactinoma with cabergoline during 45-79 months and clinically relevant valvular regurgitation in a total of 413 patients. Nonetheless, concern is raised because the use of cabergoline was associated in one study with an increased prevalence of moderate tricuspid regurgitation, and in two other studies with mild tricuspid regurgitation. Furthermore, the use of cabergoline was associated with increased frequencies of valvular thickening, calcifications and increased mitral tenting area. At present, the clinical relevance of these findings is still uncertain, but concern is raised with respect to the safety of the use of cabergoline in the long-term treatment of prolactinomas. Echocardiographic evaluation should be considered in patients, who require long-term treatment with cabergoline, especially in high doses. There is a need for larger, preferably prospective, studies with careful echocardiographic assessment and with longer durations of follow-up than the currently available studies.

  11. Short-term adverse effects in humans of ingested mineral oils, their additives and possible contaminants--a review.

    PubMed

    Hard, G C

    2000-03-01

    The toxicological databases for petroleum refinery products such as mineral oils, as well as for their potential contaminants and additives, were reviewed for human cases of poisoning by the oral route. The aim was to determine whether any overlooked adulterant in the oil implicated as the cause of the 1981 outbreak of Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) in Spain, may have been responsible for the unusual symptomatology characterizing this disease. The essential features of TOS were peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and endothelial damage in the acute phase; myalgia, sensory neuropathy, hepatic injury, skin oedema and sicca in the intermediate phase; and peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, scleroderma and hepatopathy in the chronic phase. Of the more than 70 chemical entities and mixtures reviewed here, none had been reported as producing adverse toxic effects upon ingestion resembling the specific set of symptoms and progression that characterized TOS. Because of their viscosity, the most commonly recorded disease process associated with oral ingestion of petroleum refinery products was lipid pneumonia, implicating lung exposure via aspiration. The mineral oil additives and contaminants comprised a highly diverse range of chemical entities, producing a variety of symptoms in instances of poisoning. Specifically, no chemical entity amongst the refinery products, additives or contaminants was described as inducing a syndrome involving vasculitis accompanied by thrombotic events, along with immunological consequences (such as T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine release), as is considered to be the cellular basis of TOS.

  12. Short-term effect of nitrogen addition on nitric oxide emissions from an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongheng; Ma, Xingxing; Cooper, David J

    2016-06-01

    Little information is available on nitric oxide (NO) fluxes from alpine ecosystems. We measured NO fluxes in control and nitrogen (N) addition (NH4NO3, 6 g N m(-2) year(-1)) plots from early June through October 2013 in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, China. During the sample period, NO fluxes varied from -0.71 to 3.12 ug m(-2) h(-1) and -0.46 to 7.54 ug m(-2) h(-1) for control and N treatment plots. The mean NO emission in N addition plots (1.68 ug m(-2) h(-1)) was 2.15 times higher than the control plots (0.78 ug m(-2) h(-1)), indicating that alpine meadows may be a source of atmospheric NO, and N additions stimulated NO flux. A positive correlation was found between NO flux and soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N) content but no correlation with soil ammonium (NH4 (+)-N). These results suggest that denitrification is a principal process producing NO flux from alpine meadows.

  13. Are the long-term effects of mesobrowsers on woodland dynamics substitutive or additive to those of elephants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, Christopher A. J.; Duffy, Kevin J.; Page, Bruce R.; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-09-01

    The large spectrum of existing literature on browser-woodland dynamics, both from savanna and temperate biomes, converges towards concluding that all browsers importantly impact woody plants. In this context a crucial question in the current debate about reintroducing elephant culling, is whether the long-term effects of elephants and mesobrowsers are similar. If the two groups impact the same woody species in the same habitats, sufficiently high biomass-densities of mesobrowsers may, following removal of elephants, continue to heavily impact earlier life-history stages of the same suite of woody plants that elephant impacted, preventing these species from maturing. Thus, as existing mature trees die from natural causes and fade from the system, a similar end-point for woodland structure and composition is achieved. We reviewed 49 years of literature on the savanna browser guild, performing a meta-analysis on the disparate data on the guild's woody plant species use (3677 records) and habitat use (894 records). Mesobrowsers' and elephants' extensive overlap in habitat use and staple woody species diet, together with evidence of their influencing each others' abundance and of their dietary separation increasing with resource depletion, implies that the two groups impact the same core woody species in the same habitats. It therefore seems probable that high biomass-density mesobrowsers may have a long-term substitutive effect to that of elephant on woodland dynamics. Consequently management wanting a particular state of savanna woodland, should consider the biomass-density of both groups, rather than just focus on the system's perceived keystone species. Such principles may also apply to temperate and other systems.

  14. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). PMID:26196069

  15. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1).

  16. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  17. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  18. Canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Erin E; Rulyak, Stephen J; Sekijima, John H; Yeh, Matthew M

    2007-10-01

    Canalicular adenomas are benign neoplasms that arise from salivary glands and often present as painless enlarging nodules. They have a predilection for upper lip but can be found throughout the oropharynx. To our knowledge, canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus has never been described in the English literature. Here we report a canalicular adenoma occurring in the esophagus.

  19. Primary salivary duct carcinoma arising from the Stensen duct.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kenji; Hirano, Takashi; Okamoto, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) arising from the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. The patient was a 56-year-old man who presented with a palpable, elastic, hard mass without tenderness in the right cheek. Computed tomography revealed a tumor of the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. Supraomohyoid right neck dissection and total right parotidectomy were performed, and the histologic diagnosis was SDC of the Stensen duct. Postoperatively, the patient received no additional treatment. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was observed during 4 years of follow-up examination. SDC of the Stensen duct is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there is no report that describes primary SDC arising from that location. We also believe this is the first report that describes the clinical course of primary SDC arising from a Stensen duct. PMID:27657321

  20. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution. PMID:25079414

  1. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution.

  2. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  3. Effect of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.S.; Henk, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    The use of additives to insulating materials is one of the methods to improve certain properties of these materials. Additives can also be used to provide more insight into some processes like conduction, space charge formation and breakdown under certain conditions of field application. In the present paper, the effect of the addition of fine particles 1 wt% BaTiO{sub 3} to plain low density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term dc breakdown strength of LDPE at room temperature was investigated. The characteristics of the used polyethylene are as follows: density 0.925 g/cm{sup 3}, melt index 0.25 g/10 min. The BaTiO{sub 3} used was laboratory grade with particle size less than 7 {micro}m. Special cylindrical test samples of both undoped and doped materials were used in this investigation. Stainless steel hemispherically tipped electrodes were embedded in the material by molding. The mean value of the gap length between the electrodes was 0.25 mm. The design of the test sample allows for determining the intrinsic breakdown strength of the material. The Weibull plots were used to analyze the breakdown test results. Analysis of the results indicate that the addition of BaTiO{sub 3} to LDPE has reduced the short term dc breakdown strength of the doped material by about 16% if compared with the corresponding value for the plain LDPE. An attempt is made to correlate between the present results, and earlier published results about the effect of BaTiO{sub 3} on dc conductivity and space charge formation in LDPE.

  4. Reconnaissance observations of long-term natural vegetation recovery in the Cape Thompson region, Alaska, and additions to the checklist of flora

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, K.R.; Murray, B.M.; Murray, D.F.; Johnson, A.W.; Linkins, A.E.; Webber, P.J.

    1985-06-01

    The diversity of disturbance types, landforms, vegetation and soils, together with the large, well-documented flora, makes Cape Thompson an ideal site to study long-term (20-year) environmental adjustments after impact. Man-caused disturbances there between 1958 and 1962 fall into three categories: runways, excavations and off-road vehicle trails. In addition, natural disturbance by frost action creates scars. Reestablished vegetation after 20 years consisted of species found in adjacent undisturbed landscapes. Vegetation on excavations and cut-and-fill surfaces consisted of 3 to 5% vascular plants, of which Deschampsia cespitosa and Sagina nivalis are the most important (in terms of cover and frequency) of the 33 species identified. Cryptogams generally made up less than 1% of the vegetation, with lichens showing the least reestablishment. Vehicle trails crossing both alkaline and acidic fell-fields are still visible. Dryas octopetala, dominant in the adjacent undisturbed tundra, has not been effective in either recolonizing the track areas or extending into the trail from either the center or sides. The tundra at Ogotoruk Creek has shown considerable resiliency in terms of reestablishment of vegetation, especially in the moister sites where bank slumping and lateral migration of vegetation is effective. On the more-exposed, better-drained sites, as on frost scars, the continuing interplay between physical and biological forces has prevented directional or progressive plant succession. 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Nasal solitary fibrous tumor arising from the anterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David L; Moe, Kris S

    2004-11-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal, spindle cell neoplasm that was originally found in pleural tissue. Recently, however, numerous extrapleural sites have been discovered, including the nasal cavity. We present the 15th case of a nasal SFT, and the first such tumor to arise from the cribriform plate and extend into the anterior cranial fossa. In addition to highlighting the aggressive nature of this tumor, we review its clinical features and the diagnostic difficulties posed by SFT.

  6. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  7. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  8. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity. PMID:26156053

  9. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity.

  10. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  11. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  12. Short and long term effects of additional post curing and polishing systems on the color change of dental nano-composites.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the short and long term effects of polishing systems and post-heat-light curing on the color stability of nano-composites. The disc shaped samples (ø=10 mm, h=3 mm) were prepared. Forty subgroups (n=5) were designed according to two different curing conditions and five different polishing methods. Color change measurements were performed on the day of specimen preparation (base) and repeated after 1 and 7 months of water storage. MANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were applied (p<0.05). While the color difference values of resin composites were ranked as EXP2>EXP1>CME≥XTE after 1 month (p<0.05), after 7 months the ranking was EXP2≥EXP1>XTE>CME (p<0.05). Type and compositions of nano-composites may be important on the long-term color stability of the restoration. Additional post-heat-light curing of nano-composites may produce higher color change than the hand-light curing protocol. Consequently, the polishing procedures should be applied to obtain more resistant composite surface to discoloration. PMID:23370878

  13. Clear cell chondrosarcomas arising from rare sites.

    PubMed

    Ogose, A; Motoyama, T; Hotta, T; Emura, I; Inoue, Y; Morita, T; Watanabe, H

    1995-09-01

    Three cases are reported of clear cell chondrosarcoma arising from unusual sites: talus, rib and vertebra. Radiographically, two tumors showed osteolytic features and the vertebral tumor showed osteoplastic change. Histologically, all tumors consisted of clear cells that had a centrally placed nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm, osteoclast-like giant cells, areas of conventional chondrosarcoma, and various amounts of reactive bone. The tumor in the talus was initially diagnosed as benign chondroblastoma, but it recurred. The rib tumor showed marked cystic formation stimulating aneurysmal bone cyst. The osteoplastic radiographic feature in vertebral tumor was considered to be due to the abundant bone formation. PMID:8548042

  14. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  15. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  16. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  18. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    PubMed

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  19. Soil Mineral Composition Matters: Response of Microbial Communities to Phenanthrene and Plant Litter Addition in Long-Term Matured Artificial Soils

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  20. Glioblastoma arising within a mediastinal mature teratoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Jentoft, Mark E; Boland, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    Herein we present the case of a 42-year-old man who presented with an anterior mediastinal mass, which was found to represent a mature teratoma. Within it, there was a secondary somatic malignant glial neoplasm with mitotic activity and necrosis, compatible with glioblastoma. He experienced early local recurrence and lymph node metastasis, but is alive and well 3 1/2 years after diagnosis. Neither the teratoma nor the glioblastoma components had abnormalities of chromosome 12, which may implicate that this teratoma was more closely related to those arising along the midline of infants and children (type I germ cell tumor) than to the typically malignant testicular examples, which often contain mixed germ cell elements (type II germ cell tumor). PMID:27327191

  1. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  2. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising in the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhao, Rui-jiao; Kong, Ling-fei

    2015-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare melanin-containing neoplasm with locally aggressive and rapid expansile growth, usually involving the maxilla, skull, and mandible of early infancy. Radical surgery is critical for a long-term outcome. We present a case of 14-month-old girl with rapid-growing subcutaneous mass arising in the right temporal bone and extending intracranially on computed tomographic scan. Radical surgery was performed. A brownish-black tumor composed of large pigmented epithelioid cells, positive for cytokeratins and HMB-45, and nests of small neuroblast-like cells positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, was diagnosed as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. The patient remained well without evidence of recurrence for 1 year after surgery. Clinicopathological features, management alternatives and outcome were discussed.

  3. Short-term enhancement effect of nitrogen addition on microbial degradation and plant uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated mangrove soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Zhou, Hai Chao; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Chun Quan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-12-30

    Effects of nitrogen (N) addition on the microbial degradation and uptake of a mixture of BDE-47 and -209 by Aegiceras corniculatum, a typical mangrove plant species were investigated. At the end of 3-month experiment, a significant dissipation of BDE-47 was observed in the planted soil, and this dissipation, particularly in rhizosphere soil, was significantly accelerated by the frequent addition of N in the form of ammonium chloride. The removal percentage of BDE-47 in the rhizosphere soil without N addition was 47.3% and increased to 58.2% with N. However, the unplanted soil only removed less than 25% BDE-47, irrespective to N supply. The N addition in planted treatments significantly increased soil N content, urease and dehydrogenase activities, and the abundances of total bacteria and dehalogenating bacteria, leading to more microbial degradation of BDE-47. The N addition also enhanced the root uptake and translocation of PBDEs to above-ground tissues of A. corniculatum. These results suggested that N addition could enhance the phytoremediation of BDE-47-contaminated soil within a short period of time. Different from BDE-47, BDE-209 in all contaminated soils was difficult to be removed due to its persistence and low bioavailability.

  4. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  5. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  6. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility.

  7. Short term feeding of a high fat diet exerts an additive effect on hepatocellular damage and steatosis in liver-specific PTEN knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN. Twelve-week...

  8. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  9. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  10. Large-scale compensation of errors in pairwise-additive empirical force fields: comparison of AMBER intermolecular terms with rigorous DFT-SAPT calculations.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Otyepka, Michal; Sponer, Jirí; Hobza, Pavel; Jurecka, Petr

    2010-09-21

    The intermolecular interaction energy components for several molecular complexes were calculated using force fields available in the AMBER suite of programs and compared with Density Functional Theory-Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (DFT-SAPT) values. The extent to which such comparison is meaningful is discussed. The comparability is shown to depend strongly on the intermolecular distance, which means that comparisons made at one distance only are of limited value. At large distances the coulombic and van der Waals 1/r(6) empirical terms correspond fairly well with the DFT-SAPT electrostatics and dispersion terms, respectively. At the onset of electronic overlap the empirical values deviate from the reference values considerably. However, the errors in the force fields tend to cancel out in a systematic manner at equilibrium distances. Thus, the overall performance of the force fields displays errors an order of magnitude smaller than those of the individual interaction energy components. The repulsive 1/r(12) component of the van der Waals expression seems to be responsible for a significant part of the deviation of the force field results from the reference values. We suggest that further improvement of the force fields for intermolecular interactions would require replacement of the nonphysical 1/r(12) term by an exponential function. Dispersion anisotropy and its effects are discussed. Our analysis is intended to show that although comparing the empirical and non-empirical interaction energy components is in general problematic, it might bring insights useful for the construction of new force fields. Our results are relevant to often performed force-field-based interaction energy decompositions.

  11. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  12. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios

    2013-02-15

    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty.

  13. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea, O; Sánchez, F; Larrínaga, B; Martínez-Peñuela, J M

    1989-12-01

    Warthin's tumor (adenolymphoma) is a monomorphous adenoma of the salivary glands well characterized histologically. Its clinical evolution is almost invariably benign, the malignant change being extremely unusual. We present the case of a 67 year-old man with a right retromandibular tumor which has evolved over a two year period, with peripheral involvement of V, VI and VII cranial nerves on the same side, and direct invasion of intracranial structures. The biopsy revealed a classic adenolymphoma which shows foci of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Transitional areas between benign and malignant epithelium were evident. In addition, histological findings support the hypothesis of the origin of adenolymphoma from epithelial ducts trapped in the regional lymphatic tissue.

  14. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chung Shanshan; Lau, Ka-yan Winifred; Zhang Chan

    2010-05-15

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  15. Malignant melanoma arising within nevus spilus.

    PubMed

    Karam, Susan L; Jackson, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    A 68-year-old Caucasian man presented with a suspicious lesion near the left axilla during a full skin examination that was performed for a presentation for dermatitis. The patient stated that he had the lesion for several decades but that it may have become more raised over the past few months. He did not think much of the changes, however, because it was to him, "just a birthmark." The patient had no personal or family history of melanoma. On examination, the patient had a 4.5-cm by 1.2-cm oval light tan patch studded with multiple hyperpigmented macules regularly distributed within the lesion. In addition, at the lateral aspect of the lesion, the patient had a 0.9-cm irregularly pigmented black papule that was suspicious for melanoma (Figure 1). A deep saucerization biopsy of the lesion was performed, and histopathological examination revealed malignant melanoma, with a Breslow depth of 1.13 mm (Figure 2 and Figure 3). It was recommended that the patient have a wide local excision of the biopsy site and the adjacent remaining portions of the nevus spilus. A sentinel lymph node biopsy and an oncologic evaluation were also performed. The sentinel lymph node biopsies, as well as a computed tomographic scan performed by oncology, showed no evidence of metastatic disease. Since the procedure, the patient has shown no signs of disease recurrence. PMID:22545326

  16. Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, Northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Robert R; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous shrubs and a graminoid species, including: instantaneous rates of leaf gas exchange, and δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and nitrogen (N) concentrations of Betula nana, Salix pulchra, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Leaf-level measurements were complemented by measurements of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and depth of thaw. Reductions in snow lowered summer leaf photosynthesis, conductance, and transpiration rates by up to 40% compared to ambient and deep snow conditions for Eriophorum vaginatum, and reduced Salix pulchra conductance and transpiration by up to 49%. In contrast, Betula nana exhibited no changes in leaf gas exchange in response to lower or deeper snow. Canopy LAI increased with added snow, while reduced winter snow resulted in lower growing season soil temperatures and reduced thaw depths. Our findings indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of future snow depth will have individualistic consequences for leaf-level C fixation and water flux by tundra species, and that these responses will be manifested over the longer term by changes in canopy traits, depth of thaw, soil C and N processes, and trace gas (CO2 and H2O) exchanges between the tundra and the atmosphere.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor with malignant potential arising in sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ikuko; Sato, Sunao; Kudo, Yasusei; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Suei, Yoshikazu; Takata, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A rare case is described of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with malignant potential arising in the sublingual gland. A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of a slowly enlarging painless mass in the center of the floor of the mouth. The tumor was a well-demarcated, firm mass with a multicystic lesion. The tumor exhibited highly cellular areas of spindle cells with patternless architecture alternating with hypocellular areas. The tumor cells were positive for CD34 and bcl-2 as well as vimentin, and negative for epithelial, myogenic, neurogenic and histiocytic markers. The tumor cells formed multiple satellite nodules around dilated ducts in the multicystic lesion, indicating infiltrative growth. In addition, areas exhibiting higher cellularity with increased mitoses were noticed in the satellite nodules, although cellular atypia was not obvious. These findings led to a final diagnosis of SFT with malignant potential. There has been no recurrence or metastasis for 27 months after the surgery. Solitary fibrous tumor of the salivary gland must be differentiated from various spindle cell neoplasms including myogenic, peripheral nerve sheath, fibroblastic and fibro-histiocytic spindle cell neoplasms, hemangiopericytoma and myoepithelioma. In addition to characteristic morphological features, an immunohistochemical positivity for CD34 and bcl-2 may aid in the diagnosis of SFT.

  18. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation.

  19. The complex spectrum of forensic issues arising from obesity.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2012-12-01

    The increasing numbers of obese and morbidly obese individuals in the community are having a direct effect on forensic facilities. In addition to having to install more robust equipment for handling large bodies, the quality of autopsy examinations may be reduced by the physical difficulties that arise in trying to position bodies correctly so that normal examinations can proceed. Accelerated putrefaction is often an added complication. Metabolic disturbances resulting from obesity increase susceptibility to a range of conditions that are associated with sudden and unexpected death, and surgery may have increased complications. The rates of a number of different malignancies, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma and multiple myeloma, and carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, gallbladder, thyroid, prostate, breast and endometrium, are increased. In addition, obese individuals have higher rates of diabetes mellitus, and sepsis. The unexpected collapse of an obese individual should raise the possibility of a wide range of conditions, many of which may be more difficult to demonstrate at autopsy than in an individual with a normal body mass index. Although sudden cardiac death due to cardiomegaly, pulmonary thromboembolism, or ischemic heart disease may be the most probable diagnosis in an unexpected collapse, the range of possible underlying conditions is extensive and often only determinable after full postmortem examination.

  20. Where Cognitive Conflict Arises from?: The Structure of Creating Cognitive Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyoungho; Yi, Jinseog

    2013-01-01

    In this study, our basic contention was that it is essential for researchers to answer the question, "Where does cognitive conflict really arise from?" with more precision than has heretofore been attempted. First, we examined how the term "cognitive conflict" has been treated in the existing literature and try to pinpoint some difficulties,…

  1. Improvement of Short-Term Outcomes for High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers With Addition of Argon Plasma Coagulation Following Endoscopic Injection Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lin, Kung-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second endoscopic method together with injection therapy is recommended to treat high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers. This study investigated whether additional argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment could influence hemostatic efficacy following endoscopic injection therapy to treat high-risk bleeding ulcers. From October 2010 to January 2012, eligible patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were admitted to our hospital. They prospectively randomly underwent either APC therapy along with distilled water injection or distilled water injection alone. Episodes of rebleeding were retreated with endoscopic combination therapy. Patients in whom retreatment was ineffective underwent emergency surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE). A total of 116 enrolled patients were analyzed. The hemostatic efficacy in 58 patients treated with APC along with distilled water injection was compared with that in 58 patients treated with distilled water injection alone. The 2 treatment groups were similar with respect to all baseline characteristics. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 56 patients treated with combined therapy, and 55 patients treated with distilled water injection therapy (97% vs 95%, P = 0.648). Bleeding recurred in 2 patients treated with combined therapy, and 9 patients treated with distilled water injection (3.6% vs 16%, P = 0.029). Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor for recurrent bleeding (odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.84; P = 0.029). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in hospital stay, TAE, surgery, and mortality. Endoscopic therapy with APC following distilled water injection is more effective than distilled water injection alone for preventing rebleeding of peptic ulcer. PMID:26266385

  2. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  3. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  6. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  7. Adenosquamous carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, YU-SUNG; SU, HSIN-HAO; HO, SZU-PEI

    2016-01-01

    The current study describes a case of adenosquamous carcinoma originating from a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC). A 77-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left mid-neck, which was soft and mobile on palpation. Fine-needle aspiration was performed, but cytology did not detect any malignant cells. Computed tomography demonstrated a single cystic lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland; therefore, surgery was performed on the suspected thyroid cyst. However, it was identified intraoperatively that the lesion was separated from the thyroid gland and instead adhered to an additional hyoid bone; therefore, the Sistrunk procedure was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tumor confirmed the diagnosis of adenosquamous carcinoma originating from a TGDC. Carcinoma arising from a TGDC is rare, and accounts for 1% of all TGDC cases. The most common subtype of carcinoma associated with TGDC is papillary carcinoma, whilst adenosquamous carcinoma developing from a TGDC is extremely rare, with only one case currently reported in the literature. Although a consensus for the management of this disease has not yet been established, adequate surgical excision with long-term follow-up is currently the preferred treatment. PMID:27073536

  8. How mutualisms arise in phytoplankton communities: building eco-evolutionary principles for aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Kazamia, Elena; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-07-01

    Extensive sampling and metagenomics analyses of plankton communities across all aquatic environments are beginning to provide insights into the ecology of microbial communities. In particular, the importance of metabolic exchanges that provide a foundation for ecological interactions between microorganisms has emerged as a key factor in forging such communities. Here we show how both studies of environmental samples and physiological experimentation in the laboratory with defined microbial co-cultures are being used to decipher the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of such exchanges. In addition, we explain how metabolic modelling may be used to conduct investigations in reverse, deducing novel molecular exchanges from analysis of large-scale data sets, which can identify persistently co-occurring species. Finally, we consider how knowledge of microbial community ecology can be built into evolutionary theories tailored to these species' unique lifestyles. We propose a novel model for the evolution of metabolic auxotrophy in microorganisms that arises as a result of symbiosis, termed the Foraging-to-Farming hypothesis. The model has testable predictions, fits several known examples of mutualism in the aquatic world, and sheds light on how interactions, which cement dependencies within communities of microorganisms, might be initiated.

  9. How mutualisms arise in phytoplankton communities: building eco-evolutionary principles for aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Kazamia, Elena; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-07-01

    Extensive sampling and metagenomics analyses of plankton communities across all aquatic environments are beginning to provide insights into the ecology of microbial communities. In particular, the importance of metabolic exchanges that provide a foundation for ecological interactions between microorganisms has emerged as a key factor in forging such communities. Here we show how both studies of environmental samples and physiological experimentation in the laboratory with defined microbial co-cultures are being used to decipher the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of such exchanges. In addition, we explain how metabolic modelling may be used to conduct investigations in reverse, deducing novel molecular exchanges from analysis of large-scale data sets, which can identify persistently co-occurring species. Finally, we consider how knowledge of microbial community ecology can be built into evolutionary theories tailored to these species' unique lifestyles. We propose a novel model for the evolution of metabolic auxotrophy in microorganisms that arises as a result of symbiosis, termed the Foraging-to-Farming hypothesis. The model has testable predictions, fits several known examples of mutualism in the aquatic world, and sheds light on how interactions, which cement dependencies within communities of microorganisms, might be initiated. PMID:27282316

  10. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  11. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  12. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  13. Thymoma type B1 arising in a giant supradiaphragmatic thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Han, Unsal; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Yanik, Serdar

    2014-11-01

    Thymolipomas are uncommon tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They may extend into, but rarely stem from, the chest cavity. Furthermore, thymoma arising in a thymolipoma is extremely rare. We report a unique case of thymoma type B1 that originated form a giant thymolipoma located in the chest cavity, which was resected by a lateral thoracotomy in a 23-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymoma type B1 arising within a giant thymolipoma.

  14. Pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Ahmad, Faiz U; Morcos, Jacques J

    2016-10-01

    Schwannomas arising from the trochlear nerve are very rare and to our knowledge, less than 35 histologically documented cases have been reported in the literature. There are no reports of a schwannoma in the pineal region. We report a 24-year-old woman who underwent a para-occipital trans-tentorial approach and gross total excision of a pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve. This is the first such reported case. PMID:27496528

  15. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect.

  19. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  20. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  1. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  2. Malignancy arising in endometriosis associated with unopposed estrogen replacement.

    PubMed

    Reimnitz, C; Brand, E; Nieberg, R K; Hacker, N F

    1988-03-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a well documented phenomenon. Although it occurs most commonly in the ovaries, there have been approximately 50 reported cases of extraovarian malignant transformation of endometriosis. This paper presents two cases of malignancy arising from a dormant focus of endometriosis after total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and exogenous estrogen replacement therapy. These malignancies are often well differentiated and may behave similarly to estrogen-induced endometrial carcinomas. After surgical castration of a premenopausal woman with endometriosis, the use of progestins in replacement therapy may reduce the risk of malignancy arising in endometriosis.

  3. A leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

    PubMed

    Yagi, K; Hamada, Y; Yasui, N

    2006-12-01

    Vascular leiomyomas, or angioleiomyomas, are benign tumours originating from smooth non-striated muscle. Leiomyomas in the hand are uncommon and their pre-operative diagnosis is difficult. We report a 65 year-old woman who developed a vascular leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

  4. ARISE: A Challenging 25-m Space Antenna Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Hoferer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth). Future scientific and communications missions are conceptualizing using very large reflector antennas in space. The antenna dimensions are targeted from lOm to 25m beyond. Frequencies coveting L-band through W-band are being considered. these challenging missions, one may refer to ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), which is projected to utilize a 25-m dual Gregorian optics operating from 8 GHz to 86 Gl-lz . An artist's renditions Gregorian antenna concept is shown . The objective of this mission is to create a space-based VLBI system (integrated with ground based antennas) for high resolution mapping of black holes. Successful realization of ARISE necessitates development of several technologies . The most crucial technology is that of the deployable 25-m reflector that must work at frequencies as high as 43 and 86 GHz. The current baseline selection for ARISE is an inflatable antenna, under development for several other applications in communications and remote sensing.

  5. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  6. Errors arising from incorrect orientation of E test strips.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S; Yam, T S

    1995-01-01

    Major errors arise if E test strips are placed upside down. Asymmetric zones, or no zone at all, may result. MICs indicated by upside-down tests were almost always considerably higher than true values. This situation differs markedly from that for conventional testing, where orientation of disks is not important. PMID:7665686

  7. Colonic-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wang L; Cao, Dengfeng

    2008-12-01

    A 47-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain was found to have a 20 cm cystic retroperitoneal mass. Pathology indicated a colonic-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma. The adenocarcinoma was predominantly intracystic with focal superficial invasion into the cyst wall but not beyond the teratoma capsule. Immunohistochemistry showed that the adenocarcinoma cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor-2 (CDX2) but negative for CK7, confirming the colonic phenotype. In addition, the adenocarcinoma was seen adjacent to teratomatous colonic-type mucosa with adenomatous change (i.e. adenoma), suggesting that it was probably arising from a colonic-type adenoma within the teratoma. The carcinoma had a higher Ki-67 proliferation index and had a higher percentage of cells stained for p53 than the adjacent adenomatous lesion. To the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in which a colonic-type adenocarcinoma was seen arising from a precursor lesion (i.e. a colonic-type adenoma in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma) and is the second case of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma arising in a primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma.

  8. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  9. Complex Population Dynamics in Mussels Arising from Density-Linked Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy; Forester, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations are generally attributed to the deterministic consequences of strong non-linear interactions among organisms, or the effects of random stochastic environmental variation superimposed upon the deterministic skeleton describing population change. Analysis of the population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus californianus taken in 16 plots over 18-years found no evidence that these processes explained observed strong fluctuations. Instead, population fluctuations arose because environmental stochasticity varied with abundance, which we term density-linked stochasticity. This phenomenon arises from biologically relevant mechanisms: recruitment variation and transmission of disturbance among neighboring individuals. Density-linked stochasticity is probably present frequently in populations, as it arises naturally from several general ecological processes, including stage structure variation with density, ontogenetic niche shifts, and local transmission of stochastic perturbations. More thoroughly characterizing and interpreting deviations from the mean behavior of a system will lead to better ecological prediction and improved insight into the important processes affecting populations and ecosystems. PMID:24086617

  10. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  11. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  12. Myofibroblastoma arising in mammary hamartoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Diego M; Cruz, Dênnis Baroni; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Pêgas, Karla Laís; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare mesenchymal tumor arising in breast's soft tissue with a great variety of microscopic features that can be mistaken with a wide variety of biphasic lesions. The authors report a rare case of myofibroblastoma of the breast arising in a mammary hamartoma (MH), present a review of the clinicopathological features of these lesions, and make some diagnostic considerations. The tumour consisted of a well-circumscribed nodule. MFB component comprised about fifty percent of the lesion and was made up of bipolar spindle cells arranged in fascicular clusters separated by bands of hyalinized collagen. There were fat cells and several residual hamartoma glands intermingled and distorted in MFB area. MFB component was positive for Desmin, CD34, bcl-2, and Calponin. To the best of our knowledge, MFB has not been reported in MH, neither has any of the reports described mammary glands joined within MFB. PMID:21151720

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising in warthin tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamide; Öztarakçi, Hüseyin; Sayar, Çağdaş; Ağirbaş, Şule

    2012-01-01

    Warthin tumor is a well-defined benign salivary gland neoplasm consisting of both epithelial and lymphoid components. The tumor is the second most common benign tumor next to pleomorphic adenoma. We present a case of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise classified, arising in unilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland in a 63-year-old male patient. Carcinomas arising in or from the epithelial component of a preexisting parotid Warthin tumor are rare and differential diagnosis of metastasis from an adenocarcinoma in Warthin tumor is important. The patient underwent a complete and thorough work-up, and no other primary malignant lesion was found. No other primary malignant lesion had manifested at the last one year follow-up period.

  14. Solitary Osteochondroma Arising from Cervical Spina Bifida Occulta

    PubMed Central

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina. PMID:24383028

  15. Papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Takeda, Eizo; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shimono, Masaki; Inoue, Takashi

    2003-11-01

    We report a rare case of a papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip. This tumor was not distinctly encapsulated and had proliferated replacing the ductal epithelium. Mast cells were found not only in the stroma but also in the oncocytic epithelial layer. There was a strong immunoreaction with mitochondrial antibody in the epithelial layer. Only one case (0.9%) of papillary cystadenoma has occurred among the 110 benign intraoral salivary gland tumors seen in our hospital from 1966 through September 2003.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  17. Automatic detection of EEG artefacts arising from head movements using EEG and gyroscope signals.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Simon; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of EEG signals by artefacts arising from head movements has been a serious obstacle in the deployment of automatic neurological event detection systems in ambulatory EEG. In this paper, we present work on categorizing these head-movement artefacts as one distinct class and on using support vector machines to automatically detect their presence. The use of additional physical signals in detecting head-movement artefacts is also investigated by means of support vector machines classifiers implemented with gyroscope waveforms. Finally, the combination of features extracted from EEG and gyroscope signals is explored in order to design an algorithm which incorporates both physical and physiological signals in accurately detecting artefacts arising from head-movements.

  18. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been strongly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of this coupling occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. However, limited observations prevent to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The main challenge of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe) project is to combine existing national and international observation networks including: the International infrasound monitoring system developed for the CTBT (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) verification, the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) lidar network, European observation infrastructures at mid latitudes (OHP observatory), tropics (Maïdo observatory), high latitudes (ALOMAR and EISCAT), infrasound stations which form a dense European network and satellites. The ARISE network is unique by its coverage (polar to equatorial regions in the European longitude sector), its altitude range (from troposphere to mesosphere and ionosphere) and the involved scales both in time (from seconds to tens of years) and space (from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers). Advanced data products are produced with the scope to assimilate data in the Weather Prediction models to improve future forecasts over weeks and seasonal time scales. ARISE observations are especially relevant for the monitoring of extreme events such as thunderstorms, volcanoes, meteors and at larger scales, deep convection and stratospheric warming events for physical processes description and study of long term evolution with climate change. Among the applications, ARISE fosters integration of innovative methods for remote detection of non-instrumented volcanoes including distant eruption characterization to provide notifications with reliable confidence indices to the

  19. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  20. Pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours arising from the pleura.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, A; Kilic, D; Hatipoglu, A; Bakirci, T; Bilezikci, B

    2006-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is one of the rare tumours which arise from visceral pleura. Klemperer and Rabin first described SFT as a distinct clinical entity among primary pleural tumoUrs in 1931. Approximately 820 cases have been reported in literature to date. The management of patients with SFT is complete resection of the tumour and follow up of the patient to detect any possible late recurrence. In the present paper, we report two cases of pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura that appeared as a wandering chest nodule to which surgical resection undertaken at our hospital. The aim is to summarise our experience in the management of solitary fibrous tumour.

  1. Solitary fibrous tumor arising from the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. To our knowledge, only 30 cases of SFTs in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have been reported in the literature. We describe an SFT that arose from the right sphenoid sinus and extended to the nasal cavity and epipharynx. The tumor was completely removed by endoscopic sinus surgery without complication. The patient is taking an uneventful course without any evidence of recurrence of the disease 8 months after surgery now.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.

    1984-03-01

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank. PMID:18094473

  4. Retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Sala, F; Bouillane, P J; Francisci, M P; Diaz, F; Lena, P; Kreitmann, P; Batt, M

    2001-11-01

    This report describes a novel technique used for management of retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. The procedure consists of endoaortic exclusion of the aneurysmal neck, using a prosthetic patch after sternotomy during circulatory arrest, and antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia. The advantages of this technique are avoidance of hemorrhagic complications during clamping of the aneurysmal neck, limiting of the extent of dissection of the aortic arch, and elimination of the risk of inadvertent left recurrent nerve paralysis. Antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia provides good cerebral protection and decreases the duration and consequences of extracorporeal circulation.

  5. Endoscopic resection of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Jung, Bong Jin; Rha, Ki Sang; Park, Chan Ii

    2005-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumor of the salivary glands. It has rarely been reported arising in the nasopharynx. A pleomorphic adenoma originating from the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx was found in a 61-year-old female who presented with nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. It was successfully removed by combined transnasal and transoral surgery under endoscopic visualization. Endoscope-guided surgery may be helpful for the complete resection of benign nasopharyngeal tumors whilst minimizing injury to the Eustachian tube openings or velopharynx.

  6. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  7. Accelerated Radiation-Damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susie Y.; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    Control of the longitudinal magnetization in fast gradient echo sequences is an important factor enabling the high efficiency of balanced Steady State Free Precession (bSSFP) sequences. We introduce a new method for accelerating the return of the longitudinal magnetization to the +z-axis that is independent of externally applied RF pulses and shows improved off-resonance performance. The Accelerated Radiation damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE) method uses an external feedback circuit to strengthen the Radiation Damping (RD) field. The enhanced RD field rotates the magnetization back to the +z-axis at a rate faster than T1 relaxation. The method is characterized in gradient echo phantom imaging at 3T as a function of feedback gain, phase, and duration and compared with results from numerical simulations of the Bloch equations incorporating RD. A short period of feedback (10ms) during a refocused interval of a crushed gradient echo sequence allowed greater than 99% recovery of the longitudinal magnetization when very little T2 relaxation has time to occur. Appropriate applications might include improving navigated sequences. Unlike conventional flip-back schemes, the ARISE “flip-back” is generated by the spins themselves, thereby offering a potentially useful building block for enhancing gradient echo sequences. PMID:18956463

  8. Primary retroperitoneal Müllerian adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2014-06-01

    Primary retroperitoneal Müllerian adenocarcinoma (PRMA) is an extremely rare tumor and the cause remains unknown. We report a case of PRMA arising from endometriosis. A 52-year-old woman with a history of malignant lymphoma underwent a follow-up computed tomography scan, which revealed a retroperitoneal tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor resected during laparoscopic surgery showed adenocarcinoma positive for cytokeratin 7 and negative for cytokeratin 20. The patient had undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 14 years ago for myoma uteri and endometrial cysts and was treated with estrogen-replacement therapy. The size of the tumor increased and laparotomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma resembling endometrial adenocarcinoma, which stained positive for cancer antigen 125, cancer antigen 19-9, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor immunohistochemically. The focus of the endometriosis was found at the edge of the tumor, and the stromal cells around the tumor cells were CD10 positive. The patient was diagnosed as having PRMA arising from endometriosis, and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis.

    PubMed

    McCoubrey, A; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-11-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multiloculated cyst located in the sigmoid mesentery. This was lined largely by benign ciliated serous-type epithelium but a focus of well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma projected into the lumen. Two further peritoneal cysts were present, both of which were lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium. There was a coincidental renal cell carcinoma. This is a unique case of multiple omental, peritoneal, and retroperitoneal cysts (classified as cystic endosalpingiosis), one of which developed a focus of serous adenocarcinoma. Although rarely serous adenocarcinomas, similar to those occurring within the ovary, arise in the retroperitoneum, this is the first reported occurrence in association with a pre-existing benign lesion.

  10. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

    2013-09-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  12. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: An efficient technique for solving the arbitrarily multilayered electrostatic problems with singularity arising from degenerate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyuan, Shiang-Woei; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan; Chen, Jeng-Tzong

    2004-09-01

    Engineers usually adopt multilayered design for semiconductor and electron devices, and an accurate electrostatic analysis is indispensable in the design stage. For variable design of electron devices, the BEM has become a better method than the domain-type FEM because BEM can provide a complete solution in terms of boundary values only, with substantial saving in modelling effort. Since dual BEM still has some advantages over conventional BEM for singularity arising from a degenerate boundary, the dual BEM accompanied by subregion technology, instead of tedious calculation of Fourier-Bessel transforms for the spatial Green's functions, was used to efficiently simulate the electric effect of diverse ratios of permittivity between arbitrarily multilayered domain and the fringing field around the edge of conductors. Results show that different ratios of permittivity will affect the electric field seriously, and the values of surface charge density on the edge of conductors are much higher than those on the middle part because of fringing effect. In addition, if using the DBEM to model the fringing field around the edge of conductors, the minimum allowable data of dielectric strength for keeping off dielectric breakdown can be obtained very efficiently.

  14. Digital processing of signals arising from organic liquid scintillators for applications in the mixed-field assessment of nuclear threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinall, M. D.; Joyce, M. J.; Mackin, R. O.; Jarrah, Z.; Peyton, A. J.

    2008-10-01

    The nuclear aspect of the CBRN* threat is often divided amongst radiological substances posing no criticality risk, often referred to as 'dirty bomb' scenarios, and fissile threats. The latter have the theoretical potential for criticality excursion, resulting in elevated neutron fluxes in addition to the γ-ray component that is common to dirty bombs. Even in isolation of the highly-unlikely criticality scenario, fissile substances often exhibit radiation fields comprising a significant neutron component which can require considerably different counterterrorism measures and clean-up methodologies. The contrast between these threats can indicate important differences in the relative sophistication of the perpetrators and their organizations. Consequently, the detection and discrimination of nuclear perils in terms of mixed-field content is an important assay in combating terrorist threats. In this paper we report on the design and implementation of a fast digitizer and embedded-processor for onthe- fly signal processing of events from organic liquid scintillators. A digital technique, known as Pulse Gradient Analysis (PGA), has been developed at Lancaster University for the digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays. PGA has been deployed on bespoke hardware and demonstrates remarkable improvement over analogue methods for the assay of mixed fields and the real-time discrimination of neutrons and γ rays. In this regard the technology constitutes an attractive and affordable means for the discrimination of the radiation fields arising from fissile threats and those from dirty bombs. Data are presented demonstrating this capability with sealed radioactive sources.

  15. Malignant mixed tumors arising in salivary glands. I. Carcinomas arising in benign mixed tumors: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Perzin, K H

    1977-05-01

    Forty-seven cases of malignant mixed tumor (MMT) arising in major and minor salivary glands are presented. By definition, all these lesions contained both a benign mixed tumor (BMT) as well as a malignant neoplasm, usually a poorly differentiated carcinoma. In some cases, the carcinoma developed in a previously untreated salivary gland mass which was known to have been present for many years, others evolved in a recurrent previously resected BMT and still others originated in a previously undetected BMT. Adverse prognostic factors included: carcinomatous involvement of the resection lines, perineural invasion, metastases in lymph nodes, and origin in a major salivary gland. Lesions arising in the palate had a better prognosis as compared to major salivary gland tumors. Some patients died of locally uncontrollable tumor and others because of metastatic disease. Local recurrences of MMT were seen frequently; 18 patients (38%) had a total of 32 local recurrences. Of patients followed five years or more, seven (35%) had died of tumor, 11 (55%) had no evidence of disease, and two (10%) had died of other causes. Prolonged follow-up is required because recurrences and death from tumor may be seen many years following the diagnosis of MMT. Recommendations for therapy are made. Criteria for differentiating MMT from recurrent BMT and from cylindromatous carcinoma are discussed.

  16. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  17. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  18. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K

    2015-06-01

    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  19. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  20. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Scalp Arising from a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Mathangi; Sarma, Digvijay; Tejaswy, Kapil; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare, benign tumour with varied presentations that arises from the apocrine glands and at times can lead to a diagnostic dilemma. A 53-year-old male presented with a 40-year history of a scalp nodule and a recent 2-year change in its character, and a sanguinopurulent discharge. Examination revealed a 4 cm × 2 cm firm nodule upon left side of the scalp vertex, actively discharging pus and blood. No regional lymph nodes were noticeably palpable. Incision biopsy performed elsewhere showed evidence of a squamous cell carcinoma-in-situ. He underwent a wide local excision with a bilobed flap reconstruction. Histopathologically, the lesion was reported to be SCAP. On follow-up, the patient has since remained asymptomatic with an acceptable cosmetic recovery.

  1. Squamous carcinoma arising in a parotid Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Fabiana; Biglioli, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Warthin's tumour is the second most common benign neoplasm to affect the salivary glands. It virtually affects the sole parotid gland. A sudden increase in a tumour's size is usually due to a malignant transformation of the tumour. The transformation of the lymphoid stroma into malignant lymphoma is relatively common, while an epithelial malignancy is extremely rare. In this paper, the authors present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumour. The patient underwent enucleoresection of the tumour. Intraoperative frozen section revealed the presence of a cystic component associated with the squamous cell carcinoma areas. In consideration of the result of the intraoperative consultation, the surgeons decided to enlarge the previous resection by removal of a 30×25 mm cuff from the surrounding parotid tissue. Close follow-up was carried out and 12 months after surgery there was no evidence of recurrence or metastatic neoplasm.

  2. Lymphadenoma arising in the parotid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ghee Young; Kim, Eo-Jin; Go, Jai Hyang

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of lymphadenoma arising in the parotid gland. A 53-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the parotid gland. Grossly, it was a well-demarcated solid mass measuring 3 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination revealed many cysts or duct-like structures in the background of the prominent lymphoid stroma, confirming a diagnosis of lymphadenoma. This particular case was thought to have arisen from an intraparotid lymph node. Lymphadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the salivary gland with partial resemblance to other salivary gland tumors, such as Warthin's tumor, cystadenoma, sebaceous lymphadenoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Therefore proper recognition of this rare entity is warranted to avoid confusion in the diagnosis.

  3. Network Structures Arising from Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Baktash

    Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), a widespread synaptic modification mechanism, is sensitive to correlations between presynaptic spike trains, and organizes neural circuits in functionally useful ways. In this dissertation, I study the structures arising from STDP in a population of synapses with an emphasis on the interplay between synaptic stability and Hebbian competition, explained in Chapter 1. Starting from the simplest description of STDP which relates synaptic modification to the intervals between pairs of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, I show in Chapter 2 that stability and Hebbian competition are incompatible in this class of "pair-based" STDP models, either when hard bounds or soft bounds are imposed to the synapses. In chapter 3, I propose an alternative biophysically inspired method for imposing bounds to synapses, i.e. introducing a small temporal shift in the STDP window. Shifted STDP overcomes the incompatibility of synaptic stability and competition and can implement both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian forms of competitive plasticity. In light of experiments the explored a variety of spike patterns, STDP models have been augmented to account for interactions between multiple pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In chapter 4, I study the stability/competition interplay in three different proposed multi-spike models of STDP. I show that the "triplet model" leads to a partially steady-state distribution of synaptic weights and induces Hebbian competition. The "suppression model" develops a stable distribution of weights when the average weight is high and shows predominantly anti-Hebbian competition. The "NMDAR-based" model can lead to either stable or partially stable synaptic weight distribution and exhibits both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian competition, depending on the parameters. I conclude that multi-spike STDP models can produce radically different effects at the population level depending on how they implement multi-spike interactions

  4. Differential diagnosis of BPOP arising in relation to patella

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Kar, Maitreyee; Hazra, Sunit; Basu, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation’. There is no recurrence in five years of follow up. Conclusion: When exostosis like lesions arise from unusual site and at an unusual age group, other rare conditions need to be investigated. Though the final diagnosis of BPOP is obtained after careful histo-pathological examination, the clinico-radiological findings are also relevant. As literature search indicates, this is possibly second incidence where BPOP arised from sesamoid bone and first from patella. PMID:27299085

  5. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings.

    PubMed

    Williams, I D; Cole, C

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  6. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications. PMID:24945647

  7. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  8. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Qun-Shan

    2012-11-28

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumors arising in abdominal wall hernia sacs.

    PubMed

    Lee, J R; Hancock, S M; Martindale, R G

    2001-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the peritoneum is an unusual spindle-cell neoplasm. SFT was originally described in the pleura; however it is now diagnosed in multiple extrathoracic sites. Most believe that the tumor is of mesenchymal origin and should be classified as a variant of fibroma. SFT of the pleura and peritoneum have also been called fibrous mesothelioma, and the cell of origin is felt to be a pluripotential submesothelial mesenchymal cell. Primary tumors arising in hernia sacs are rare, and we report on two patients with hernia SFT. The first is a 67-year-old man who had a diffusely thickened distal left inguinal hernia sac. Within the sac was copious myxoid material mimicking pseudomyxoma peritonei. Herniorrhaphy and orchiectomy were performed. The second is a 44-year-old woman with a midepigastric mass attached to a ventral hernia. Wide local excision was performed. Both tumors demonstrated plump spindle cells, one with myxoid background and the other with keloidal collagen. Calretinin immunostaining was positive in both tumors, whereas CD34 was negative. This suggests tumor origin from a submesothial pluripotential cell that maintains potential for mesothelial differentiation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with the degree of resectability being a powerful predictor of outcome.

  10. Sparse Gamma Rhythms Arising through Clustering in Adapting Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-01-01

    Gamma rhythms (30–100 Hz) are an extensively studied synchronous brain state responsible for a number of sensory, memory, and motor processes. Experimental evidence suggests that fast-spiking interneurons are responsible for carrying the high frequency components of the rhythm, while regular-spiking pyramidal neurons fire sparsely. We propose that a combination of spike frequency adaptation and global inhibition may be responsible for this behavior. Excitatory neurons form several clusters that fire every few cycles of the fast oscillation. This is first shown in a detailed biophysical network model and then analyzed thoroughly in an idealized model. We exploit the fact that the timescale of adaptation is much slower than that of the other variables. Singular perturbation theory is used to derive an approximate periodic solution for a single spiking unit. This is then used to predict the relationship between the number of clusters arising spontaneously in the network as it relates to the adaptation time constant. We compare this to a complementary analysis that employs a weak coupling assumption to predict the first Fourier mode to destabilize from the incoherent state of an associated phase model as the external noise is reduced. Both approaches predict the same scaling of cluster number with respect to the adaptation time constant, which is corroborated in numerical simulations of the full system. Thus, we develop several testable predictions regarding the formation and characteristics of gamma rhythms with sparsely firing excitatory neurons. PMID:22125486

  11. Can CP violation arise solely from the gauge sector

    SciTech Connect

    London, D. )

    1992-05-01

    I consider the possibility that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is real, and that {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar}, the {ital CP}-violating parameter in the kaon system, is due indirectly to the existence of anomalous three-gauge-boson couplings which violate {ital CP}. Through these anomalous couplings, {ital CP}-violating interaictions of the {ital W} and quarks can be generated at one loop. The imaginary part of the {ital K}{sup 0-}{ital K{bar 0}} mixing box diagram is calculated using these effective {ital CP}-violating {ital W}-quark couplings. (This is a subset of all two-loop contributions to {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar}.) It is found that the values of the anomalous three-gauge-boson couplings required to reproduce the measured value of {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar} exceed their unitarity bounds. Thus, this scheme fails, offering compelling evidence that {ital CP} violation cannot arise solely from the gauge sector.

  12. Primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    XU, JING; ZHAO, JINGLAN; GENG, SHAOQING; WANG, QI; WANG, PENGFEI; ZHANG, CHUNLING; ZHU, XIONGZENG; JI, YOUXIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal seminoma often occurs in the anterior mediastinum of young males. It is unusual for the tumor to originate in the middle or posterior mediastinum, and such cases have rarely been reported in the English literature. The present study reports the case of a 52-year-old man with a 3.0-cm primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum. The patient presented with the symptoms of cough and chest tightness. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) scans revealed unique abnormal FDG uptake in the middle mediastinum. A mediastinoscopy was performed and integral excision was found to be difficult. A biopsy was performed and the histological examination revealed a primary seminoma. Following 4 cycles of a standard bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen, and chest irradiation at a total dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the tumor exhibited a partial response, decreasing in size, and FDG uptake was no longer observed on 18F-FDG-PET scan. The last follow-up date was April 2016 and the patient has remained disease-free for 20 months. PMID:27347149

  13. Clear cell carcinoma arising from a uterus-like mass.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, Baku; Abiko, Kaoru; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kido, Aki; Baba, Tsukasa; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-11-01

    A uterus-like mass is an extrauterine mass with a cavity lined by endometrial tissue and a smooth muscle layer resembling the uterine corpus. It is a rare condition of unknown histogenesis. Herein, we describe a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from a uterus-like mass located in the retroperitoneal space. The patient, a 67-year old nulliparous woman, had been followed with the diagnosis of an ovarian endometriotic cyst for 14 years until ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an enlargement of the cystic mass with a thickened irregular wall. Suspicion of malignant transformation prompted us to excise the lesion. At laparotomy, the uterus and right ovary appeared normal, and a mass measuring 8 cm was identified in the retroperitoneal space without any connection to the uterus. Grossly, the removed mass was composed of a cyst filled with blackish-brownish fluid and a thick wall resembling uterine myometrium. Microscopically, endometrial tissue inside the cyst, which was diffusely lined by clear cell carcinoma, was identified. Although the histogenesis of a uterus-like mass remains unclear, this case indicates that malignant tumors may occur from a uterus-like mass through the pathway similar to the carcinogenesis of endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms.

  14. On Bounded Posets Arising from Quantum Mechanical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Let S be a set of states of a physical system. The probabilities p( s) of the occurrence of an event when the system is in different states s ∈ S define a function from S to [0, 1] called a numerical event or, more precisely, an S- probability. If one orders a set P of S-probabilities in respect to the order of functions, further includes the constant functions 0 and 1 and defines p' = 1 - p for every p ∈ P, then one obtains a bounded poset of S-probabilities with an antitone involution. We study these posets in respect to various conditions about the existence of the sum of certain functions within the posets and derive properties from these conditions. In particular, questions of relations between different classes of S-probabilities arising this way are settled, algebraic representations are provided and the property that two S-probabilities commute is characterized which is essential for recognizing a classical physical system.

  15. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    PubMed

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations.

  16. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  17. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  18. Myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland: histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, R; Kuyama, K; Utsunomiya, T; Morikawa, M; Fukumoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2000-03-01

    A rare case of myoepithelioma of the buccal gland in a 54-year-old Japanese woman is reported. As the swelling exhibited a normal mucosal color and was relatively well defined, showing no ulcers, a benign salivary gland tumor was suspected upon clinical inspection. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the present case mainly consisted of plasmacytoid cells with round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and partial spindle cells with eccentric nuclei. The stroma was composed of fibro-hyalinized or myxoid connective tissue that separated from the parenchyma. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of the plasmacytoid and spindle cells was moderately positive for vimentin and GFAP, whereas the buccal gland adjacent to the tumor was negative for these antibodies. S-100 protein reactivity is strong for both types tumor cells. Actin reactivity was negative for both types of tumor cells, notwithstanding the fact that myoepithelial cells of the buccal gland were positively stained. Anti-cytokeratin reactivity was weak for both types of tumor cells in portions of the plexiform and solid areas; nevertheless, the buccal glands were moderately positive. These results suggest that neoplasmic myoepithelial cells exhibit abnormal differentiation and modification. There have been only two published reports of myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland in the literature to date.

  19. Prognosis of Minimally Invasive Carcinoma Arising in Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gloria H.; Wang, Huamin; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Klein, Alison P.; Askin, Frederic B.; Schwartz, Lauren Ende; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Cameron, John L.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2012-01-01

    While patients with surgically resected non-invasive mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas are cured, the behavior of surgically resected minimally invasive adenocarcinomas arising in MCN has not been well established. We report 16 surgically resected MCNs with minimal invasion defined as unifocal or multifocal microscopic invasive adenocarcinoma confined to the ovarian stroma of the MCN without capsular or pancreatic parenchymal invasion. Pathological findings were correlated with patient demographics, type of surgery, and long-term follow-up. Our study included 15 females and 1 male ranging in age from 25–66 years. The patients were followed for a mean of 48.6 months (range 12–148 months). The MCNs ranged in size from 3.5–25 cm and were all located in the body/tail of the gland. Lymphovascular invasion was not identified in any of the cases and all lymph nodes were negative for tumor. Ten neoplasms had unifocal invasion, while 6 had multifocal invasion. Twelve of the neoplasms were partially submitted for microscopic examination while 4 were submitted entirely. Only one of the 16 minimally invasive MCNs recurred, and that tumor had been minimally sampled pathologically. Our study demonstrates that the majority of patients with minimally invasive adenocarcinoma arising in MCN are cured by surgery, particularly if the neoplasms are completely examined histologically. PMID:23388125

  20. "Melanocytic Nests Arising in Lichenoid Inflammation": Reappraisal of the Terminology "Melanocytic Pseudonests".

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Jin; Simkin, A David; Bhawan, Jag; Wolpowitz, Deon

    2015-12-01

    Pseudonests or pseudomelanocytic nests represent aggregates of cells and cell fragments, including keratinocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and occasional melanocytes. Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Several reports documented nonspecific staining of pseudonests with melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, which can be detected in the cytoplasm of nonmelanocytic cells. In contrast, nuclear stains, such as MITF and SOX10, avoid this nonmelanocyte cytoplasmic staining. The authors have previously proposed the term melanocytic pseudonests to describe junctional nests with numerous (>2) true melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melan-A, SOX10, and MITF in a nonmelanocytic lesion with lichenoid inflammation (unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans). In this study, the authors report another case of this phenomenon arising in a different lichenoid inflammatory dermatitis (lichen planus). The immunophenotype and number of clustered true melanocytes indicate that these dermoepidermal aggregates represent true melanocytic nests and not pseudonests of any type. Therefore, the authors propose the revised terminology of "melanocytic nests arising in lichenoid inflammation" to describe this novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization or proliferation in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides. Because this phenomenon can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations, clinicopathologic correlation is essential for the correct diagnosis.

  1. Obesity, the Endocannabinoid System, and Bias Arising from Pharmaceutical Sponsorship

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. Methods/Principal Findings A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME); analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. Conclusions The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed. PMID:19333392

  2. Transversely isotropic elasticity and poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Since the classic work of Postma [1955] and Backus [1962], much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elastic materials. However, new results are still being discovered. For example, the P-wave anisotropy parameter c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} lies in the range 1/4 {<=} c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} {<=} <{lambda}+2{mu}><1/({lambda}+2{mu})>, when the layers are themselves composed of isotropic elastic materials with Lame constants {lambda} and {mu} and the vertical average of the layers is symbolized by <{center_dot}>. The lower bound corrects a result of Postma. For porous layers, a connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. For isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media, we establish general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann [1951] formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement. Such results are important for applications to oil exploration using AVO (amplitude versus offset) since the presence or absence of a fluid component, as well as the nature of the fluid, is the critical issue and the ways in which the fluid influences seismic reflection data still need to be better understood.

  3. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  4. Qualia Could Arise from Information Processing in Local Cortical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Orpwood, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied), and the information message (what the information is about). It focuses on the network’s ability to recognize information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behavior proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed. PMID:23504586

  5. Movement Timing and Invariance Arise from Several Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain

  6. Numerical solution of a class of integral equations arising in two-dimensional aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J.; Golberg, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    We consider the numerical solution of a class of integral equations arising in the determination of the compressible flow about a thin airfoil in a ventilated wind tunnel. The integral equations are of the first kind with kernels having a Cauchy singularity. Using appropriately chosen Hilbert spaces, it is shown that the kernel gives rise to a mapping which is the sum of a unitary operator and a compact operator. This allows the problem to be studied in terms of an equivalent integral equation of the second kind. A convergent numerical algorithm for its solution is derived by using Galerkin's method. It is shown that this algorithm is numerically equivalent to Bland's collocation method, which is then used as the method of computation. Extensive numerical calculations are presented establishing the validity of the theory.

  7. Numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A review of numerical methods for one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations arising in combustion theory is presented. The methods reviewed include explicit, implicit, quasi-linearization, time linearization, operator-splitting, random walk and finite-element techniques and methods of lines. Adaptive and nonadaptive procedures are also reviewed. These techniques are applied first to solve two model problems which have exact traveling wave solutions with which the numerical results can be compared. This comparison is performed in terms of both the wave profile and computed wave speed. It is shown that the computed wave speed is not a good indicator of the accuracy of a particular method. A fourth-order time-linearized, Hermitian compact operator technique is found to be the most accurate method for a variety of time and space sizes.

  8. Concomitant gradient terms in phase contrast MR: analysis and correction.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, M A; Zhou, X J; Polzin, J A; King, K F; Ganin, A; Pelc, N J; Glover, G H

    1998-02-01

    Whenever a linear gradient is activated, concomitant magnetic fields with non-linear spatial dependence result. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, i.e., within the imaging volume the magnetic field must have zero divergence, and has negligible curl. The concomitant, or Maxwell field has been described in the MRI literature for over 10 years. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally show the existence of two additional lowest-order terms in the concomitant field, which we call cross-terms. The concomitant gradient cross-terms only arise when the longitudinal gradient Gz is simultaneously active with a transverse gradient (Gx or Gy). The effect of all of the concomitant gradient terms on phase contrast imaging is examined in detail. Several methods for reducing or eliminating phase errors arising from the concomitant magnetic field are described. The feasibility of a joint pulse sequence-reconstruction method, which requires no increase in minimum TE, is demonstrated. Since the lowest-order terms of the concomitant field are proportional to G2/B0, the importance of concomitant gradient terms is expected to increase given the current interest in systems with stronger gradients and/or weaker main magnetic fields.

  9. Resolution of pronounced painless weakness arising from radiculopathy and disk extrusion.

    PubMed

    Lipetz, Jason S; Misra, Neelam; Silber, Jeff S

    2005-07-01

    In this retrospective, consecutive case series, we report the nonsurgical and rehabilitation outcomes of consecutive patients who presented with pronounced painless weakness arising from disk extrusion. Seven consecutive patients who chose physiatric care were followed clinically, and strength return was monitored. Each presented with predominantly painless radiculopathy, functionally significant strength loss, and radiographic evidence of disk extrusion or sequestration. Each patient participated in a targeted strengthening program, and in some cases, transforaminal injection therapy was employed. Each patient demonstrated an eventual full functional recovery. In most cases, electrodiagnostic studies were performed and included a needle examination of the affected limb and compound muscle action potentials from the most clinically relevant and weakened limb muscle. The electrodiagnostic findings and, in particular, the quantitative compound muscle action potential data seemed to correlate with the timing of motor recovery. Patients with predominantly painless and significant weakness arising from disk extrusion can demonstrate successful rehabilitation outcomes. Despite a relative absence of pain, such patients can present with a more rapidly reversible neurapraxic type of weakness. The more quantitative compound muscle action potential data obtained through electrodiagnostic studies may offer the treating physician an additional means of characterizing the type of neuronal injury at play and the likelihood and timing of strength return. PMID:15973090

  10. Mutations associated with carcinomas arising from pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Kishimoto, Y; Virmani, A K; Smith, A; Vuitch, F; Albores-Saavedra, J; Gazdar, A F

    1996-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands. Carcinomas in pleomorphic adenomas (CPAs) may arise by malignant transformation of the epithelial components of PAs. Occasionally, transitional zones containing cells with histological features intermediate between those of the benign PA and carcinomatous components of CPA are identified. After careful microdissection of archival microslides, the authors studied 12 cases of CPAs and their attendant adenomatous and transitional areas for mutations in the p53, RB, and K-ras genes, and at chromosomal loci 5q and 9p. The authors failed to find mutations in the K-ras gene or 9p locus. A relatively high rate of mutations (loss of heterozygosity [LOH] and microsatellite alterations) at the p53 gene were detected in CPAs (58%), and at somewhat lower frequencies at the RB gene (33%) and chromosomal location 5q (17%). Mutational frequency in the associated transitional and adenomatous areas were slightly lower than in the corresponding CPAs. No mutations were detected in adenomatous or transitional areas unless they also were present in the corresponding CPAs. Mutations of these three genes were absent in four cases of CPA, and in seven PAs without malignant change. These findings indicate that most CPAs arise from adenomas as the result of mutations in the three genes, especially p53. In addition, other, as yet unidentified genes may also be involved both in the development of PA and in its malignant progression to CPA. Mutational analysis of PAs may provide information of prognostic importance.

  11. A differential delay equation arising from the sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheer, A. Y.; Goldston, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differential delay equation introduced by Buchstab (1937) in connection with an asymptotic formula for the uncanceled terms in the sieve of Eratosthenes. Maier (1985) used this result to show there is unexpected irreqularity in the distribution of primes in short intervals. The function omega(u) is studied in this paper using numerical and analytical techniques. The results are applied to give some numerical constants in Maier's theorem.

  12. Similarity solutions for systems arising from an Aedes aegypti model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper a new model for the Aedes aegypti mosquito dispersal dynamics was proposed and its Lie point symmetries were investigated. According to the carried group classification, the maximal symmetry Lie algebra of the nonlinear cases is reached whenever the advection term vanishes. In this work we analyze the family of systems obtained when the wind effects on the proposed model are neglected. Wide new classes of solutions to the systems under consideration are obtained.

  13. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Wadhwan, Vijay; Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs) arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented. PMID:27630514

  14. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity.

    PubMed

    Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Wadhwan, Vijay; Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs) arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented. PMID:27630514

  15. Osteosarcoma arising from osteochondroma of the tibia: case report and cytogenetic findings.

    PubMed

    Engel, E E; Nogueira-Barbosa, M H; Brassesco, M S; Silva, G E B; Valera, E T; Peria, F M; Motta, T C; Tone, L G

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondroma is a cartilage capped benign tumor developing mainly at the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones. The rate of malignant transformation, mainly into chondrosarcoma, is estimated to be less than 1-3%. Transformation into osteosarcoma is very rare and has been reported only thirteen times. There is little information on treatment and outcome. We report the case of a secondary osteosarcoma arising in the left tibia of a 23-year-old male, 10 years after the initial diagnosis of osteochondroma and after two partial resections. Malignant transformation occurred at the stalk and not at the cartilage cap, as would normally be expected. Chromosome banding analysis revealed the karyotype: 46,XY, t(3;13)(q21;q34) [2]/46,XY [18]. Records from additional cases will help determine the parameters that define these rare secondary bone lesions. PMID:22427037

  16. Biomolecular Crowding Arising from Small Molecules, Molecular Constraints, Surface Packing, and Nano-Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Hilaire, Mary Rose; Abaskharon, Rachel M.; Gai, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of macromolecular crowding on the structure, dynamics, and reactivity of biomolecules is well-established and the relevant research has been extensively reviewed. Herein, we focus our discussion on crowding effects arising from small co-solvent molecules and densely packed surface conditions. In addition, we highlight recent efforts that capitalize on the excluded volume effect for various tailored biochemical and biophysical applications. Specifically, we discuss how a targeted increase in local mass density can be exploited to gain insight into the folding dynamics of the protein of interest and how confinement via reverse micelles can be used to study a range of biophysical questions, from protein hydration dynamics to amyloid formation. PMID:26266732

  17. Osteosarcoma arising from osteochondroma of the tibia: case report and cytogenetic findings.

    PubMed

    Engel, E E; Nogueira-Barbosa, M H; Brassesco, M S; Silva, G E B; Valera, E T; Peria, F M; Motta, T C; Tone, L G

    2012-03-01

    Osteochondroma is a cartilage capped benign tumor developing mainly at the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones. The rate of malignant transformation, mainly into chondrosarcoma, is estimated to be less than 1-3%. Transformation into osteosarcoma is very rare and has been reported only thirteen times. There is little information on treatment and outcome. We report the case of a secondary osteosarcoma arising in the left tibia of a 23-year-old male, 10 years after the initial diagnosis of osteochondroma and after two partial resections. Malignant transformation occurred at the stalk and not at the cartilage cap, as would normally be expected. Chromosome banding analysis revealed the karyotype: 46,XY, t(3;13)(q21;q34) [2]/46,XY [18]. Records from additional cases will help determine the parameters that define these rare secondary bone lesions.

  18. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    PubMed

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  19. Are neighborhoods causal? Complications arising from the 'stickiness' of ZNA.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas A; Bilal, Usama

    2016-10-01

    Are neighborhoods causal? The answer remains elusive. Armed with new multilevel methods, enthusiasm for neighborhoods research surged at the turn of the century. However, a wave of skepticism has arisen based on the difficulty of drawing causal inferences from observational studies in which selection to neighborhoods is non-random. Researchers have sought answers from experimental and quasi-experimental studies of movers vs. stayers. We develop two related concepts in this essay in the hopes of shedding light on this problem. First, the inceptive environment into which persons are born (which we term ZNA for Zip code Nativity Area) exerts a potentially powerful causal impact on health. Detecting that causal effect is challenging for reasons similar that obtain in other fields (including genetics). Second, we explicate the problem of neighborhood 'stickiness' in terms of the persistence of neighborhood treatment assignment, and argue that under-appreciation of stickiness has led to systematic bias in causal estimates of neighborhoods proportional to the degree of stickiness. In sticky contexts, failure to account for the lasting influences of ZNA by adjusting for intermediate individual socioeconomic and health variables on the causal pathway can result in neighborhood effects estimates that are biased toward the null. We follow with an example drawn from evidence of neighborhood 'stickiness' and obesity. The stickiness of ZNA cautions us that experimental evidence may be insufficient or misleading as a solution to causal inference problems in neighborhood research. PMID:26830654

  20. Survey of Costs Arising From Potential Radionuclide Scattering Events

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.E.; Pe, Ph.D.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Soo Hoo, M.S.

    2008-07-01

    The potential effects from scattering radioactive materials in public places include health, social, and economic consequences. These are substantial consequences relative to potential terror activities that include use of radioactive material dispersal devices (RDDs). Such an event with radionuclides released and deposited on surfaces outside and inside people's residences and places of work, commerce, and recreation will require decisions on how to recover from the event. One aspect of those decisions will be the cost to clean up the residual radioactive contamination to make the area functional again versus abandonment and/or razing and rebuilding. Development of cleanup processes have been the subject of experiment from the beginning of the nuclear age, but formalized cost breakdowns are relatively rare and mostly applicable to long term releases in non-public sites. Pre-event cleanup cost estimation of cost for cleanup of radioactive materials released to the public environment is an issue that has seen sporadic activity over the last 20 to 30 years. This paper will briefly review several of the more important efforts to estimate the costs of remediation or razing and reconstruction of radioactively contaminated areas. The cost estimates for such recoveries will be compared in terms of 2005 dollars for the sake of consistency. Dependence of cost estimates on population density and needed degree of decontamination will be shown to be quite strong in the overall presentation of the data. (authors)

  1. Uncertainty of simulated groundwater levels arising from stochastic transient climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Burton, Aidan; Fowler, Hayley; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    The evaluation of climate change impact on groundwater reserves represents a difficult task because both hydrological and climatic processes are complex and difficult to model. In this study, we present an innovative methodology that combines the use of integrated surface - subsurface hydrological models with advanced stochastic transient climate change scenarios. This methodology is applied to the Geer basin (480 km²) in Belgium, which is intensively exploited to supply the city of Liège (Belgium) with drinking water. The physically-based, spatially-distributed, surface-subsurface flow model has been developed with the finite element model HydroGeoSphere . The simultaneous solution of surface and subsurface flow equations in HydroGeoSphere, as well as the internal calculation of the actual evapotranspiration as a function of the soil moisture at each node of the evaporative zone, enables a better representation of interconnected processes in all domains of the catchment (fully saturated zone, partially saturated zone, surface). Additionally, the use of both surface and subsurface observed data to calibrate the model better constrains the calibration of the different water balance terms. Crucially, in the context of climate change impacts on groundwater resources, the evaluation of groundwater recharge is improved. . This surface-subsurface flow model is combined with advanced climate change scenarios for the Geer basin. Climate change simulations were obtained from six regional climate model (RCM) scenarios assuming the SRES A2 greenhouse gases emission (medium-high) scenario. These RCM scenarios were statistically downscaled using a transient stochastic weather generator technique, combining 'RainSim' and the 'CRU weather generator' for temperature and evapotranspiration time series. This downscaling technique exhibits three advantages compared with the 'delta change' method usually used in groundwater impact studies. (1) Corrections to climate model output are

  2. Molecular Electronic Terms and Molecular Orbital Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazo, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the molecular electronic terms which can arise from a given electronic configuration. Considered are simple cases, molecular states, direct products, closed shells, and open shells. Two examples are provided. (CW)

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    The aerosol properties of the atmosphere were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of their additional cloud and NO2 correction. The application of cloud correction according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard dataset. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and the NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud correction removes a local AOT maximum in February, and lowered the December artificial high AOT values. The pronounced negative AOT trends of about -1-5 % yr-1 have been obtained for most months, which could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 116 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 78 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and 272 Gg yr-2 in ECO over European territory of Russia. No influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  5. Axion arising from warped extra-dimensional gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Burnier, Y.; Kuehnel, F.

    2011-06-01

    We present a connection between two known solutions to the strong-CP problem: the standard introduction of axions and the extra-dimensional one, relying on topological arguments. Using an equivalent lower-dimensional setup with a warped extra dimension but without adding any new fields, it is shown that an additional light degree of freedom appears. Like an axion, it couples to the topological charge density via fermionic loop corrections. Its decay constant is related to the geometry of the extra dimension and is suppressed by the warping scale.

  6. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome.

  7. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  8. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  9. Functional connectivity arises from a slow rhythmic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingfeng M.; Bentley, William J.; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying temporal correlations among blood oxygen level-dependent signals is unclear. We used oxygen polarography to better characterize oxygen fluctuations and their correlation and to gain insight into the driving mechanism. The power spectrum of local oxygen fluctuations is inversely proportional to frequency raised to a power (1/f) raised to the beta, with an additional positive band-limited component centered at 0.06 Hz. In contrast, the power of the correlated oxygen signal is band limited from ∼0.01 Hz to 0.4 Hz with a peak at 0.06 Hz. These results suggest that there is a band-limited mechanism (or mechanisms) driving interregional oxygen correlation that is distinct from the mechanism(s) driving local (1/f) oxygen fluctuations. Candidates for driving interregional oxygen correlation include rhythmic or pseudo-oscillatory mechanisms. PMID:25918427

  10. Error in total ozone measurements arising from aerosol attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W. L.; Basher, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized least squares method for deducing both total ozone and aerosol extinction spectrum parameters from Dobson spectrophotometer measurements was developed. An error analysis applied to this system indicates that there is little advantage to additional measurements once a sufficient number of line pairs have been employed to solve for the selected detail in the attenuation model. It is shown that when there is a predominance of small particles (less than about 0.35 microns in diameter) the total ozone from the standard AD system is too high by about one percent. When larger particles are present the derived total ozone may be an overestimate or an underestimate but serious errors occur only for narrow polydispersions.

  11. Scientific computing challenges arising from space-borne observations

    SciTech Connect

    Halem, M. )

    1989-07-01

    Supercomputing simulation in conjunction with the autonomous acquisition of space-borne sensor data have led to dramatic contributions in our understanding of the physical processes occurring in the space and earth sciences over the past quarter-century. In this article, the five following supercomputing problems are described: (1) determining the motions of the earth's inner core boundary from outer space measurements of the magnetic field, (2) simulating the global dynamics of the earth's ocean currents, sea-ice cycles, land surface biology, and interannual atmospheric climates, (3) upper atmospheric chemistry, (4) modeling solar flare eruptions, and (5) the role of jet processes in the birth of stars. In addition, two examples indicating the growing importance of the use of supercomputers for scientific visualization are presented. Finally a brief overview of interdisciplinary modeling plans under development for the next generation of supercomputers is given.

  12. Functional connectivity arises from a slow rhythmic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng M; Bentley, William J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-05-12

    The mechanism underlying temporal correlations among blood oxygen level-dependent signals is unclear. We used oxygen polarography to better characterize oxygen fluctuations and their correlation and to gain insight into the driving mechanism. The power spectrum of local oxygen fluctuations is inversely proportional to frequency raised to a power (1/f) raised to the beta, with an additional positive band-limited component centered at 0.06 Hz. In contrast, the power of the correlated oxygen signal is band limited from ∼ 0.01 Hz to 0.4 Hz with a peak at 0.06 Hz. These results suggest that there is a band-limited mechanism (or mechanisms) driving interregional oxygen correlation that is distinct from the mechanism(s) driving local (1/f) oxygen fluctuations. Candidates for driving interregional oxygen correlation include rhythmic or pseudo-oscillatory mechanisms. PMID:25918427

  13. Spitz nevus arising in the eyelid of a teenager.

    PubMed

    Shields, Patrick W; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stagner, Anna M; Yoon, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy developed over a 2-month interval a lightly pigmented left upper eyelid lesion measuring 1.5 mm in greatest diameter that, when excised, microscopically was hypercellular and composed almost exclusively of nonpigmented epithelioid cells that created florid, large intraepidermal junctional nests and sheets and nests of subepidermal cells. The diagnosis was a Spitz nevus. HMB-45, MART-1, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were all positive and established the melanocytic nature of the benign tumor. The Ki-67 proliferation index (5%) and 2 mitoses/mm(2) were both low; p16 protein was immunohistochemically identified in the nevoid cells. We review the clinical, histopathologic, and other immunohistochemical features of this entity and provide a brief differential diagnosis (including separation from a Spitzoid melanoma). This is only the third eyelid Spitz nevus reported in the literature and is the most fully characterized immunohistochemically. At their present stage of development, contemporary immunohistochemical biomarkers, while providing supplemental information, nonetheless remain less than definitive in terms of reliably distinguishing benign from malignant Spitz lesions.

  14. Naturally Arising Strains of Polyomaviruses with Severely Attenuated MicroRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun Jung; Burke, James M.; Kincaid, Rodney P.; Azarm, Kristopher D.; Mireles, Noel; Butel, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several different polyomaviruses (PyVs) encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate viral as well as host gene expression. However, the functions of polyomaviral miRNAs, particularly during in vivo infection, remain poorly understood. Here we identify rare naturally arising PyVs that are severely attenuated or null for miRNA expression. We identify hypomorphic or null strains for miRNA expression from rhesus macaque simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus. These strains were isolated from immunocompromised hosts and derive from insertions or deletions in the viral DNA that preserve the amino acid reading frame of opposing-strand large T antigen gene. Characterization of the SV40 miRNA hypomorph, K661, shows that it is inhibited at the early miRNA biogenesis step of Drosha-mediated processing. Despite having a nonrearranged enhancer, which a previous study has shown renders some PyVs more susceptible to the autoregulatory activities of the miRNA, restoring miRNA expression to K661 has little effect on virus growth in either immortalized or primary monkey kidney cells. Thus, in addition to any effect of accompanying genomic elements, these results suggest that the cellular context also determines susceptibility to PyV miRNA-mediated effects. Combined, these results demonstrate that polyomaviruses lacking miRNAs can arise infrequently and that the functional importance of polyomaviral miRNAs is context dependent, consistent with an activity connected to the immune status of the host. IMPORTANCE Diverse virus families encode miRNAs, yet much remains unknown about viral miRNA function and contribution to the infectious cycle. Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are small DNA viruses, long known to be important as etiological agents of rare diseases and valuable models of DNA virus infection. Here, in immunosuppressed hosts, we uncover rare naturally arising variants of different PyVs that have lost the ability to express miRNAs. This represents some of the only known natural

  15. Home-test support grows as more questions arise.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    As approval of the first home-access HIV test kit appears inevitable, various health care agencies are anticipating how the kit would change HIV testing methods. One survey indicates that home testing would be favored by minority groups, would decrease the burden on public testing sites, and would lessen the use of blood donation as a means of HIV testing. Three companies have home-access kits awaiting Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval: Johnson & Johnson of New Brunswick, NJ; Chem Trak of Sunnyvale, CA; and Home Access Health Corp. in Chicago. The Johnson & Johnson kit provides a lance for pricking the finger, filter paper on which to place a drop of blood, and a sealed envelope for mailing to a laboratory, which provides results by telephone within several weeks. Opposition to the concept of home-access testing has dwindled as the need for more accessible HIV testing takes on added urgency now that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended routine, voluntary HIV testing for all pregnant women. The CDC reversed its earlier position and now supports the concept of home-access HIV testing and feels that it has the potential to expand access to testing. Of concern is the adequacy of telephone counseling. In addition, health officials are concerned about the impact on public testing sites and the possible threat to HIV prevention funding for HIV clinics.

  16. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings.

  17. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; et al

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  18. Some Properties of Weight Factors arising in Low-Density Series Expansion for Percolation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Faqir M; Abu, Nur Azman

    2002-01-01

    Let F(G) be any additive property of a simple graph such that F(G)=F(G1)+F(G2), where G is the series combination of graphs G1 and G2. The weight factor W(G) which is based on F(G) arises in the low-density series expansion techniques for percolation models as W(G)=\\sumG\\prime\\subseteq G(-1)e-e^{\\prime}F(G\\prime)η(G\\prime), where η(G\\prime) is the indicator that G\\prime cover-able sub-graph or without dangling ends. The purpose of this paper is to prove the weight factor formula for additive property of F as W(G)=d(G2)W(G1)+d(G1)W(G2), where d(G1) are d(G2) the d-weight for graphs G1 and G2 respectively. This result will be more simplified in the case of Directed Percolation Models using Mobius function property. A new few formulas for the resistive weight factors are also derived for a graph, which is parallel combination of n edges.

  19. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  20. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  1. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  2. Malignant mixed tumour arising from minor salivary gland tissue of the right parapharyngeal space with metastasis to the scalp.

    PubMed

    Tan, P H; Chew, C T; Cheah, E S

    1992-05-01

    A case of malignant mixed tumour arising from minor salivary gland tissue in the right parapharyngeal space with metastasis to the scalp is described. Both the clinical presentation and the histological picture were unusual. The simultaneous discovery of the primary parapharyngeal tumour and its scalp metastasis, the relatively young age of the patient (43 years-old), the origin of the tumour in minor salivary gland tissue, and the presence of a benign stromal component in the metastasis are features not commonly described in the three entities covered by the term "malignant mixed tumour". We believe this case represents a distinct variant, whose behaviour and progression have not been previously well documented.

  3. Stochastic Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Easy Plane Ferromagnets: Multiplicative Versus Additive Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Kamppeter, T.; Mertens, F.G.; Moro, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1998-09-01

    We study how thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of vortices in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model depending on their additive or multiplicative character. Using a collective coordinate theory, we analytically show that multiplicative noise, arising from fluctuations in the local field term of the Landau-Lifshitz equations, and Langevin-like additive noise have the same effect on vortex dynamics (within a very plausible assumption consistent with the collective coordinate approach). This is a highly non-trivial result as multiplicative and additive noises usually modify the dynamics in very different ways. We also carry out numerical simulations of both versions of the model finding that they indeed give rise to very similar vortex dynamics.

  4. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran. 535.335 Section 535.335 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim...

  5. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran. 535.335 Section 535.335 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim...

  6. Additional waves in the graphene layered medium.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ruey-Lin; Han, Dezhuan; Zhang, Z Q; Chan, C T

    2014-12-29

    We investigate the features of additional waves that arise in the graphene layered medium, within the framework of nonlocal effective medium model. The additional wave is manifest on the biquadratic dispersion relation of the medium and represents as a distinctive nonlocal character at long wavelength. In particular, the reflection and transmission coefficients for the nonlocal medium are underdetermined by Maxwell's boundary conditions. An additional boundary condition based on modal expansions is proposed to derive the generalized Fresnel equations, based on which the additional wave in the graphene layered medium is determined. The additional wave tends to be significant near the effective plasma frequency, near which the graphene plasmons are excited inside the medium. PMID:25607138

  7. The Value of Risk Pooling for Mitigating Water Utility Financial Risks Arising From Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.; Hughes, J.; Eskaf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water utilities across the United States face growing supply risks as demand growth and extreme weather events make water scarcity more common. As it has become more difficult and expensive to build new supply capacity to accommodate these events, many utility managers respond by either imposing conservation measures, which reduces revenues, or acquiring additional water from other sources, which increases costs. These actions lead to changing financial trends that are difficult to predict and that utilities are currently ill-equipped to manage. As a result, adaptation strategies and tools are being developed to reduce utility vulnerabilities, ensuring both financial stability and continued access to low cost financing, a critical consideration for a capital intensive industry. Previous work in this area has involved the development of utility specific financial hedging tools. However, the time and informational requirements associated with developing these individualized strategies may be a limiting factor for widespread implementation. The objective of this research is to develop more generalized hedging instruments that can be applied simultaneously to multiple utilities across the United States, thereby increasing the potential for widespread implementation. This work first analyzes the financial risks of water scarcity for a large set of water utilities across the country and then proposes a financial hedging solution to mitigate these risks through hydrologic index-based financial insurance. Results provide insights into the most effective indices, the potential for risk pooling to reduce insurance costs, and the performance of these contracts in managing utility financial risk arising from drought.

  8. Molecular Profiling of a Rare Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor Arising in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Mackay, Alan; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz; Torrieri, Raul; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Feltrin, Leonir Terezinha; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity. PMID:26371886

  9. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers.

  10. Molecular Profiling of a Rare Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor Arising in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Mackay, Alan; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Scheithauer, Bernd Walter; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz; Torrieri, Raul; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Feltrin, Leonir Terezinha; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity. PMID:26371886

  11. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of...

  12. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of...

  13. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of...

  14. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam... established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol... prohibition of alcohol or any illegal drugs will be expelled from the residence; (c) The cost of...

  15. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  16. Central role for melanocortin-4 receptors in offspring hypertension arising from maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj S.; Mullier, Amandine; Maicas, Nuria; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Eun Bae, Sung; Novoselova, Tatiana V.; Chan, Li F.; Pombo, Joaquim M.; Taylor, Paul D.; Joles, Jaap A.; Coen, Clive W.; Balthasar, Nina; Poston, Lucilla

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)–expressing neurons in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), play an essential role in blood pressure (BP) control. Mc4r-deficient (Mc4rKO) mice are severely obese but lack obesity-related hypertension; they also show a reduced pressor response to salt loading. We have previously reported that lean juvenile offspring born to diet-induced obese rats (OffOb) exhibit sympathetic-mediated hypertension, and we proposed a role for postnatally raised leptin in its etiology. Here, we test the hypothesis that neonatal hyperleptinemia due to maternal obesity induces persistent changes in the central melanocortin system, thereby contributing to offspring hypertension. Working on the OffOb paradigm in both sexes and using transgenic technology to restore Mc4r in the PVH of Mc4rKO (Mc4rPVH) mice, we have now shown that these mice develop higher BP than Mc4rKO or WT mice. We have also found that experimental hyperleptinemia induced in the neonatal period in Mc4rPVH and WT mice, but not in the Mc4rKO mice, leads to heightened BP and severe renal dysfunction. Thus, Mc4r in the PVH appears to be required for early-life programming of hypertension arising from either maternal obesity or neonatal hyperleptinemia. Early-life exposure of the PVH to maternal obesity through postnatal elevation of leptin may have long-term consequences for cardiovascular health. PMID:27791019

  17. Spatial structure arising from neighbour-dependent bias in collective cell movement.

    PubMed

    Binny, Rachelle N; Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J; Plank, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell-cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual's direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population.

  18. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arise by distinct genetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Georg; Wright, George W; Emre, N C Tolga; Kohlhammer, Holger; Dave, Sandeep S; Davis, R Eric; Carty, Shannon; Lam, Lloyd T; Shaffer, A L; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B; Rimsza, Lisa M; Fisher, Richard I; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Chan, Wing C; Staudt, Louis M

    2008-09-01

    Gene-expression profiling has been used to define 3 molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), termed germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL, activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). To investigate whether these DLBCL subtypes arise by distinct pathogenetic mechanisms, we analyzed 203 DLBCL biopsy samples by high-resolution, genome-wide copy number analysis coupled with gene-expression profiling. Of 272 recurrent chromosomal aberrations that were associated with gene-expression alterations, 30 were used differentially by the DLBCL subtypes (P < 0.006). An amplicon on chromosome 19 was detected in 26% of ABC DLBCLs but in only 3% of GCB DLBCLs and PMBLs. A highly up-regulated gene in this amplicon was SPIB, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor. Knockdown of SPIB by RNA interference was toxic to ABC DLBCL cell lines but not to GCB DLBCL, PMBL, or myeloma cell lines, strongly implicating SPIB as an oncogene involved in the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL. Deletion of the INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus and trisomy 3 also occurred almost exclusively in ABC DLBCLs and was associated with inferior outcome within this subtype. FOXP1 emerged as a potential oncogene in ABC DLBCL that was up-regulated by trisomy 3 and by more focal high-level amplifications. In GCB DLBCL, amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN were recurrent, but these events did not occur in ABC DLBCL. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the DLBCL subtypes are distinct diseases that use different oncogenic pathways. PMID:18765795

  19. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arise by distinct genetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Georg; Wright, George W.; Emre, N. C. Tolga; Kohlhammer, Holger; Dave, Sandeep S.; Davis, R. Eric; Carty, Shannon; Lam, Lloyd T.; Shaffer, A. L.; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Fisher, Richard I.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2008-01-01

    Gene-expression profiling has been used to define 3 molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), termed germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL, activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). To investigate whether these DLBCL subtypes arise by distinct pathogenetic mechanisms, we analyzed 203 DLBCL biopsy samples by high-resolution, genome-wide copy number analysis coupled with gene-expression profiling. Of 272 recurrent chromosomal aberrations that were associated with gene-expression alterations, 30 were used differentially by the DLBCL subtypes (P < 0.006). An amplicon on chromosome 19 was detected in 26% of ABC DLBCLs but in only 3% of GCB DLBCLs and PMBLs. A highly up-regulated gene in this amplicon was SPIB, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor. Knockdown of SPIB by RNA interference was toxic to ABC DLBCL cell lines but not to GCB DLBCL, PMBL, or myeloma cell lines, strongly implicating SPIB as an oncogene involved in the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL. Deletion of the INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus and trisomy 3 also occurred almost exclusively in ABC DLBCLs and was associated with inferior outcome within this subtype. FOXP1 emerged as a potential oncogene in ABC DLBCL that was up-regulated by trisomy 3 and by more focal high-level amplifications. In GCB DLBCL, amplification of the oncogenic mir-17–92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN were recurrent, but these events did not occur in ABC DLBCL. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the DLBCL subtypes are distinct diseases that use different oncogenic pathways. PMID:18765795

  20. Spatial structure arising from neighbour-dependent bias in collective cell movement.

    PubMed

    Binny, Rachelle N; Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J; Plank, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell-cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual's direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population. PMID:26893970

  1. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  2. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  3. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  4. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  5. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  6. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  7. Case report 207: Giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostatic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Travers, H.; Neff, J.R.

    1982-08-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the femur are discussed. Roentgenograms, a tomogram and pathological studies of a giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia are presented.

  8. Right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Faistauer, Ângela; Torres, Felipe Soares; Faccin, Carlo Sasso

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an uncommon thoracic aorta anomaly-right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery arising from Kommerell's diverticulum-that went undiagnosed until adulthood. PMID:27777481

  9. A pair of Fibonacci-like polynomials arising from a special mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Martin; Griffiths, Jonny

    2016-02-01

    We study here a pair of sequences of polynomials that arise from a particular iterated mapping on the plane. We show how these sequences come about, and give some of their interesting mathematical properties.

  10. Variational iteration method for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Huan; Kong, Hai-Yan; Chen, Rou-Xi; Hu, Ming-sheng; Chen, Qiao-ling

    2014-05-25

    This paper points out that the so called enhanced variational iteration method (Colantoni & Boubaker, 2014) for a nonlinear equation arising in electrospinning and vibration-electrospinning process is the standard variational iteration method. An effective algorithm using the variational iteration algorithm-II is suggested for Bratu-like equation arising in electrospinning. A suitable choice of initial guess results in a relatively accurate solution by one or few iteration.

  11. Migration arising from gradients in shear stress: Particle distributions in Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, D. T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of shear induced migration processes is reviewed and the mechanism by Leighton and Acrivos (1987b) is described in detail. The proposed mechanism is shown to lead to the existence of an additional shear induced migration in the presence of gradients in shear stress such as would be found in Poiseuille flow, and which may be used to predict the amplitude of the observed short-term viscosity increase. The concentration and velocity profiles which result from such a migration are discussed in detail and are compared to the experimental observations of Karnis, Goldsmith and Mason (1966).

  12. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  13. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  14. Genomic Instability and DNA Damage Responses in Progeria Arising from Defective Maturation of Prelamin A

    PubMed Central

    Musich, Phillip R.; Zou, Yue

    2009-01-01

    Progeria syndromes have in common a premature aging phenotype and increased genome instability. The susceptibility to DNA damage arises from a compromised repair system, either in the repair proteins themselves or in the DNA damage response pathways. The most severe progerias stem from mutations affecting lamin A production, a filamentous protein of the nuclear lamina. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) patients are heterozygous for a LMNA gene mutation while Restrictive Dermopathy (RD) individuals have a homozygous deficiency in the processing protease Zmpste24. These mutations generate the mutant lamin A proteins progerin and FC-lamina A, respectively, which cause nuclear deformations and chromatin perturbations. Genome instability is observed even though genome maintenance and repair genes appear normal. The unresolved question is what features of the DNA damage response pathways are deficient in HGPS and RD cells. Here we review and discuss recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how the accumulation of progerin/FC-lamin A proteins may disrupt DNA damage response pathways in HGPS and RD cells. As the mutant lamin proteins accumulate they sequester replication and repair factors, leading to stalled replication forks which collapse into DNA double-strand beaks (DSBs). In a reaction unique to HGPS and RD cells these accessible DSB termini bind Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein which excludes normal binding by DNA DSB repair proteins. The bound XPA also signals activation of ATM and ATR, arresting cell cycle progression, leading to arrested growth. In addition, the effective sequestration of XPA at these DSB damage sites makes HGPS and RD cells more sensitive to ultraviolet light and other mutagens normally repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway of which XPA is a necessary and specific component. PMID:19851476

  15. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives

    PubMed Central

    Misso, Neil LA

    2012-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

  16. On the Addition of Planar Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Eli

    1974-01-01

    An interpretation of the transformation formulas for rotations in a plane in terms of the exponential function is given. Addition of two rotations is shown to correspond to the multiplication of the two corresponding matrices. (Author/LS)

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. High-resolution imaging of gigahertz polarization response arising from the interference of reflected surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Yahyaie, I; Buchanan, D A; Bridges, G E; Thomson, D J; Oliver, D R

    2012-06-01

    The surface polarization caused by traveling SAWs at 1.585 GHz has been imaged using a dynamic homodyne electrostatic force microscope technique. Instead of measuring topographic changes caused by the SAW, the reported technique measures polarization in the piezoelectric substrate arising from mechanical stress caused by the SAW. The polarization associated with this stress field modulates the scanning probe cantilever deflection amplitude, which is extracted using a lock-in-based technique. High-resolution imaging is presented with images of the interference arising from a metal reflector on a SAW device. A mathematical model combining SAW generation and force interactions between the probe and the substrate was used to verify the experimental data. In addition to overcoming the challenge associated with detecting and imaging polarization effects at gigahertz frequencies, this imaging technique will greatly assist the development of SAW-based devices that exploit the reflection and interference of SAWs in areas as diverse as microfluidic mixing, cell sorting, and quantum entanglement. PMID:22718871

  3. Numerical and experimental studies on pulsatile flow in aneurysms arising laterally from a curved parent vessel at various angles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Tong-Miin; Li, Yi-Chen; Juan, Wei-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Both numerical and experimental studies have been performed to characterize the fluid flow inside the lateral aneurysms arising from the curved parent vessels at various angles gamma. The implicit solver was based on the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible laminar flow. Solutions were generated by a cell-center finite-volume method that used second order upwind and second order center flux difference splitting for the convection and diffusion term, respectively. The second order Crank-Nicolson method was used in the time integration term while the SIMPLEC algorithm was adopted to handle the pressure-velocity coupling. Complementarily, the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure the velocity fields. The conditions selected were to simulate an internal carotid artery with a diameter of 5 mm by similarity rules. The values of gamma explored were 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees. Pulsatile flow with Wormersley number 3.9 and Reynolds numbers varying from 350 to 850 was considered. The computed results are firstly verified by the PTV measured ones. Discussion of the results is in terms of pulsatile main and secondary velocity vector fields, inflow rates into the aneurysm, and the distributions of wall shear stress and static pressure. It is found that among the angles examined gamma=45( composite function) is the riskiest angle from a fluid dynamics point of view and the aneurysmal dome is at risk.

  4. Adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Fukino, Nobutada; Oida, Takatsugu; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kuboi, Youichi; Kida, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of weight loss of 6 kg in 4 mo. Imaging examinations revealed a tumor located on the third portion of the duodenum with stenosis. We suspected duodenal carcinoma and performed pancreas-preserving segmental duodenectomy. Adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum was finally diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Malignant transformation in the duodenum arising from a heterotopic pancreas is extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 13 cases have been reported worldwide, including the present case. The most common location of malignancy is the proximal duodenum at the first and descending portion. Herein, we describe the first case of adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas, which was located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a review of the literature.

  5. Osteosarcoma arising from a haemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mallınson, Paul; Coupal, Tyler; Hayes, Malcolm; Clarkson, Paul; Munk, Peter; Ouellette, Hugue

    2014-01-01

    To create awareness of the benign lesions from which osteosarcoma may arise. Osteosarcoma is a rare tumour of bone the etiology of which is poorly understood, but it may arise from benign lesions. Malignant transformation in hemangiomas, in the absence of prior radiation, is exceedingly rare and the resulting neoplasm is usually an angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman where investigation for thigh pain revealed a distal femoral hemangioma. She represented with pain and mass 18 years later, leading to a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma at the same site. Osteosarcomas may arise from a variety of benign lesions. In this article we report the case of a histologically confirmed hemangioma which subsequently underwent malignant change into an osteosarcoma.

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma and Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum Arising in Nevus Sebaceous on Face—A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a congenital cutaneous hamartoma comprising of multiple skin structures. It has the potential to develop into variety of neoplasms of various epidermal adnexal origins. While multiple tumors may occasionally arise, it is unusual to develop two different types of tumor, benign and malignant, to arise simultaneously within a single sebaceus nevus. Here in, we report a case of a 27-year-old male with two neoplastic proliferations including a syringocystadenoma papilliferum a benign tumor and basal cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in a long-standing nevus sebaceus on the face. Neoplastic changes are common in nevus sebaceous present on scalp but our case is unique due to the presence of two different types of neoplasm in a nevus sebaceous which was present on face. PMID:26677302

  7. Adenocarcinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Fukino, Nobutada; Oida, Takatsugu; Mimatsu, Kenji; Kuboi, Youichi; Kida, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of weight loss of 6 kg in 4 mo. Imaging examinations revealed a tumor located on the third portion of the duodenum with stenosis. We suspected duodenal carcinoma and performed pancreas-preserving segmental duodenectomy. Adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas at the third portion of the duodenum was finally diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Malignant transformation in the duodenum arising from a heterotopic pancreas is extremely rare; to our knowledge, only 13 cases have been reported worldwide, including the present case. The most common location of malignancy is the proximal duodenum at the first and descending portion. Herein, we describe the first case of adenocarcinoma arising from a heterotopic pancreas, which was located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a review of the literature. PMID:25852297

  8. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans arising at a Rho(D) immune globulin injection site.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Torosky, Cyndi M

    2012-11-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tissue tumor arising in the dermis. It is notorious for high rates of local recurrence despite its low metastatic potential. Although the etiology is unknown, DFSP often is considered to arise within scars and at sites of prior vaccination or trauma. Clinically, DFSP can be highly variable and mimic other soft tissue proliferations. We present a case of recurrent DFSP arising at the site of a Rho(D) immune globulin (Rhlg) injection that was administered 7 years prior. We also discuss the diagnostic challenges of DFSP as well as the indolent and locally recurrent nature of the tumor. This case serves to remind dermatologists of the highly variable clinical appearance of DFSP as well as to warn against presumptive diagnoses of lesions that mimic keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  9. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-04-03

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  10. Addition theorems for Slater-type orbitals and their application to multicenter multielectron integrals of central and noncentral interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2003-06-01

    By the use of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (alpha=1, 0, m1, m2,...) introduced by the author, new addition theorems are derived for STOs and arbitrary central and noncentral interaction potentials (CIPs and NCIPs). The expansion coefficients in these addition theorems are expressed through the Gaunt and Gegenbauer coefficients. Using the addition theorems obtained for STOs and potentials, general formulae in terms of three-center overlap integrals are established for the multicenter t-electron integrals of CIPs and NCIPs that arise in the solution of the N-electron atomic and molecular problem (2hthN) when a Hylleraas approximation in Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory is employed. With the help of expansion formulae for translation of STOs, the three-center overlap integrals are expressed through the two-center overlap integrals. The formulae obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of orbitals. PMID:12750966

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  12. On the Uniqueness of Solutions of a Nonlinear Elliptic Problem Arising in the Confinement of a Plasma in a Stellarator Device

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J. I.; Galiano, G.; Padial, J. F.

    1999-01-15

    We study the uniqueness of solutions of a semilinear elliptic problem obtained from an inverse formulation when the nonlinear terms of the equation are prescribed in a general class of real functions. The inverse problem arises in the modeling of the magnetic confinement of a plasma in a Stellarator device. The uniqueness proof relies on an L{sup {infinity}} -estimate on the solution of an auxiliary nonlocal problem formulated in terms of the relative rearrangement of a datum with respect to the solution.

  13. Fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi: report of a unique case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor. To the author’s best knowledge, no previous case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi has been reported. Here we reported the first case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi. A case of 58-year-old man was presented with a mass with ulcer and infection in the second joint of left middle finger for 2 months, with long standing gouty tophi. The tumor was biopsied and the biopsy showed complete excision of the tumor. With the pathological and immunohistochemical features considered, the diagnosis of fibrosarcoma associated with gouty tophi was made. The clinical findings, pathological characteristics and treatment were described. PMID:26097616

  14. Osteochondroma arising from a lumbar facet joint in a 16-year-old.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Graeme E; Mariathas, Chrishan; Fernandes, James A; Breakwell, Lee M; Cole, Ashley A; Michael, Antony L R

    2015-05-01

    Osteochondromas are benign tumours of bony or cartilaginous origin, which may be solitary or multiple. They are rare in the axial skeleton and have previously been reported to arise from facet joints only in four cases in the English literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with a palpable bony lump and a short history of back pain. Imaging showed a bony lesion arising from a left-sided facet joint in the lumbar spine. Following excision biopsy, there was complete resolution of symptoms. The literature on the origin and management of spinal osteochondromas is discussed.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in the mons pubis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin that mainly arise from the pleura. Although SFTs arising at numerous extrapleural locations have been reported, extrapleural soft tissue SFTs are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SFTs is based on histologic findings. However, given the histological variability of SFTs, immunohistochemical examination becomes important in their diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is the only and a very important prognostic factor and is recommended for the treatment of both benign and malignant SFTs with a curative intent. Here, the author reports what he believes to be the first case of an SFT originating in the mons pubis.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in the mons pubis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin that mainly arise from the pleura. Although SFTs arising at numerous extrapleural locations have been reported, extrapleural soft tissue SFTs are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SFTs is based on histologic findings. However, given the histological variability of SFTs, immunohistochemical examination becomes important in their diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is the only and a very important prognostic factor and is recommended for the treatment of both benign and malignant SFTs with a curative intent. Here, the author reports what he believes to be the first case of an SFT originating in the mons pubis. PMID:27352579

  17. Mixed tumor of the vulva: a report of two cases probably arising in Bartholin's gland.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, N G; Manning, J T; Luna, M A

    1981-07-01

    A case of benign mixed tumor of the vulva and a case of carcinoma arising in a similar benign mixed tumor of the vulva are reported. Both mixed tumors were of salivary gland type and probably arose in the Bartholin's gland. Only three previous cases of benign mixed tumor of the vulva have been documented in the literature. Two arose in the vestibular glands, and the third arose in cutaneous sweat glands. No case of carcinoma arising in a benign mixed tumor of the vulva has been previously documented.

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. Clinical and cognitive diversity of psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia).

    PubMed

    Almeida, O P; Howard, R J; Levy, R; David, A S; Morris, R G; Sahakian, B J

    1995-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the heterogeneity of paranoid psychosis with onset in late life by using cognitive factors in a centroid method of cluster analysis. Forty-seven subjects were allocated to two different clusters, the first with 24 (51.1%) and the second with 23 (48.9%) patients. Their cognitive attainment was evaluated against the performance of 33 elderly controls, all groups being matched for age, sex, and the numbers of years of education. Patients in cluster 2 showed a pattern of widespread cognitive impairment, which involved general measures of cognitive performance (MMSE, CAMCOG, WAIS-R verbal and performance scores), memory (digit and spatial span, delayed matching-to-sample, recognition memory for words and faces), and executive functions (verbal fluency, extra and intra-dimensional shift ability, spatial working memory, and planning). In contrast, patients in cluster 1 were only impaired on their extra-dimensional set shift and planning abilities, suggesting a more specific and restricted executive functioning deficit. We also analysed the impact that the use of antipsychotic medication could have had on patients' cognitive performance, which was shown to be negligible. In addition, there was no difference between the clusters with regard to the number of patients using neuroleptics, suggesting that the medication was unlikely to have introduced a performance bias in the two patient clusters. The validity of the subdivision of these patients into two separate groups was further supported by other clinical findings. Patients in cluster 1 exhibited more severe psychotic symptoms, as measured by the SAPS, than their counterparts in cluster 2, and were also more likely to display first-rank symptoms of Schneider. Conversely, cluster 2 membership was strongly associated with the presence of neurological signs and negative symptoms. We suggest that psychotic states arising in late life are a heterogeneous condition that may be best divided in two

  2. Assessment and management of risks arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. I.

    PubMed

    de Meeûs, C; Eduljee, G H; Hutton, M

    2002-05-27

    A risk assessment protocol has been developed for use by individual EU Member States with appropriate selection of input data, to assess the risks to humans and the environment arising from exposure to cadmium in fertilisers. The protocol comprises of three modules: (1) the accumulation module, in which the net accumulation of cadmium in soil and soil solution, resulting from the application of fertiliser, is computed over time. The accumulation module allows for a range of inputs from different sources (atmospheric deposition, sludge addition, manure and fertiliser application) as well as for average and extreme rates of fertiliser application. A critical parameter is the solid/liquid partition coefficient, which in turn is a function of soil properties such as pH and is highly variable depending on the algorithm selected as being representative of national conditions. (2) The exposure module, in which the uptake of cadmium from soil into plants and the subsequent intake of cadmium by humans is computed, using exposure parameters characterising both average and extreme exposure scenarios. The protocol focuses on food types known to be sensitive to cadmium uptake (grain, cereals, potatoes, root vegetables and leafy vegetables). Environmental exposure is also characterised. (3) The risk characterisation module, in which Member States may estimate the incidence and severity of the adverse effects likely to occur due to actual or predicted exposure to cadmium. This is undertaken by modelling the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) in humans and the environment using the accumulation and exposure modules, and then comparing these values against the relevant Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs). A range of environmental PNEC values are reported in the literature; the European Commission recommends that normally the lowest No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) should be used in the risk characterisation. For humans, the current WHO Provisional

  3. Minimal involvement of the circumventricular organs in the pathogenesis of spontaneously arising and experimentally induced classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Martin, S; Konold, T; Hawkins, S A C; Thurston, L; Simmons, M M; Stack, M J; Jeffrey, M; González, L

    2012-01-01

    In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrP(d) in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrP(d) in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease.

  4. Cellular neurothekeomas arising on a café-au-lait macule.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, Angela; Colmenero, Isabel; Torrelo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Neurothekeoma is a tumor probably derived from the nerve sheath, which usually appears during the first 2 decades of life as a solitary papule or nodule; multiple neurothekeomas are very unusual. We present a case of multiple cellular neurothekeomas arising on a café-au-lait macule in a child, a situation that has not been reported to our knowledge.

  5. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  6. Trigonometric potentials arising from the spheroidal equation: Supersymmetric partners and integral formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2016-06-01

    We construct supersymmetric partners of a quantum system featuring a class of trigonometric potentials that emerge from the spheroidal equation. Examples of both standard and confluent supersymmetric transformations are presented. Furthermore, we use integral formulas arising from the confluent supersymmetric formalism to derive new representations for single and multiple integrals of spheroidal functions.

  7. Cyst of the gastric wall arising from heterotopic pancreas: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Marchesi, Federico; Caruana, Pietro; Tartamella, Francesco; Mita, Maria Teresa; Rubichi, Francesco; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopia of pancreatic tissue is a common developmental anomaly, affecting predominantly the gastrointestinal tract. The case of a symptomatic cyst arising from the posterior gastric wall in a 40-year-old man is presented, undergoing laparoscopic gastric wedge resection. Pathology report described a cyst of the gastric wall lined by ductal pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27649007

  8. One-Dimensional Infinite Horizon Nonconcave Optimal Control Problems Arising in Economic Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslavski, Alexander J.

    2011-12-15

    We study the existence of optimal solutions for a class of infinite horizon nonconvex autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems. This class contains optimal control problems without discounting arising in economic dynamics which describe a model with a nonconcave utility function.

  9. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  10. 32 CFR 536.116 - Responsibilities as to claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for maneuver damage and tort claims classified according to major categories of damage determined by... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities as to claims arising overseas... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims...

  11. 75 FR 19873 - Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts Arising From Enforcement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From Enforcement and Administration of Campaign Finance Laws, 75 FR 8274 (February 24, 2010) (the... Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts Arising From Enforcement and Administration of... collection of debts owed to the United States Government. The Commission is also integrating its...

  12. 75 FR 8274 - Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts Arising From Enforcement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Parts 8 and 111 Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts... comments on proposed rules implementing statutory provisions regarding the collection of debts owed to the... debts arising solely from the Administrative Fines program into the new proposed rules. DATES:...

  13. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  14. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  15. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  16. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... prosecution if he has a personal or political relationship with: (1) Any person or organization...

  17. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... prosecution if he has a personal or political relationship with: (1) Any person or organization...

  18. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... prosecution if he has a personal or political relationship with: (1) Any person or organization...

  19. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... prosecution if he has a personal or political relationship with: (1) Any person or organization...

  20. 28 CFR 45.2 - Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... political relationship. 45.2 Section 45.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.2 Disqualification arising from personal or political relationship. (a) Unless authorized... prosecution if he has a personal or political relationship with: (1) Any person or organization...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-1304 - Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part. 73.735-1304 Section 73.735-1304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... under the standards of this part. (a) The Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Inspector...

  2. Adenocarcinoma arising in retroperitoneal enterogenous cyst presenting as a renal cyst: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Marrogi, A J; Chehval, M; Martin, S A

    1991-06-01

    A single case of an adenocarcinoma, arising in a retroperitoneal enterogenous cyst and which presented as a left renal cyst, is reported. Review of literature showed a total of 13 other reported cases. The prognosis of such patients appears to correlate with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis and the resectability of the tumor.

  3. Adenocarcinoma arising in colonic duplication cysts with calcification: CT findings of two cases.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y; Nakamura, H

    1998-01-01

    We report the computed tomographic findings of mucinous adenocarcinoma with calcification arising from duplication cyst of the colon in two adult cases. In both cases, serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were high. Differential diagnosis of intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic tumors with mucinous density includes duplication cyst, and its malignant change should be considered when serum level of CEA is high.

  4. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  5. 5 CFR 315.805 - Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of probationers for conditions arising before appointment. 315.805 Section 315.805 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Probation on Initial...

  6. Rollover, drowning, and discontinuous retreat: Distinct modes of barrier response to sea-level rise arising from a simple morphodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a simple morphodynamic model to investigate the long-term dynamic evolution of a coastal barrier system experiencing sea-level rise. Using a simplified barrier geometry, the model includes a dynamic shoreface profile that can be out of equilibrium and explicitly treats barrier sediment overwash as a flux. With barrier behavior primarily controlled by the maximum potential overwash flux and the rate of shoreface response, the modeled barrier system demonstrates four primary behaviors: height drowning, width drowning, constant landward retreat, and a periodic retreat. Height drowning occurs when overwash fluxes are insufficient to maintain the landward migration rate required to keep pace with sea-level rise. On the other hand, width drowning occurs when the shoreface response rate is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during overwash-driven landward migration. During periodic barrier retreat, the barrier experiences oscillating periods of rapid overwash followed by periods of relative stability as the shoreface resteepens. This periodic retreat, which occurs even with a constant sea-level rise rate, arises when overwash rates and shoreface response rates are large and of similar magnitude. We explore the occurrence of these behaviors across a wide range of parameter values and find that in addition to the maximum overwash flux and the shoreface response rate, barrier response can be particularly sensitive to the sea-level rise rate and back-barrier lagoon slope. Overall, our findings contrast with previous research which has primarily associated complex barrier behavior with changes in external forcing such as sea-level rise rate, sediment supply, or back-barrier geometry.

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  9. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  10. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  11. Simulating Arctic clouds during Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromwich, D. H.; Hines, K. M.; Wang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The representation within global and regional models of the extensive low-level cloud cover over polar oceans remains a critical challenge for quantitative studies and forecasts of polar climate. In response, the polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) is used to simulate the meteorology, boundary layer, and Arctic clouds during the September-October 2014 Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) project. Polar WRF was developed with several adjustments to the sea ice thermodynamics in WRF. ARISE was based out of Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska and included multiple instrumented C-130 aircraft flights over open water and sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic boundary layer clouds were frequently observed within cold northeasterly flow over the open ocean and ice. Preliminary results indicate these clouds were primarily liquid water, with characteristics differing between open water and sea ice surfaces. Simulated clouds are compared to ARISE observations. Furthermore, Polar WRF simulations are run for the August-September 2008 Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) for comparison to the ARISE. Preliminary analysis shows that simulated low-level water clouds over the sea ice are too extensive during the the second half of the ASCOS field program. Alternatives and improvements to the Polar WRF cloud schemes are considered. The goal is to use the ARISE and ASCOS observations to achieve an improved polar supplement to the WRF code for open water and sea ice that can be provided to the Polar WRF community.

  12. Reduced risk of hypoglycemia with once-daily glargine versus twice-daily NPH and number needed to harm with NPH to demonstrate the risk of one additional hypoglycemic event in type 2 diabetes: Evidence from a long-term controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Julio; Fonseca, Vivian; Schinzel, Stefan; Dain, Marie-Paule; Mullins, Peter; Riddle, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Aims This analysis evaluated HbA1c-adjusted hypoglycemia risk with glargine versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) over a 5-year study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical significance was assessed using number needed to harm (NNH) to demonstrate the risk of one additional patient experiencing at least one hypoglycemic event. Methods Individual patient-level data for symptomatic documented hypoglycemia and HbA1c values from a 5-year randomized study comparing once-daily glargine (n = 513) with twice-daily NPH (n = 504) were analyzed. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was categorized according to concurrent self-monitoring blood glucose levels and need for assistance. Hypoglycemic events per patient-year as a function of HbA1c were fitted by negative binomial regression using treatment and HbA1c at endpoint as independent variables. An estimate of NNH was derived from logistic regression models. Results The cumulative number of symptomatic hypoglycemia events was consistently lower with glargine compared with NPH over 5 years. Compared with twice-daily NPH, once-daily glargine treatment resulted in significantly lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for all daytime hypoglycemia (OR 0.74; p = 0.030) and any severe event (OR 0.64; p = 0.035), representing a 26% and 36% reduction in the odds of daytime and severe hypoglycemia, respectively. Our model predicts that, if 25 patients were treated with NPH instead of glargine, then one additional patient would experience at least one severe hypoglycemic event. Conclusions This analysis of long-term insulin treatment confirms findings from short-term studies and demonstrates that glargine provides sustained, clinically meaningful reductions in risk of hypoglycemia compared with NPH in patients with T2DM. PMID:24856612

  13. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  16. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  17. Neuroendocrine tumor arising de novo in the left upper thigh: a case report.

    PubMed

    Păun, Ion; Costin, Andrei; Păun, Mariana; Ţenovici, Mihaela; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Constantin, Vlad Denis

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) originate in the neuroendocrine cells of the neural crest (Kulchitsky cells). If neuroendocrine tumors arising in the digestive tract or lung may occasionally result in skin metastases, primary soft tissue or skin NETs are infrequent. The current paper presents the case of an elderly woman patient with neuroendocrine tumors arising de novo in the left upper thigh, accompanied by lymph nodes metastases in the left groin and in the left pelvic sidewall, in close vicinity of the iliac vessels. The diagnosis of NET was performed based on immunohistochemical tests. Such tumors show a slow growth and, generally, have a good prognosis. It is emphasized that complete surgical excision, in some cases associated with adjuvant external radiotherapy is the optimal therapeutic modality in dealing with such lesions. PMID:26429186

  18. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid). PMID:27601834

  19. Neuroendocrine tumor arising de novo in the left upper thigh: a case report.

    PubMed

    Păun, Ion; Costin, Andrei; Păun, Mariana; Ţenovici, Mihaela; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Constantin, Vlad Denis

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) originate in the neuroendocrine cells of the neural crest (Kulchitsky cells). If neuroendocrine tumors arising in the digestive tract or lung may occasionally result in skin metastases, primary soft tissue or skin NETs are infrequent. The current paper presents the case of an elderly woman patient with neuroendocrine tumors arising de novo in the left upper thigh, accompanied by lymph nodes metastases in the left groin and in the left pelvic sidewall, in close vicinity of the iliac vessels. The diagnosis of NET was performed based on immunohistochemical tests. Such tumors show a slow growth and, generally, have a good prognosis. It is emphasized that complete surgical excision, in some cases associated with adjuvant external radiotherapy is the optimal therapeutic modality in dealing with such lesions.

  20. A case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from the palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Kodama, Kozue; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro; Gotsu, Kazuo; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kusaka, Gen; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinctive, relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. It occurs at various sites; head and neck lesions are very rare. While most of these tumors have a benign course, a small number have malignant potential. We describe a rare case of SFT arising from the left palatine tonsil in a 66-year-old Japanese woman. The mass was completely resected. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD34 and bcl-2, mildly positive for phosphorylated protein kinase B and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and negative for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and p53. These findings suggested that this tumor was benign. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. We believe that the candidate prognostic marker should be checked to distinguish malignant from benign SFTs.

  1. A case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from the palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Kodama, Kozue; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro; Gotsu, Kazuo; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kusaka, Gen; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinctive, relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. It occurs at various sites; head and neck lesions are very rare. While most of these tumors have a benign course, a small number have malignant potential. We describe a rare case of SFT arising from the left palatine tonsil in a 66-year-old Japanese woman. The mass was completely resected. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD34 and bcl-2, mildly positive for phosphorylated protein kinase B and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and negative for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and p53. These findings suggested that this tumor was benign. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. We believe that the candidate prognostic marker should be checked to distinguish malignant from benign SFTs. PMID:25738718

  2. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid). PMID:27601834

  3. Desmoplastic Ameloblastoma Arising in a Dentigerous Cyst – A Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohamed; Srinivasan, Satish Kumar; Kumar, S. Nalin; Pulikkottil, Tyson Babu

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a fairly common odontogenic cyst with an uncomplicated prognosis. However, reports of odontogenic and non-odontogenic tumors arising from the cysts have been published for many years. Therefore, the importance of thorough histopathological examination and regular follow-up cannot be overemphasized. Here is a case report of a possible development of desmoplastic ameloblastoma from a dentigerous cyst. This case is unique for two main reasons. Firstly, to our knowledge such a case has not been reported previously. Secondly, the tumor seemed to arise from the capsule and not from lining of the dentigerous cyst. Transformation of odontogenic rests into cysts is known to occur in the syndromic cases of odontogenic keratocysts (resulting in recurrent and daughter cysts) but not in dentigerous cysts. This case report may prompt greater interest in the role of the supposedly inactive odontogenic nests in the capsule of these cysts. PMID:27656586

  4. Dual Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for Fusiform Aneurysm Arising From Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    John, Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) trunk are exceptionally rare and have a high risk for rupture. Dual stent placement through each internal carotid and basilar artery for endovascular coil embolization of a fusiform aneurysm arising from the PTA has not been described in the literature. A 44-year-old female with a history of chronic headache was identified to have a fusiform aneurysm arising from medially coursing adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA trunk. Sacrifice of the PTA trunk inclusive of the aneurysm was performed with dual stent placement through each basilar and internal carotid artery across their respective junctions with the PTA. Six-month follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the PTA and the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms resolved. Our case demonstrated that the sacrifice of an adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA inclusive of an associated fusiform aneurysm is feasible with dual stent-assisted coil embolization.

  5. Desmoplastic Ameloblastoma Arising in a Dentigerous Cyst - A Case Report and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohamed; Srinivasan, Satish Kumar; Kumar, S Nalin; Pulikkottil, Tyson Babu

    2016-08-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a fairly common odontogenic cyst with an uncomplicated prognosis. However, reports of odontogenic and non-odontogenic tumors arising from the cysts have been published for many years. Therefore, the importance of thorough histopathological examination and regular follow-up cannot be overemphasized. Here is a case report of a possible development of desmoplastic ameloblastoma from a dentigerous cyst. This case is unique for two main reasons. Firstly, to our knowledge such a case has not been reported previously. Secondly, the tumor seemed to arise from the capsule and not from lining of the dentigerous cyst. Transformation of odontogenic rests into cysts is known to occur in the syndromic cases of odontogenic keratocysts (resulting in recurrent and daughter cysts) but not in dentigerous cysts. This case report may prompt greater interest in the role of the supposedly inactive odontogenic nests in the capsule of these cysts. PMID:27656586

  6. Dual Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for Fusiform Aneurysm Arising From Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    John, Dickinson

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) trunk are exceptionally rare and have a high risk for rupture. Dual stent placement through each internal carotid and basilar artery for endovascular coil embolization of a fusiform aneurysm arising from the PTA has not been described in the literature. A 44-year-old female with a history of chronic headache was identified to have a fusiform aneurysm arising from medially coursing adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA trunk. Sacrifice of the PTA trunk inclusive of the aneurysm was performed with dual stent placement through each basilar and internal carotid artery across their respective junctions with the PTA. Six-month follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the PTA and the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms resolved. Our case demonstrated that the sacrifice of an adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA inclusive of an associated fusiform aneurysm is feasible with dual stent-assisted coil embolization. PMID:27621951

  7. Vesical clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis: A mullerian tumor, indistinguishable from ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eirwen M; Sun, Ying; Richardson, Ingride; Frimer, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Endometriosis is associated with increased rates of ovarian, particularly clear cell, adenocarcinomas. Malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis is most common but rare cases have been reported in the bladder, abdominal wall, diaphragm, and rectum. We present the case of a 44-year-old female with vesical clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in a background of endometriosis in the absence of other pelvic endometriosis. The malignancy was diagnosed on transurethral resection of bladder tumor and managed with radical surgery. Histology and immunohistochemical findings were consistent mullerian origin and indistinguishable from similar tumors arising in the female genital tract. Extrapolating from the gynecologic literature, the recommendation was made for adjuvant chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to clarify the optimal treatment paradigm for ovarian and bladder clear cell adenocarcinomas. PMID:27660815

  8. Lesions Arising in a Tattoo of an Active Duty US Marine Corps Woman.

    PubMed

    Winn, Aubrey E; Rivard, Shayna C; Green, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Tattoos are ubiquitous in modern society; however, they do not come without risk of medical complications. When complications arise in the military community, a particularly thorough differential diagnosis should be considered based on the increased exposures service members have during deployment and throughout their military career. We present a case of a 38-year-old active duty US Marine Corps woman with worsening skin lesions arising within a tattoo 6 weeks after acquiring the tattoo on her right chest. Given environmental exposures from a recent deployment to the Middle East, a wide differential was considered. Ultimately, a skin biopsy revealed early hypertrophic scar formation responsive to therapy with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog® [ILK]). However, given the Marine had recently deployed and is part of the active duty population, consideration of alternative, albeit rare, etiologies was imperative. PMID:27450611

  9. Dual Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for Fusiform Aneurysm Arising From Persistent Trigeminal Artery.

    PubMed

    Ajeet, Gordhan; John, Dickinson

    2016-09-01

    Aneurysms of the persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) trunk are exceptionally rare and have a high risk for rupture. Dual stent placement through each internal carotid and basilar artery for endovascular coil embolization of a fusiform aneurysm arising from the PTA has not been described in the literature. A 44-year-old female with a history of chronic headache was identified to have a fusiform aneurysm arising from medially coursing adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA trunk. Sacrifice of the PTA trunk inclusive of the aneurysm was performed with dual stent placement through each basilar and internal carotid artery across their respective junctions with the PTA. Six-month follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the PTA and the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms resolved. Our case demonstrated that the sacrifice of an adult type, Saltzman type 3 PTA inclusive of an associated fusiform aneurysm is feasible with dual stent-assisted coil embolization. PMID:27621951

  10. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid).

  11. Delayed luminescence of biological systems arising from correlated many-soliton states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizhik, Larissa; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio; Musumeci, Francesco

    2001-09-01

    The kinetics of the delayed luminescence arising from correlated coherent many-soliton states in low-dimensional macromolecular systems, is calculated and shown to be different from the one arising from independent soliton states. The correlation between coherent electron states is essential at relatively high levels of excitation in the presence of very long macromolecules in a system. These conditions can be fulfilled in such biological systems, like algae Acetabularia Acetabulum. The cytoskeleton of this unicellular alga contains macromolecular structures (actin filaments, microtubules, etc.) of the length of several hundreds angstroms and more, in which many-soliton coherent states can exist. Indeed, the correlated coherent model is shown to give better fit of the experimental data for this type of algae in a wide range of intensities of the stimulating light, as compared with the model of noncorrelated solitons. The nonlinearity of the dependence of delayed luminescence intensity on the level of excitation increases with the increase of correlation between solitons.

  12. Incidental findings arising with cone beam computed tomography imaging of the orthodontic patient.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sheelagh A; Drage, Nicholas; Durning, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of orthodontic patients is a diagnostic tool used increasingly in hospital and primary care settings. It offers a high-diagnostic yield, short scanning times, and a lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography. This article reports on four incidental findings-that appear unrelated to the scan's original purpose-arising in patients for whom CBCT was carried out for orthodontic purposes. It underlines the need for complete reporting of the data set. PMID:21208090

  13. Atrial Tachycardias Arising from the Atrial Appendages and Aortic Sinus of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Colleen M; Samardhi, Himabindu; Haqqani, Haris M

    2015-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias arising from the atrial appendages and the aortic sinuses of Valsalva are less frequently encountered in clinical practice. This review article describes the clinical presentation, surface P wave morphology, electrophysiologic characteristics and treatment of these arrhythmias. Catheter ablation of these focal tachycardias has a high success rate. It is however important to be aware of specific anatomic considerations in these locations for optimal treatment outcomes with low complication rates. PMID:25308812

  14. Birefringing arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Heritage, J. P.; Gustafson, T. K.; Chiao, R. Y.; Mctague, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index change in a collisionless gas is evaluated from the Stark shifts of the rotational energy levels that arise from the polarizability anisotropy. For the limit of an extremely short-duration excitation, a multilevel coherent effect resulted in delayed refractive index bursts. Both stationary and transient responses of this birefringence to an optical field were considered for symmetric top molecules, with particular emphasis on the special case of linear molecules.

  15. ROBUST CIRCUIT RHYTHMS IN SMALL CIRCUITS ARISE FROM VARIABLE CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Eve; Goeritz, Marie L.; Otopalik, Adriane G.

    2014-01-01

    Small central pattern generating circuits found in invertebrates have significant advantages for the study of the circuit mechanisms that generate brain rhythms. Experimental and computational studies of small oscillatory circuits reveal that similar rhythms can arise from disparate mechanisms. Animal-to-animal variation in the properties of single neurons and synapses may underly robust circuit performance, and can be revealed by perturbations. Neuromodulation can produce altered circuit performance but also ensure reliable circuit function. PMID:25460072

  16. Novel representation of exponential functions of power series which arise in statistical mechanics and population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W. T.; Sandri, G. vH.; Sarkar, S.

    1991-05-01

    We use the convolution power of infinite sequences to obtain a novel representation of exponential functions of power series which often arise in statistical mechanics. We thus obtain new formulas for the configuration and cluster integrals of pairwise interacting systems of molecules in an imperfect gas. We prove that the asymptotic behaviour of the Luria-Delbrück distribution is pn∼ cn-2. We derive a new, simple and computationally efficient recursion relation for pn.

  17. A Rare Case of Angiofibroma Arising from Inferior Turbinate in a Female

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Arora, Rubeena; Doloi, Pankaj; Kumar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma arising from the inferior turbinate in a young female of 28 years is presented. The case is discussed in light of scant contemporary literature on the cited subject. This clinical record highlights the distinct clinical nature of Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma (ENA) and importance of Immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of such lesions. With this case we report a rare clinical entity which presented in an extremely rare manner. PMID:27190846

  18. Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Heritage, J. P.; Gustafson, T. K.; Chiao, R. Y.; Mctague, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The refractive-index change in a collisionless gas is evaluated from the Stark shifts of the rotational energy levels that arise from the polarizability anisotropy. In the limit of an extremely-short-duration excitation, a multilevel coherent effect results in delayed refractive-index bursts. Both stationary and transient responses of this birefringence to an optical field are considered for symmetric-top molecules, with particular emphasis on the special case of linear molecules.

  19. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Ustunsoz, Bahri Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-02-15

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound.

  20. Tumoral mass presenting in the nasomalar region arising from the lateral nasal wall: pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Mustafa Zafer; Onal, Kazim; Demiray, Utku; Ekinci, Neşe

    2007-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Although the major salivary glands are the most common sites of its origin, it can also occur in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity and rarely in the neck, ear, nasal cavity and larynx. We report a rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma arising from lateral nasal wall and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment approaches with the review of the literature.

  1. Analysis of some integrals arising in the atomic three-electron problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Frederick W.

    1991-12-01

    A detailed analysis is presented for the evaluation of atomic integrals of the form Fri1rj2rk3r-223rm31r12 ne-αr1-βr2-γr3dr1 dr2 dr3, which arise in several contexts of the three-electron atomic problem. All convergent integrals with i>=-2, j>=-2, k>=-2, m>=-1, and n>=-1 are examined. These integrals are solved by two distinct procedures. A majority of the integrals can be evaluated by a reduction of the three-electron integrals to integrals arising in the atomic two-electron integral problem. A second approach allows all integrals with the aforementioned indices to be evaluated by the use of Sack's expansion [J. Math. Phys. 5, 245 (1964)] of the interelectronic separation, which leads to a reduction of the above nine-dimensional integrals to a set of three-dimensional integrals. A discussion is given for the numerical evaluation of the three-dimensional integrals that arise.

  2. Advanced Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Arising from a Mature Cystic Teratoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Aki; Nishikawa, Tadaaki; Kozawa, Eito; Yasuda, Masanori; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the postoperative progressive course of advanced-stage adenocarcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma (MCT) and review the literature regarding this disease. Methods A 59-year-old woman visited our hospital with an abdominal mass. Laparotomy showed enlargement of the left ovary and dissemination throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The diagnosis was FIGO stage IIIB adenocarcinoma arising from a MCT. We report this case in detail with a review of the literature. Results A literature search yielded 9 cases of stage III adenocarcinoma with malignant transformation. Six of these 9 patients died within 12 months after diagnosis. Of the 8 patients who underwent postoperative chemotherapy, 3 survived for over 39 months. The review indicates that prognosis of adenocarcinoma is as poor as that for squamous cell carcinoma arising from a MCT. Conclusions In general, as with this case, prognosis of advanced adenocarcinoma associated with a MCT is poor. However, we should be aware that not all patients are resistant to chemotherapy. PMID:27462234

  3. Diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisa; Varikatt, Winny; Dexter, Mark; Ng, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm typically affecting the bones of young adults. It may also arise in somatic soft tissue, the CNS and other organs. It has a characteristic biphasic histological pattern composed of highly undifferentiated small round cells and islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. We report a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the right tentorium cerebelli in a 21-year-old woman with symptoms relating to mass effect. Histological examination demonstrated a purely small round cell appearance in a specimen obtained during partial resection at an outside institution, leading to an erroneous diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma was made only after tissue obtained during a definitive complete macroscopic removal involving the regional tentorium cerebelli, transverse and sigmoid dural venous sinuses which showed a prominent cartilaginous component. We discuss the features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising in the CNS, the important differential diagnoses of small round-cell tumors within the CNS, and the differentiating features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma from Ewing sarcoma/PNET, medulloblastoma, hemangiopericytoma, monophasic synovial sarcoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour. PMID:21615516

  4. Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shinji; Miyake, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint is extremely rare. We describe an 11-year-old boy who complained of a gradual swelling mass of the lateral knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high signal intensity tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images with a thickened septa and nodular lesion that showed low signal intensity. The radiologist suggested the possible differential diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. At operation, the tumor was found under the iliotibial tract and was not in contact with the knee joint. Histopathologically, this lesion was diagnosed as lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint. On MRI, the appearance of lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint differed from that of conventional intra-articular lipoma arborescens. In this report, we describe a case of extra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint bursa and discuss the diagnosis and etiology. PMID:27382924

  5. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management. PMID:26697253

  6. [A case of early bile duct cancer arising from villous adenoma in choledochal cyst].

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Seung; Kim, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hong Min; Lee, Uh Joo; Choi, Young Chul; John, Byung Min; Park, Tae Il; Koo, Jin Hoi

    2009-07-01

    Choledochal cyst is an uncommon premalignant anomaly. The morphology and pathogenesis of the premalignant lesion of cholangiocarcinoma arising from the choledochal cyst has not been well described. Herein, we report a rare case of bile duct adenoma arising from choledochal cyst with anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct (AUPBD). 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of epigastric pain. She had received common bile duct (CBD) exploration and choledocholithotomy and cholecystectomy 3 months earlier under the diagnosis of multiple CBD stones. Intraoperalive cholangiogram was not remarkable except CBD dilatation at that time. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed choledochal cyst with AUPBD and round filling defect which disappeared easily on the balloon cholaniogram. On magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, the filling defect was confirmed as 2 cm polypoid mass attached to the distal bile duct wall. At laparotomy, a soft whitish mass was palpable on the lower CBD. On histological examination, adenoma with focal carcinoma change arising from choledochal cyst was diagnosed. PMID:19696552

  7. Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Shinji; Miyake, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint is extremely rare. We describe an 11-year-old boy who complained of a gradual swelling mass of the lateral knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high signal intensity tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images with a thickened septa and nodular lesion that showed low signal intensity. The radiologist suggested the possible differential diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. At operation, the tumor was found under the iliotibial tract and was not in contact with the knee joint. Histopathologically, this lesion was diagnosed as lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint. On MRI, the appearance of lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint differed from that of conventional intra-articular lipoma arborescens. In this report, we describe a case of extra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint bursa and discuss the diagnosis and etiology. PMID:27382924

  8. Oligodendroglioma arising in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Büyükka Bay, Sema; Corapcioglu, Funda; Kavurt, Sumru; Müezzinoğlu, Bahar; Anik, Yonca; Tugay, Melih

    2010-11-01

    In childhood mature cystic teratomas are the most common type of ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumors of neuroepithelial origin are extremely rare in mature teratomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report oligodendroglioma arising in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma in children. A 13-year-old girl presented with a history of pelvic pain for 2 months. An ultrasound examination showed a monolateral multicystic, calcific ovarian mass, measuring approximately 6 x 5 cm, arising in the left over and adnexia, suggesting a teratoma. An exploratorative laparotomy and ooferectomy were performed. On histopatological examination, various samples from cystic areas had mature tissues from all 3 germ cell layers, including skin, bone, bronchial structures, and cerebellum. Sections from solid areas showed uniform population of monotonous, rounded cells with indistinct cytoplasm and having perinuclear halo (fried-egg appearance) on a fibrillary, neuropilic background. Microcalcifications as calcospherites were noted in the stroma. Based on the typical morphological features, the cased was diagnosed as mature cystic teratoma with low-grade oligodendroglioma. To the authors' knowledge, there are a few reports in the literature of an oligodendroglioma arising in an ovarian teratoma in adults and this presented patient is the first case in childhood.

  9. Definition of the epileptogenic zone in a patient with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy arising from the dominant hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Najm, Imad M; Naugle, Richard; Busch, Robyn M; Bingaman, William; Lüders, Hans

    2006-08-01

    Pharmacoresistant epilepsy arising from the dominant temporal region in patients with intact memory and normal anatomical imaging, presents major challenges in the preoperative definition of the epileptogenic zone, and the planning of the extent of the surgical resection. We report on the case of a 42-year-old, right-handed male who presented with recurrent daily seizures that were resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Multiple, non-invasive (scalp) video-EEG evaluations revealed focal epilepsy arising from the left fronto-temporal region. Multiple high resolution MRIs that were performed at multiple Epilepsy Centers failed to show any abnormality. Fluoro-deoxyglucose PET scan showed extensive, left antero-mesial temporal hypometabolism, and ictal SPECT showed increased perfusion in the left insula in addition to the left mesial and anterior temporal pole. Neuropsychological testing and intracarotid methohexital testing revealed excellent memory to the left, dominant side. A two-stage invasive evaluation with subdural grid electrodes followed by depth electrode recordings allowed the localization of the epileptogenic region to the temporal pole. A selective resection of the left temporal pole (that spared the hippocampal formation) resulted in a seizure-free outcome (one year follow-up) with no significant consequences on memory function. We conclude that targeted, invasive recording techniques should be used for the accurate localization and delineation of the extent of the epileptogenic zone in cases of suspected, non-lesional, dominant hemisphere, temporal lobe epilepsy with preserved memory function. The use of the staged invasive approach may increase the chances for memory (function) sparing through tailored, temporal resection.

  10. The fiscal stress arising from state and local retiree health obligations.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Byron; Sheiner, Louise

    2014-12-01

    A major factor weighing down the long-term finances of state and local governments is the obligation to fund retiree benefits. While state and local government pension obligations have been analyzed in great detail, much less attention has been paid to the costs of the other major retiree benefit provided by these governments: retiree health insurance. The first portion of the paper uses the information contained in the annual actuarial reports for public retiree health plans to reverse engineer the cash flows underlying the liabilities given in the report. Obtaining the cash flows allows us to construct liability estimates which are consistent across governments in terms of the discount rate, actuarial method and assumptions concerning medical cost inflation and mortality. We find that the total unfunded accrued liability of state and local governments for the provision of retiree health care exceeds $1 trillion, or about ⅓ of total state and local government revenue. Relative to pension obligations discounted at the same rate, we find that unfunded retiree health care liabilities are ½ the size of unfunded pension obligations. We also find that using assumptions concerning the growth in health care costs that are arguably more realistic than those employed by most states actually reduces the size of the liability in most cases. Pushing in the opposite direction, we find that using plausibly more realistic mortality assumptions increases the size of liability. The second portion of the paper places retiree health care obligations into context by examining the budget pressures associated with retiree health on a continuing, largely pay-as-you go basis. We find that much of the projected increase in retiree health obligations as a share of revenue is the result of health care cost growth. On average, states could put their retiree health obligations into long-run fiscal balance by contributing an additional ¾ percent of total revenue toward the benefit each year

  11. The fiscal stress arising from state and local retiree health obligations.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Byron; Sheiner, Louise

    2014-12-01

    A major factor weighing down the long-term finances of state and local governments is the obligation to fund retiree benefits. While state and local government pension obligations have been analyzed in great detail, much less attention has been paid to the costs of the other major retiree benefit provided by these governments: retiree health insurance. The first portion of the paper uses the information contained in the annual actuarial reports for public retiree health plans to reverse engineer the cash flows underlying the liabilities given in the report. Obtaining the cash flows allows us to construct liability estimates which are consistent across governments in terms of the discount rate, actuarial method and assumptions concerning medical cost inflation and mortality. We find that the total unfunded accrued liability of state and local governments for the provision of retiree health care exceeds $1 trillion, or about ⅓ of total state and local government revenue. Relative to pension obligations discounted at the same rate, we find that unfunded retiree health care liabilities are ½ the size of unfunded pension obligations. We also find that using assumptions concerning the growth in health care costs that are arguably more realistic than those employed by most states actually reduces the size of the liability in most cases. Pushing in the opposite direction, we find that using plausibly more realistic mortality assumptions increases the size of liability. The second portion of the paper places retiree health care obligations into context by examining the budget pressures associated with retiree health on a continuing, largely pay-as-you go basis. We find that much of the projected increase in retiree health obligations as a share of revenue is the result of health care cost growth. On average, states could put their retiree health obligations into long-run fiscal balance by contributing an additional ¾ percent of total revenue toward the benefit each year

  12. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  13. Intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma) arising in an intraparotid lymph node.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Ilan

    2011-09-01

    Since the first description of an entirely intraductal epithelial proliferation of salivary gland by Chen in 1983 as an "intraductal carcinoma", there have been several dozen reported cases with the same and various additional names including "low-grade salivary duct carcinoma", "low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and "carcinoma in situ" of salivary gland. These refer to a combination of nests and cysts of varying size formed by a cellular proliferation resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. The lesions are generally entirely intraductal with low, intermediate or high-grade dysplasia. Occasional benign tumors of salivary gland, particularly Warthin tumor and rare salivary carcinomas may arise within an intraparotid lymph node. In addition, intraparotid lymph nodes are a routine location for metastatic disease. A case of a 59-year-old female with a parotid mass is described, which grossly had the appearance of a Warthin tumor. Microscopically, it was an entirely intranodal proliferation of cells with diffuse AE1/AE3 and S100 positivity. The nests and cysts were completely surrounded by a rim of non-neoplastic myoepithelial cells, which were positive for CK14, p63, SMA, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells were negative for these markers. The cells were only focally positive for AR and BRST-2. They showed negligible MIB-1 staining. This report describes, for the first time, an entirely intranodal location for a low-grade intraductal carcinoma (so-called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma).

  14. Ethical issues arising from the participation of children in genetic research.

    PubMed

    Burke, Wylie; Diekema, Douglas S

    2006-07-01

    With new tools derived from the Human Genome Project, genetic research is expanding from the study of rare, single gene disorders to the evaluation of genetic contributors to common, complex diseases. Many genetic studies include pediatric participants. The ethical concerns related to pediatric participation in genetic research derive from the study designs commonly employed in gene discovery and from the power accorded to genetic prediction in our society. In both family-based studies and large studies combining genetic and other health-related data, special attention should be placed on recruitment procedures, informed consent, and confidentiality protections. If data repositories are created for long-term use, we recommend re-consent of pediatric participants when they reach adulthood. In addition, the potential for disclosure of individual results should be considered as part of the institutional review of genetic studies, taking into account the validity of research data and the potential that such data could be used in health care. The potential for genetic results to pose harms of personal and group stigma is also a consideration. Because genetic information is often accorded special power in our society, careful attention should be paid to how genetic information is collected and used in research involving pediatric participants.

  15. SF3B1 mutant MDS-initiating cells may arise from the haematopoietic stem cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Syed A.; Rouault-Pierre, Kevin; Smith, Alexander E.; Seidl, Thomas; Pizzitola, Irene; Kizilors, Aytug; Kulasekararaj, Austin G.; Bonnet, Dominique; Mufti, Ghulam J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent evidence of the existence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) stem cells in 5q-MDS patients, it is unclear whether haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could also be the initiating cells in other MDS subgroups. Here we demonstrate that SF3B1 mutation(s) in our cohort of MDS patients with ring sideroblasts can arise from CD34+CD38−CD45RA−CD90+CD49f+ HSCs and is an initiating event in disease pathogenesis. Xenotransplantation of SF3B1 mutant HSCs leads to persistent long-term engraftment restricted to myeloid lineage. Moreover, genetically diverse evolving subclones of mutant SF3B1 exist in mice, indicating a branching multi-clonal as well as ancestral evolutionary paradigm. Subclonal evolution in mice is also seen in the clinical evolution in patients. Sequential sample analysis shows clonal evolution and selection of the malignant driving clone leading to AML transformation. In conclusion, our data show SF3B1 mutations can propagate from HSCs to myeloid progeny, therefore providing a therapeutic target. PMID:26643973

  16. A Novel Function of RNAs Arising From the Long Terminal Repeat of Human Endogenous Retrovirus 9 in Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lai; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Candotti, Fabio; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Calvert, Valerie; Juhl, Hartmut; Mills, Frederick; Mason, Karen; Shastri, Neal; Chik, Josh; Xu, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The human genome contains approximately 50 copies of the replication-defective human endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV-9) and thousands of copies of its solitary long term repeat (sLTR) element. While some sLTRs are located upstream of critical genes and have enhancer activity, other sLTRs are located within introns and may be transcribed as RNAs. We found that intronic RNAs arising from U3 sLTRs of ERV-9 were expressed as both sense (S) and antisense (AS) transcripts in all human cells tested but that expression levels differed in malignant versus nonmalignant cells. In nonmalignant cells, AS was expressed at higher levels than S and at higher levels than in malignant cells; in malignant cells, AS was expressed at amounts equivalent to those of S RNA. Critically, U3 AS RNA was found to physically bind to key transcription factors for cellular proliferation, including NF-Y, p53, and sp1, indicating that such RNA transcripts may function as decoy targets or traps for NF-Y and thus inhibit the growth of human cancer cells. Indeed, short U3 oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) based on these RNA sequences ably inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines driven by cyclins B1/B2, the gene targets of NF-Y. PMID:23097441

  17. SF3B1 mutant MDS-initiating cells may arise from the haematopoietic stem cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Mian, Syed A; Rouault-Pierre, Kevin; Smith, Alexander E; Seidl, Thomas; Pizzitola, Irene; Kizilors, Aytug; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Bonnet, Dominique; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-12-08

    Despite the recent evidence of the existence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) stem cells in 5q-MDS patients, it is unclear whether haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could also be the initiating cells in other MDS subgroups. Here we demonstrate that SF3B1 mutation(s) in our cohort of MDS patients with ring sideroblasts can arise from CD34(+)CD38(-)CD45RA(-)CD90(+)CD49f(+) HSCs and is an initiating event in disease pathogenesis. Xenotransplantation of SF3B1 mutant HSCs leads to persistent long-term engraftment restricted to myeloid lineage. Moreover, genetically diverse evolving subclones of mutant SF3B1 exist in mice, indicating a branching multi-clonal as well as ancestral evolutionary paradigm. Subclonal evolution in mice is also seen in the clinical evolution in patients. Sequential sample analysis shows clonal evolution and selection of the malignant driving clone leading to AML transformation. In conclusion, our data show SF3B1 mutations can propagate from HSCs to myeloid progeny, therefore providing a therapeutic target.

  18. Cytogenetic investigations on a cell line derived from a carcinoma arising in a salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Bullerdiek, J; Hutter, K J; Brandt, G; Weinberg, M; Belge, G; Bartnitzke, S

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the results of cytogenetic investigations of a cell line derived from a malignant tumor arising in a benign salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Initial karyotypic studies became possible with cells of the second in vitro passage and revealed the existence of hypertetraploidy. Furthermore, a marked polysomy 7 and a translocation involving 12q13-15, a breakpoint also frequently seen in benign pleomorphic adenomas, were noteworthy. During long term culture, the number of chromosomes per cell decreased as well as the number of copies of chromosome 7. Cell tumorigenicity was proved by heterotransplantation to nude mice. The resulting tumors were karyotyped again. No significant changes of the chromosome number or of the degree of polysomy 7 were found compared to the cells before heterotransplantation. In contrast, the cells from the nude mice tumors showed a remarkable number of different isochromosomes probably indicating an unknown factor supporting the generation of isochromosomes. The consistent presence of the t(12;?)(q13-15;?) makes the cell line well suited for molecular studies of this breakpoint region.

  19. Nonlinear electric reaction arising in dry bone subjected to 4-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2007-04-01

    Bone is a smart, self-adaptive and also partly self-repairing tissue. In recent years, many researchers seek to find how to give the effective mechanical stimulation to bone, because it is the predominant loading that determines the bone shape and macroscopic structure. However, the trial of regeneration of bone is still under way. On the other hand, it has been known that electrical potential generates from bone by mechanical stimulation (Yasuda, 1977; Williams, 1982; Starkebaum, 1979; Cochran, 1968; Lanyon, 1977; Salzstein, 1987a,b; Friedenberg, 1966). This is called "stress-generated potential (SGP)". The process of information transfer between "strain" and "cells" is not still clear. But, there is some possibility that SGP has something to do with the process of information transfer. If the electrical potential is more clear under some mechanical loadings, we will be able to regenerate bone artificially and freely. Therefore, it is important to investigate SGP in detail. The aim of present study is to investigate the electric reaction arising in dry bone subjected to mechanical loadings at high amplitude and low frequency strain. Firstly, specimen is fabricated from femur of cow. Next, the speeds of wave propagation in bone are tried to measure by laser ultra sonic technique and wavelet transform, because these have relationship with bone density. Secondary, 4-point bending test is conducted up to fracture. Then, electric reaction arising in bone is measured during loading. Finally, cyclic 4-point bending tests are conducted to investigate the electric reaction arising in bone at low frequency strain.

  20. Symmetry reductions of a nonlinear convection-dispersion model arising in contaminant transport theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntsime, Basetsana P.; Moitsheki, Raseelo J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider a nonlinear convection-dispersion equation arising in contaminant transport. The water flow velocity is considered to be spatially-dependent and dispersion coefficient depends on concentration. A direct group classification resulted in a number of cases for which the governing equation admits Lie point symmetries. In each case the one dimensional optimal system of subalgebras is constructed. Reductions are performed. The reduced ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are nonlinear and difficult to solve exactly. On the other hand we consider the steady state problem and applied the method of canonical coordinates to determine exact solutions.

  1. A variational approach to a BVP arising in the modelling of electrically conducting solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, Suheil; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply an amended variational scheme, based on an adapted domain decomposition, for the solution of a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem that arises in applications involving the diffusion of heat generated by positive temperature dependent sources. The underlying idea of this approach is to decompose the original interval prior to the implementation of the iterative variational approach in order to improve the accuracy and acquire uniform convergence to the exact solution over the entire domain. Convergence analysis is given and then numerical experiments are carried out to make obvious the convergence, accuracy and efficient applicability of the method.

  2. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C

    2016-10-01

    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided. PMID:27103422

  3. Osteochondroma Arising from Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine as a Cause of Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Kee Hyung; Cho, Kye-Youl; Cho, Young Joo; Lee, Chung Seok; Han, Chung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is a relatively common problem that can be easily managed with conservative treatment. This syndrome can be divided into external, internal and intra-articular types. Internal snapping hip syndrome is the rarest amongst these and its etiology is not well understood. We report a unique case of osteochondroma arising from the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS), which caused the internal snapping hip syndrome with hip pain and restriction of activity. This rare case of snapping hip syndrome from the AIIS was treated surgically and the symptoms completely disappeared after excision of the tumor. PMID:26929811

  4. Boundary identification for 2-D parabolic problems arising in thermal testing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in an output least square approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed, and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite-element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given, and the results are applied to the identification of two kinds of boundary shapes.

  5. Intracranial invasion from a primary adenocarcinoma arising in the middle and external ear.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; Brophy, B P; Raymond, W

    1995-06-01

    Cerumenal adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from the modified sweat glands of the ear. Before the diagnosis of primary tumour is made, a thorough search must be undertaken to exclude the possibility of metastatic disease, which occurs more commonly. Benign adenoma can also occur and this may be identical histologically to the malignant variety. The presence of local invasiveness may be the only differentiating feature. Aggressive local resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy form the cornerstone of management. Individuals treated with radiotherapy alone have a life expectancy of less than 12 months whereas cures have been reported with radical surgery.

  6. Case report of an anal adenocarcinoma arising from a perineal lump

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Chong, Choon-Seng; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anal adenocarcinoma is a rare condition and can arise in chronic inflammatory states such as in Crohn's disease, or in a chronic fistula-in-ano. We report our diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with a large perineal lump with a long-standing history of perianal fistulous disease. This was initially evaluated with a Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and the diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy. Multimodality treatment with chemoradiotherapy and surgery should be offered to achieve the best outcomes. PMID:27057309

  7. An efficient wavelet analysis method to film-pore diffusion model arising in mathematical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, G

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we have established an efficient Legendre wavelet based approximation method to solve film-pore diffusion model arising in engineering. Film-pore diffusion model is widely used to determine study the kinetics of adsorption systems. The use of Legendre wavelet based approximation method is found to be accurate, simple, fast, flexible, convenient, and computationally attractive. It is shown that film-pore diffusion model satisfactorily describe kinetics of methylene blue adsorption onto the three low-cost adsorbents, Guava, teak and gulmohar plant leaf powders, used in this study. PMID:24562792

  8. Differentiation between earthquake radon anomalies and those arising from nuclear activities.

    PubMed

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K; Lotfy, Yahia A

    2009-01-01

    The present work offers a methodology to correlate the earthquake time, magnitude and location based on the behavior of radon concentration. By correlating tectonic events to radon behavior, based on previously published radon data, radon concentration signals can be taken into consideration in decision making. Three correlations between magnitude, time and epicenter distance are presented. The applicability of any one of them depends on the measurement technique. Moreover, a suggested procedure is presented to determine the possible confusion between signals for radon anomalies originating from tectonic failure and those arising from nuclear activities. The suggested method depends on the change observed on the (219)Rn and (222)Rn daughters concentration ratios.

  9. A simple method of calculating pulse amplitudes and shapes arising from reflection from linear segments

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1988-01-02

    A new formulation for the amplitude and pulse shape from reflections from a linear segment for a bistatic planar geometry is presented. The formulation is useful in calculating reverberation from high intensity signals in an deep ocean basin where long range propagation can occur. This reverberation is important in calculating the acoustic interference to sonar arising from the detonation of nuclear or large chemical explosives, and for modeling long range active sonar. The reflections computed with the new formulation are significantly different from those of earlier versions of the reverberation model, with pulses generally shorter and more intense, leading to predictions of louder but more sporadic reverberation than previously estimated. 9 refs

  10. Characterization of Rayleigh backscattering arising in various two-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo

    2016-05-30

    We experimentally characterize the mode dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) arising in various two-mode fibers (TMFs). With the help of an all-fiber photonic lantern, we are able to measure the RB power at individual modes. Consequently, mode dependent power distribution of RB light caused by arbitrary forward propagation mode superposition can be obtained. The total RB power of the TMFs under test is higher than that of single mode fiber by at least 2 dB over the C band. Meanwhile, the RB light occurs among all guided modes in the TMFs with specific power ratios. The experimental characterization agrees well with the theoretical calculations.

  11. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C

    2016-10-01

    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided.

  12. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in a background of sialadenoma papilliferum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Gnepp, Douglas R; de Vries, Egbert; Bibawy, Haidy; Solomon, Marshall; Gloster, Elizabeth S

    2009-03-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare tumor, primarily of minor salivary gland origin, first described by Abrams and Finck (Cancer 24:1057-63, 1969). It is both an exophytic and endophytic papillary lesion histologically resembling syringocystadenoma papilliferum of sweat gland. The tumor is considered benign although rare recurrent cases have been reported. Three cases of malignant transformation of sialadenoma papilliferum have been described in the literature. We report a high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in a background of sialadenoma papilliferum, at the base of the tongue, an unusual location for minor salivary gland neoplasms. Eleven months after excision and nodal dissection, there is no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  13. High-grade adenocarcinoma, (ductal type) arising in unilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Kedar K; Shah, Milap; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Warthin tumor is a well-recognized benign salivary gland neoplasm consisting of an epithelial as well as a lymphoid component. Malignant transformation in Warthin tumor is rare and its reported incidence is up to 1%. The more common types of carcinomas described in Warthin tumor are the squamous and mucoepidermoid types, with high-grade adenocarcinoma being extremely rare. A high-grade adenocarcinoma (ductal type) arising in the Warthin tumor in a 72-year-old man is presented for its rarity and diagnostic difficulties.

  14. Occupational health experience with organic additives.

    PubMed

    Thiess, A M; Wellenreuther, G

    1984-12-01

    For many decades, interest in occupational medicine has been focused on the wide variety of organic additives, which includes a large number of substances, for example, dyestuffs, pigments, and auxiliaries for the textile, leather, and paper industries. The reason is that, if the recommended precautions are not observed, there is a risk of exposure to most of these substances during both production and use. Moreover, over the years, some additives have caused concern and aroused suspicion regarding adverse effects on health. In order to deal with health problems in this field, it is important to be aware of how, what, and where occupational diseases or accidents arise. Much knowledge has been gained about these, and it would be an impossible task to give a systematic survey of the data that have accumulated, especially since it is necessary to take account of the problem of exposure to more than one substance. Thus an attempt is made to report on occupational health experience in general, and to demonstrate how an industrial hygienist may approach the many and various problems. Some epidemiological studies on organic additives (auramine, anthraquinone dyestuffs, organic dyes, etc.) are discussed.

  15. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  16. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  17. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  18. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause a... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L....

  19. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  20. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  1. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  2. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  4. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  5. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  6. 20 CFR 411.435 - How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved? 411.435 Section 411.435 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Agencies' Participation Resolving Disputes Arising Under Agreements Between Employment Networks and...

  7. 20 CFR 411.435 - How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will disputes arising under the agreements between ENs and State VR agencies be resolved? 411.435 Section 411.435 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Agencies' Participation Resolving Disputes Arising Under Agreements Between Employment Networks and...

  8. 29 CFR 15.301 - What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the... responsible for all FTCA claims involving damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a... or a question of policy. (d) All remaining claims with aggregate damages of $25,000 or more are...

  9. 29 CFR 15.301 - What office is responsible for determining liability in claims arising out of the Job Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the... responsible for all FTCA claims involving damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a... or a question of policy. (d) All remaining claims with aggregate damages of $25,000 or more are...

  10. 29 CFR 15.206 - What claims arising at a residence or Telework location may be covered under the MPCECA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 15.206 What claims arising at a residence or Telework... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What claims arising at a residence or Telework location...

  11. Understanding the electrical behavior of the action potential in terms of elementary electrical sources.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-03-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However, this model is unsuitably complex for teaching purposes. In addition, the Hodgkin and Huxley approach describes the shape of the action potential only in terms of ionic currents, i.e., it is unable to explain the electrical significance of the action potential or describe the electrical field arising from this source using basic concepts of electromagnetic theory. The goal of the present report was to propose a new model to describe the electrical behaviour of the action potential in terms of elementary electrical sources (in particular, dipoles). The efficacy of this model was tested through a closed-book written exam. The proposed model increased the ability of students to appreciate the distributed character of the action potential and also to recognize that this source spreads out along the fiber as function of space. In addition, the new approach allowed students to realize that the amplitude and sign of the extracellular electrical potential arising from the action potential are determined by the spatial derivative of this intracellular source. The proposed model, which incorporates intuitive graphical representations, has improved students' understanding of the electrical potentials generated by bioelectrical sources and has heightened their interest in bioelectricity.

  12. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-10-12

    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  13. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. From the latter observational fact, this paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighbourhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programmes, and they can travel over large distances, then the upper bound on the likelihood of such a species arising per habitable world is of the order of 10-3 on the other hand, if civilizations are not prone to colonize their neighbours, or do not travel very far, then the upper limiting probability is much larger, even of order one.

  14. Does lumbosacral spina bifida arise by failure of neural folding or by defective canalisation?

    PubMed Central

    Copp, A J; Brook, F A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether open lumbosacral spina bifida results from an abnormality of neural folding (primary neurulation) or medullary cord canalisation (secondary neurulation). Homozygous curly tail (ct) mouse embryos were studied as a model system for human neural tube defects. The rostral end of the spina bifida was found to lie at the level of somites 27 to 32 in over 90% of affected ct/ct embryos. Indian ink marking experiments using non-mutant embryos showed that the posterior neuropore closes, and primary neurulation is completed, at the level of somites 32 to 34. Since neurulation in mammals progresses in a craniocaudal sequence, without overlap between regions of primary and secondary neurulation, we conclude that spina bifida in ct/ct embryos arises initially as a defect of primary neurulation. The position of posterior neuropore closure in human embryos is estimated to lie at the level of the future second sacral segment indicating that in humans, as in the ct mouse, lumbosacral spina bifida usually arises as a defect of posterior neuropore closure. Cranial NTD affect females predominantly, whereas lower spinal NTD are more common in males, both in humans and ct mice. We offer an explanation for this phenomenon based on (a) differences in the effect of embryonic growth retardation on the likelihood that an embryo will develop either cranial or lower spinal NTD and (b) differences in the rate of growth and development of male and female embryos at the time of neurulation. Images PMID:2709393

  15. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor arising from the posterior cruciate ligament: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong; Mao, Ping; Chen, Dongyang; Shi, Dongquan; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The localized form of tenosynovial giant cell tumor or pigmented villonodular synovitis is rarely intraarticular in the knee. We reported a 40-year-old woman with a tenosynovial giant cell tumor arising from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). She suffered sudden knee pain and locking without any reason for two days. A mass with a size of 1.7 × 0.8 × 0.7 cm in the fossa intercondyloidea was detected on the MRI. After one time hyperextension physical examination the patients felt sudden pain relief. During the arthroscopy examination, a loose soft tissue mass was found under the lateral meniscus. Only the synovium tissue lesion on the proximal PCL was detected. The mass had a conceivable thin pedicel and the shape matched well with the tumor bed on the PCL. The histopathology of the mass demonstrated a tenosynovial giant cell tumor. At six weeks follow-up, no clinical evidence of recurrence was noted. A Literature Review of tenosynovial giant cell tumor or pigmented villonodular synovitis arising from the PCL is present.

  16. A solitary fibrous tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space, with MRI and FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Murono, Shigeyuki; Minato, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2009-06-01

    We present the imaging and pathological features of a 38-year-old man in whom a large parapharyngeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) on the left side was found. On MRI, the tumor showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance. The inner nodule revealed high signal intensities both on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The entire tumor showed heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) identified heterogeneous radiotracer uptake of FDG in the inner nodule of the tumor. Histologic examinations revealed an admixture of growth patterns, including a "patternless pattern" and "haemangiopericytoma-like pattern". The tumor was positive for CD34. Imaging features of SFT arising in the parapharyngeal space are discussed with a review of literatures. This is the first report of FDG-PET finding of SFT arising in the head and neck. More cases are needed to achieve diagnostic significance from FDG-PET findings of parapharyngeal SFTs.

  17. Motor variability arises from a slow random walk in neural state.

    PubMed

    Chaisanguanthum, Kris S; Shen, Helen H; Sabes, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Even well practiced movements cannot be repeated without variability. This variability is thought to reflect "noise" in movement preparation or execution. However, we show that, for both professional baseball pitchers and macaque monkeys making reaching movements, motor variability can be decomposed into two statistical components, a slowly drifting mean and fast trial-by-trial fluctuations about the mean. The preparatory activity of dorsal premotor cortex/primary motor cortex neurons in monkey exhibits similar statistics. Although the neural and behavioral drifts appear to be correlated, neural activity does not account for trial-by-trial fluctuations in movement, which must arise elsewhere, likely downstream. The statistics of this drift are well modeled by a double-exponential autocorrelation function, with time constants similar across the neural and behavioral drifts in two monkeys, as well as the drifts observed in baseball pitching. These time constants can be explained by an error-corrective learning processes and agree with learning rates measured directly in previous experiments. Together, these results suggest that the central contributions to movement variability are not simply trial-by-trial fluctuations but are rather the result of longer-timescale processes that may arise from motor learning. PMID:25186752

  18. Carcinosarcoma of monoclonal origin arising in a dermoid cyst of ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cabibi, Daniela; Martorana, Anna; Cappello, Francesco; Barresi, Elisa; Di Gangi, Claudio; Rodolico, Vito

    2006-01-01

    Background Transformation of a cystic benign teratoma of the ovary into a "carcinosarcoma" has very rarely been reported and its histogenetic origin is still debated. Case presentation A case of carcinosarcoma arising from a dermoid cyst is reported. The tumor showed cystic areas delimited by normal squamous epithelium, with transitional areas through dysplastic epithelium to "in situ" and infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The sarcomatous component showed compact tissue composed of round cells concentrically arranged around small vessels, spindle, and pleomorphic cells with a high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. Positive staining for vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin and CD10, as well as P53 and P63, was found in the sarcomatous component and in some atypical basal cells of the squamous epithelium, which also showed the usual epithelial markers. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of carcinosarcoma arising from a dermoid cyst in which a histogenetic origin from totipotent stem cells, located in the basal squamous layer, is supported by immunohistochemical findings. PMID:16509974

  19. Primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Nicolas M; Menon, Mini

    2016-08-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are exceptionally rare entities accounting for approximately 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. This report describes a primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma in a 65 year-old woman. Macroscopically, the unilateral adnexal tumor was composed of cystic, solid and mucinous elements which resolved into a dual component lesion histologically. The majority of the tumor displayed an organoid architecture with mild to moderate pleomorphism and no discernible mitotic activity, while approximately 10% consisted of sheets and groups of cells with highly pleomorphic nuclei, necrosis and occasional mitoses. Features of a mature cystic teratoma were seen very focally. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong, diffuse positivity for CD56 and synaptophysin. Chromogranin immunonegativity was noted and there was an absence of nuclear β-catenin accumulation. Ki-67 index was 10-12%. Although there is no established diagnostic framework for primary ovarian carcinoid tumors, this case was diagnosed as a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, Grade 2 (intermediate grade), arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma/dermoid cyst. This case highlights the need to develop ovarian diagnostic criteria in this area. PMID:27508272

  20. Dark matter searches for monoenergetic neutrinos arising from stopped meson decay in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Carsten; In, Seongjin; Kumar, Jason; Yaylali, David

    2015-11-24

    Dark matter can be gravitationally captured by the Sun after scattering off solar nuclei. Annihilations of the dark matter trapped and accumulated in the centre of the Sun could result in one of the most detectable and recognizable signals for dark matter. Searches for high-energy neutrinos produced in the decay of annihilation products have yielded extremely competitive constraints on the spin-dependent scattering cross sections of dark matter with nuclei. Recently, the low energy neutrino signal arising from dark-matter annihilation to quarks which then hadronize and shower has been suggested as a competitive and complementary search strategy. These high-multiplicity hadronic showers give rise to a large amount of pions which will come to rest in the Sun and decay, leading to a unique sub-GeV neutrino signal. We here improve on previous works by considering the monoenergetic neutrino signal arising from both pion and kaon decay. We consider searches at liquid scintillation, liquid argon, and water Cherenkov detectors and find very competitive sensitivities for few-GeV dark matter masses.

  1. Dark matter searches for monoenergetic neutrinos arising from stopped meson decay in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Carsten; In, Seongjin; Kumar, Jason; Yaylali, David E-mail: seongjin.in@gmail.com E-mail: yaylali@email.arizona.edu

    2015-11-01

    Dark matter can be gravitationally captured by the Sun after scattering off solar nuclei. Annihilations of the dark matter trapped and accumulated in the centre of the Sun could result in one of the most detectable and recognizable signals for dark matter. Searches for high-energy neutrinos produced in the decay of annihilation products have yielded extremely competitive constraints on the spin-dependent scattering cross sections of dark matter with nuclei. Recently, the low energy neutrino signal arising from dark-matter annihilation to quarks which then hadronize and shower has been suggested as a competitive and complementary search strategy. These high-multiplicity hadronic showers give rise to a large amount of pions which will come to rest in the Sun and decay, leading to a unique sub-GeV neutrino signal. We here improve on previous works by considering the monoenergetic neutrino signal arising from both pion and kaon decay. We consider searches at liquid scintillation, liquid argon, and water Cherenkov detectors and find very competitive sensitivities for few-GeV dark matter masses.

  2. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  3. DNA Damage Responses in Progeroid Syndromes Arising from Defective Maturation of Prelamin A

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyong; Rusinol, Antonio; Sinensky, Michael; Wang, Youjie; Zou, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Summary The genetic diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) arise from accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A due to defects in the lamin A maturation pathway. Both of these diseases exhibit symptoms which can be viewed as accelerated aging. The mechanism by which accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A leads to these accelerated aging phenotypes is not understood. Here we present evidence that in HGPS and RD fibroblasts, DNA damage checkpoints are persistently activated due to the compromise of genomic integrity. Inactivation of checkpoint kinases Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) and ATR (ATM and RAD3-Related) in these patient cells can partially overcome their early replication arrest. Treatment of patient cells with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) did not result in reduction of DNA double strand breaks and damage checkpoint signaling, although the treatment significantly reversed the aberrant shape of their nuclei. This suggests that DNA damage accumulation and aberrant nuclear morphology are independent phenotypes arising from prelamin A accumulation in these progeroid syndromes. Since DNA damage accumulation is an important contributor to the symptoms of HGPS, our results call into question on the possibility of treatment of HGPS with FTIs alone. PMID:17062639

  4. EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising within atrial myxoma in Chinese immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Pu; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of Primary cardiac lymphoma is very low. Primary cardiac lymphoma within myxoma is extremely rare disease. So far, these cases have been reported only eight in the world, which has not reported in Chinese so far. Hence, we reported the unique Chinese case of 52-year-old immunocompetent male with primary Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising within atrial myxoma, and had no evidence of systemic lymphoma. The patient presented right sided body numbness, arm weakness no incentive and mouth twitch. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a large intraatrial mass, attached to the left atrial wall. The mass was removed by open thoracic surgery and subsequently diagnosed as malignant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with myxoma by histopathology. This was the fourth case of discovered Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a cardiac myxoma reported so far. The patient has been well by followed up for 5 months without chemotherapy. Now we discuss the importance of histodiagnosis and the proper treatment. Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising within atrial myxoma is an extraordinary lymphoma for better prognosis, avoiding excessive treatment. PMID:25973119

  5. Motor variability arises from a slow random walk in neural state.

    PubMed

    Chaisanguanthum, Kris S; Shen, Helen H; Sabes, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Even well practiced movements cannot be repeated without variability. This variability is thought to reflect "noise" in movement preparation or execution. However, we show that, for both professional baseball pitchers and macaque monkeys making reaching movements, motor variability can be decomposed into two statistical components, a slowly drifting mean and fast trial-by-trial fluctuations about the mean. The preparatory activity of dorsal premotor cortex/primary motor cortex neurons in monkey exhibits similar statistics. Although the neural and behavioral drifts appear to be correlated, neural activity does not account for trial-by-trial fluctuations in movement, which must arise elsewhere, likely downstream. The statistics of this drift are well modeled by a double-exponential autocorrelation function, with time constants similar across the neural and behavioral drifts in two monkeys, as well as the drifts observed in baseball pitching. These time constants can be explained by an error-corrective learning processes and agree with learning rates measured directly in previous experiments. Together, these results suggest that the central contributions to movement variability are not simply trial-by-trial fluctuations but are rather the result of longer-timescale processes that may arise from motor learning.

  6. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  7. Characterization of EBV-related lymphoproliferative lesions arising in donor lymphocytes of transplanted human tumor tissues in the NOG mouse.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Etsuko; Kato, Atsuhiko; Chen, Yu Jau; Matsubara, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Human tumor tissue line models established in the severely immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Sug)/Jic (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) or NOG) mouse are important tools for oncology research. During the establishment process, a lymphoproliferative lesion (LPL) that replaces the original tumor cells in the site of transplantation occurs. In the present study, we studied the impact of the LPL on the establishment process and the characteristics of the lesion, investigated the systemic distribution of the lesion in the mouse, and evaluated the potential of a simple identification method. The incidence of the lesion varied among tumor types, and the lesion was found to be the leading cause of unsuccessful establishment with gastric and colorectal cancer. The lesion consisted of a varying population of proliferating lymphoid cells that expressed CD20. The cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related antigens, and EBV DNA was detected. There was systemic distribution of the lesion within the NOG mouse, and the most consistent gross finding was splenomegaly. Additionally, identification of LPL-affected cases was possible by detecting splenomegaly in the 1st and 2nd generation mice at necropsy. From our findings the lesion was judged to arise from EBV-infected B cells originating from the donor, and monitoring splenomegaly at necropsy was thought effective as a simple method for identifying the lesion at an early stage of the establishment process.

  8. An efficient computational approach to characterize DSC-MRI signals arising from three-dimensional heterogeneous tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Semmineh, Natenael B; Xu, Junzhong; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Delaney, Gary W; Cleary, Paul W; Gore, John C; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-01-01

    The systematic investigation of susceptibility-induced contrast in MRI is important to better interpret the influence of microvascular and microcellular morphology on DSC-MRI derived perfusion data. Recently, a novel computational approach called the Finite Perturber Method (FPM), which enables the study of susceptibility-induced contrast in MRI arising from arbitrary microvascular morphologies in 3D has been developed. However, the FPM has lower efficiency in simulating water diffusion especially for complex tissues. In this work, an improved computational approach that combines the FPM with a matrix-based finite difference method (FDM), which we call the Finite Perturber the Finite Difference Method (FPFDM), has been developed in order to efficiently investigate the influence of vascular and extravascular morphological features on susceptibility-induced transverse relaxation. The current work provides a framework for better interpreting how DSC-MRI data depend on various phenomena, including contrast agent leakage in cancerous tissues and water diffusion rates. In addition, we illustrate using simulated and micro-CT extracted tissue structures the improved FPFDM along with its potential applications and limitations.

  9. Osteochondromas in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a widespread trait with a streaking but overlooked appearance when arising at femoral bone end.

    PubMed

    Morales-Piga, A; Bachiller-Corral, J; González-Herranz, P; Medrano-SanIldelfonso, M; Olmedo-Garzón, J; Sánchez-Duffhues, G

    2015-10-01

    Metaphyseal bony outgrowths are a well-recognized feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) phenotype, but its genuine frequency, topographic distribution, morphological aspect, and potential implications are not fully established. To better ascertain the frequency and characteristics of osteocartilaginous exostoses in FOP disease, we conducted a cross-sectional radiological study based on all the traceable cases identified in a previous comprehensive national research. Metaphyseal exostoses were present in all the 17 cases of FOP studied. Although most often arising from the distal femoral (where metaphyseal exostoses adopt a peculiar not yet reported appearance) and proximal tibial bones, we have found that they are not restricted to these areas, but rather can be seen scattered at a variety of other skeletal sites. Using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, we show that these exophytic outgrowths are true osteochondromas. As a whole, these results are in agreement with data coming from the literature review. Our study confirms the presence of metaphyseal osteochondromas as a very frequent trait of FOP phenotype and an outstanding feature of its anomalous skeletal developmental component. In line with recent evidences, this might imply that dysregulation of BMP signaling, in addition to promoting exuberant heterotopic ossification, could induce aberrant chondrogenesis and osteochondroma formation. Unveiling the molecular links between these physiopathological pathways could help to illuminate the mechanisms that govern bone morphogenesis. PMID:26049728

  10. Low penetrance of the 14484 LHON mutation when it arises in a non-haplogroup J mtDNA background.

    PubMed

    Howell, Neil; Herrnstadt, Corinna; Shults, Cliff; Mackey, David A

    2003-06-01

    The penetrance in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) pedigrees is determined primarily by a mutation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), but secondary factors are also necessary for manifestation of the disorder. It has been proposed that mtDNA polymorphisms affect penetrance in LHON pedigrees. In particular, it has been postulated that one or more polymorphisms associated with European haplogroup J mtDNAs substantially increase the penetrance of the primary LHON mutation at nucleotide 14484. We report here a haplogroup H matrilineal pedigree (VIC14) in which the single affected member carries the 14484 LHON mutation, but who manifested a milder and atypical optic nerve disorder. In addition, during a population screen, we identified an individual who carried the 14484 mutation but who had normal vision. Finally, the 14484 mutation is under-represented among haplogroup H mtDNAs that carry a LHON mutation. These results, in conjunction with other studies that are reviewed, indicate that 14484 LHON mutations have a low penetrance when they arise in a haplogroup H mtDNA background.

  11. Osteochondromas in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a widespread trait with a streaking but overlooked appearance when arising at femoral bone end.

    PubMed

    Morales-Piga, A; Bachiller-Corral, J; González-Herranz, P; Medrano-SanIldelfonso, M; Olmedo-Garzón, J; Sánchez-Duffhues, G

    2015-10-01

    Metaphyseal bony outgrowths are a well-recognized feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) phenotype, but its genuine frequency, topographic distribution, morphological aspect, and potential implications are not fully established. To better ascertain the frequency and characteristics of osteocartilaginous exostoses in FOP disease, we conducted a cross-sectional radiological study based on all the traceable cases identified in a previous comprehensive national research. Metaphyseal exostoses were present in all the 17 cases of FOP studied. Although most often arising from the distal femoral (where metaphyseal exostoses adopt a peculiar not yet reported appearance) and proximal tibial bones, we have found that they are not restricted to these areas, but rather can be seen scattered at a variety of other skeletal sites. Using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, we show that these exophytic outgrowths are true osteochondromas. As a whole, these results are in agreement with data coming from the literature review. Our study confirms the presence of metaphyseal osteochondromas as a very frequent trait of FOP phenotype and an outstanding feature of its anomalous skeletal developmental component. In line with recent evidences, this might imply that dysregulation of BMP signaling, in addition to promoting exuberant heterotopic ossification, could induce aberrant chondrogenesis and osteochondroma formation. Unveiling the molecular links between these physiopathological pathways could help to illuminate the mechanisms that govern bone morphogenesis.

  12. Accessory spleen arising from the gastric fundus mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor following splenectomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GUANGYAO; CHEN, PING; ZONG, LIANG

    2014-01-01

    The current case report presents an accessory spleen mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach in a patient who had undergone a splenectomy ~20 years previously. A 61-year-old male, who presented with upper abdominal discomfort lasting three months, underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a smooth, hemispherical mass of ~2 cm in diameter, with homogenous echogenicity originating from the gastric muscular layer. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that the well-marginated ovoid mass was ~2.6×1.9 cm in size. The patient was diagnosed with GIST. Subsequent therapy consisted of partial gastrectomy. The pathological results indicated the mass contained splenic tissue, which confirmed it to be an accessory spleen. Changes in the postoperative platelet count were noted. The observations of this case study highlight that platelet count should be used as a routine indicator for monitoring accessory spleen arising from gastric fundus lesion. PMID:24396402

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising at ileostomy sites: Two cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Procaccino, Lauren; Rehman, Sameer; Abdurakhmanov, Alexander; McWhorter, Peter; La Gamma, Nicholas; Bhaskaran, Madhu C; Maurer, James; Grimaldi, Gregory M; Rilo, Horacio; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Procaccino, John

    2015-01-01

    Total colectomy with ileostomy placement is a treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A rare and late complication of this treatment is carcinoma arising at the ileostomy site. We describe two such cases: a 78-year-old male 30 years after subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for FAP, and an 85-year-old male 50 years after colectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis. The long latency period between creation of the ileostomies and development of carcinoma suggests a chronic metaplasia due to an irritating/inflammatory causative factor. Surgical excision of the mass and relocation of the stoma is the mainstay of therapy, with possible benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Newly developed lesions at stoma sites should be biopsied to rule out the possibility of this rare ileostomy complication. PMID:26131331

  14. Small bowel adenocarcinoma arising in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIOKA, YUICHIRO; NOZAWA, HIROAKI; TANAKA, JUNICHIRO; NISHIKAWA, TAKESHI; TANAKA, TOSHIAKI; KIYOMATSU, TOMOMICHI; KAWAI, KAZUSHIGE; HATA, KEISUKE; KAZAMA, SHINSUKE; YAMAGUCHI, HIRONORI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; SUNAMI, EIJI; KITAYAMA, JOJI; WATANABE, TOSHIAKI

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are reportedly at a lower overall risk of malignancies, and small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) arising in a HHT patient is extremely rare. In this study, the case of a 37-year-old female with HHT who developed a poorly differentiated jejunal adenocarcinoma five years after ileocecal resection for multiple colonic adenomas is presented. The patient underwent curative resection of the cancer invading the ileum and the mesentery of the transverse colon, but had to overcome critical complications perioperatively, stemming from HHT-associated peripheral capillary dilatation and arteriovenous malformation, including nosebleeds and possible infusion-induced air embolism through pulmonary shunts. The patient subsequently received adjuvant chemotherapy including capecitabine and oxaliplatin for 6 months, and currently remains alive without any evidence of recurrence 12 months after the second surgery. This patient with SBA was an instructive case demonstrating the necessity of careful attention during major surgery in HHT. PMID:26998137

  15. Microsurgical confirmation of perforating arteries arising from the fundus of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Roland, Jarod L; Kamath, Ashwin A; Cross, DeWitte T; Dacey, Ralph G

    2015-07-01

    Perforating arteries rarely project from the fundus of an aneurysm. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was found to have a right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm via catheter angiography. Superselective microcatheter angiography revealed that perforating arteries arose from the aneurysm fundus that supplied the anterolateral thalamus. Microsurgical exploration confirmed several small perforating arteries arising from the aneurysm dome as well as an atretic distal PCOM artery. Given the complex anatomy, the lesion was unsuitable for clipping. We propose that this aneurysm represents a developmental variant whereby the proximal PCOM artery becomes atretic and terminates in PCOM perforators. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/iDcp9fsDjq4.

  16. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a traumatic neuroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kos, Zuzana; Robertson, Susan J; Purgina, Bibianna M; Verma, Shailendra; Gravel, Denis H

    2013-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with a soft tissue mass at the site of a remote, non-neoplastic lumbar surgery. Excisional biopsy revealed a traumatic neuroma. Five years later she re-presented with a rapidly growing, tender nodule at the same site. An excisional biopsy was again performed and revealed a tumor composed of malignant epithelioid and spindle cells merging imperceptibly with residual traumatic neuroma. The malignant cells were positive for vimentin, S-100 and micropthalmia transcription factor. They were negative for cytokeratins, muscle markers, Melan-A, HMB45, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein. Electron microscopy showed no melanosomes. The diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising within a long-standing traumatic neuroma was rendered and represents a hitherto unreported origin of this rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma.

  17. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment.

    PubMed

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero; Cocuzza, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment.

  18. An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jie; Cartwright, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth. There may be a progressive evolution to melanoma from a blue nevus.   PMID:27699140

  19. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions.

  20. Turing-Hopf instability in biochemical reaction networks arising from pairs of subnetworks.

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Maya; Roussel, Marc R

    2012-11-01

    Network conditions for Turing instability in biochemical systems with two biochemical species are well known and involve autocatalysis or self-activation. On the other hand general network conditions for potential Turing instabilities in large biochemical reaction networks are not well developed. A biochemical reaction network with any number of species where only one species moves is represented by a simple digraph and is modeled by a reaction-diffusion system with non-mass action kinetics. A graph-theoretic condition for potential Turing-Hopf instability that arises when a spatially homogeneous equilibrium loses its stability via a single pair of complex eigenvalues is obtained. This novel graph-theoretic condition is closely related to the negative cycle condition for oscillations in ordinary differential equation models and its generalizations, and requires the existence of a pair of subnetworks, each containing an even number of positive cycles. The technique is illustrated with a double-cycle Goodwin type model. PMID:22698892

  1. Estimation of uncertainty arising from different soil sampling devices: the use of variogram parameters.

    PubMed

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Barbina, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Menegon, Sandro; Pati, Alessandra; Petruzzelli, Giannantonio; Sansone, Umberto; Van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), uncertainties due to field soil sampling were assessed. Three different sampling devices were applied in an agricultural area using the same sampling protocol. Cr, Sc and Zn mass fractions in the collected soil samples were measured by k(0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA). For each element-device combination the experimental variograms were calculated using geostatistical tools. The variogram parameters were used to estimate the standard uncertainty arising from sampling. The sampling component represents the dominant contribution of the measurement uncertainty with a sampling uncertainty to measurement uncertainty ratio ranging between 0.6 and 0.9. The approach based on the use of variogram parameters leads to uncertainty values of the sampling component in agreement with those estimated by replicate sampling approach.

  2. Sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the congenital pigmented nevus after treatment with carbon dioxide snow freezing method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Komine, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Fusumae, Takayuki; Fujita, Yurika; Maekawa, Takeo; Murata, Satoru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the skin in a 63-year-old man who was treated with the carbon dioxide snow freezing method for a huge congenital pigmented nevus that extended from the right upper extremity to the right trunk during childhood. He had an exophytic red tumor on the nevus in the right upper extremity that grew slowly for 4 years and rapidly recently. Histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed both epithelial and mesenchymal malignancy in the same tumor. The epithelial component was composed of basaloid cells forming multiple nests with peripheral palisading, positive for keratins and BerEP4, implying basal cell carcinoma. The mesenchymal component was composed of spindle-shaped cells negative for keratins and positive for vimentin, suggesting sarcoma. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the primary pigmented nevus that had been treated by the carbon dioxide snow freezing method.

  3. Contractile Units in Disordered Actomyosin Bundles Arise from F-Actin Buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Thoresen, Todd; Gardel, Margaret L.; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2012-06-01

    Bundles of filaments and motors are central to contractility in cells. The classic example is striated muscle, where actomyosin contractility is mediated by highly organized sarcomeres which act as fundamental contractile units. However, many contractile bundles in vivo and in vitro lack sarcomeric organization. Here we propose a model for how contractility can arise in bundles without sarcomeric organization and validate its predictions with experiments on a reconstituted system. In the model, internal stresses in frustrated arrangements of motors with diverse velocities cause filaments to buckle, leading to overall shortening. We describe the onset of buckling in the presence of stochastic motor head detachment and predict that buckling-induced contraction occurs in an intermediate range of motor densities. We then calculate the size of the “contractile units” associated with this process. Consistent with these results, our reconstituted actomyosin bundles show contraction at relatively high motor density, and we observe buckling at the predicted length scale.

  4. Challenges and surprises that arise with nucleic acids during model building and refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, William G.

    2012-04-01

    The challenges that arise in nucleic acid model building as a consequence of their simpler and more symmetric super-secondary structures are addressed. The process of building and refining crystal structures of nucleic acids, although similar to that for proteins, has some peculiarities that give rise to both various complications and various benefits. Although conventional isomorphous replacement phasing techniques are typically used to generate an experimental electron-density map for the purposes of determining novel nucleic acid structures, it is also possible to couple the phasing and model-building steps to permit the solution of complex and novel RNA three-dimensional structures without the need for conventional heavy-atom phasing approaches.

  5. An Orbital Malignant Melanoma Arising in Cellular Blue Nevus in a Patient with Nevus of Ota

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jie; Cartwright, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth. There may be a progressive evolution to melanoma from a blue nevus.  

  6. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we use, in particular, the fact that the odd part of the solution solves a more standard obstacle problem. We show that the free boundary is and describe the asymptotics of the free boundary as c, the cost of transacting the asset, goes to zero. PMID:25288815

  7. Human Immune Disorder Arising from Mutation of the α Chain of the Interleukin-2 Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfe, Nigel; Dadi, Harjit K.; Shahar, Michal; Roifman, Chaim M.

    1997-04-01

    Profound cellular immunodeficiency occurs as the result of mutations in proteins involved in both the differentiation and function of mature lymphoid cells. We describe here a novel human immune aberration arising from a truncation mutation of the interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25), a subunit of the tripartite high-affinity receptor for interleukin 2. This immunodeficiency is characterized by decreased numbers of peripheral T cells displaying abnormal proliferation but normal B cell development. Extensive lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, including lung, liver, gut, and bone, is observed, accompanied by tissue atrophy and inflammation. Although mature T cells are present, the absence of CD25 does affect the differentiation of thymocytes. While displaying normal development of CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD8 expression, CD25-deficient cortical thymocytes do not express CD1, and furthermore they fail to normally down-regulate levels of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2.

  8. A new efficient recursive technique for solving singular boundary value problems arising in various physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roul, Pradip

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with a numerical technique for solving nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in various physical models. First, we convert the original problem to an equivalent integral equation to surmount the singularity and employ afterward the boundary condition to compute the undetermined coefficient. Finally, the integral equation without undetermined coefficient is treated using homotopy perturbation method. The present method is implemented on three physical model examples: i) thermal explosions; ii) steady-state oxygen diffusion in a spherical shell; iii) the equilibrium of the isothermal gas sphere. The results obtained by the present method are compared with that obtained using finite-difference method, B-spline method and a numerical technique based on the direct integration method, and comparison reveals that the proposed method with few solution components produces similar results and the method is computationally efficient than others.

  9. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero

    2015-01-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment. PMID:26508972

  10. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas arising in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A case report

    PubMed Central

    FUJII, KENSUKE; NITTA, TOSHIKATSU; KAWASAKI, HIROSHI; KATAOKA, JUN; TOMINAGA, TOMO; INOUE, YOSHIHIRO; KADOTA, EIJI; ISHIBASHI, TAKASHI; UCHIYAMA, KAZUHISA

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas arising in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). A 68-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of fatigue. Computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in the pancreatic head, which displayed high-signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathological findings revealed intraductal papillary proliferative changes involving the main and branch ducts of the pancreatic head. Based on the immunohistochemistry results, the intraductal lesion was diagnosed as IPMN. The pathological diagnosis for the invasive carcinoma was anaplastic giant-cell carcinoma of the pancreas (ACP), and the focus of IPMN dedifferentiation to ACP was found to be located at the periphery of the IPMN. At 18 months postoperatively, the patient remains disease-free. PMID:26870354

  11. Opposite phenotypes of cancer and aging arise from alternative regulation of common signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Yashin, Anatoly I

    2003-12-01

    Phenotypic features of malignant and senescent cells are in many instances opposite. Cancer cells do not "age"; their metabolic, proliferative, and growth characteristics are opposite to those observed with cellular aging (both replicative and functional). In many such characteristics cancer cells resemble embryonic cells. One can say that cancer manifests itself as a local, uncontrolled "rejuvenation" in an organism. Available evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the opposite phenotypic features of aging and cancer arise from the opposite regulation of genes participating in apoptosis/growth arrest or growth signal transduction pathways in cells. This fact may be applicable in the development of new anti-aging treatments. Genes that are contrarily regulated in cancer and aging cells (e.g., proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressors) could be candidate targets for anti-aging interventions. Their "cancer-like" regulation, if strictly controlled, might help to rejuvenate the human organism. PMID:15033776

  12. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles.

    PubMed

    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A

    2014-11-13

    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we use, in particular, the fact that the odd part of the solution solves a more standard obstacle problem. We show that the free boundary is [Formula: see text] and describe the asymptotics of the free boundary as c, the cost of transacting the asset, goes to zero. PMID:25288815

  13. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  14. Transaortic stent grafting of a Kommerell diverticulum arising from a right-sided aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinya; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Okada, Kenji; Imai, Katsuhiko; Takasaki, Taiichi; Uchida, Naomichi; Sueda, Taijiro

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with shortness of breath. Respiratory function tests showed a slightly obstructive physiology. Computed tomography (CT) results revealed an aberrant left subclavian artery and a Kommerell diverticulum arising from a right-sided aortic arch that was compressing the trachea and the surrounding tissues. A median sternotomy was performed with the patient under circulatory arrest with moderate hypothermia, and a transaortic stent graft was inserted to exclude the Kommerell diverticulum. The aberrant left subclavian artery was ligated and an axillo-axillar bypass was constructed. Postoperative CT showed complete exclusion of the Kommerell diverticulum without an endoleak. The patient's breathing difficulty was resolved, and she was discharged uneventfully. This procedure should be considered as an alternative strategy for exclusion of Kommerell diverticulum.

  15. Receiving Social Support at Church When Stressful Life Events Arise: Do Catholics and Protestants Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21572579

  16. Postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and producing alpha-1-antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, D V; Papadimitriou, J M; Archer, M

    1984-03-01

    A fatal nasopharyngeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma developed in a young male after irradiation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma diagnosed 5 years earlier. The sarcoma extended from the nasopharynx into the floor of the pituitary fossa and into both parasellar regions. There was no clinical evidence of any distant spread. Many of the malignant cells contained cytoplasmic granular and globular PAS-positive inclusions shown to be alpha-1-antitrypsin immunohistochemically. Ultrastructurally, this probably corresponded to electron-dense material with distinctive patterns and which had accumulated within distended ergastoplasmic cisternae of the neoplastic cells. Three previously reported case of postirradiation sarcomas arising in nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were said to be fibrosarcomas and none produced alpha-1-antitrypsin.

  17. Geometric properties of a 2 D spacetime arising in 4 D black hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Nolan, Brien C.

    2015-11-01

    The Schwarzschild exterior space-time is conformally related to a direct product space-time, M2×S2 , where M2 is a 2 D space-time. This direct product structure arises naturally when considering the wave equation on the Schwarzschild background. Motivated by this, we establish some geometrical results relating to M2 that are useful for black hole physics. We prove that M2 has the rare property of being a causal domain. Consequently, Synge's world function and the Hadamard form for the Green function on this space-time are well defined globally. We calculate the world function and the van Vleck determinant on M2 numerically and point out how these results will be used to establish global properties of Green functions on the Schwarzschild black hole space-time.

  18. A case of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma arising from the retropancreatic area.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Kim, Kook Hyun; Gu, Min Geun; Lee, Jae Young

    2014-03-25

    Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma is an extremely uncommon tumor, even though mucinous cystadenoma often develops in the ovary and less frequently in the pancreas. A 21-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain. A well-demarcated, oval shaped cystic tumor at the retropancreatic area with displacement of the pancreas and surrounding major vessels was observed on CT and MRI. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and complete excision of the entire cyst was performed without complication. The pathologic finding was consistent with primary retropancreatic mucinous cystadenoma. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a case of retropancreatic mucinous cystadenoma arising from the retropancreatic area in Korea.

  19. Benchmark values for molecular two-electron integrals arising from the Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The two-center two-electron Coulomb and hybrid integrals arising in relativistic and nonrelativistic ab initio calculations on molecules are evaluated. Compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions are obtained. They are expressed through molecular auxiliary functions and evaluated with the numerical Global-adaptive method for arbitrary values of parameters in the noninteger Slater-type orbitals. Highly accurate benchmark values are presented for these integrals. The convergence properties of new molecular auxiliary functions are investigated. The comparison for two-center two-electron integrals is made with results obtained from single center expansions by translation of the wave function to a single center with integer principal quantum numbers and results obtained from the Cuba numerical integration algorithm, respectively. The procedures discussed in this work are capable of yielding highly accurate two-center two-electron integrals for all ranges of orbital parameters.

  20. The cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of double-strand breaks in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colis, Laureen C.; Woo, Christina M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Li, Zhenwu; Glazer, Peter M.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-06-01

    The metabolite (-)-lomaiviticin A, which contains two diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional groups, inhibits the growth of cultured human cancer cells at nanomolar-picomolar concentrations; however, the mechanism responsible for the potent cytotoxicity of this natural product is not known. Here we report that (-)-lomaiviticin A nicks and cleaves plasmid DNA by a pathway that is independent of reactive oxygen species and iron, and that the potent cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). In a plasmid cleavage assay, the ratio of single-strand breaks (ssbs) to dsbs is 5.3 ± 0.6:1. Labelling studies suggest that this cleavage occurs via a radical pathway. The structurally related isolates (-)-lomaiviticin C and (-)-kinamycin C, which contain one diazofluorene, are demonstrated to be much less effective DNA cleavage agents, thereby providing an explanation for the enhanced cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A compared to that of other members of this family.