Science.gov

Sample records for additional test cases

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. Test Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the results of various studies which show that new schools do improve student test scores. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching found that student attitudes about education directly reflect their learning environment. Specific building features related to human comfort have been shown to influence student…

  4. Two cases of food additive-induced severe liver damage associated with positive results on lymphocyte stimulation test and for antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Rena; Ohishi, Chitose; Kim, Miniru; Shiina, Masaaki; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masazumi; Munakata, Kazuo; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of severe liver injury and positive result for antinuclear antibodies induced by food additives are reported. The first patient reported long-term intake of Mabo Ramen(®) noodle soup, nutritional supplements, and over-the-counter drugs. Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.6 mg/dL, 1,048, and 1,574 IU/L, respectively. Antinuclear antibody was 80×. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for Mabo Ramen(®) and its additives such as Xanthan gum, guar gum, and Doubanjiang. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis. The autoimmune hepatitis score was 3. The second patient reported intake of dietary supplements, including Bimore C(®) and Chokora BB(®). Laboratory tests revealed that total bilirubin was 9.8 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase was 1,130 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 1,094 IU/L. Antinuclear antibody was 320×. Co-existing pancreatic damage was confirmed by the findings on abdominal CT and elevation of serum lipase, span-1, and DUPAN-2. DLSTs were positive for both supplements. These two supplements contained additives such as titanium oxide, magnesium stearate, and hydroxypropylcellulose. DLSTs for all three additives were positive. Histologic examination revealed periportal necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration of lobular and portal areas. These two cases demonstrate that repeating DLSTs is useful for identifying causative constituents in foods and supplements. PMID:26182392

  5. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section...

  6. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  8. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  10. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  12. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  13. Test report - caustic addition system operability test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.E.

    1995-10-13

    This Operability Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-OTP-167 ``Caustic Addition System Operability Test Procedure``. The Objective of the test was to verify the operability of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System. The objective of the test was met

  14. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals. PMID:23138896

  15. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  16. [Neuropsychological testing in medicolegal cases].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Because the assessment of cognitive function is among the most important diagnostic evaluations in medicolegal cases, neuropsychological testing, the optimal scientific method available to determine the manifestation of brain dysfunction, is a potentially very strong tool in those cases. However, the use of neuropsychological testing in a medicolegal setting should be done with caution. Firstly, the nature of any neuropsychological testing is complex, and cannot be simplified as "Test A measures Function A' ". Oversimplified explanation of a test is misleading, resulting in serious misjudgment in the legal procedure. Secondly, the result of the test shows someone's cognitive function at the time of the test, not the time of the act in question (i. e., a crime). Finally and most importantly, the cognitive function measured by neuropsychological testing does not directly correspond to the legal questions being asked, even when the terms used in the fields of law and neuroscience are similar. In determining whether an individual meets a specified legal standard (e. g., criminal responsibility), the results of neuropsychological testing are far from sufficient and substantial additional information is required. With these caveats in mind, an expert witness should carefully choose the neuropsychological testing battery in each case, which may greatly help to understand the individual's mental state at the time of the act in question. PMID:24341071

  17. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accomplished through the flight control), the following test must be made: (1) Under conditions associated with...: (1) Category A. Unless such failures are extremely remote, it must be shown by test that any failure... least 15 minutes. (d) Overspeed test. The rotor drive system must be subjected to 50 overspeed...

  18. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  19. Inadequate toxicity tests of food additive acesulfame.

    PubMed

    Karstadt, Myra

    2010-01-01

    Despite poor-quality toxicity tests, acesulfame potassium was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as an artificial sweetener. At present, acesulfame is very widely used, most frequently in blends with the most popular artificial sweetener in the US, sucralose (Splenda). Acesulfame was nominated twice (in 1996 and again in 2006) for testing in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay program. Both nominations were rejected by NTP. Rather than carry out bioassays, NTP subjected acesulfame to tests in genetically modified mice (GMM). Those GMM tests yielded results that provided no insight into potential carcinogenicity of acesulfame. It is possible that FDA discouraged NTP from conducting bioassays of acesulfame. Acesulfame should be tested in the bioassay program as soon as possible, and steps should be taken to ensure the objectivity of the bioassay nomination process. PMID:20166324

  20. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... perform the following tests on the eye protection (gas-tight goggles or escape hood lens) of one or...

  1. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... perform the following tests on the eye protection (gas-tight goggles or escape hood lens) of one or...

  2. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... perform the following tests on the eye protection (gas-tight goggles or escape hood lens) of one or...

  3. Additional test data on static longitudinal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubner, Walter

    1934-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the influence of weights of the controls on the stability with elevator released. The available test data were extended to stability with elevator locked. In this connection the study of the propeller effect seemed of vital importance.

  4. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  5. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  6. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  7. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  8. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  9. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  10. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  11. Changes in soil test phosphorus from broiler litter additions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient surpluses on the Delmarva Peninsula have lead to a continual accumulation of soil test P (STP), a potential source for transport of P to surface waters. This paper examines the effects of initial soil test P concentrations and broiler litter additions on STP accumulation. Broiler litter wa...

  12. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated document is on... addition to satisfying the criteria in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test or a test publisher must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test that is...

  13. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A N; Fuller, K H; Crossen, J R

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the performance of a sample of 821 healthy job applicants on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Subjects had previously passed basic academic skills tests and physical examinations and were deemed free of cognitive impairment and medical illness. They were also motivated to perform well on cognitive tests. Gender, ethnicity, and education were not significant moderator variables in our subjects. Age and IQ did significantly affect PASAT test results. Normative data are stratified by age and WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores to be useful to those who administer the PASAT in clinical practice. PMID:9342683

  14. Additional tests to differentiate Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and Actinomyces pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, P; Eerola, E; Kontiainen, S

    1995-04-01

    A commercially available biochemical test panel, commercially available diagnostic tablets and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of cellular fatty acids were used to find out whether Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and Actinomyces pyogenes could be further differentiated from each other. Xylitol and alpha-methyl-D-glucoside fermentation, Voges-Proskauer reaction and tributyrate hydrolysis were found to be useful additional tests which differentiated Arc. haemolyticum and A. pyogenes. GLC analysis revealed major differences in the cellular 16:0, 18:2(9,12) and 18:1(9) fatty acid composition of the two species. Especially the Voges-Proskauer test available as diagnostic tablets can be easily performed in clinical microbiology laboratories, in addition to the tests now used to differentiate Arc. haemolyticum from A. pyogenes. PMID:7549154

  15. 10 CFR 429.116 - Additional certification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional certification testing requirements. 429.116 Section 429.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.116...

  16. 10 CFR 429.116 - Additional certification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional certification testing requirements. 429.116 Section 429.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.116...

  17. 10 CFR 429.116 - Additional certification testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional certification testing requirements. 429.116 Section 429.116 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.116...

  18. Simple Additivity of Stochastic Psychological Processes: Tests and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of testing relatively complete (distributional) models of internal psychological processes are described. It is shown that there is a sufficient condition for additive models to imply this property of the likelihood ratio. Also discussed are the examination of hazard rate functions of component processes and change in cumulative…

  19. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  20. Using Generalized Additive Models to Analyze Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William; Sullivan, Kristynn

    2013-01-01

    Many analyses for single-case designs (SCDs)--including nearly all the effect size indicators-- currently assume no trend in the data. Regression and multilevel models allow for trend, but usually test only linear trend and have no principled way of knowing if higher order trends should be represented in the model. This paper shows how Generalized…

  1. Statistical tests of additional plate boundaries from plate motion inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, S.; Gordon, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the F-ratio test, a standard statistical technique, to the results of relative plate motion inversions has been investigated. The method tests whether the improvement in fit of the model to the data resulting from the addition of another plate to the model is greater than that expected purely by chance. This approach appears to be useful in determining whether additional plate boundaries are justified. Previous results have been confirmed favoring separate North American and South American plates with a boundary located beween 30 N and the equator. Using Chase's global relative motion data, it is shown that in addition to separate West African and Somalian plates, separate West Indian and Australian plates, with a best-fitting boundary between 70 E and 90 E, can be resolved. These results are generally consistent with the observation that the Indian plate's internal deformation extends somewhat westward of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The relative motion pole is similar to Minster and Jordan's and predicts the NW-SE compression observed in earthquake mechanisms near the Ninetyeast Ridge.

  2. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  3. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  4. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Testing Carbon Sequestration in Soil Through the Addition of Gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Conrad, M. E.; Salve, R.

    2011-12-01

    In order to help control adverse effects of increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2, effective methods for fixing carbon need to be developed. Given the large C inventories and fluxes associated with soils, it is important to identify cost- and energy-effective means for increasing long-term C retention within soil profiles. This study investigates the alternative strategy of increasing carbon retention in soils through accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. With the addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8 often found in arid and semi-arid regions, the slow process of calcite precipitation may be accelerated. Calcium also promotes SOC binding onto mineral surfaces, diminishing leaching of SOC. Addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) represents an inexpensive source of calcium to natural, slightly alkaline soil surfaces which might promote the fixation of CO2 as calcite and decrease leaching losses of organic carbon. To test this hypothesis, we prepared laboratory soil columns (7.5 cm in diameter and 85 cm in height) with and without calcium sulfate-amended layers. The distribution of carbon in the columns was monitored in gaseous, aqueous and solid phases over a period of several months to test the effect of adding calcium ions. In some columns, a relatively high fraction of 13C-labeled bicarbonate was injected to differentiate the newly precipitated calcite from the initial calcite present in the soil. The potential for more distinct calcite precipitation within the soil root zone will be investigated in vegetated soil columns. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere.

  7. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  8. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  9. Adipic gets the acid test as flue gas scrubber additive

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.R.

    1980-02-11

    The first full-scale demonstration of adipic acid for such use, to be conducted early in the summer of 1980 in a 200 MW power plant burning high-sulfur coal, is designed to clarify the costs and show how to reduce losses of adipic acid via degradation. Adipic acid improves SO/sub 2/ removal by acting as a buffer to limit the pH drop normally occurring at the gas-liquid interface so that the higher SO/sub 2/ concentration in the surface film improves liquid-phase mass transfer; it also promotes higher limestone utilization. Prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority, a preliminary economic analysis for a 500 MW plant burning 4% sulfur coal indicates that the addition of 1500 ppM of adipic acid (limestone at $7/ton and the acid at $840/ton) would raise SO/sub 2/ removal from 90 to 95%, reduce the total capital investment from $41.5 to $39.5 million, and have a first year revenue requirement of $19.9 million vs. $20.9 million without the acid. The large-scale trial will also help clarify concern over unpleasant odors that have been reported at test sites of the limestone/adipic system; valeric acid has been identified as the cause.

  10. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  11. The Case against IQ Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Norman E.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical, technical, and practical charges which have been made against the IQ test in recent years are examined. Teachers need to be aware of these issues, since IQ testing directly affects perceptions of, and planning for, their students. (RM)

  12. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Sugar Addition Test

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-06-20

    In order to meet certain production goals, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has focused on implementing a more temporally efficient method of waste vitrification. Changes in frit composition and alterations in the feed preparation process were investigated to determine if melt rate could be improved. The addition of sugar as an alternative reductant to formic acid was investigated for Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

  13. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine the rates of emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from kilns, in-line kiln/raw mills and associated... operators conducting tests to determine the rates of emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from kilns, in-line kiln/raw mills and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing facilities, for use...

  14. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  15. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  16. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  17. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    PubMed Central

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  18. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    PubMed

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  19. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  20. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy. PMID:25542613

  1. Cases for Additive Manufacturing on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.; McLemore, Carole; Anderson, Theodore " Ted"

    2012-01-01

    There are thousands of plastic or non-structural metal components on the International Space Station (ISS), any of which could require replacing sometime between resupply missions. While these may not be life critical, it can cause significant delays to flight projects that have to wait several weeks to months to receive a key part one that could have been designed and built on-board the ISS within a few hours. A plastic deposition additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS.

  2. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  3. Formal methods for test case generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

  4. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199.111 Section 199.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing....

  5. 5 CFR 890.1037 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1037 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. The suspending official may decide a contest without an additional fact-finding...

  6. 5 CFR 890.1037 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1037 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. The suspending official may decide a contest without an additional fact-finding...

  7. 5 CFR 890.1037 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1037 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. The suspending official may decide a contest without an additional fact-finding...

  8. 5 CFR 890.1037 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1037 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. The suspending official may decide a contest without an additional fact-finding...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1037 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1037 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. The suspending official may decide a contest without an additional fact-finding...

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  11. Selective earth formation testing through well casing

    SciTech Connect

    Hallmark, B.J.

    1983-01-25

    Invention permits possible recompletion and rejuvenation of older wells to produce from new zones where the original zone of production has become too depleted for further production. Discloses a method and apparatus for testing an earth formation through a well bore side wall which is covered by steel casing and cement. Includes the steps of establishing a fluid tight seal between the face of the casing and the interior of tester apparatus; providing a source of change in the fluid pressure within the apparatus causing a pressure change only when such a fluid tight seal does exist; releasing a firing mechanism responsive to such fluid pressure change to fire a casing perforating mechanism; perforating a hole through the casing with the perforating mechanism at a position within the fluid tight seal to establish sealed fluid communication between the earth formation and the interior of the apparatus; and testing the earth formation through said hole.

  12. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... casing; (j) Test all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. You must... procedures with your APD or APM for District Manager approval. You must: (1) ensure that the ROV hot...

  13. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... before running casing; (j) Test all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump... ROV hot stabs are function tested and are capable of actuating, at a minimum, one set of pipe rams...

  14. 46 CFR 160.035-12 - Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P... Merchant Vessels § 160.035-12 Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats. (a) General... p.s.i. of air pressure both before and after the tests described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (6)...

  15. Test Cases for Reentry Survivability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Hallman, W.; Steckel, G.; Weaver, M.

    2012-01-01

    One approved approach for minimizing the long-term hazards posed by space debris is to reenter space hardware into the atmosphere at end-of-mission or to place hardware in an orbit with a relatively short lifetime. Selection of a short lifetime orbit vice a deorbited reentry into a safe area depends on predictions of the hazards posed by random reentry of the object. If the object is left in orbit, what is the casualty expectation associated with its eventual reentry? Clearly, having high confidence in reentry hazard prediction tools is important to this decision-making process and the final choice can have significant mission and cost impacts. This paper describes a set of test cases that can be used to validate reentry hazard models. The test cases were assembled from reentry cases where "known" and tracked objects reentered the atmosphere and debris from the reentries was subsequently found on the ground and was analyzed. The test cases include best estimates of the state, mass properties, and physical description of each object prior to reentry, the wind profile through which the debris fell (for one case), and the impact location and physical description of each surviving object. The report also summarizes results of metallurgical analyses conducted on surviving debris, which places limits on the maximum temperatures reached during reentry. Details on a specific reentry are included as an example.

  16. 30 CFR 250.423 - What are the requirements for pressure testing casing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pressure testing casing? (a) The table in this section describes the minimum test pressures for each string... down mechanisms are engaged upon installation of each casing string. (2) If you run a liner that has a... perform additional negative pressure tests on other casing strings or liners (e.g., intermediate...

  17. 30 CFR 250.423 - What are the requirements for pressure testing casing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure testing casing? (a) The table in this section describes the minimum test pressures for each string... down mechanisms are engaged upon installation of each casing string. (2) If you run a liner that has a... perform additional negative pressure tests on other casing strings or liners (e.g., intermediate...

  18. A case study: Immersion coatings test program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The performance of several coating systems were tested for immersion exposure in potable water storage tank service. Tests were performed for a period of several months in-situ by application of coating systems test patches to a tank interior and was examined periodically during normal service operation. Concurrent with test patches, prepared test panels were placed in the immersion and vapor zones of the tank. Also, test panels were subjected to immersion and condensing humidity in a laboratory environment. All systems were applied in accordance with the respective manufacturers recommendations. Two levels of abrasive blast surface preparation were employed, SSPC-SP10 and SSPC-SP6. Coal slag and sodium bicarbonate were used as blast media. Additionally, some panels and selected tank areas were intentionally subjected to surface contamination in the form of soluble salts to assess the relative tolerance of the selected system to such steel substrate contamination.

  19. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  20. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  1. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  2. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  3. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  4. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) interior. Addition of third steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) interior. Addition of third steam generator. Burner end. Camera facing southwest. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-242 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 5 CFR 890.1039 - Cases where additional fact-finding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1039 Cases where additional fact-finding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request...

  6. 5 CFR 890.1039 - Cases where additional fact-finding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1039 Cases where additional fact-finding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request...

  7. 5 CFR 890.1025 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1025 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. In each contest, the debarring official shall determine whether a further...

  8. 5 CFR 890.1025 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1025 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. In each contest, the debarring official shall determine whether a further...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1039 - Cases where additional fact-finding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1039 Cases where additional fact-finding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1039 - Cases where additional fact-finding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1039 Cases where additional fact-finding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request...

  11. 5 CFR 890.1025 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1025 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. In each contest, the debarring official shall determine whether a further...

  12. 5 CFR 890.1039 - Cases where additional fact-finding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Imposed Against Health Care Providers Suspension § 890.1039 Cases where additional fact-finding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request...

  13. 5 CFR 890.1025 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1025 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. In each contest, the debarring official shall determine whether a further...

  14. 5 CFR 890.1025 - Cases where additional fact-finding is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases where additional fact-finding is... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890.1025 Cases where additional fact-finding is not required. In each contest, the debarring official shall determine whether a further...

  15. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1.612-2 Section 1.612-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-2 Allowable capital additions in case of mines. (a) In...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1609 - Pressure testing of casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure testing of casing. 250.1609 Section... Pressure testing of casing. (a) Prior to drilling the plug after cementing, all casing strings, except the drive or structural casing, shall be pressure tested. The conductor casing shall be tested to at...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1609 - Pressure testing of casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure testing of casing. 250.1609 Section... Pressure testing of casing. (a) Prior to drilling the plug after cementing, all casing strings, except the drive or structural casing, shall be pressure tested. The conductor casing shall be tested to at...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1609 - Pressure testing of casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pressure testing of casing. 250.1609 Section... Pressure testing of casing. (a) Prior to drilling the plug after cementing, all casing strings, except the drive or structural casing, shall be pressure tested. The conductor casing shall be tested to at...

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  20. Testing Departure from Additivity in Tukey’s Model using Shrinkage: Application to a Longitudinal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A.; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey’s one degree of freedom (df) model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Due to the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey’s model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey’s and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies — the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PMID:25112650

  1. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1609 - Pressure testing of casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure testing of casing. 250.1609 Section... Operations § 250.1609 Pressure testing of casing. (a) Prior to drilling the plug after cementing, all casing strings, except the drive or structural casing, shall be pressure tested. The conductor casing shall...

  3. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    PubMed Central

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  4. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199.111 Section 199.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing...

  5. Failures in Hybrid Microcircuits During Environmental Testing. History Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to discuss failures in hermetic hybrids observed at the GSFC PA Lab during environmental stress testing. The cases discussed are: Case I. Substrate metallization failures during Thermal cycling (TC). Case II. Flex lid-induced failure. Case Ill. Hermeticity failures during TC. Case IV. Die metallization cracking during TC. and how many test cycles and parts is necessary? Case V. Wire Bond failures after life test. Case VI. Failures caused by Au/In IMC growth.

  6. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  7. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1... in case of mines. (a) In general. Expenditures for improvements and for replacements, not including... the recession of the working faces of the mine and which: (1) Do not increase the value of the...

  8. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  9. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  10. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. PMID:24885341

  11. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  12. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  13. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  14. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1027 - Cases where an additional fact-finding proceeding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cases where an additional fact-finding... fact-finding proceeding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request another OPM official (“presiding official”) to hold an additional...

  16. 5 CFR 890.1027 - Cases where an additional fact-finding proceeding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cases where an additional fact-finding... fact-finding proceeding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request another OPM official (“presiding official”) to hold an additional...

  17. 5 CFR 890.1027 - Cases where an additional fact-finding proceeding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cases where an additional fact-finding... fact-finding proceeding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request another OPM official (“presiding official”) to hold an additional...

  18. 5 CFR 890.1027 - Cases where an additional fact-finding proceeding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases where an additional fact-finding... fact-finding proceeding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request another OPM official (“presiding official”) to hold an additional...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1027 - Cases where an additional fact-finding proceeding is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cases where an additional fact-finding... fact-finding proceeding is required. (a) Criteria for holding fact-finding proceeding. The debarring official shall request another OPM official (“presiding official”) to hold an additional...

  20. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives. PMID:27155068

  1. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  2. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV). PMID:25714034

  3. Leach testing of in situ stabilization grouts containing additives to sequester contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Ames, L.L.; Martin, P.F.C.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Phillips, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    This document discusses laboratory testing performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) of special grout formulations that incorporate specific sequestering agents to help improve the ability of the cement to resist contaminant leaching. To enhance the sequestering of contaminants we chose five additives to introduce (singly) to the control cement. The additives were Florida pebble phosphate, clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite), ferrous sulfide (a reductant), a mixed bed organic ion exchange resin and a proprietary anion-adsorbing mixed metal oxide. These additives were added one per test to the standard formulation and used to encapsulate a diluted high-salt alkaline liquid waste that is produced after various processes to remove uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. This report documents the testing of these additives.

  4. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  5. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  6. Neuroectodermal (CHIME) syndrome: an additional case with long term follow up of all reported cases.

    PubMed Central

    Shashi, V; Zunich, J; Kelly, T E; Fryburg, J S

    1995-01-01

    A new neuroectodermal syndrome (designated CHIME syndrome) was described in 1983 with a total of four patients reported, it is presumed to be an autosomal recessive disorder because of recurrence in sibs. The main features include ocular colobomas, congenital heart disease, early onset migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, conductive hearing loss, seizures, and typical facial features. We report a fifth child with the condition, confirming the unique nature of the condition. Long term follow up information on this patient, as well as the previously described cases, provides information regarding the outcome for these patients, which includes general good health, severe mental retardation, seizures that worsen after puberty, conductive hearing loss, and chronic migratory ichthyosiform skin rash without scarring. Images PMID:7666399

  7. Testing the Limits: The Purposes and Effects of Additional, External Elementary Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Karen Ann

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods case study focuses on the third through fifth grade classrooms at a public elementary school in a Midwestern urban school district where the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment is being implemented. According to the school district, the goals of these tests are: to show…

  8. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  9. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  10. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  11. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  12. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  13. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  14. 26 CFR 1.612-2 - Allowable capital additions in case of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowable capital additions in case of mines. 1.612-2 Section 1.612-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-2 Allowable capital...

  15. Tests of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for hypersaline geothermal brine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Frey, W.P.; Lorensen, L.E.; Snell, E.O.; Lim, R.; Ryon, R.W.; Quong, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory brine treatment test system has been used to carry out a short-term evaluation of a number of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for the hypersaline brine of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. In addition, a test of sludge seeding was conducted as a technique for scale control. The effect of each additive on the rate of precipitation of silica from the effluent brine at 90/sup 0/C was measured, and scaling rates of brine treated with nine of the additives were measured at 125 and 210/sup 0/C. Corrosion rates of mild steel in the treated brines were estimated using Petrolite linear polarization resistance equipment. None of the additives had a direct effect on the rates of silica precipitation, and none had a beneficial effect on the scale formed at 210/sup 0/C. At 125/sup 0/C, two additives, Drewsperse 747 (Drew Chemical) and SC-210 (Southwest Specialty Chemicals) afforded a marginal degree of scale reduction. The Austral-Erwin additive diminished the adherence of scale formed at points of high velocity fluid flow but increased solids accumulation at other points. Sludge seeding shows some promise because it reduces the degree of silica supersaturation of the brine. Results of analyses of solids precipitated from effluent brines (Woolsey No. 1 and acidified Magmamax No. 1) are presented.

  16. Two Cases of Fulminant Hepatic Failure from Amanita phalloides Poisoning Treated Additively by Homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Frass, Michael; Zagorchev, Petko; Yurukova, Vasilka; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Thieves, Karin; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, Konstantin; Bursch, Willfried; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Intoxication with Amanita phalloides is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment therapies include general support, toxin elimination, pharmacotherapy with agents such as the hepatoprotective agent silibinin, and, in extreme states, liver transplantation. Despite these therapeutic interventions, mortality remains relatively high. Case Reports We present reports of 2 patients with severe hepatic failure following intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit; 1 patient suffered from hepatic failure solely, and the second patient experienced severe 5-organ failure. In addition to conventional intensive care treatment, both patients were treated additively with classical homeopathy. The 2 patients survived without any residual pathological sequelae. Conclusion Based on the 2 cases, including 1 extreme situation, we suggest that adjunctive homeopathic treatment has a role in the treatment of acute Amanita phalloides–induced toxicity following mushroom poisoning. Additional studies may clarify a more precise dosing regimen, standardization, and better acceptance of homeopathic medicine in the intensive care setting. PMID:24940137

  17. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  18. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  19. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  20. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  1. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  2. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  3. 46 CFR 160.035-12 - Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Suspension tests. The light lifeboat shall be suspended freely from the releasing gear and the length, beam... persons to be carried (see § 160.035-11(b)(2)(ii)), and the length, beam, and depth measured. Additional... under the keel at the quarter points and measurements of length, beam, and depth taken. The boat...

  4. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases. 173.466 Section 173.466 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  5. Origin of cystic squamous cell carcinoma metastases in head and neck lymph nodes: Addition of EBV testing improves diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Švajdler, Marián; Kašpírková, Jana; Hadravský, Ladislav; Laco, Jan; Dubinský, Pavol; Straka, Ľubomír; Ondič, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Skálová, Alena

    2016-06-01

    Most cases of cystic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) metastases in the upper neck are associated with an oropharyngeal primary, namely human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated SCC arising in the palatine or lingual tonsil. A retrospective study was performed on 22 patients who presented with cystic head and neck SCC metastases. The purpose of the study was to find out whether histological characteristics, p16 protein expression, HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status could be useful in predicting the localization of the primary tumor. The primary site was identified in 20 of 22 patients and included the oropharynx in 14 patients (63.6%), the nasopharynx in 3 patients (13.6%), the lungs in 2 cases (9%), and the skin of the auricle in one case (4.5%). No primary was found in two patients (9%). Sixteen of 17 cases (94.1%) originating in Waldayer's ring (oropharynx and nasopharynx), and both cases with an unknown primary showed morphology of non-keratinizing SCC or non-keratinizing SCC with maturation. All tumors with oropharyngeal primary and both cases with unknown primary showed diffuse p16 staining and presence of HPV DNA. All three cystic metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were EBV-positive and p16/HPV-negative. In contrast, cutaneous and pulmonary metastases showed morphology of a well differentiated keratinizing SCC and poorly differentiated keratinizing SCC, respectively, and were HPV/EBV-negative. We confirmed that cystic SCC lymph node metastases of the head and neck region are strongly associated with the occult primary localized in the oropharynx. The oropharyngeal origin should always be corroborated by p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV-specific testing because SCC arising in other sites, such as nasopharynx, skin or lungs may manifest with cystic neck metastases as well. Addition of EBV testing in p16/HPV-negative cases can disclose the nasopharyngeal origin of the cystic neck metastases in a subset of cases. PMID:27013059

  6. Large block migration experiments: INTRAVAL phase 1, Test Case 9

    SciTech Connect

    Gureghian, A.B.; Noronha, C.J. . Office of Waste Technology Development); Vandergraaf, T.T. )

    1990-08-01

    The development of INTRAVAL Test Case 9, as presented in this report, was made possible by a past subsidiary agreement to the bilateral cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) encompassing various aspects of nuclear waste disposal research. The experimental aspect of this test case, which included a series of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the migration of tracers in a single, natural fracture, was undertaken by AECL. The numerical simulation of the results of these experiments was performed by the Battelle Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD) by calibrating an in-house analytical code, FRACFLO, which is capable of predicting radionuclide transport in an idealized fractured rock. Three tracer migration experiments were performed, using nonsorbing uranine dye for two of them and sorbing Cs-137 for the third. In addition, separate batch experiments were performed to determine the fracture surface and rock matrix sorption coefficients for Cs-137. The two uranine tracer migration experiment were used to calculate the average fracture aperture and to calibrate the model for the fracture dispersivity and matrix diffusion coefficient. The predictive capability of the model was then tested by simulating the third, Cs-137, tracer test without changing the parameter values determined from the other experiments. Breakthrough curves of both the experimental and numerical results obtained at the outlet face of the fracture are presented for each experiment. The reported spatial concentration profiles for the rock matrix are based solely on numerical predictions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Aluminizing Oil Casing Steel N80 by a Low-Temperature Pack Processing Modified with Zinc Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao Yong

    Different aluminide coatings were prepared on oil casing steel N80 at a relatively lower temperature of 530°C for 2 h by pack powder modified with different content of zinc (Zn). The cross-sectional microstructure, element distribution and properties of as-aluminized oil casing steel N80 were investigated by SEM, EDS, micro-hardness test and electrochemical corrosion measurement. Results show that aluminide coating with around 50 μm in thickness can be successfully achieved by a low-temperature pack aluminizing processing with the addition of Zn. Zn in the pack powder can enhance the uniformity and continuity of the coating layer, while it has little effect on the thickness of as-packed coating with the increasing content of Zn from 38.8 wt.% to 84.4 wt.%. As the content of Zn is over 58.8 wt.%, two layer coating consisting of pure Zn layer and Fe-Al aluminide layer can be formed on oil casing steel N80 substrate. Furthermore, oil casing steel N80 with aluminizing coating shows a higher microhardness than that of original one except in the depth range of pure Zn layer, but the microhardness of oil casing steel substrate does not decrease after aluminizing which can be inferred that low-temperature aluminizing processing reported here will not bring any damages on the mechanical properties of oil casing steel N80. Additionally, a lower self-corrosion current density of oil casing steel N80 with aluminizing coating also indicates that low-temperature aluminizing processing is helpful to the corrosion resistance of oil casing steel N80.

  8. Script Concordance Testing: More Cases or More Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Lambert, Carole; Carriere, Benoit; Van der Vleuten, C.

    2009-01-01

    Script concordance test (SCT) is a case based assessment format of clinical reasoning in which questions are nested into several cases. Recent results using Q4 format suggest that nested questions contribute more to reliability of measure than cases. The present study aims at documenting variance components associated with SCT cases and nested…

  9. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  10. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  11. The Case against Preadoption Genetic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the medical, psychosocial, and ethical considerations concerning presymptomatic genetic testing in evaluating children for adoption. Offers an ethical framework for rejecting such a practice. (JPB)

  12. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a human case of chronic additive polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chahota, R; Dattal, A; Thakur, S D; Sharma, M

    2015-01-01

    Brucellar arthritis remains under diagnosed owing to non-specific clinical manifestations. Here, we report isolation of Brucella melitensis from synovial fluid of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint of a 39-year-old lady having unusually chronic asymmetric, additive, peripheral polyarthritis. This isolation was confirmed by Bruce-Ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient had a history of contact with an aborted goat. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (SAT) were positive for Brucella-specific antibodies both for patient and in contact with sheep and goats. The patient was treated with doxycycline and rifampicin for 16 weeks and was recovered fully. PMID:26068351

  13. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672

  14. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  15. X-linked myotubular myopathy: clinical observations in ten additional cases.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M; Pai, G S; Holden, K R; Herman, G

    1995-11-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a recessively inherited disorder, lethal to males in the first months of life. Since the first report in 1969, at least 90 cases have been described in the literature. Diagnosis is confirmed by muscle biopsy. Linkage studies have localized the disorder to the Xq28 region, close to the loci for X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome. We report on 10 additional cases of XLMTM from six different families. In addition to classic clinical features of XLMTM, our patients showed interesting associated findings which included birth length > 90th centile and large head circumference with or without hydrocephalus in 70%, narrow, elongated face in 80%, and slender, long digits in 60% of cases. There was concordance in the occurrence and severity of hydrocephalus in most sib pairs. These features in a "floppy" male infant serve as clues for early clinical diagnosis of XLMTM, which can then be confirmed by muscle biopsy. Development of polyhydramnios was observed in the third trimester of an at-risk dizygotic twin gestation monitored by serial sonography with confirmation of XLMTM at birth. PMID:8588581

  16. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  17. One-dimensional analysis of thermal choking in case of heat addition in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazato, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Matsuo, Kazuyasu; Kashitani, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2000-09-01

    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor. In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers. The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique. The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the upstream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented. The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs, the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  18. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  19. Fatal Insulin Overdoses: Case Report and Update on Testing Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nick; Wong, Sophia; Lee, Carol K

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal insulin overdoses are an under-recognized and uncommon cause of death, often relying on scene and nonspecific autopsy findings. Here, we present a case report of a fatal exogenous insulin overdose in a patient with type 1 diabetes. In our case, there were no contributory autopsy findings; however, serum analog aspart insulin levels were c. 10× the predicted therapeutic upper limit (4000, reference 6.6-55 uU/mL), which correlated with scene findings. This was specifically determined by a newly developed immunocapture liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay, able to discriminate between various synthetic insulin analogs. Total insulin levels by immunoassay were highly elevated on the Siemens Advia Centaur, but not the Roche platforms (4741 vs. 5.2 uU/mL, respectively), showing variable sensitivity of detection within the same analog depending on assay. We discuss the prevalence and features to look for at autopsy in these types of cases. Additionally, analytical options for testing insulin levels, including new methodologies, guidance on collection of samples, as well as an outline of available historical reference range data are discussed. PMID:26399839

  20. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    practice. Although, the ROFT cannot replace other diagnostic tests, it may be a valuable additional tool to diagnose canine IMHA. PMID:24160183

  1. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  2. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  3. Building Test Cases through Model Driven Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Helaine; Lopes, Denivaldo; Abdelouahab, Zair; Hammoudi, Slimane; Claro, Daniela Barreiro

    Recently, Model Driven Engineering (MDE) has been proposed to face the complexity in the development, maintenance and evolution of large and distributed software systems. Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is an example of MDE. In this context, model transformations enable a large reuse of software systems through the transformation of a Platform Independent Model into a Platform Specific Model. Although source code can be generated from models, defects can be injected during the modeling or transformation process. In order to delivery software systems without defects that cause errors and fails, the source code must be submitted to test. In this paper, we present an approach that takes care of test in the whole software life cycle, i.e. it starts in the modeling level and finishes in the test of source code of software systems. We provide an example to illustrate our approach.

  4. Philemon and Baucis syndrome: three additional cases of double deaths of married couples.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Y; Tournel, G; Dedouit, F; Cornez, R; Telmon, N; Hedouin, V; Rouge, D; Gosset, D

    2013-03-10

    The simultaneous death of two people is immediately considered as a suspect. However, this feeling is reinforced when the individuals are spouses. In these situations, criminal and forensic investigations are required to establish whether or not the deaths were homicidal in nature. Despite many descriptions of simultaneous deaths being present in the literature, the simultaneous death of two spouses from natural causes is poorly described with Ciesiolka et al., Department of Legal Medicine in Gießen (Germany), being the only ones to have reviewed two case reports involving these circumstances. The scarcity of this type of information in the literature renders the task of claiming natural simultaneous death as the final outcome of an investigation difficult. We would like to report three additional cases with the aim of better describing this type of event. In all three cases, the bodies were those of a married couple in their 80s. The bodies were discovered in the same room. In each case, the death of one of the spouses could be attributed to natural cause; however the death of the other spouse could not be determined with certainty, and shared several similarities in all cases: simultaneity in death; a pre existing cardiovascular disease/disorder; a certain degree of fragility and dependence on the other spouse whose death could lead to acute psychological stress. Intense psychological disorder could trigger acute coronary or rhythmic disorders. The mechanisms by which brain activity influences cardiac electrophysiology are now known to take place via the autonomic nervous system mediation. This brain activity could provide an explanation for the death of the individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, who underwent significant stress upon occurrence of the death of their partners. The death of these individuals, which took place at the same place and time as their deceased spouses, can be attributed to natural causes: the Philemon and Baucis syndrome. PMID

  5. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25943248

  6. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  7. Test Case Selection in Pre-Deployment Testing of Complex Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Tso, Geoffrey J; Yuen, Kaeli; Martins, Susana; Tu, Samson W; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul; Hoffman, Brian B; Goldstein, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations. The 100 cases selected tested all of the major pathways in the logic, but only 1% of the possible output combinations. Test case selection is one of the most challenging aspects in CDS testing and has a major impact on testing coverage. A test selection strategy should take into account the complexity of the system, identification of major logic pathways, and available resources. PMID:27570678

  8. Test Case Selection in Pre-Deployment Testing of Complex Clinical Decision Support Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Geoffrey J.; Yuen, Kaeli; Martins, Susana; Tu, Samson W.; Ashcraft, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul; Hoffman, Brian B.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations. The 100 cases selected tested all of the major pathways in the logic, but only 1% of the possible output combinations. Test case selection is one of the most challenging aspects in CDS testing and has a major impact on testing coverage. A test selection strategy should take into account the complexity of the system, identification of major logic pathways, and available resources. PMID:27570678

  9. The Case History Method of Testing Students in Gross Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruise, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of case histories to test a student's knowledge of the previous weeks' dissection in gross anatomy class is discussed. The test is seen as a way to integrate other basic sciences. An example of this type of test is provided. (MLW)

  10. Determination of the Path Loss from Passenger Electronic Devices to Radio Altimeter with Additional EMI Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüür, J.; Nunes, R. R.

    2012-05-01

    Emitters of current and future wireless ultra wideband technology (UWB) inside the cabin should not interfere with any aircraft system. Especially the radio altimeter (RA) system using antennas mounted outside the fuselage is potentially sensitive to UWB devices in the frequency range between 4.1 and 4.8 GHz. The measurement of the interference path loss (IPL) to the RA is therefore of interest and is presented for different aircraft. The need of a high dynamic setup with low parasitic coupling in the IPL measurement is stressed. In addition, electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests with different transmitted signals are made, showing that the susceptibility of the RA system actually increases with UWB modulation.

  11. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  12. 12q14 Microdeletions: Additional Case Series with Confirmation of a Macrocephaly Region

    PubMed Central

    Mc Cormack, Adrian; Sharpe, Cynthia; Gregersen, Nerine; Smith, Warwick; Hayes, Ian; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been only a few reports of patients carrying a microdeletion in chromosome 12q14. These patients usually present with pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and developmental delay. Here we report on two additional patients with both genotype and phenotype differences. Similar to previously published cases, one patient has haploinsufficiency of the HMGA2 gene and shows severe short stature and developmental delay. The second patient is only one of a handful without the loss of the HMGA2 gene and shows a much better growth profile, but with absolute macrocephaly. This patient's deletion is unique and hence defines a likely macrocephaly locus that contributes to the general phenotype characterising the 12q14 syndrome. PMID:26266063

  13. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  14. Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  16. Numerical Modelling of Vegetation Flow Interaction: the Wienfluss Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Yagci, O.; Rauch, H.; Stoesser, T.

    2003-04-01

    We apply a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code based on a finite-volume discretisation to a 170m test reach of the a river in Vienna. One of the primary aims of this paper is to test various methods for representing the flow resistance of natural vegetation. The two approaches considered vary in complexity and could be practically implemented and applied within 2D and 3D flood modelling tools. The first approach uses empirical relationships derived from the laboratory data and modifies the existing friction term in the momentum equations. While the second approach introduces a drag related sink term in addition to the bed friction term. The roughness closure models considered do not modify the turbulence model (in this case the k-e model) and hence do not require re-calibration for each application. The test reach is straight and comprises an asymmetrical compound channel that is vegetated on the floodplain by willows and unvegetated within the main channel. The development of the willows has been monitored over a four year period and plant parameters which characterise the dimensions of individual trees and their distribution have been quantified. Further, streamwise velocity data of high-spatial resolution has been collected at one cross-section for a series of flood events. The performance of each approach is quantified in terms of its ability to reproduce the streamwise velocity distribution in a partially vegetated channel. Different parameter tests are conducted to allow the sensitivity of the computed velocities against mesh resolution, and other important plant properties to be examined. For both flow resistance approaches, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed floodplain velocities.

  17. Vascularized Nerve Bypass Graft: A Case Report of an Additional Treatment for Poor Sensory Recovery.

    PubMed

    Usami, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Ohkubo, Alisa; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2016-04-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy has proven effective in basic research and in clinical application. One of the methods of end-to-side neurorrhaphy, nerve bypass technique, has been reported and axon regeneration has been proven. In clinical application, the utility of the nerve bypass technique has been revealed in some cases; however, these bypasses were performed using nonvascularized nerves. We initially used the vascularized nerve bypass graft technique with the sural nerve as a secondary clinical procedure after median nerve injury in a 61-year-old patient and achieved motor and sensory nerve regeneration, as supported by a nerve conduction study and clinical sensory test. This technique has the potential to become one of the choices for salvage procedure of severe nerve injury. PMID:27200248

  18. Vascularized Nerve Bypass Graft: A Case Report of an Additional Treatment for Poor Sensory Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Ohkubo, Alisa; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2016-01-01

    Summary: End-to-side neurorrhaphy has proven effective in basic research and in clinical application. One of the methods of end-to-side neurorrhaphy, nerve bypass technique, has been reported and axon regeneration has been proven. In clinical application, the utility of the nerve bypass technique has been revealed in some cases; however, these bypasses were performed using nonvascularized nerves. We initially used the vascularized nerve bypass graft technique with the sural nerve as a secondary clinical procedure after median nerve injury in a 61-year-old patient and achieved motor and sensory nerve regeneration, as supported by a nerve conduction study and clinical sensory test. This technique has the potential to become one of the choices for salvage procedure of severe nerve injury. PMID:27200248

  19. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  20. 26 CFR 1.6654-2 - Exceptions to imposition of the addition to the tax in the case of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exceptions to imposition of the addition to the tax in the case of individuals. 1.6654-2 Section 1.6654-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...

  1. Additional dynamometer tests of the Ford Ecostar Electric Vehicle No. 41

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.H.; Richardson, R.A.; Yarger, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    A Ford Ecostar vehicle was tested in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Laboratory over two standard driving regimes, coastdown testing, and typical charge testing. The test vehicle was delivered to the INEL in February 19, 1995 under the DOE sponsored Modular Electric Vehicle Program. This report presents the results of dynamometer driving cycle tests, charge data, and coastdown testing for California Air Resources Board (CARB) under a CRADA with the Department Of Energy (DOE).

  2. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  3. Evaluation of laser ultrasonic testing for inspection of metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everton, Sarah; Dickens, Phill; Tuck, Chris; Dutton, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers a number of benefits over conventional processes. However, in order for these benefits to be realised, further development and integration of suitable monitoring and closed loop control systems are needed. Laser Ultrasonic Testing (LUT) is an inspection technology which shows potential for in-situ monitoring of metallic AM processes. Non-contact measurements can be performed on curved surfaces and in difficult to reach areas, even at elevated temperatures. Interrogation of each build layer generates defect information which can be used to highlight processing errors and allow for real-time modification of processing parameters, enabling improved component quality and yield. This study evaluates the use of laser-generated surface waves to detect artificially generated defects in titanium alloy (Ti- 6Al-4V) samples produced by laser-based Powder Bed Fusion. The trials undertaken utilise the latest LUT equipment, recently installed at Manufacturing Technology Centre which is capable of being controlled remotely. This will allow the system to optimise or adapt "on-the-fly", simplifying the eventual integration of the system within an AM machine.

  4. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  5. Hydrologic Uncertainty Assessment for Decommissioning Sites: Hypothetical Test Case Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2001-03-19

    This report uses hypothetical decommissioning test cases to illustrate an uncertainty assessment methodology for dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses (see NUREG/CR-6656). The hypothetical test case source term and scenarios are based on an actual decommissioning case and the physcial setting is based on the site of a field experiment carried out for the NRC in Arizona. The emphasis in the test case was on parameter uncertainty. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regiounal databases for estimating parameter uncertainty. A Bayesian updating method is used in one of the test case applications to combine site-specific information with the generic parameter distributions. Sensitivity analysis and probabilisitc siumlation are used to describe the impact of parameter uncertainty on predicted dose. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conceptual and computational behavior of the dose assessment codes as they are applied to the test cases. The primary code used in this application was RESRAD v.6.0 although DandD v.1.0 results are also reported. The methods presented and the issues discussed are applicable to other codes as well.

  6. Hydrologic Uncertainty Assessment for Decommissioning Sites: Hypothetical Test Case Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-03-19

    This report uses hypothetical decommissioning test cases to illustrate an uncertainty assessment methodology for dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses (see NUREG/CR-6656). The hypothetical test case source term and scenarios are based on an actual decommissioning case and the physical setting is based on the site of a field experiment carried out for the NRC in Arizona. The emphasis in the test case was on parameter uncertainty. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases for estimating parameter uncertainty. A Bayesian updating method is used in one of the test case applications to combine site-specific information with the generic parameter distributions. Sensitivity analysis and probabilistic simulation are used to describe the impact of parameter uncertainty on predicted dose. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conceptual and computational behavior of the dose assessment codes as they are applied to the test cases. The primary code used in this application was RESRAD v.6.0 although D and D v.1.0 results are also reported. The methods presented and the issues discussed are applicable to other codes as well.

  7. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580

  8. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system; (b) Stump test a subsea BOP system before installation. You must use water to conduct this test. You may use drilling fluids to conduct subsequent tests of a subsea BOP system; (c) Alternate tests... components following the disconnection or repair of any well-pressure containment seal in the wellhead or...

  9. Automated Generation and Assessment of Autonomous Systems Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Horvath, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning verification and validation testing of autonomous spacecraft routinely culminates in the exploration of anomalous or faulted mission-like scenarios using the work involved during the Dawn mission's tests as examples. Prioritizing which scenarios to develop usually comes down to focusing on the most vulnerable areas and ensuring the best return on investment of test time. Rules-of-thumb strategies often come into play, such as injecting applicable anomalies prior to, during, and after system state changes; or, creating cases that ensure good safety-net algorithm coverage. Although experience and judgment in test selection can lead to high levels of confidence about the majority of a system's autonomy, it's likely that important test cases are overlooked. One method to fill in potential test coverage gaps is to automatically generate and execute test cases using algorithms that ensure desirable properties about the coverage. For example, generate cases for all possible fault monitors, and across all state change boundaries. Of course, the scope of coverage is determined by the test environment capabilities, where a faster-than-real-time, high-fidelity, software-only simulation would allow the broadest coverage. Even real-time systems that can be replicated and run in parallel, and that have reliable set-up and operations features provide an excellent resource for automated testing. Making detailed predictions for the outcome of such tests can be difficult, and when algorithmic means are employed to produce hundreds or even thousands of cases, generating predicts individually is impractical, and generating predicts with tools requires executable models of the design and environment that themselves require a complete test program. Therefore, evaluating the results of large number of mission scenario tests poses special challenges. A good approach to address this problem is to automatically score the results

  10. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the... lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or...

  11. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  12. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  13. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  14. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. Each ROV must be fully compatible with the BOP stack ROV intervention panels. You must also test and verify closure of at least one set of rams during the initial test on the seafloor through an ROV hot stab. You must submit...

  15. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. Each ROV must be fully compatible with the BOP stack ROV intervention panels. You must also test and verify closure of at least one set of rams during the initial test on the seafloor through an ROV hot stab. You must submit...

  16. Overview on test cases for computation of internal flows in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fottner, Leonhard

    1992-09-01

    Aero engine component design and development makes increasing use of computer codes for flow field calculations, such as two- or three-dimensional flow fields and flow fields with strong viscous effects. The accuracy of these calculation methods depends on the mathematical models and numerical schemes used to describe the physical reality. The proof of validity and the refinement of such methods depend on verification against relevant test cases, primarily experimental test cases. The AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Panel established Working Group 18 to specify relevant reference test cases to serve as validation bases for new methods, but also as check for existing production codes. The present paper gives an overview on the results of the Working Group and briefly describes the different test cases. These test cases refer to analytical and experimental test cases for steady flow in linear compressor and turbine cascades, single blade rows, single and multistage axial compressors and turbines and ducts. In addition, suggestions for future tests designed to reduce the limitations are discussed.

  17. Revisiting the Rossby Haurwitz wave test case with contour advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert K.; Dritschel, David G.

    2006-09-01

    This paper re-examines a basic test case used for spherical shallow-water numerical models, and underscores the need for accurate, high resolution models of atmospheric and ocean dynamics. The Rossby-Haurwitz test case, first proposed by Williamson et al. [D.L. Williamson, J.B. Drake, J.J. Hack, R. Jakob, P.N. Swarztrauber, A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow-water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. (1992) 221-224], has been examined using a wide variety of shallow-water models in previous papers. Here, two contour-advective semi-Lagrangian (CASL) models are considered, and results are compared with previous test results. We go further by modifying this test case in a simple way to initiate a rapid breakdown of the basic wave state. This breakdown is accompanied by the formation of sharp potential vorticity gradients (fronts), placing far greater demands on the numerics than the original test case does. We also go further by examining other dynamical fields besides the height and potential vorticity, to assess how well the models deal with gravity waves. Such waves are sensitive to the presence or not of sharp potential vorticity gradients, as well as to numerical parameter settings. In particular, large time steps (convenient for semi-Lagrangian schemes) can seriously affect gravity waves but can also have an adverse impact on the primary fields of height and velocity. These problems are exacerbated by a poor resolution of potential vorticity gradients.

  18. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  19. Improved ant algorithms for software testing cases generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shunkun; Man, Tianlong; Xu, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    Existing ant colony optimization (ACO) for software testing cases generation is a very popular domain in software testing engineering. However, the traditional ACO has flaws, as early search pheromone is relatively scarce, search efficiency is low, search model is too simple, positive feedback mechanism is easy to produce the phenomenon of stagnation and precocity. This paper introduces improved ACO for software testing cases generation: improved local pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization, improved pheromone volatilization coefficient for ant colony optimization (IPVACO), and improved the global path pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization (IGPACO). At last, we put forward a comprehensive improved ant colony optimization (ACIACO), which is based on all the above three methods. The proposed technique will be compared with random algorithm (RND) and genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of both efficiency and coverage. The results indicate that the improved method can effectively improve the search efficiency, restrain precocity, promote case coverage, and reduce the number of iterations. PMID:24883391

  20. Improved Ant Algorithms for Software Testing Cases Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    Existing ant colony optimization (ACO) for software testing cases generation is a very popular domain in software testing engineering. However, the traditional ACO has flaws, as early search pheromone is relatively scarce, search efficiency is low, search model is too simple, positive feedback mechanism is easy to porduce the phenomenon of stagnation and precocity. This paper introduces improved ACO for software testing cases generation: improved local pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization, improved pheromone volatilization coefficient for ant colony optimization (IPVACO), and improved the global path pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization (IGPACO). At last, we put forward a comprehensive improved ant colony optimization (ACIACO), which is based on all the above three methods. The proposed technique will be compared with random algorithm (RND) and genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of both efficiency and coverage. The results indicate that the improved method can effectively improve the search efficiency, restrain precocity, promote case coverage, and reduce the number of iterations. PMID:24883391

  1. Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (cerebello-trigeminal-dermal dysplasia): description of an additional case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schell-Apacik, Chayim Can; Cohen, Monika; Vojta, Stepan; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Klopocki, Eva; Heinrich, Uwe; von Voss, Hubertus

    2008-01-01

    Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with a distinct phenotype (OMIM 601853). To our knowledge there have been seven cases documented to date. We report on an additional male patient now aged 15 8/12 years with synostosis of the lambdoid suture, partial scalp alopecia, corneal opacity, mental retardation and striking phenotypic features (e.g., brachyturricephaly, hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia and low-set ears) consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In early childhood the patient demonstrated aggressive behavior and raging periods. He also had seizures that were adequately controlled by medication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, i.e., a rare fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, also consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In addition a lipoma of the quadrigeminal plate was observed, a feature not previously described in the seven patients reported in the literature. Cytogenetic and subtelomere analyses were inconspicuous. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) testing revealed five aberrations (partial deletions of 1p21.1, 8q24.23, 10q11.2, Xq26.3 and partial duplication of 19p13.2), which, however, have been classified as normal variants. Array-CGH has not been published in the previously reported children. The combination of certain craniofacial features, including partial alopecia, and the presence of rhombencephalosynapsis in the MRI are suggestive of Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. Children with this syndrome should undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investingation, psychological testing, management of behavioral problems and genetic counseling. PMID:17483961

  2. Update on intraval-phase II test cases

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The issues of flow and transport through unsaturated rock related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal are also being addressed in the INTRAVAL Project. The INTRAVAL Project is an international cooperative project for studying validation issues associated with geosphere transport models. The central theme for the INTRAVAL Project is the critical examination of validation issues for evaluating geosphere transport models that may be used in the performance assessment of HLW facilities. This presentation summarizes the project structure, test cases, test case selection criteria, and validation issues. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility program: Eleven additional chemicals: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    An Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess the environmental consequences of spill testing eleven hazardous materials at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site (NTS). These chemicals are: chlorosulfonic acid, fluorosulfonic acid, hydrogen chloride, methyl trichlorosilane, nitrogen tetroxide, oleum, silicon tetrachloride, sulfur-trioxide, titanium tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. DOE has determined that the proposed spill testing of these eleven hazardous materials at LGFSTF at Frenchman Flat is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared.

  4. Wearing More than One Hat: Improving Student-Authored Case Longevity while Encouraging Additional Student Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Hope; Craciun, Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    The marketing education literature emphasizes and documents the effectiveness of using the student-authored case (SAC) method as a means to develop managerial and critical thinking skills. However, most SACs are short lived, lack suggested case solutions, do not benefit from peer feedback, and present challenges in finding relevant company data.…

  5. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  6. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  7. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    SciTech Connect

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C.

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  8. Rapid Levothyroxine Absorption Testing: A Case Series of Nonadherent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Mamtha; Jhingan, Ram M.; Rubin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to levothyroxine therapy is one cause of persistent hypothyroidism. To distinguish nonadherence from malabsorption, a levothyroxine absorption test is required. Typically, this test measures the serum free thyroxine (FT4) response to 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine over 4 to 24 hours. Published data indicate that serum levels of FT4 are at or near their peak 2 hours after levothyroxine ingestion. Objectives: We present the successful completion of 2-hour levothyroxine absorption testing in 3 patients as a retrospective case series. Patients and Methods: Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were drawn at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after 1000 mcg of oral levothyroxine. Results: In all 3 cases, baseline thyroid function indicated the patients had taken their prescribed doses of levothyroxine prior to the absorption test. Despite high baseline levels both FT3 and FT4 increased during each absorption test, providing more evidence of adequate levothyroxine absorption. Subsequently, patients achieved normal TSH levels on lower doses of levothyroxine. Conclusions: Levothyroxine absorption testing over 2 hours may offer a more rapid alternative to the commonly used longer protocols to rule out malabsorption. Scheduling a levothyroxine absorption test may induce some patients to start adhering to levothyroxine therapy. PMID:26633982

  9. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  10. Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy: Three-Part Test. Part Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Additional Clarification, "User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX" (User's Guide), and related technical report are resources to assist institutions in meeting their compliance obligations. Taken together, they serve to clarify many of the factors OCR will consider under part three, and to facilitate compliance…

  11. Test Cases for Flutter of the Benchmark Models Rectangular Wings on the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The supercritical airfoil was chosen as a relatively modem airfoil for comparison. The BOO12 model was tested first. Three different types of flutter instability boundaries were encountered, a classical flutter boundary, a transonic stall flutter boundary at angle of attack, and a plunge instability near M = 0.9 and for zero angle of attack. This test was made in air and was Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) Test 468. The BSCW model (for Benchmark SuperCritical Wing) was tested next as TDT Test 470. It was tested using both with air and a heavy gas, R-12, as a test medium. The effect of a transition strip on flutter was evaluated in air. The B64AOlO model was subsequently tested as TDT Test 493. Some further analysis of the experimental data for the BOO12 wing is presented. Transonic calculations using the parameters for the BOO12 wing in a two-dimensional typical section flutter analysis are given. These data are supplemented with data from the Benchmark Active Controls Technology model (BACT) given and in the next chapter of this document. The BACT model was of the same planform and airfoil as the BOO12 model, but with spoilers and a trailing edge control. It was tested in the heavy gas R-12, and was instrumented mostly at the 60 per cent span. The flutter data obtained on PAPA and the static aerodynamic test cases from BACT serve as additional data for the BOO12 model. All three types of flutter are included in the BACT Test Cases. In this report several test cases are selected to illustrate trends for a variety of different conditions with emphasis on transonic flutter. Cases are selected for classical and stall flutter for the BSCW model, for classical and plunge for the B64AOlO model, and for classical flutter for the BOO12 model. Test Cases are also presented for BSCW for static angles of attack. Only the mean pressures and the real and imaginary parts of the first harmonic of the pressures are included in the data for the test cases, but digitized time

  12. Thermoregulatory response to an organophosphate and carbamate insecticide mixture: testing the assumption of dose-additivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Herr, David W; Gennings, Chris; Graff, Jaimie E; McMurray, Matthew; Stork, LeAnna; Coffey, Todd; Hamm, Adam; Mack, Cina M

    2006-01-01

    Most toxicity data are based on studies using single compounds. This study assessed if there is an interaction between mixtures of the anticholinesterase insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) using hypothermia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition as toxicological endpoints. Core temperature (T(c)) was continuously monitored by radiotelemetry in adult Long-Evans rats administered CHP at doses ranging from 0 to 50mg/kg and CAR doses of 0-150 mg/kg. The temperature index (TI), an integration of the change in T(c) over a 12h period, was quantified. Effects of mixtures of CHP and CAR in 2:1 and 1:1 ratios on the TI were examined and the data analyzed using a statistical model designed to assess significant departures from additivity for chemical mixtures. CHP and CAR elicited a marked hypothermia and dose-related decrease in the TI. The TI response to a 2:1 ratio of CHP:CAR was significantly less than that predicted by additivity. The TI response to a 1:1 ratio of CHP and CAR was not significantly different from the predicted additivity. Plasma and brain ChE activity were measured 4h after dosing with CHP, CAR, and mixtures in separate groups of rats. There was a dose-additive interaction for the inhibition of brain ChE for the 2:1 ratio, but an antagonistic effect for the 1:1 ratio. The 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures had an antagonistic interaction on plasma ChE. Overall, the departures from additivity for the physiological (i.e., temperature) and biochemical (i.e., ChE inhibition) endpoints for the 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures studies did not coincide as expected. An interaction between CHP and CAR appears to depend on the ratio of compounds in the mixture as well as the biological endpoint. PMID:16182429

  13. Test Cases for a Rectangular Supercritical Wing Undergoing Pitching Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Steady and unsteady measured pressures for a Rectangular Supercritical Wing (RSW) undergoing pitching oscillations have been presented. From the several hundred compiled data points, 27 static and 36 pitching oscillation cases have been proposed for computational Test Cases to illustrate the trends with Mach number, reduced frequency, and angle of attack. The wing was designed to be a simple configuration for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) comparisons. The wing had an unswept rectangular planform plus a tip of revolution, a panel aspect ratio of 2.0, a twelve per cent thick supercritical airfoil section, and no twist. The model was tested over a wide range of Mach numbers, from 0.27 to 0.90, corresponding to low subsonic flows up to strong transonic flows. The higher Mach numbers are well beyond the design Mach number such as might be required for flutter verification beyond cruise conditions. The pitching oscillations covered a broad range of reduced frequencies. Some early calculations for this wing are given for lifting pressure as calculated from a linear lifting surface program and from a transonic small perturbation program. The unsteady results were given primarily for a mild transonic condition at M = 0.70. For these cases the agreement with the data was only fair, possibly resulting from the omission of viscous effects. Supercritical airfoil sections are known to be sensitive to viscous effects (for example, one case cited). Calculations using a higher level code with the full potential equations have been presented for one of the same cases, and with the Euler equations. The agreement around the leading edge was improved, but overall the agreement was not completely satisfactory. Typically for low-aspect-ratio rectangular wings, transonic shock waves on the wing tend to sweep forward from root to tip such that there are strong three-dimensional effects. It might also be noted that for most of the test, the model was tested with free transition, but a

  14. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  15. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published on... qualitative fit-testing protocol (see 72 FR 72971). Subsequently, OSHA withdrew, without prejudice, this fit... further research addressing issues described in the withdrawal notice (see 74 FR 30250). II. Summary...

  16. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  17. 75 FR 2122 - Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... follows from the plain language and intent of our test procedure, comports with the purpose of the Act...) standard HRF-1-1979 (HRF-1). See Appendix A1, section 2.2; 47 FR 34517 (Aug. 10, 1982). HRF-1...

  18. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  19. Cavernous hemangioma of the bladder: an additional case managed by partial cystectomy and augmentation cystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lahyani, Mounir; Slaoui, Amine; Jakhlal, Nabil; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous Hemangioma of the Bladder (CHB) is benign and rare lesions. Clinical presentation has no pathognomonic signs although gross painless hematuria is the most frequent complain. CHB is suspected by cystoscopy and radiologic findings and confirmed by pathologic examinations. Management is controversial due to the bleeding risk of this highly vascularized lesion. Partial cystectomy is the treatment of choice for surgically accessible lesions. However, it appears that small lesions could be treated using transurethral resection. Since CHB is a rare case, we report another case treated successfully with a partial cystectomy associated with an augmentation cystoplasy. PMID:26889312

  20. Modeling Longitudinal Data with Generalized Additive Models: Applications to Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kristynn J.; Shadish, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Single case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time both in the presence and absence of treatment. For a variety of reasons, interest in the statistical analysis and meta-analysis of these designs has been growing in recent years. This paper proposes modeling SCD data with…

  1. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  2. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  3. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. PMID:23831014

  4. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  5. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  6. Experiments with Test Case Generation and Runtime Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Drusinsky, Doron; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Pasareanu, Corina; Rosu, Grigore; Visser, Willem; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Software testing is typically an ad hoc process where human testers manually write many test inputs and expected test results, perhaps automating their execution in a regression suite. This process is cumbersome and costly. This paper reports preliminary results on an approach to further automate this process. The approach consists of combining automated test case generation based on systematically exploring the program's input domain, with runtime analysis, where execution traces are monitored and verified against temporal logic specifications, or analyzed using advanced algorithms for detecting concurrency errors such as data races and deadlocks. The approach suggests to generate specifications dynamically per input instance rather than statically once-and-for-all. The paper describes experiments with variants of this approach in the context of two examples, a planetary rover controller and a space craft fault protection system.

  7. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  8. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  9. Impact Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan case of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite case concepts. Ballistic impact tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were impacted with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were impacted with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate impact dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local impact damage is the primary concern.

  10. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  11. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  12. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  13. Grating visual acuity testing as a means of psychophysical assessment of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, C M; Fowler, C W

    1989-09-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PAL's) are subject to objectionable astigmatism due to the aspheric nature of their anterior surfaces. Optico-physical assessment of PAL's is commonly undertaken but these measures should be related to the psychophysical responses of patients whilst wearing PAL's. A technique previously used for the psychophysical assessment of contact lenses and spectacle lenses is adapted and demonstrated for the measurement of grating visual acuity (VA) through the aspheric portion of PAL's. The apparatus encompasses an astronomical telescope with magnifying power of unity designed to stabilize accommodation. This paper considers the astigmatism present with three different PAL designs along a horizontal section cutting orthogonally through the umbilical line of each lens. VA was measured, using high contrast vertical and horizontal gratings, along the same horizontal sections of the PAL's studied. A reduction in VA was noted with an increase in the angle of eccentricity from the umbilical line. PMID:2797709

  14. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. PMID:24262547

  15. Additional testing of the inlets designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of a scale model of a tandem fan nacelle designed for a type (subsonic cruise) V/STOL aircraft configuration is discussed. The performance for the isolated front inlet and for the combined front and aft inlets is reported. Model variables include front and aft inlets with aft inlet variations of short and long aft inlet cowls, with a shaft simulator and diffuser vortex generators, cowl lip fillets, and nacelle strakes. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, and inlet angle-to-attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocity from 0 to 240 knots, angles-of-attack from -10 to +40 degrees and inlet flow rates corresponding to throat Mach number from 0.0 to 0.6. Combined nacelle pitch and yaw runs up to 30 deg. were also made.

  16. Test Cases for the Benchmark Active Controls: Spoiler and Control Surface Oscillations and Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Scott, Robert C.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2000-01-01

    sets from the first two tests have been chosen for Test Cases for computational comparisons concentrating on static conditions and cases with harmonically oscillating control surfaces. Several flutter Test Cases from both tests have also been included. Some aerodynamic comparisons with the BACT data have been made using computational fluid dynamics codes at the Navier-Stokes level (and in the accompanying chapter SC). Some mechanical and active control studies have been presented. In this report several Test Cases are selected to illustrate trends for a variety of different conditions with emphasis on transonic flow effects. Cases for static angles of attack, static trailing-edge and upper-surface spoiler deflections are included for a range of conditions near those for the oscillation cases. Cases for trailing-edge control and upper-surface spoiler oscillations for a range of Mach numbers, angle of attack, and static control deflections are included. Cases for all three types of flutter instability are selected. In addition some cases are included for dynamic response measurements during forced oscillations of the controls on the flexible mount. An overview of the model and tests is given, and the standard formulary for these data is listed. Some sample data and sample results of calculations are presented. Only the static pressures and the first harmonic real and imaginary parts of the pressures are included in the data for the Test Cases, but digitized time histories have been archived. The data for the Test Cases are also available as separate electronic files.

  17. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  18. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test.

    PubMed

    Udovic, M; McBride, M B

    2012-02-29

    Long-term application of lead arsenate in orchards has led to a significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes entails the exposure of humans to Pb and As, which can be reduced by adequate remediation actions. In this study, we assessed the remediation efficiency of compost addition, commonly used as a sustainable agricultural practice, in decreasing the human exposure Pb and As by direct ingestion. The remediation was evaluated based on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed by means of a selective non-exhaustive chemical extraction (modified Morgan extraction, MME), with a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) for the assessment of Pb and As bioavailability in ingested soils and with a novel in vivo bioaccumulation test with isopods (Porcellio scaber). All the tests showed that compost addition consistently reduced Pb, but increased As potential bioavailability. The bioaccumulation test with P. scaber was sensitive to changes in Pb and As bioavailability in test soils. However, the results indicate that the bioavailability of As could be under- or overestimated using solely chemical extraction tests. Indirect assessment of trace metal bioavailability with bioaccumulation in isopods can be used as complementary source of data to the existing in vitro chemical extraction test approach for the estimation of human exposure to trace elements in polluted and remediated soil. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil. PMID:22240057

  19. Beals-Hecht syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly) with additional craniospinal abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meena, Jagdish P; Gupta, Ajay; Mishra, Devendra; Juneja, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Beals syndrome is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder, characterized by multiple flexion contractures, arachnodactyly, severe kyphoscoliosis, crumpled ear, and muscular hypoplasia. It has similarities to Marfan syndrome (MFS) in many respects. It has much fewer incidences of eye and heart anomalies compared with MFS. Beals syndrome is caused by a mutation in the fibrillin-2 gene (FBN2) in 5q23; MFS is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. With time, there is spontaneous improvement in joint contractures, but kyphosis tends to be progressive. The neonatal form results from new mutations and tends to be severe. Prenatal molecular diagnosis is possible. Ultrasound could be used to demonstrate hypokinesia and joint contractures in presumptive cases. We present a case of a patient with Beals syndrome who presented to the emergency department with pneumonia and was found to have narrowing of the foramen magnum, with partial fusion of C2-C3 vertebral bodies. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature and could be characteristic in relation to Beals syndrome. PMID:25493702

  20. 30 CFR 250.520 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... perform a casing diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first... a casing diagnostic test if * * * (1) fixed platform well, the casing pressure is greater than...

  1. On the asymptotic improvement of supervised learning by utilizing additional unlabeled samples - Normal mixture density case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.

  2. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  3. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  4. A Japanese male patient with 'fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia and oligodactyly': an additional case report.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Taichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kim, Ji Yoo; Kubota, Takuo; Miura, Kohji; Miyoshi, Yoko; Hirai, Haruhiko; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-07-01

    We report a male infant with FATCO syndrome, an acronym for fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, and oligosyndactyly. Courtens et al. reported an infant with oligosyndactyly of the left hand, complete absence of the right fibula, bowing of the right tibia, and absence of the right fifth metatarsal and phalanges. They noted 5 patients with similar clinical features, and proposed the FATCO syndrome. Our patient had a left-sided cleft lip, cleft palate, oligosyndactyly of the right hand and bilateral feet, and bilateral anterior bowing of the limbs associated with overlying skin dimpling. Radiographs showed a short angulated tibia with left fibular aplasia and right fibular hypoplasia. We consider our case the 6th patient with FATCO syndrome, and the cleft lip and palate, not reported in the previous 5 patients, may allow us to further understand the development of the extremities and facies. PMID:23926365

  5. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  6. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  7. Automated Test Case Generation for an Autopilot Requirement Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Rungta, Neha; Feary, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Designing safety-critical automation with robust human interaction is a difficult task that is susceptible to a number of known Human-Automation Interaction (HAI) vulnerabilities. It is therefore essential to develop automated tools that provide support both in the design and rapid evaluation of such automation. The Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) enables the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. ADEPT supports a number of analysis capabilities, thus enabling the detection of HAI vulnerabilities early in the design process, when modifications are less costly. In this paper, we advocate the introduction of a new capability to model-based prototyping tools such as ADEPT. The new capability is based on symbolic execution that allows us to automatically generate quality test suites based on the system design. Symbolic execution is used to generate both user input and test oracles user input drives the testing of the system implementation, and test oracles ensure that the system behaves as designed. We present early results in the context of a component in the Autopilot system modeled in ADEPT, and discuss the challenges of test case generation in the HAI domain.

  8. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent. PMID:3888870

  9. SMARCE1, a rare cause of Coffin-Siris Syndrome: Clinical description of three additional cases.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Yuri A; Bhoj, Elizabeth; Kaylor, Julie; Li, Dong; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Phadke, Shubha; Escobar, Luis; Irani, Afifa; Hakonarson, Hakon; Schrier Vergano, Samantha A

    2016-08-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, MIM 135900), is a well-described, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, sparse scalp hair, and hypo/aplastic digital nails and phalanges, typically of the 5th digits. Mutations in the BAF (SWI/SNF)-complex subunits (SMARCA4, SMARCE1, SMARCB1, SMARCA2, ARID1B, and ARID1A) have been shown to cause not only CSS, but also related disorders including Nicolaides-Baraitser (MIM 601358) syndrome and ARID1B-intellectual disability syndrome (MIM 614562). At least 200 individuals with CSS have been found to have a mutation in the BAF pathway. However, to date, only three individuals with CSS have been reported to have pathogenic variants in SMARCE1. We report here three additional individuals with clinical features consistent with CSS and alterations in SMARCE1, one of which is novel. The probands all exhibited dysmorphic facial features, moderate developmental and cognitive delay, poor growth, and hypoplastic digital nails/phalanges, including digits not typically affected in the other genes associated with CSS. Two of the three probands had a variety of different organ system anomalies, including cardiac disease, genitourinary abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and vision abnormalities. The 3rd proband has not had further investigative studies. Although an increasing number of individuals are being diagnosed with disorders in the BAF pathway, SMARCE1 is the least common of these genes. This report doubles the number of probands with these mutations, and allows for better phenotypic information of this rare syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27264197

  10. A case of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy identified after genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle E; Willis, Mary J; McClatchey, Scott K

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a 21-month-old girl who was found to have familial exudative vitreoretinopathy after genetic testing revealed a genetic deletion at 7q22. She had previously been followed for exotropia; however, fundus examinations in the office were thought to be normal. After the pediatric geneticist identified the link between 7q22 deletions and vitreoretinopathies an examination under anesthesia was performed. Fluorescein angiography during this examination confirmed the presence of avascular areas of the retina. PMID:25828824

  11. A Shrinkage Method for Testing the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li (2008) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ2 test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23934751

  12. 30 CFR 250.522 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... repeat casing diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When * * * you must repeat diagnostic testing * * * (a) your casing pressure request...

  13. 30 CFR 250.525 - What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test...-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.525 What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action? Within 14 days after you perform a casing diagnostic test requiring action under §...

  14. 30 CFR 250.525 - What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test... if my casing diagnostic test requires action? Within 14 days after you perform a casing diagnostic... Corrective Action Plan within 30 days of the diagnostic test. (b) a casing pressure request,...

  15. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Test results: Part 1-A. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kerivan, D.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' of HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. A 5MW pilot HALT was designed, constructed and operated to demonstrate the viability of the HALT process. The unit was designed to use a baghouse for particulate removal. A rented ESP was used for a pre-scheduled test period for comparison with the baghouse. Tests were conducted to cover all of the following variables: humidification, stoichiometric ratio, approach temperature, flue gas velocity, inlet flue gas SO/sub 2/ concentration, and inlet flue gas temperature. Solids samples of hydrates disposal and ESP waste solids were chemically analyzed and are reported. Hydrate samples were analyzed for particle size distribution and surface area. A two month long duration test operating 24 hours/day was successfully concluded. EPA leachate tests were conducted on the solids waste. Corrosion tests were conducted on coupons installed in the baghouse. 79 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. 30 CFR 250.520 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.520 When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or imposing casing...

  17. 30 CFR 250.525 - What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test... diagnostic test requires action? Within 14 days after you perform a casing diagnostic test requiring action... Corrective Action Plan within 30 days of the diagnostic test. (b) a casing pressure request,...

  18. 30 CFR 250.526 - What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test... diagnostic test requires action? Within 14 days after you perform a casing diagnostic test requiring action... Corrective Action Plan within 30 days of the diagnostic test. (b) a casing pressure request,...

  19. 30 CFR 250.526 - What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test requires action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What do I submit if my casing diagnostic test... diagnostic test requires action? Within 14 days after you perform a casing diagnostic test requiring action... Corrective Action Plan within 30 days of the diagnostic test. (b) a casing pressure request,...

  20. Diagnostic analysis of pumping tests using derivative of dlgs/dlgt with case study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Xu, Yongxin

    2014-09-01

    Diagnostic derivative interpretation of drawdown data from pumping tests is discussed in this paper. An emphasis is placed on the conceptualization of derivative term of dlgs/dlgt. Use of a combined plot of dlgs/dlgt and ds/dlgt is made to identify various flow patterns from variable discharge tests with infinite conditions, constant rate tests in bounded aquifers, and tests involving double porosity, which can be used to further characterize the aquifer. Compared with the standard derivative method (ds/dlgt), the combined derivative analysis of dlgs/dlgt and ds/dlgt of drawdown behaviours possesses certain advantages identified as follows: (1) the plot of dlgs/dlgt is strikingly sensitive for use in unveiling differences between pumping and recovery periods in a variable discharge test; (2) storativity (S) of pumped aquifers can be accurately evaluated by the combined plot; and (3) a quantitative assessment of double porosity behaviour can also be achieved. Based on applied case studies, Lagrange Interpolation Regression (LIR) is recommended for numerical derivative calculation. Advantages and disadvantages of LIR and traditional methods are demonstrated via a selected case study. The result of the case study confirms that LIR is a preferred method for numerical derivative calculation as it can be used to effectively minimise noisy effect during derivative processes. The proposed derivative approach provides the hydrologists with an additional tool for characterizing pumped aquifers. PMID:24597544

  1. Test case set generation method on MC/DC based on binary tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-jie; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Exploring efficient, reliable test case design methods has been tester pursuit of the goal. Along with the aerospace software logic complexity of improving and software scale enlarging, this requirement also gets more compelling. Test case design techniques suited for MC/DC improved test case design efficiency, increase the test coverage. It is suitable to test the software that logical relationship is complicated comparatively. Some software test tools provide the function to calculate the test coverage. And it can assess the test cases whether on the MC/DC or not. But the software tester needs the reverse thinking. The paper puts forward that design the test case by Unique-cause and Masking approach. And it proposes automatic generation method of test case on MC/DC. It improved the efficiency and correctness of generation the test case set on DC/DC.

  2. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelmsen, T. N.; Christensen, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this study the Local Grid Refinement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 (Mehl and Hill, 2005) is utilized to describe groundwater flow in areas containing buried Quaternary valley structures. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations run with a globally refined model, a locally refined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. The models vary from simple one layer models to more complex ones with up to 25 model layers. The comparisons of accuracy are conducted within the locally refined area and focus on water budgets, simulated heads, and simulated particle traces. Simulations made with the globally refined model are used as reference (regarded as “true” values). As expected, for all test cases the application of local grid refinement resulted in more accurate results than when using the globally coarse model. A significant advantage of utilizing MODFLOW-LGR was that it allows increased numbers of model layers to better resolve complex geology within local areas. This resulted in more accurate simulations than when using either a globally coarse model grid or a locally refined model with lower geological resolution. Improved accuracy in the latter case could not be expected beforehand because difference in geological resolution between the coarse parent model and the refined child model contradicts the assumptions of the Darcy weighted interpolation used in MODFLOW-LGR. With respect to model runtimes, it was sometimes found that the runtime for the locally refined model is much longer than for the globally refined model. This was the case even when the closure criteria were relaxed compared to the globally refined model. These results are contradictory to those presented by Mehl and Hill (2005). Furthermore, in the complex cases it took some testing (model runs) to identify the closure criteria and the damping factor that secured convergence, accurate solutions, and reasonable runtimes. For our cases this is judged to

  3. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months. PMID:25816999

  4. Desmoplastic melanoma: an updated immunohistochemical analysis of 40 cases with a proposal for an additional panel of stains for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Jose A; Bonneau, Peter; Prieto, Victor; Sangueza, Martin; Mackinnon, Alexander; Suster, David; Bacchi, Carlos; Estrozi, Bruna; Kazakov, Dmitry; Kacerovska, Denisa; Falconieri, Giovanni; Suster, Saul

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is histologically characterized by a proliferation of spindle melanocytes dispersed in a collagenous stroma that can be mistaken for a variety of neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to analyze 40 cases of DM with a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers (KBA.62, p16, Ezrin, WT-1, MITF-1, SOX-10, CD117, SOX-2, nestin, PNL2, p75, MART-1, gp100 and S100p) to obtain a more complete understanding of the potential use of these antibodies in the diagnosis of DM. We found that all cases of DM expressed p16, WT-1, SOX-10, nestin and S100p and 95% of cases expressed p75. There was variable expression with Ezrin, SOX-2, KBA.62, MART-1 and HMB-45. Most DMs did not express MITF-1, PNL2 and CD117. Conditions that may enter in the histologic differential diagnosis of DM, including dermal scars, fibromatosis and dermatofibromas were also studied. Nearly all control cases also stained positive for p16 but were negative for WT1, SOX10, nestin, p75 and S-100p, as well as for most of the other markers tested. We conclude that a panel of S-100p, WT1, SOX10, p75 and nestin may constitute the optimal panel with the most sensitive and specific combination of immunostain available for the diagnosis of DM. PMID:26661921

  5. Serum Basal Paraoxonase 1 Activity as an Additional Liver Function Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Chandrakanth K; Pyati, Sudharani A; Nagaraj; Wali, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of currently available standard panel of liver function tests is not satisfactory for the reliable diagnosis of chronic liver disorders. Earlier studies have reported that serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity measurement may add a significant contribution to the liver function tests. Aim To assess whether the measurement of serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity would be useful as an index of liver function status in chronic hepatitis patients. Materials and Methods The study included 50 chronic hepatitis patients and 50 apparently healthy controls based on inclusion & exclusion criteria. In all the subjects, standard liver function tests were analysed by using standard methods. Basal PON1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate. Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests and ROC curve analysis were the methods used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results The serum basal PON1 activity was significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis cases when compared to controls (p< 0.001). Also basal PON1 activity was positively correlated with serum total protein and albumin, and negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.001) in chronic hepatitis cases but not in healthy controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed, basal PON1 activity was a better discriminator of chronic hepatitis than total protein, albumin and ALP with sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 75%. ROC curve analysis demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy for ALT (AUC = 0.999) followed by PON1 (AUC = 0.990), total bilirubin (AUC = 0.977), ALP (AUC = 0.904), total protein (AUC = 0.790) and albumin (AUC = 0.595). Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of serum PON1 activity is better than total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and

  6. Testing Goodness-of-Fit for the Proportional Hazards Model based on Nested Case-Control Data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nested case-control sampling is a popular design for large epidemiological cohort studies due to its cost effectiveness. A number of methods have been developed for the estimation of the proportional hazards model with nested case-control data; however, the evaluation of modeling assumption is less attended. In this paper, we propose a class of goodness-of-fit test statistics for testing the proportional hazards assumption based on nested case-control data. The test statistics are constructed based on asymptotically mean-zero processes derived from Samuelsen’s maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method. In addition, we develop an innovative resampling scheme to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics while accounting for the dependent sampling scheme of nested case-control design. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed approach, and an application to the Wilms’ Tumor Study is given to illustrate the methodology. PMID:25298193

  7. Testing goodness-of-fit for the proportional hazards model based on nested case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-12-01

    Nested case-control sampling is a popular design for large epidemiological cohort studies due to its cost effectiveness. A number of methods have been developed for the estimation of the proportional hazards model with nested case-control data; however, the evaluation of modeling assumption is less attended. In this article, we propose a class of goodness-of-fit test statistics for testing the proportional hazards assumption based on nested case-control data. The test statistics are constructed based on asymptotically mean-zero processes derived from Samuelsen's maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method. In addition, we develop an innovative resampling scheme to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics while accounting for the dependent sampling scheme of nested case-control design. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed approach, and an application to the Wilms' Tumor Study is given to illustrate the methodology. PMID:25298193

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  9. 30 CFR 250.523 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When . . . you must repeat diagnostic testing . . . (a) your casing pressure request approved term has...

  10. 30 CFR 250.520 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or... diagnostic test if . . . (1) fixed platform well, the casing pressure is greater than 100 psig. (2)...

  11. 30 CFR 250.521 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or... diagnostic test if . . . (1) fixed platform well, the casing pressure is greater than 100 psig. (2)...

  12. 30 CFR 250.521 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or... diagnostic test if . . . (1) fixed platform well, the casing pressure is greater than 100 psig. (2)...

  13. 30 CFR 250.523 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When . . . you must repeat diagnostic testing . . . (a) your casing pressure request approved term has...

  14. 30 CFR 250.522 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When . . . you must repeat diagnostic testing . . . (a) your casing pressure request approved term has...

  15. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  16. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. PMID:26603048

  17. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  18. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-01-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  19. A Case of Reverse Palmaris Longus Muscle- An Additional Muscle in the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm.

    PubMed

    Marpalli, Sapna; Bhat, Ashwini Lagadamane Sathynarayana; Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu

    2016-03-01

    It is uncommon to have additional muscles in the upper limb. Some of them may restrict the movements or compress the nerves and vessels, while others may go unnoticed. During the routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of the forearm in about 60-year-old male cadaver. The muscle had a prominent belly and a long tendon. Distally, it was attached to the flexor retinaculum by a short and thick tendon. Proximally, long tendon of the muscle passed between the flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus and was attached to the common aponeurosis shared by the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles. The additional muscle belly was supplied by a branch from the anterior interosseous nerve. The ulnar nerve and artery was passing deep to the fleshy belly of the muscle. The muscle reported here might compress the ulnar nerve and artery and may produce neurovascular symptoms. On the other hand, the tendon and fleshy belly of the muscle could be useful in muscle/tendon grafts. The observations made by us in the present case will supplement our knowledge of variations of the muscles in this region which could be useful for surgeons during the forearm and hand surgeries. PMID:27134851

  20. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  1. 1. 0 Million Btu combustor testing: Test results: Part 2. [Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulates. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differ considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. The HALT test program currently being conducted at Dravo Lime Company and Ohio Edison Company is to be carried out in two stages: (1) Parametric testing on a 1.0 MM BTU/hour combustor, and (2) Follow up long term testing (six months) on a 5 MW unit. The first stage of the program which involves the parametric testing is now completed. Results are presented. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Multi-nozzle humidification tests: Test results: Part 4. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. Results are presented on nozzle array field tests conducted using the Dravo HALT unit at Ohio Edison's Toronto station. A method for humidifier scale-up from single-nozzle pilot test data was demonstrated. The method uses arrays of nozzles, with each individual nozzle operated at fixed conditions determined as optimum in the single-nozzle tests. By applying this method, the Consol 8.3-inch pilot humidifier operation with a single Spraying Systems 1/8JJ-J12 nozzle was successfully scaled up to operation of the Dravo 31 x 31-inch humidifier with arrays of up to 46 J12 nozzles. The tests provided data on nozzle deposition and solids dropout that may be useful for large-scale humidifier design. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Human papillomavirus ‘reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, M; Johansson, B; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P=0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and LSIL among women ⩾30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results. PMID:18682715

  4. Building and Supporting a Case for Test Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    2005-01-01

    The fields of language testing and educational and psychological measurement have not, as yet, developed a set of principles and procedures for linking test scores and score-based inferences to test use and the consequences of test use. Although Messick (1989) discusses test use and consequences, his framework provides virtually no guidance on how…

  5. Resource estimation from historical data: Mercury, a test case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cargill, S.M.; Root, D.H.; Bailey, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    A simple technique based on historical records of tonnage and grade of ore produced provides a means for calculating how much of a mineral product will be available in the future at various average grades. Estimates made on this basis are independent of geologic considerations or changing economic and political factors, although they are based on mining history, which was largely determined by these factors. The relatively minor element, mercury, was used for the test case reported here, but the method has been found applicable to forecasts of resources for other mineral products. Mercury resources available in ore in which the average grade is as low as 0.1% are estimated to be 53 ??106kg (1.5 ??106flasks) for the United States and 1551 ??106kg (45 ??106flasks) for the world; this amount is more than adequate to meet predicted demand to the year 2000. The expectable price of mercury in 1978 dollars at this 0.1% grade is projected to be $58.75 per kg ($2,025 per flask), but at a 10% annual inflation rate, it would be more than $12,000 per flask. To satisfy just the projected U.S. demand for mercury by 2000, the price is calculated to be $48.96 per kg ($1,688 per flask) in 1978 dollars at an average annual grade of 0.12%. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  6. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  7. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, S.M.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, part 268, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 268). This technology traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not. leach into the environment. Typical contaminants that are trapped by stabilization are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity as defined by 40 CFR part 261. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and effective for wastes containing low concentrations of toxic materials. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  8. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  9. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in childhood: A systematic review of the literature and an additional case report

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Magne, Miguel Garcia; Salemme, Marianna; Cheli, Maurizio; Boroni, Giovanni; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment in children with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (AMG). METHODS: AMG is a degenerative disease characterized by a proliferation of the mucosal epithelium which deeply invaginates and extends into the thickened muscular layer of the gallbladder, causing intramural diverticula. Although AMG is found in up to 5% of cholecystectomy specimens in adult populations, this condition in childhood is extremely uncommon. Authors provide a detailed systematic review of the pediatric literature according to PRISMA guidelines, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic assessment. An additional case of AMG is also presented. RESULTS: Five studies were finally enclosed, encompassing 5 children with AMG. Analysis was extended to our additional 11-year-old patient, who presented diffuse AMG and pancreatic acinar metaplasia of the gallbladder mucosa and was successfully managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean age at presentation was 7.2 years. Unspecific abdominal pain was the commonest symptom. Abdominal ultrasound was performed on all patients, with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Five patients underwent cholecystectomy, and at follow-up were asymptomatic. In the remaining patient, completely asymptomatic at diagnosis, a conservative approach with monthly monitoring via ultrasonography was undertaken. CONCLUSION: Considering the remote but possible degeneration leading to cancer and the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy even in small children, evidence suggests that elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy represent the treatment of choice. Pre-operative evaluation of the extrahepatic biliary tree anatomy with cholangio-MRI is strongly recommended. PMID:27170933

  10. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  11. Identification of carbonates as additives in pressure-sensitive adhesive tape substrate with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its application in three explosive cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin; Zhang, Wen; Shi, Rongguang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive tape is often used to bind explosive devices. It can become important trace evidence in many cases. Three types of calcium carbonate (heavy, light, and active CaCO(3)), which were widely used as additives in pressure-sensitive tape substrate, were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in this study. A Spectrum GX 2000 system with a diamond anvil cell and a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector was employed for IR observation. Background was subtracted for every measurement, and triplicate tests were performed. Differences in positions of main peaks and the corresponding functional groups were investigated. Heavy CaCO(3) could be identified from the two absorptions near 873 and 855/cm, while light CaCO(3) only has one peak near 873/cm because of the low content of aragonite. Active CaCO(3) could be identified from the absorptions in the 2800-2900/cm region because of the existence of organic compounds. Tiny but indicative changes in the 878-853/cm region were found in the spectra of CaCO(3) with different content of aragonite and calcite. CaCO(3) in pressure-sensitive tape, which cannot be differentiated by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and thermal analysis, can be easily identified using FTIR. The findings were successfully applied to three specific explosive cases and would be helpful in finding the possible source of explosive devices in future cases. PMID:22724657

  12. Brief: Offshore North Sea case histories of the environmentally friendly testing vessel, the Crystal Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Tjelta, O.; Ashwell, C.; Hilmarsen, G.; Taylor, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    One problem during offshore well-test operations, stimulations, and routine workovers are discharges into the air and sea while flaring. These procedures are usually performed by mobile drilling rigs with no storage capacity, and thus, hydrocarbons sequestered must be burned off from the rig flare booms. Another major problem has been the inability of the flare to operate at high flow rates. Because the burning process slows the pace of a test, restricting full flow testing, valuable well information is lost. Flaring of hydrocarbons also represents an economic loss. In the case of oil rigs, for example, flaring not only emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere but also burns off usable oil. The Crystal Sea well-test vessel was designed to address the problems inherent to flaring and, at the same time, provide cost efficiency by salvaging usable oil during well testing. The success of her initial two jobs on the Statfjord North satellite field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea confirms that sale of the salvaged oil normally lost during the flaring process could generate sufficient economic return to pay for the vessel. In addition, with its capability to receive products at twice the flow rate of conventional methods, the increased accuracy of the technical information obtained from the well test further enhances its value for improved reservoir management.

  13. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended. PMID:26566591

  14. Optimally splitting cases for training and testing high dimensional classifiers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We consider the problem of designing a study to develop a predictive classifier from high dimensional data. A common study design is to split the sample into a training set and an independent test set, where the former is used to develop the classifier and the latter to evaluate its performance. In this paper we address the question of what proportion of the samples should be devoted to the training set. How does this proportion impact the mean squared error (MSE) of the prediction accuracy estimate? Results We develop a non-parametric algorithm for determining an optimal splitting proportion that can be applied with a specific dataset and classifier algorithm. We also perform a broad simulation study for the purpose of better understanding the factors that determine the best split proportions and to evaluate commonly used splitting strategies (1/2 training or 2/3 training) under a wide variety of conditions. These methods are based on a decomposition of the MSE into three intuitive component parts. Conclusions By applying these approaches to a number of synthetic and real microarray datasets we show that for linear classifiers the optimal proportion depends on the overall number of samples available and the degree of differential expression between the classes. The optimal proportion was found to depend on the full dataset size (n) and classification accuracy - with higher accuracy and smaller n resulting in more assigned to the training set. The commonly used strategy of allocating 2/3rd of cases for training was close to optimal for reasonable sized datasets (n ≥ 100) with strong signals (i.e. 85% or greater full dataset accuracy). In general, we recommend use of our nonparametric resampling approach for determing the optimal split. This approach can be applied to any dataset, using any predictor development method, to determine the best split. PMID:21477282

  15. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  16. Computational Test Cases for a Rectangular Supercritical Wing Undergoing Pitching Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Walker, Charlotte E.

    1999-01-01

    Proposed computational test cases have been selected from the data set for a rectangular wing of panel aspect ratio two with a twelve-percent-thick supercritical airfoil section that was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The test cases include parametric variation of static angle of attack, pitching oscillation frequency, and Mach numbers from subsonic to transonic with strong shocks. Tables and plots of the measured pressures are presented for each case. This report provides an early release of test cases that have been proposed for a document that supplements the cases presented in AGARD Report 702.

  17. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  18. 30 CFR 250.1609 - Pressure testing of casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (When oil or gas is not present in the cap rock, the production liner need not be cemented in place... conductor casing string or 12 hours under pressure for all other casing strings. Cement is considered under pressure if one or more float valves are shown to be holding the cement in place or when other means...

  19. Students' Test Motivation in PISA: The Case of Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Kjaernsli, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Do students make their best effort in large-scale assessment studies such as the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA)? Despite six cycles of PISA surveys from 2000 to 2015, empirical studies regarding students' test motivation and experience of the tests are sparse. The present study examines students' test motivation…

  20. Pairwise additivity of energy components in protein-ligand binding: the HIV II protease-Indinavir case.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Melek N; Dashti, Danial S; Faver, John C; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-08-28

    An energy expansion (binding energy decomposition into n-body interaction terms for n ≥ 2) to express the receptor-ligand binding energy for the fragmented HIV II protease-Indinavir system is described to address the role of cooperativity in ligand binding. The outcome of this energy expansion is compared to the total receptor-ligand binding energy at the Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and semiempirical levels of theory. We find that the sum of the pairwise interaction energies approximates the total binding energy to ∼82% for HF and to >95% for both the M06-L density functional and PM6-DH2 semiempirical method. The contribution of the three-body interactions amounts to 18.7%, 3.8%, and 1.4% for HF, M06-L, and PM6-DH2, respectively. We find that the expansion can be safely truncated after n=3. That is, the contribution of the interactions involving more than three parties to the total binding energy of Indinavir to the HIV II protease receptor is negligible. Overall, we find that the two-body terms represent a good approximation to the total binding energy of the system, which points to pairwise additivity in the present case. This basic principle of pairwise additivity is utilized in fragment-based drug design approaches and our results support its continued use. The present results can also aid in the validation of non-bonded terms contained within common force fields and in the correction of systematic errors in physics-based score functions. PMID:21895219

  1. 30 CFR 250.423 - What are the requirements for pressure testing casing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... installation of casing or liner in the subsea wellhead or liner hanger. (1) You must ensure that the latching mechanisms or lock down mechanisms are engaged upon installation of each casing string or liner. (2) You must perform a pressure test on the casing seal assembly to ensure proper installation of casing or liner....

  2. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test

    PubMed Central

    Udovic, M.; McBride, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of lead arsenate application in orchards has led to significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Besides the threat that such soils represent for the environment, reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes implies the exposure of humans to Pb and As. In this study we assessed the influence of vegetable compost addition (as a sustainable agricultural practice) to contaminated acidic orchard soil on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed with two selective non-exhaustive chemical extractions and with an in vivo bioaccumulation test with an isopod (P. scaber). The treatment with compost caused a significant increase in soil pH and total carbon content, resulting in a consistent decrease of Pb bioavailability. In contrast, the bioavailability of As increased, indicating that a complementary treatment should be used for reducing the bioavailability of As in old orchard soils. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil. PMID:22240057

  3. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  4. Supersymmetry with spontaneous R-parity breaking in Z 0 decays: The case of an additional Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Valle, J. W. F.

    1991-05-01

    Single production of SUSY particles in the decays of the Z 0 may proceed with large rates in models with spontaneously broken R-parity. We focus on the case where there is a lepton number symmetry as part of the gauge group. In the simplest of such models there is a single additional neutral gauge boson and the strength of Rp-violating interactions is related with that of the new gauge force. We study the phenomenological implications of the model for Z 0 decays, including the study of the rates for single chargino production in Z 0 decays, i.e. Z 0→ ξ±τ±, as well as for the so-called Zen events, and find that they may be measurable at LEP. The first process, characteristics of spontaneously broken R-parity models, may proceed with a branching ratio as large as few × 10 -5 and should lead to a very clear signature. Zen events have a different origin than in the minimal SUSY standard model (MSSM). Their rates may also be enhanced with respect to MSSM. Our estimates of these rates take into account all of the relevant observational constraints, such as those that follow from neutrinophyics, from precise Z 0 property measurements, as well as SUSY particle searches at LEP.

  5. Test Cases for a Clipped Delta Wing with Pitching and Trailing-Edge Control Surface Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Steady and unsteady measured pressures for a Clipped Delta Wing (CDW) undergoing pitching oscillations and trailing-edge control surface oscillations have been presented . From the several hundred compiled data points, 22 static cases, 12 pitching-oscillation cases, and 12 control-surface-oscillation cases have been proposed for Computational Test Cases to illustrate the trends with Mach number, reduced frequency, and angle of attack. The planform for this wing was derived by simplifying the planform of a proposed design for a supersonic transport which is described as the Boeing 2707-300. The strake was deleted, the resulting planform was approximated by a trapezoid with an unswept trailing edge, and the twist and camber were removed. In order to facilitate pressure instrumentation, the thickness was increased to 6 percent from the typical 2.5 to 3 percent for the supersonic transport. The airfoil is thus a symmetrical circular arc section with t/c = 0.06. A wing of similar planform but with a thinner airfoil of t/c = 0.03 was used in the flutter investigations, and the buffet and stall flutter investigation . Flutter results are also reported both for the 3 per cent thick simplified wing and for a more complex SST model. One of the consequences of the increased thickness of the clipped delta wing is that transonic effects are enhanced for Mach numbers near one. They are significantly stronger than would be the case for the thinner wing. Also, with the combination of high leading edge sweep of 50.5, and the sharp leading edge, a leading edge vortex forms on the wing at relatively low angles of attack, on the order of three degrees. The Appendix discusses some of the vortex flow effects. In addition, a shock develops over the aft portion of the wing at transonic speeds such that at some angles of attack, there is both a leading edge vortex and a shock wave on the wing. Such cases are a computational challenge. Some previous applications of this data set have been

  6. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...Since 1985, FRA has conducted post-accident toxicological testing (post-accident testing) on blood, urine, and, if an employee is deceased, tissue samples from railroad employees involved in serious train accidents. If an accident qualifies for post-accident testing, FRA routinely conducts tests for alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and certain amphetamines, opiates,......

  7. Male infertility workup needs additional testing of expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine.

    PubMed

    Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2013-01-01

    The male factor accounts for almost 50% of infertility cases. Inflammation may reduce semen quality via several pathways, including oxidative stress (OxS). As male infertility routinely is assessed using semen analysis only, the possible presence of non-leukocytospermic asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be overlooked. We compared local and systemic OxS levels in male partners of infertile couples with different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. Subjects (n=143) were grouped according to inflammation in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), and/or post-massage urine (post-M). Systemic (8-isoprostanes in urine) and local (diene conjugates and total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma) OxS was measured The levels of OxS markers were significantly elevated in both severe inflammation groups--leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to EPS and/or post-M. Comparison between oligospermic and non-oligospermic men with genital tract inflammation, and oligozoospermic men with or without inflammation in the genital tract indicated that inflammation but not oligospermia status had significant impact on the measured OxS markers. Hence, a high leukocyte count in prostate-specific materials (EPS, post-M), even in absence of clear leukocytopsermia, is an important source of local and systemic OxS that may be associated with male infertility and affect general health. We suggest including the tests for detection of inflammation of the prostate into the workup of infertile men as was suggested in the WHO 1993 recommendation. PMID:24349358

  8. Assessing Students' Oral Proficiency: A Case for Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fall, Thekla; Adair-Hauck, Bonnie; Glisan, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the Pittsburgh Public Schools Oral Ratings Assessment for Language Students (PPS ORALS) project, a Title VI Foreign Language Assistance Program grant-funded project to create an online testing Software program that makes large-scale oral testing in a world language not only feasible, but also easy to create, administer, and…

  9. A case of canine chimerism diagnosed using coat color tests.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M

    2012-12-01

    Through the use of PCR based coat color tests, we were able to diagnose a dog that exhibits an unusual coat color phenotype as an XX/XX chimera. Coat color alleles vary widely among dog breeds, presenting a novel method for detecting chimerism using diagnostic tests for known coat color alleles. PMID:22433982

  10. U Geminorum: a Test Case for Orbital Parameters Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, Juan; de La Fuente, Eduardo; Costero, Rafael

    2007-08-01

    Due to its eclipsing nature and thorough observational studies, U Gem, in general, a good candidate for the analysis of standard and new methods in the determination of the orbital parameters in cataclysmic variables. Although in this interactive binary, these parameters are relatively well known, there are still discrepancies in the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf, as obtained from the optical or the Ultraviolet data. Furthermore, the secondary star is not visible in the optical; consequently, its corresponding semi-amplitude has been derived from data obtained in the infrared region. For these reasons U Gem is an interesting case for testing new methods to derive orbital parameters based on optical observations only. High resolution spectroscopy of U Gem, covering the spectral region λ 5200-9100 Å, was obtained. The system was observed during quiescence, about 35 days after the onset of an outburst. We did not find a hot spot or gas stream around the outer boundaries of the accretion disk. Instead, we detected a strong narrow emission at the location of the secondary star. We measured the radial velocity curve from the wings of the double-peaked Hα emission line, and obtained a semi-amplitude value in excellent agreement with the ultraviolet results by Long & Gilliland (1999). We present also a new method to obtain K[2], based on the detection of the TiO band around λ 7050 Å. Our results are compared with published values derived from the near-infrared NaI line doublet. From a comparison of the TiO band with those of late type M stars, we find that a best fit is obtained for a M6 V star, contributing 5 percent of the total light at that spectral region. Assuming that the radial velocity semi-amplitudes reflect accurately the motion of the binary components, then from our results: K[em] = 108 km s-1 and K[abs] = 310 km s-1. For a revised inclination angle of i = 70o (Zhang et al. 1987) the system parameters become; M[wd] = 1.20 ± 0.05 M

  11. Testing the island rule: primates as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Welch, John J.

    2008-01-01

    The island rule states that after island colonization, larger animals tend to evolve reduced body sizes and smaller animals increased sizes. Recently, there has been disagreement about how often, if ever, this rule applies in nature, and much of this disagreement stems from differences in the statistical tests employed. This study shows, how different tests of the island rule assume different null hypotheses, and that these rely on quite different biological assumptions. Analysis and simulation are then used to quantify the biases in the tests. Many widely used tests are shown to yield false support for the island rule when island and mainland evolution are indistinguishable, and so a Monte Carlo permutation test is introduced that avoids this problem. It is further shown that tests based on independent contrasts lack power to detect the island rule under certain conditions. Finally, a complete reanalysis is presented of recent data from primates. When head–body length is used as the measure of body size, reports of the island rule are shown to stem from methodological artefacts. But when skull length or body mass are used, all tests agree that the island rule does hold in primates. PMID:18957368

  12. Installing a Test Tap on a Metal Battery Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, Daniel R.; Rybicki, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A mechanical fitting and relatively simple and safe method of installing it on the metal case of a battery have been devised to provide access to the interior of the battery to perform inspection and/or to measure such internal conditions as temperature and pressure. A metal boss or stud having an exterior thread is attached to the case by capacitor-discharge stud welding (CDSW), which takes only 3 to 6 milliseconds and in which the metallurgical bond (weld) and the heat-affected zone are limited to a depth of a few thousandths of an inch (a few hundredths of a millimeter). These characteristics of CDSW prevent distortion of the case and localized internal heating that could damage the chemical components inside of the battery. An access hole is then drilled through the stud and case, into the interior of the battery. A mechanical fitting having a matching thread is installed on the stud and the interior end of the fitting is sealed with a pressure-sealing washer/gasket. The exterior end of the fitting is configured for attachment of whatever instrumentation is required for the selected inspection or measurement.

  13. Strip-Search Case Testing Balance between Privacy, Student Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    As it weighs the high-profile case of a 13-year-old girl strip-searched at school, the U.S. Supreme Court is grappling with where to draw the line between protecting student privacy rights and allowing school officials to take steps to ensure a safe environment. During oral arguments, several of the justices seemed sympathetic to the challenges…

  14. Utilizing population controls in rare-variant case-parent association tests.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Satten, Glen A; Han, Yujun; Epstein, Michael P; Heinzen, Erin L; Goldstein, David B; Allen, Andrew S

    2014-06-01

    There is great interest in detecting associations between human traits and rare genetic variation. To address the low power implicit in single-locus tests of rare genetic variants, many rare-variant association approaches attempt to accumulate information across a gene, often by taking linear combinations of single-locus contributions to a statistic. Using the right linear combination is key-an optimal test will up-weight true causal variants, down-weight neutral variants, and correctly assign the direction of effect for causal variants. Here, we propose a procedure that exploits data from population controls to estimate the linear combination to be used in an case-parent trio rare-variant association test. Specifically, we estimate the linear combination by comparing population control allele frequencies with allele frequencies in the parents of affected offspring. These estimates are then used to construct a rare-variant transmission disequilibrium test (rvTDT) in the case-parent data. Because the rvTDT is conditional on the parents' data, using parental data in estimating the linear combination does not affect the validity or asymptotic distribution of the rvTDT. By using simulation, we show that our new population-control-based rvTDT can dramatically improve power over rvTDTs that do not use population control information across a wide variety of genetic architectures. It also remains valid under population stratification. We apply the approach to a cohort of epileptic encephalopathy (EE) trios and find that dominant (or additive) inherited rare variants are unlikely to play a substantial role within EE genes previously identified through de novo mutation studies. PMID:24836453

  15. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  16. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... § 250.426 What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must...

  17. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  18. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  19. Testing universality in critical exponents: The case of rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, Anna; Puig, Pedro; Corral, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    One of the key clues to consider rainfall as a self-organized critical phenomenon is the existence of power-law distributions for rain-event sizes. We have studied the problem of universality in the exponents of these distributions by means of a suitable statistic whose distribution is inferred by several variations of a permutational test. In contrast to more common approaches, our procedure does not suffer from the difficulties of multiple testing and does not require the precise knowledge of the uncertainties associated to the power-law exponents. When applied to seven sites monitored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program the tests lead to the rejection of the universality hypothesis, despite the fact that the exponents are rather close to each other. We discuss the reasons of the rejection.

  20. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  2. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  3. A Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case. Part 1; Baseline and Steady Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Paschal, Keith B.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Harris, Jerome; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    Low speed flow separation over a wall-mounted hump, and its control using steady suction, were studied experimentally in order to generate a data set for a workshop aimed at validating CFD turbulence models. The baseline and controlled data sets comprised static and dynamic surface pressure measurements, flow field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and wall shear stress obtained via oil-film interferometry. In addition to the specific test cases studied, surface pressures for a wide variety of conditions were reported for different Reynolds numbers and suction rates. Stereoscopic PIV and oil-film flow visualization indicated that the baseline separated flow field was mainly two- dimensional. With the application of control, some three-dimensionality was evident in the spanwise variation of pressure recovery, reattachment location and spanwise pressure fluctuations. Part 2 of this paper, under preparation for the AIAA Meeting in Reno 2005, considers separation control by means of zero-efflux oscillatory blowing.

  4. A Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case. Part 1; Baseline and Steady Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Paschal, Keith B.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Harris, jerome; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    Low speed flow separation over a wall-mounted hump, and its control using steady suction, were studied experimentally in order to generate a data set for a workshop aimed at validating CFD turbulence models. The baseline and controlled data sets comprised static and dynamic surface pressure measurements, flow field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and wall shear stress obtained via oil-film interferometry. In addition to the specific test cases studied, surface pressures for a wide variety of conditions were reported for different Reynolds numbers and suction rates. Stereoscopic PIV and oil-film flow visualization indicated that the baseline separated flow field was mainly two-dimensional. With the application of control, some three-dimensionality was evident in the spanwise variation of pressure recovery, reattachment location and spanwise pressure fluctuations. Part 2 of this paper, under preparation for the AIAA Meeting in Reno 2005, considers separation control by means of zero-efflux oscillatory blowing.

  5. 30 CFR 250.423 - What are the requirements for pressure testing casing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liner in the subsea wellhead or liner hanger. (1) You must ensure that the latching mechanisms or lock down mechanisms are engaged upon installation of each casing string or liner. (2) You must perform a pressure test on the casing seal assembly to ensure proper installation of casing or liner. You...

  6. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Articles Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.

  7. 26 CFR 1.6654-2 - Exceptions to imposition of the addition to the tax in the case of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicable to such year, in the case of an individual required to file a return for such preceding taxable... qualified State individual income taxes which are treated pursuant to section 6361(a) as if they were...), and without reduction for any payments of estimated tax, minus (iv) In the case of an individual...

  8. Language Testing and International Intelligibility: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in language testing is the choice of norms, and the need to reconcile notions of "standard" English with local language norms and features. Data from studies of international intelligibility indicate that some features of "standard" language descriptions, based on native-speaker language use, are not essential…

  9. Diagnostic testing in extraesophageal GERD: another case of "furor medicus"?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) work for most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). But when PPIs fail to work, or when there are atypical extra-esophageal symptoms, diagnostic and management decisions become much more difficult. Although atypical GERD is common, there are limited data about how best to approach these patients. The temptation is often to perform extensive diagnostic testing, sometimes to little avail. In this issue of The Journal, Francis et al. present a new study to help close the research gap in understanding the costs and benefits of testing in atypical GERD. The authors conclude that diagnostic testing is very expensive and real-life benefits are modest. This editorial reviews the findings, places them into clinical perspective, and concludes that diagnostic testing in atypical GERD may be another example of "furor medicus" - an old but descriptive term referring to the instinct of doctors to implore "don't just stand there, do something!" The data from Francis et al. suggest we might do the opposite in atypical GERD: "Don't just do something, stand there." PMID:23735914

  10. Generating custom test plans for CASE{sup *}Dictionary 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    Most database development organizations use a formal software development methodology that requires a certain amount of formal testing. The amount of formal testing that will be performed will vary from methodology to methodology and from site to site. If a very detailed formal test plan is required for each module in a system, the work involved to produce the test plan can be tedious and costly. After a system has been designed and developed using Oracle*CASE, there is much useful information in the CASE*Dictionary repository. If this information could be tied to specific test requirements, a test plan could be generated automatically, saving much time and resources. This paper shows how CASE*Dictionary can be used to store test plan information that can then be used to generate a specific test plan for each module based on it`s detailed data usage.

  11. D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of environmental compounds. A regulatory assumption is that the mixtures of chemicals act in an additive manner. However, this assumption requires experimental validation. Traditional experimental designs (full factorial) require a large number of e...

  12. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  13. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption during Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  14. Calcaneus osteomyelitis secondary to Guthrie test: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Erat, Tugba; Ozdemir, Halil; Yahsi, Aysun; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-08-01

    Calcaneus osteomyelitis is a rare infection in newborns. Invasive procedures, prematurity and low birth wight are some causative factors. The clinical signs may be mild. We report a neonate with calcaneous osteomyelitis which was secondary to a Guthrie test sample. She was admitted to hospital with swelling, redness and increased temperature on her heel. Superficial tissue ultrasound showed fluid collection with heavy content was observed on the posterior of the right foot. Puncture and drainage was performed and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the drainage culture. Extremity magnetic resonance imaging showed tissue defect in right foot, edema-inflammation and contrast enhancement. Intravenous sulbactam-ampicillin and oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were given for 6 weeks. In follow-up, clinical symptoms recovered without curettage. In conclusion; calcaneous osteomyelitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling on heel in neonates who have been applied to invasive procedures as Guthrie test sample. PMID:27399029

  15. SAT Wars: The Case for Test-Optional College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Joseph A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What can a college admissions officer safely predict about the future of a 17-year-old? Are the best and the brightest students the ones who can check off the most correct boxes on a multiple-choice exam? Or are there better ways of measuring ability and promise? In this penetrating and revealing look at high-stakes standardized admissions tests,…

  16. Rheological behavior of FM-9 solutions and correlation with flammability test results and interpretations. [fuel thickening additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological behavior of progressively shear thickening FM-9 solutions, a time-dependent shear thickening material with characteristics of threshold behavior, is investigated as part of a study of the rheological properties of antimisting jet fuel. Flammability test results and test configurations from various sources are evaluated. A correlation is obtained between the rheological behavior and the flammability tests such that, for a given system, such as a fixed solvent system and the FM-9 polymer system, the flammability criterion can be applied to a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.

  17. Toxicology Testing in Fatally Injured Workers: A Review of Five Years of Iowa FACE Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marizen; Bedford, Ronald; Sullivan, Ryan; Anthony, T. Renee; Kraemer, John; Faine, Brett; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Toxicology testing of fatally injured workers is not routinely conducted. We completed a case-series study of 2005–2009 occupational fatalities captured by Iowa’s Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. The goals of our research were to: (1) measure the proportion of FACE cases that undergo toxicology testing, and describe the factors associated with being tested, and (2) measure the rate of positive toxicology tests, the substances identified and the demographics and occupations of victims who tested positive. Case documents and toxicology laboratory reports were reviewed. There were 427 occupational deaths from 2005 to 2009. Only 69% underwent toxicology testing. Younger workers had greater odds of being tested. Among occupational groups, workers in farming, fishing and forestry had half the odds of being tested compared to other occupational groups. Of the 280 cases with toxicology tests completed, 22% (n = 61) were found to have positive toxicology testing. Commonly identified drug classes included cannabinoids and alcohols. Based on the small number of positive tests, older victims (65+ years) tested positive more frequently than younger workers. Management, business, science, arts, service and sales/office workers had proportionately more positive toxicology tests (almost 30%) compared with other workers (18–22%). These results identify an area in need of further research efforts and a potential target for injury prevention strategies. PMID:24240727

  18. Synthesis of Contributed Simulations for OREX Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1998-01-01

    A synthesis is presented of the computer simulations of the flow over the Orbital Reentry Vehicle (ORV) at the 92.8 km and 63.6 km Earth altitude trajectory points that were discussed at the First Europe-U.S. High Speed Flow Field Database Workshop Part 2, Napoli, Italy, November 1997. For the materials used on the surface of ORV, the non-catalytic wall condition is appropriate at 92.8 km and the finite-rate catalytic wall condition at 63.6 km. Additional simulations are required for establishing the independency of the discussed results from numerics. The proper modeling of natural phenomena needs further sensitivity studies. The uncertainties of inferred flight data are lacking for a proper evaluation of the presented results.

  19. Additional data in support of the quadruplicated white-ivory reversion system to test for somatic genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xamena, N; Egido, A; Velázquez, A; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1991-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide, ethyl methanesulfonate, propyleneimine and tritiated water were tested in a new short-term somatic mutation bioassay, previously described by Green and coworkers (1986), to evaluate the suitability of the quadruplicated white-ivory system of Drosophila melanogaster for genotoxicity testing of chemicals. A 2.9-kb tandemly duplicated sequence of w+ within a w+ gene is responsible for the white-ivory phenotype. Reversion of wi to w+ is, in general, associated with the loss of the appended 2.9 kb or other alterations affecting this duplicated region. The appearance of light (white or nearly white) phenotypes could be due to the loss of some wi copies. Thus, in the eyes of adult males resulting from treated larvae, we can detect 2 types of sectors (red and light) on the orange-yellow background. Our results indicate that the genetic system used in this somatic assay is sensitive to the genotoxic effects of the 4 compounds tested. All 4 compounds tested were positive. Tritiated water had weak effects, cyclophosphamide was characterized by small revertant clones and ethyl methanesulfonate and propyleneimine by large clone size. From the available data, we feel that the wi system can be considered of potential value for genotoxicity testing. PMID:1646957

  20. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  1. DETERMINING A ROBUST D-OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR TESTING FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A MIXTURE OF FOUR PFAAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. Of particular focus to this research project is whether an environmentally relevant mixture of four PFAAs with long half-liv...

  2. Field Tested Service Oriented Robotic Architecture: Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Utz, Hanz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software methods and technologies applied to the robotic world. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA extends its reach beyond the on-board robot controller and supports the full suite of software tools used during mission scenarios from ground control to remote robotic sites. SORA has been field tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The results of these high fidelity experiments are illustrated through concrete examples that have shown the benefits of using SORA as well as its limitations.

  3. IPOPv2: Photoionization of Ni XIV - a test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, F.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Zeippen, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Several years ago, M. Asplund and coauthors (2004) proposed a revision of the Solar composition. The use of this new prescription for Solar abundances in standard stellar models generated a strong disagreement between the predictions and the observations of Solar observables. Many claimed that the Standard Solar Model (SSM) was faulty, and more specifically the opacities used in such models. As a result, activities around the stellar opacities were boosted. New experiments (J. Bailey at Sandia on Z-Pinch, The OPAC consortium at LULI200) to measure directly absorbtion coefficients have been realized or are underway. Several theoretical groups (CEA-OPAS, Los Alamos Nat. Lab., CEA-SCORCG, The Opacity Project - The Iron Project (IPOPv2)) have started new sets of calculations using different approaches and codes. While the new results seem to confirm the good quality of the opacities used in SSM, it remains important to improve and complement the data currently available. We present recent results in the case of the photoionization cross sections for Ni XIV (Ni13+) from IPOPv2 and possible implications on stellar modelling.

  4. Fundamental Concerns in High-Stakes Language Testing: The Case of the College English Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The College English Test (CET) is an English language test designed for educational purposes, administered on a very large scale, and used for making high-stakes decisions. This paper discusses the key issues facing the CET during the course of its development in the past two decades. It argues that the most fundamental and critical concerns of…

  5. Validating an artificial intelligence human proximity operations system with test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    An artificial intelligence-controlled robot (AICR) operating in close proximity to humans poses risk to these humans. Validating the performance of an AICR is an ill posed problem, due to the complexity introduced by the erratic (noncomputer) actors. In order to prove the AICR's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate the actions of these actors. This paper discusses AICR's performance validation in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, using test cases created by an AI use case producer. This test is a two-dimensional simplification relevant to autonomous UAV navigation in the national airspace.

  6. Health Worker Compliance with a ‘Test And Treat’ Malaria Case Management Protocol in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Pulford, Justin; Smith, Iso; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Hetzel, Manuel W.

    2016-01-01

    The Papua New Guinea (PNG) Department of Health introduced a ‘test and treat’ malaria case management protocol in 2011. This study assesses health worker compliance with the test and treat protocol on a wide range of measures, examines self-reported barriers to health worker compliance as well as health worker attitudes towards the test and treat protocol. Data were collected by cross-sectional survey conducted in randomly selected primary health care facilities in 2012 and repeated in 2014. The combined survey data included passive observation of current or recently febrile patients (N = 771) and interviewer administered questionnaires completed with health workers (N = 265). Across the two surveys, 77.6% of patients were tested for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy, 65.6% of confirmed malaria cases were prescribed the correct antimalarials and 15.3% of febrile patients who tested negative for malaria infection were incorrectly prescribed an antimalarial. Overall compliance with a strictly defined test and treat protocol was 62.8%. A reluctance to test current/recently febrile patients for malaria infection by RDT or microscopy in the absence of acute malaria symptoms, reserving recommended antimalarials for confirmed malaria cases only and choosing to clinically diagnose a malaria infection, despite a negative RDT result were the most frequently reported barriers to protocol compliance. Attitudinal support for the test and treat protocol, as assessed by a nine-item measure, improved across time. In conclusion, health worker compliance with the full test and treat malaria protocol requires improvement in PNG and additional health worker support will likely be required to achieve this. The broader evidence base would suggest any such support should be delivered over a longer period of time, be multi-dimensional and multi-modal. PMID:27391594

  7. 78 FR 14217 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... certain non-controlled substances with potentially impairing side effects (77 FR 29307). As discussed in..., chlorpheniramine, bromenphiramine, and doxylamine'' (77 FR at 29308, emphasis added). As explained below, the... suspicion and post-accident testing, 50 FR 31508, August 2, 1985), and the Supreme Court upheld...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deflection greater than .04 inches (1 cm) when a force of 2,250 pounds (10.01 Kn) is applied. (3) The... strength and force tests should be a rigid, metal cylindrical or torso-shaped object with a girth of 38... appreciable motion imparted to it. (7) The system's performance should be evaluated, taking into account...

  9. 30 CFR 250.525 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... casing diagnostic test? 250.525 Section 250.525 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... take action from my casing diagnostic test? You must take action if you have any of the following... psig during a casing diagnostic test; (c) Any well that has demonstrated tubing/casing,...

  10. 30 CFR 250.524 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... casing diagnostic test? 250.524 Section 250.524 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... from my casing diagnostic test? You must take action if you have any of the following conditions: (a... casing diagnostic test; (c) Any well that has demonstrated tubing/casing, tubing/riser,...

  11. 30 CFR 250.524 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... casing diagnostic test? 250.524 Section 250.524 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... take action from my casing diagnostic test? You must take action if you have any of the following... psig during a casing diagnostic test; (c) Any well that has demonstrated tubing/casing,...

  12. 30 CFR 250.525 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... casing diagnostic test? 250.525 Section 250.525 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... take action from my casing diagnostic test? You must take action if you have any of the following... psig during a casing diagnostic test; (c) Any well that has demonstrated tubing/casing,...

  13. D-optimal experimental designs to test for departure from additivity in a fixed-ratio mixture ray.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Todd; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Herr, David W

    2005-12-01

    Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture may be prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. Using a mixture of chemicals with a fixed ratio (mixture ray) results in an economical design that allows estimation of additivity or nonadditive interaction for a mixture of interest. This methodology is extended easily to a mixture with a large number of chemicals. Optimal experimental conditions can be chosen that result in increased power to detect departures from additivity. Although these designs are used widely for linear models, optimal designs for nonlinear threshold models are less well known. In the present work, the use of D-optimal designs is demonstrated for nonlinear threshold models applied to a fixed-ratio mixture ray. For a fixed sample size, this design criterion selects the experimental doses and number of subjects per dose level that result in minimum variance of the model parameters and thus increased power to detect departures from additivity. An optimal design is illustrated for a 2:1 ratio (chlorpyrifos:carbaryl) mixture experiment. For this example, and in general, the optimal designs for the nonlinear threshold model depend on prior specification of the slope and dose threshold parameters. Use of a D-optimal criterion produces experimental designs with increased power, whereas standard nonoptimal designs with equally spaced dose groups may result in low power if the active range or threshold is missed. PMID:16162847

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, E C; Dogruel, N; Acikalin, M F; Tokar, B; Oztelcan, B; Ilhan, H

    2007-11-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated aldosterone levels with suppressed plasma renin activity, is a rare condition during childhood and is also potentially curable. To the best of our knowledge, nearly 25 cases of childhood aldosterone-secreting adenoma have been reported in the literature to date. Here we describe a 13-yr-old girl with primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to aldosterone-secreting adenoma. The patient was admitted to our hospital with the neuromuscular complaints of muscle weakness and inability to walk due to hypokalemia. She had been misdiagnosed as having hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2 months before admission and her symptoms had radically improved with potassium supplementation. However, her blood pressure levels had increased and her symptoms reappeared 2 days prior to being observed during hospitalization in our institution. Laboratory examinations revealed hypokalemia (2.1 mEq/l), and increased serum aldosterone levels with suppressed plasma renin activity. Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left adrenal mass. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and histopathological examinations showed benign adrenal adenoma. Serum aldosterone levels and blood pressure levels returned to normal after surgical intervention. This case demonstrates the importance of a systemic evaluation including blood pressure monitorization of children with hypokalemia as intermittent hypertension episodes may be seen; cases without hypertension may be misdiagnosed as rheumatological or neurological disorders such as hypokalemic periodic paralysis, as in our case. PMID:18075291

  16. 26 CFR 1.6654-2 - Exceptions to imposition of the addition to the tax in the case of individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 6073(b) (relating to income from farming or fishing), 70 percent in the case of taxable years beginning... reasonable accuracy, his cost of goods sold for the applicable installment period. The cost of goods sold for... cost of goods sold during the entire taxable year as the gross receipts from sales for such...

  17. AVNG as a Test Case for Cooperative Design

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, S J

    2010-05-21

    Designing a measurement system that might be used in a nuclear facility is a challenging, if not daunting, proposition. The situation is made more complicated when the system needs to be designed to satisfy the disparate requirements of a monitoring and a host party - a relationship that could prove to be adversarial. The cooperative design of the elements of the AVNG (Attribute Verification with Neutrons and Gamma Rays) system served as a crucible that exercised the possible pitfalls in the design and implementation of a measurement system that could be used in a host party nuclear facility that satisfied the constraints of operation for both the host and monitoring parties. Some of the issues that needed to be addressed in the joint design were certification requirements of the host party and the authentication requirements of the monitoring party. In this paper the nature of the problem of cooperative design will be introduced. The details of cooperative design revolve around the idiosyncratic nature of the adversarial relationship between the parties involved in a possible measurement regime, particularly if measurements on items that may contain sensitive information are being pursued. The possibility of an adversarial interaction is more likely if an information barrier is required for the measurement system. The origin of the antagonistic elements of the host party and hosted party relationship will be considered. In addition, some of the conclusions will be presented that make cooperative design (and development) proceed more efficiently. Finally, some lessons learned will be presented as a result of this expedition into cooperative design.

  18. Constructing Stratigraphic Relationships Using Secondary Craters: A Lunar Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Kassandra; Campbell, D. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.

    2008-09-01

    Secondary cratering is a possible contaminant of small crater distributions used to date young terrains in the Solar System. As such, much attention has been paid to identifying the effect of the secondary population on the cratering record of various bodies. Our technique utilizes 100m resolution circular polarization ratio (CPR) maps generated from 2.38 GHz Arecibo radar data of the lunar South Pole to distinguish secondary craters from small primaries at large distances from the primary impact. High levels of CPR are indicative of blocky ejecta tails and can be used not only to identify secondaries in this "far field” regime, but can also indicate the associated primary crater by the tail direction. We apply this method to a region on the floor of Newton-A crater ( 60 km diameter), where our refined counts identify 56 secondary craters with diameters above 400m (43.8% of the total population) associated with the primary crater Tycho (85 km diameter)—some 1000 km to the north. In addition to providing information on the relative importance of secondary and primary craters at small diameters, this method of secondary crater identification provides valuable information about the terrains on which they are emplaced. Secondary craters associated with a single primary event form simultaneously, therefore serving as a convenient layer around which stratigraphic relationships can be constructed—particularly if the age of the primary is well constrained. For extensive secondary networks, the semi-global reach of this layer provides a way to compare in a standardized way terrain units separated by thousands of kilometers. As a demonstration of this technique, we employ a combination of crater morphology and CPR tail analysis to determine the ages of features on the floor of Newton-A relative to the layer of Tycho secondaries present there. Funding by NASA's Planetary Astronomy program is acknowledged.

  19. [CALCULATION OF RADIATION LOADS ON THE ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOM ONBOARD THE SPACE STATION IN THE CASE OF ADDITIONAL SHIELDING].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating doses from space ionizing radiation for a modeled orbital station cabin outfitted with an additional shield aimed to reduce radiation loads on cosmonaut. The shield is a layer with the mass thickness of -6 g/cm2 (mean density = 0.62 g/cm3) that covers the outer cabin wall and consists of wet tissues and towels used by cosmonauts for hygienic purposes. A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom imitates human body. Doses were calculated for the standard orbit of the International space station (ISS) with consideration of the longitudinal and transverse phantom orientation relative to the wall with or without the additional shield. Calculation of dose distribution in the human body improves prediction of radiation loads. The additional shield reduces radiation exposure of human critical organs by -20% depending on their depth and body spatial orientation in the ISS compartment. PMID:26554132

  20. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  1. [Guideline for the additional test positions according to the EPQC 4th Edition for Digital Mammography Systems].

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Lenzen, H; Blaser, D; Ehlers, S-E; Schopphoven, S; John, C

    2009-09-01

    Within the physical-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program all digital mammography systems have to perform the contrast resolution test and the determination of the average glandular dose based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (4th Edition). Since 1.1.2009 this applies to digital systems outside the screening program too. To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed together a special guideline for these test position. This Guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose for different types of mammography systems, the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation as well. This guideline was verified by the German task group "Röntgenverordnung". PMID:19676011

  2. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for each...

  3. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test...

  4. 30 CFR 250.524 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.524 Section 250.524 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test...

  5. 30 CFR 250.524 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.524 Section 250.524 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test...

  6. Investigating the Justifiability of an Additional Test Use: An Application of Assessment Use Argument to an English as a Foreign Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Multiple uses of the same assessment may present challenges for both the design and use of an assessment. Little advice, however, has been given to assessment developers as to how to understand the phenomena of multiple assessment use and meet the challenges these present. Particularly problematic is the case in which an assessment is used for…

  7. NREL Develops Diagnostic Test Cases to Improve Building Energy Simulation Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations in order to achieve more accurate energy use and savings predictions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Residential and Commercial Buildings research groups developed a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations. Eight test cases were developed to test surface conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes in building energy simulation programs. These algorithms are used to predict energy flow through external opaque surfaces such as walls, ceilings, and floors. The test cases consist of analytical and vetted numerical heat transfer solutions that have been available for decades, which increases confidence in test results. NREL researchers adapted these solutions for comparisons with building energy simulation results. Testing the new cases with EnergyPlus identified issues with the conduction finite difference (CondFD) heat transfer algorithm in versions 5 and 6. NREL researchers resolved these issues for EnergyPlus version 7. The new test cases will help users and developers of EnergyPlus and other building energy tools to identify and fix problems associated with solid conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes and their boundary conditions. In the long term, improvements to software algorithms will result in more accurate energy use and savings predictions. NREL researchers plan to document the set of test cases and make them available for future consideration by validation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 140: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. EnergyPlus users will also have access to the improved CondFD model in version 7 after its next scheduled release.

  8. Literacy in the Early Years and English as an Additional Language: The Case of a British International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englezou, Eliana; Fragkouli, Elpiniki

    2014-01-01

    The study upon which this article is based investigates teachers' literacy development methods used in nursery and reception classrooms of a British international school, and focuses specifically on children having English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from teaching observations and from interviews with teachers present the…

  9. Design, build, develop and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, C.

    1993-01-01

    A new method for sealing casing is under research and development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are Overcome. The objective of this program is to develop a joint between packer segments that is easily assembled before lowering downhole and easily disassembled after the sealing job is done. In addition, this tool joint must expand uniformly as though it were a part of the rubber and must not fail under the relatively high pressure of the epoxy cure cycle. The overall goal of the work was to design, build, develop, and test a spiral tool and packer into a single universal tool that can repair casings with diameters varying from 4.5 to 7 inches.

  10. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment. PMID:26601500

  11. Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma: a clinicopathological study of seven additional cases supporting a distinctive variant with aggressive biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Lao, I Weng; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We present our experience with seven cases of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) to further characterise its clinicopathological features. There were five males and two females with ages ranging from 19 to 84 years (mean 56 years). Four tumours occurred in the somatic soft tissue, two in organs and one in the bone. The mean tumour size was 10.7 cm (range 3.5-15 cm). Histologically, six tumours were characterised by sheet-like growth of uniform epithelioid cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, high mitotic activity and moderate to abundant amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. One tumour was composed of dyscohesive cells with rhabdoid appearance embedded in a myxoid matrix. Features suggestive of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation were absent. However, immunohistochemical study revealed skeletal muscle differentiation in all cases. Of note, focal expression of epithelial markers with co-expression of neuroendocrine markers was noted in five and three cases, respectively. Of six patients with follow-up, one experienced local recurrence and three developed metastases. To date, three patients have died of disease within 14 months. This study further demonstrates that epithelioid RMS represents a distinct variant of RMS with an aggressive behaviour. It may be misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma due to co-expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers. PMID:26517641

  12. Automating test case generation for coverages required by FAA standard DO-178B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.; Payne, Jeffery E.; Miller, Keith W.

    1993-01-01

    Coverage testing techniques are required by the FAA for various levels of subsystem criticality at the unit testing level. Higher levels of criticality require coverage schemes that frequently require more and more test cases, particularly when the number of conditions in a decision grows. For example, if we have a decision with n conditions of the form: if (/ci/ or /c2/ or .... or /cn/) then there are 2(n) possible combinations of condition outcomes. Given the enormous number of inputs that may be required to satisfy different coverages, and given that there are no automated tools for determining these inputs (to our knowledge), we will show how one alternative testing technique, mutation testing, can be coerced into generating inputs that satisfy a code coverage scheme X, i.e., if we modify the rules for mutant generation during mutation testing, this technique will provide test cases that satisfy X.

  13. High School Economics, Cooperative Learning, and the End-of-Course-Test--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this twelve-week case study was to explore the use of a cooperative learning strategy with small groups of students in a 12th-grade economics class as diverse learners prepared for tests. The complete case study was based on observations of students, student surveys, focus group interviews, and interviews with educators at…

  14. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  15. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  16. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 3: Case study, knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A case study of knowledge contributions from the crew life support aspect of the manned space program is reported. The new information needed to be learned, the solutions developed, and the relation of new knowledge gained to earthly problems were investigated. Illustrations are given in the following categories: supplying atmosphere for spacecraft; providing carbon dioxide removal and recycling; providing contaminant control and removal; maintaining the body's thermal balance; protecting against the space hazards of decompression, radiation, and meteorites; minimizing fire and blast hazards; providing adequate light and conditions for adequate visual performance; providing mobility and work physiology; and providing adequate habitability.

  17. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts WW Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Watts

    2000-02-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his ''WW'' threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This work was a continuation of testing performed by SES as reported in August of 1999. The connection design tested was identified as ''WW''. The samples were all integral (no coupled connections) and contained a wedge thread form with 90{sup o} flank angles relative to the pipe centerline. The wedge thread form is a variable width thread that primarily engages on the flanks. This thread form provides very high torque capacity and good stabbing ability and makeup. The test procedure selected for one of the samples was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections, which is currently going through the ISO acceptance process. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test procedure was performed with one sample. Four samples were tested to failure. Table 1 contains a summary of the tasks performed by SES. The project started with the delivery of test samples by Mr. Watts. Pipe from the previous round of tests was used for the new samples. Figure 1 shows the structural and sealing results relative to the pipe body. Sample 1 was used to determine the torque capacity of the connection. Torque was applied to the capacity of SES's equipment which was 28,424 ft-lbs. From this, an initial recommended torque range of 7,200 to 8,800 ft-lbs. was selected. The sample was disassembled and while there was no galling observed in the threads, the end of the pin had collapsed inward. Sample 2 received three makeups. Breakouts 1 and 2 also had collapsing of the pin end, with no thread galling. From these make/breaks, it was decided to reduce the amount of lubricant

  18. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  19. An Investigation of the Feasibility of Obtaining Additional Subscores on the GRE Advanced Psychology Test. GRE Board Professional Report GREB No. 74-4P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPeek, Miles; And Others

    This study was undertaken to determine whether additional information useful for guidance or placement could be derived from the existing Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Advanced Psychology Test. The number of subscores currently reported is limited by the high reliability required to make admissions decisions; subscores used only for guidance…

  20. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  1. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  2. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  3. Hurler-Scheie phenotype with parental consanguinity. Report of an additional case supporting the concept of genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kaibara, N; Katsuki, I; Hotokebuchi, T; Takagishi, K; Kure, T

    1983-05-01

    The Hurler-Scheie phenotype in a 27-year-old woman of first-cousin parentage is possibly the first reported in the orthopedic literature. The patient exhibited short stature, coarse facies, corneal clouding, multiple stiff joints, normal intelligence, and a long history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, which has not been relieved after operation. The irreversible nerve damage was apparently produced by the marked thickening of the transverse carpal ligament. Surgical findings in this case and data from published reports emphasize the need for early surgical treatment of the associated carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with the Hurler-Scheie phenotype. Parental consanguinity present in this patient is further evidence supporting the concept of a third mutant allele different from both the Hurler gene and the Scheie gene. PMID:6404579

  4. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  5. Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Gao, Jimin

    2003-01-01

    In the project 'Test-Case Generation using an Explicit State Model Checker' we have extended an existing tools infrastructure for formal modeling to export Java code so that we can use the NASA Ames tool Java Pathfinder (JPF) for test case generation. We have completed a translator from our source language RSML(exp -e) to Java and conducted initial studies of how JPF can be used as a testing tool. In this final report, we provide a detailed description of the translation approach as implemented in our tools.

  6. Addition of bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage IV ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Shi, Y; Zhang, G N; Song, S Q; Hu, T

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient was diagnosed with Stage IV ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases. The CA-125 level normalized after four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) using paclitaxel, nedaplatin, and bevacizumab (BEV) before surgery. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan showed significantly reduced bilateral adnexal masses after NACT fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in multiple lymph nodes was inhibited significantly, and the number and sites of metastatic lesions were decreased. The patient underwent optimal cytoreductive surgery. Chemotherapy was continued after surgery and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) (40 Gy) was applied for the remaining lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity and cervicothoracic region. No sign of recurrence has been observed in this patient nine months after surgery. The patient achieved a satisfactory outcome and no serious side effects were observed. Therefore, addition of BEV to NACT is a new method for the pre-operative treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:26189267

  7. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  8. Functional mapping of left parietal areas involved in simple addition and multiplication. A single-case study of qualitative analysis of errors.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Salillas, Elena; Grego, Alberto; Lazzarini, Anna; Vallesi, Antonino; Saladini, Marina; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    All electrostimulation studies on arithmetic have so far solely reported general errors. Nonetheless, a classification of the errors during stimulation can inform us about underlying arithmetic processes. The present electrostimulation study was performed in a case of left parietal glioma. The patient's erroneous responses suggested that calculation was mainly applied for addition and a combination of retrieval and calculation was mainly applied for multiplication. The findings of the present single-case study encourage follow up with further data collection with the same paradigm. PMID:24646158

  9. 30 CFR 250.524 - When am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... casing diagnostic test? 250.524 Section 250.524 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... am I required to take action from my casing diagnostic test? You must take action if you have any of... is not bled to 0 psig during a casing diagnostic test; (c) Any well that has demonstrated...

  10. Clinical implementation of whole-genome array CGH as a first-tier test in 5080 pre and postnatal cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is currently the most powerful method for detecting chromosomal alterations in pre and postnatal clinical cases. In this study, we developed a BAC based array CGH analysis platform for detecting whole genome DNA copy number changes including specific micro deletion and duplication chromosomal disorders. Additionally, we report our experience with the clinical implementation of our array CGH analysis platform. Array CGH was performed on 5080 pre and postnatal clinical samples from patients referred with a variety of clinical phenotypes. Results A total of 4073 prenatal cases (4033 amniotic fluid and 40 chorionic villi specimens) and 1007 postnatal cases (407 peripheral blood and 600 cord blood) were studied with complete concordance between array CGH, karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization results. Among 75 positive prenatal cases with DNA copy number variations, 60 had an aneuploidy, seven had a deletion, and eight had a duplication. Among 39 positive postnatal cases samples, five had an aneuploidy, 23 had a deletion, and 11 had a duplication. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of using our newly developed whole-genome array CGH as first-tier test in 5080 pre and postnatal cases. Array CGH has increased the ability to detect segmental deletion and duplication in patients with variable clinical features and is becoming a more powerful tool in pre and postnatal diagnostics. PMID:21549014

  11. Is one enough? The case for non-additive influences of visual features on crossmodal Stroop interference

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Donohue, Sarah E.; Park, Christina J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    When different perceptual signals arising from the same physical entity are integrated, they form a more reliable sensory estimate. When such repetitive sensory signals are pitted against other competing stimuli, such as in a Stroop Task, this redundancy may lead to stronger processing that biases behavior toward reporting the redundant stimuli. This bias would therefore, be expected to evoke greater incongruency effects than if these stimuli did not contain redundant sensory features. In the present paper we report that this is not the case for a set of three crossmodal, auditory-visual Stroop tasks. In these tasks participants attended to, and reported, either the visual or the auditory stimulus (in separate blocks) while ignoring the other, unattended modality. The visual component of these stimuli could be purely semantic (words), purely perceptual (colors), or the combination of both. Based on previous work showing enhanced crossmodal integration and visual search gains for redundantly coded stimuli, we had expected that relative to the single features, redundant visual features would have induced both greater visual distracter incongruency effects for attended auditory targets, and been less influenced by auditory distracters for attended visual targets. Overall, reaction times were faster for visual targets and were dominated by behavioral facilitation for the cross-modal interactions (relative to interference), but showed surprisingly little influence of visual feature redundancy. Post-hoc analyses revealed modest and trending evidence for possible increases in behavioral interference for redundant visual distracters on auditory targets, however, these effects were substantially smaller than anticipated and were not accompanied by a redundancy effect for behavioral facilitation or for attended visual targets. PMID:24198800

  12. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C

    2016-07-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. PMID:26995032

  13. Worst-case test vectors for functional failure induced by total dose in CMOS microcircuits with transmission gates

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Auf, A.A.; Barbe, D.F.; Rushdi, M.M.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have recently developed fault models for functional and leakage-current failures induced in circuits containing static CMOS gates (e.g., INV, NOR and NAND). They used these fault models to automatically generate worst-case test vectors (WCTV) for circuits composed of the above gates as basic building blocks. However, CMOS circuits can be composed from other building blocks in addition to static CMOS gates. One of these is the transmission gate (TG). Static CMOS gates and TGs together make up the majority of CMOS circuits. Unfortunately, functional failures induced in circuits containing TGs have received little attention in the past. Moreover, the authors are not aware of previous effort to identify WCTV for CMOS circuits containing TGs. The focus in this paper is to develop fault models for CMOS circuits containing TGs, then use these models to identify the combinations of irradiation and postirradiation test vectors that can result in a worst-case failure level of the circuit under test. In their analysis, they will use the circuits in the CMOSN Cell Library. This analysis is supported by SPICE simulation that utilizes experimentally extracted transistor parameters. They have also used their analysis to interpret data from a previous total-dose testing a test chip designed using the CMOSN Cell Library and fabricated using 1 {mu} technology.

  14. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  15. Statistical Risk Estimation for Communication System Design: Results of the HETE-2 Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, A.; Cheung, K.-M.

    2014-05-01

    The Statistical Risk Estimation (SRE) technique described in this article is a methodology to quantify the likelihood that the major design drivers of mass and power of a space system meet the spacecraft and mission requirements and constraints through the design and development lifecycle. The SRE approach addresses the long-standing challenges of small sample size and unclear evaluation path of a space system, and uses a combination of historical data and expert opinions to estimate risk. Although the methodology is applicable to the entire spacecraft, this article is focused on a specific subsystem: the communication subsystem. Using this approach, the communication system designers will be able to evaluate and to compare different communication architectures in a risk trade-off perspective. SRE was introduced in two previous papers. This article aims to present additional results of the methodology by adding a new test case from a university mission, the High-Energy Transient Experiment (HETE)-2. The results illustrate the application of SRE to estimate the risks of exceeding constraints in mass and power, hence providing crucial risk information to support a project's decision on requirements rescope and/or system redesign.

  16. Analytic power and sample size calculation for the genotypic transmission/disequilibrium test in case-parent trio studies

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Christoph; Taub, Margaret A.; Younkin, Samuel G.; Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Schwender, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Case-parent trio studies considering genotype data from children affected by a disease and from their parents are frequently used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease. The most popular statistical tests in this study design are transmission/disequlibrium tests (TDTs). Several types of these tests have been developed, e.g., procedures based on alleles or genotypes. Therefore, it is of great interest to examine which of these tests have the highest statistical power to detect SNPs associated with disease. Comparisons of the allelic and the genotypic TDT for individual SNPs have so far been conducted based on simulation studies, since the test statistic of the genotypic TDT was determined numerically. Recently, it, however, has been shown that this test statistic can be presented in closed form. In this article, we employ this analytic solution to derive equations for calculating the statistical power and the required sample size for different types of the genotypic TDT. The power of this test is then compared with the one of the corresponding score test assuming the same mode of inheritance as well as the allelic TDT based on a multiplicative mode of inheritance, which is equivalent to the score test assuming an additive mode of inheritance. This is, thus, the first time that the power of these tests are compared based on equations, yielding instant results and omitting the need for time-consuming simulation studies. This comparison reveals that the tests have almost the same power, with the score test being slightly more powerful. PMID:25123830

  17. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-01-01

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure. PMID:26801647

  18. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  19. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted. PMID:27428565

  20. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  1. Mutations of short tandem repeat loci in cases of paternity testing in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mao; Zhang, XiaoNan; Wu, Dan; Shen, Qi; Wu, YuanMing; Fu, ShanMin

    2016-09-01

    In order to find out the characteristics of genetic mutations in 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci, 3734 parentage cases were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Sinofiler kit. The allele source, mutation rate, and mutation rule of the STR loci were determined. Seventy mutations were observed in all cases for paternity testing. Among 15 STR loci, the highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.21 %), but the D5S818 gene mutation rate was relatively low (0.02 %). One-step mutation cases accounted for 95.7 % of all of the cases monitored. And the mutations in this study mainly showed paternal mutation (64/70). The research results are of great significance for identification and paternity tests and for the improvement of genetic studies on Chinese population in the future. PMID:26223683

  2. Test Cases for Wind Power Plant Dynamic Models on Real-Time Digital Simulator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present test cases for wind turbine generator and wind power plant models commonly used during commissioning of wind power plants to ensure grid integration compatibility. In this paper, different types of wind power plant models based on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council Wind Generator Modeling Group's standardization efforts are implemented on a real-time digital simulator, and different test cases are used to gauge their grid integration capability. The low-voltage ride through and reactive power support capability and limitations of wind turbine generators under different grid conditions are explored. Several types of transient events (e.g., symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, frequency dips) are included in the test cases. The differences in responses from different types of wind turbine are discussed in detail.

  3. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Appendices: Part 1-B. [Hydrate addition at low temperture for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differ considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. This report contains appendices of pilot plant testing in the following areas: (a) figures (data as collected at 10 minute intervals), and inlet SO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and gas temperature variations, (b) raw data (sample), (c) solids analysis (hydrate, baghouse solids, and ESP Solids), (d) selected analytical methods on (1) microtrac procedure, (2) BET surface area measurement, (3) DuPont photometric SO/sub 2/ analyzer, and (e) corrosion test data.

  4. A Case Example of the Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in a High School Setting Using Change Point Test Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank; Fenning, Pamela; Hicks, Kira; Weber, Stacey; Thier, Kimberly; Aikins, Brigit; Morrissey, Kelly; Briggs, Alissa; Bartucci, Gina; McArdle, Lauren; Hoeper, Lisa; Irvin, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to expand the literature base regarding the application of high school schoolwide positive behavior support in an urban setting for practitioners and policymakers to address behavior issues. In addition, the study describes the use of the Change Point Test as a method for analyzing time series data that are…

  5. Impact Testing and Analysis of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is a heavy structure because of its size and because of the requirement that it contain a blade released during engine operation. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing the weight of the case. Efficient design, test, and analysis methods are needed to efficiently evaluate the large number of potential composite materials and design concepts. The type of damage expected in a composite case under blade-out conditions was evaluated using a subscale test in which a glass/epoxy composite half-ring target was impacted with a wedge-shaped titanium projectile. Fiber shearing occurred near points of contact between the projectile and target. Delamination and tearing occurred on a larger scale. These damage modes were reproduced in a simpler test in which flat glass/epoxy composites were impacted with a blunt cylindrical projectile. A surface layer of ceramic eliminated fiber shear fracture but did not reduce delamination. Tests on 3D woven carbon/epoxy composites indicated that transverse reinforcement is effective in reducing delamination. A 91 cm (36 in.) diameter full-ring sub-component was proposed for larger scale testing of these and other composite concepts. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses indicated that a full-ring test is needed to simulate complete impact dynamics, but simpler tests using smaller ring sections are adequate when evaluation of initial impact damage is the primary concern.

  6. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  7. Computational Test Cases for a Clipped Delta Wing with Pitching and Trailing-Edge Control Surface Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Walker, Charlotte E.

    1999-01-01

    Computational test cases have been selected from the data set for a clipped delta wing with a six-percent-thick circular-arc airfoil section that was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The test cases include parametric variation of static angle of attack, pitching oscillation frequency, trailing-edge control surface oscillation frequency, and Mach numbers from subsonic to low supersonic values. Tables and plots of the measured pressures are presented for each case. This report provides an early release of test cases that have been proposed for a document that supplements the cases presented in AGARD Report 702.

  8. Design and Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.; Arnold, William a.; Dorer, James D.; Watson, William R/.

    2009-01-01

    Triaxial braid composite materials are beginning to be used in fan cases for commercial gas turbine engines. The primary benefit for the use of composite materials is reduced weight and the associated reduction in fuel consumption. However, there are also cost benefits in some applications. This paper presents a description of the braided composite materials and discusses aspects of the braiding process that can be utilized for efficient fabrication of composite cases. The paper also presents an approach that was developed for evaluating the braided composite materials and composite fan cases in a ballistic impact laboratory. Impact of composite panels with a soft projectile is used for materials evaluation. Impact of composite fan cases with fan blades or blade-like projectiles is used to evaluate containment capability. A post-impact structural load test is used to evaluate the capability of the impacted fan case to survive dynamic loads during engine spool down. Validation of these new test methods is demonstrated by comparison with results of engine blade-out tests.

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  10. 30 CFR 250.423 - What are the requirements for pressure testing casing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for pressure testing casing? 250.423 Section 250.423 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling...

  11. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...

  12. EPA worst case water microcosms for testing phage biocontrol of Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microplate method was developed as a tool to test phages for their ability to control Salmonella in aqueous environments. The method used EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) worst case water (WCW) in 96-well plates. The WCW provided a consistent and relatively simple defined turbid aqueou...

  13. A selection of experimental test cases for the validation of CFD codes, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study by Working Group 14 of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel. This group was formed to establish an accessible, detailed experimental data base for the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The thirty nine test cases that are documented cover the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes and five classes of geometries. Included in the five classes of geometries are: two dimensional airfoils; three dimensional wings, designed for predominantly attached flow conditions; slender bodies, typical of missile type configurations; delta wings, characterized by a conical type of vortex flow; and complex configurations, either in a geometrical sense or because of complicated flow interactions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a review of the theoretical and experimental requirements, a general introduction and summary of the test cases, and recommendations for the future. Volume 2 contains detailed information on the test cases. The relevant data of all test cases has been compiled on floppy disks, which can be obtained through National Centers.

  14. The Role of a Computerised Case-Based Testing Procedure in Practice Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwirth, L.; Gorter, S.; Van der Heijde, D.; Rethans, J. J.; Brauer, J.; Houben, H.; Van der Linden, S.; Van der Vleuten, C.; Scherpbier, A.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: For postgraduate training of doctors there is a need for valid and reliable instruments to assess their daily performance. Various instruments have been suggested, some of which use incognito simulated patients (SPs). These methods are resource intensive. Computerised Case-based testing (CCT) is logistically simpler and may still…

  15. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 4: Test cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. Representative test cases and associated program output are presented.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    This case study by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Building Science Corporation is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, Florida; zone 2A), insulated with air-permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass).

  17. The Significance of the TAAS Test for Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Adolescents: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Angela

    2000-01-01

    A 3-year case study of a Houston (Texas) high school demonstrates that high stakes testing is an alienating feature of schooling. The need to pass the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills to graduate discourages many Mexican American and immigrant Mexican students from completing high school or considering college. The English-only nature of the…

  18. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  19. A set of verification test cases for Eiger : plane wave scattering from a sphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel

    2004-10-01

    This report discusses a set of verification test cases for the frequency-domain, boundary-element, electromagnetics code Eiger based on the analytical solution of plane wave scattering from a sphere. Three cases will be considered: when the sphere is made of perfect electric conductor, when the sphere is made of lossless dielectric and when the sphere is made of lossy dielectric. We outline the procedures that must be followed in order to carefully compare the numerical solution to the analytical solution. We define an error criterion and demonstrate convergence behavior for both the analytical and numerical cases. These problems test the code's ability to calculate the surface current density and secondary quantities, such as near fields and far fields.

  20. Testing hypotheses in case-control studies--equivalence of Mantel-Haenszel statistics and logit score tests.

    PubMed

    Day, N E; Byar, D P

    1979-09-01

    The two approaches in common use for the analysis of case-control studies are cross-classification by confounding variables, and modeling the logarithm of the odds ratio as a function of exposure and confounding variables. We show here that score statistics derived from the likelihood function in the latter approach are identical to the Mantel-Haenszel test statistics appropriate for the former approach. This identity holds in the most general situation considered, testing for marginal homogeneity in mK tables. This equivalence is demonstrated by a permutational argument which leads to a general likelihood expression in which the exposure variable may be a vector of discrete and/or continuous variables and in which more than two comparison groups may be considered. This likelihood can be used in analyzing studies in which there are multiple controls for each case or in which several disease categories are being compared. The possibility of including continuous variables makes this likelihood useful in situations that cannot be treated using the Mantel-Haenszel cross-classification approach. PMID:497345

  1. Molecular dynamics methods to predict peptide locations in membranes: LAH4 as a stringent test case.

    PubMed

    Farrotti, A; Bocchinfuso, G; Palleschi, A; Rosato, N; Salnikov, E S; Voievoda, N; Bechinger, B; Stella, L

    2015-02-01

    Determining the structure of membrane-active peptides inside lipid bilayers is essential to understand their mechanism of action. Molecular dynamics simulations can easily provide atomistic details, but need experimental validation. We assessed the reliability of self-assembling (or "minimum-bias") and potential of mean force (PMF) approaches, using all-atom (AA) and coarse-grained (CG) force-fields. The LAH4 peptide was selected as a stringent test case, since it is known to attain different orientations depending on the protonation state of its four histidine residues. In all simulations the histidine side-chains inserted in the membrane when neutral, while they interacted with phospholipid headgroups in their charged state. This led to transmembrane orientations for neutral-His LAH4 in all minimum-bias AA simulations and in most CG trajectories. By contrast, the charged-His peptide stabilized membrane defects in AA simulations, whereas it was located at the membrane surface in some CG trajectories, and interacted with both lipid leaflets in others. This behavior is consistent with the higher antimicrobial activity and membrane-permeabilizing behavior of the charged-His LAH4. In addition, good agreement with solid-state NMR orientational data was observed in AA simulations. PMF calculations correctly predicted a higher membrane affinity for the neutral-His peptide. Interestingly, the structures and relative populations of PMF local free-energy minima corresponded to those determined in the less computationally demanding minimum-bias simulations. These data provide an indication about the possible membrane-perturbation mechanism of the charged-His LAH4 peptide: by interacting with lipid headgroups of both leaflets through its cationic side-chains, it could favor membrane defects and facilitate translocation across the bilayer. PMID:25445672

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Real-time extended interface automata for software testing cases generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system. PMID:24892080

  4. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system. PMID:24892080

  5. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last...

  6. Design, testing, and planning considerations for a 20-in. record casing string

    SciTech Connect

    Pejac, R.D.; Fontenot, E.P.

    1988-06-01

    During May 1984, a total of 12,455 ft -3800 m) of 20-in., 169-lbf/ft -51-cm,2.47-N/m) C-95 casing was successfully run and cemented to the surface in L.W. Magoun No. 1, Concordia Parish, LA. The string consisted of 303 joints and required 49 hours to run. The casing weight in 9.7-lbm/gal -1162-kg/m/sup 3/) mud was 1.8X10/sup 6/ lbm -826 Mg). This paper discusses the engineering, operational planning, and job execution for this world-record string of 20-in. -51-cm) casing. The topics include casing design, manufacturing, connection testing, and running and cementing procedures.

  7. A hybrid model for combining case-control and cohort studies in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Yulun; Ning, Jing; Cormier, Janice; Chu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests often involve a mixture of case-control and cohort studies. The standard methods for evaluating diagnostic accuracy only focus on sensitivity and specificity and ignore the information on disease prevalence contained in cohort studies. Consequently, such methods cannot provide estimates of measures related to disease prevalence, such as population averaged or overall positive and negative predictive values, which reflect the clinical utility of a diagnostic test. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that jointly models the disease prevalence along with the diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in cohort studies, and the sensitivity and specificity in case-control studies. In order to overcome the potential computational difficulties in the standard full likelihood inference of the proposed hybrid model, we propose an alternative inference procedure based on the composite likelihood. Such composite likelihood based inference does not suffer computational problems and maintains high relative efficiency. In addition, it is more robust to model mis-specifications compared to the standard full likelihood inference. We apply our approach to a review of the performance of contemporary diagnostic imaging modalities for detecting metastases in patients with melanoma. PMID:25897179

  8. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  9. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  10. Direct assessment of multiple testing correction in case-control association studies with related individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoheng

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies typically test large numbers of genetic variants in association with trait values. It is well known that linkage disequilibrium (LD) between nearby markers tends to introduce correlation among association tests. Failure to properly adjust for multiple comparisons can lead to false-positive results or missing true-positive signals. The Bonferroni correction is generally conservative in the presence of LD. The permutation procedure, although has been widely employed to adjust for correlated tests, is not applicable when related individuals are included in case-control samples. With related individuals, the dependence among relatives' genotypes can also contribute to the correlation between tests. We present a new method P(norm) to correct for multiple hypothesis testing in case-control association studies in which some individuals are related. The adjustment with P(norm) simultaneously accounts for two sources of correlations of the test statistics: (1) LD among genetic markers (2) dependence among genotypes across related individuals. Using simulated data based on the International HapMap Project, we demonstrate that it has better control of type I error and is more powerful than some of the recently developed methods. We apply the method to a genome-wide association study of alcoholism in the GAW 14 COGA data set and detect genome-wide significant association. PMID:21181898

  11. Arterial gas embolism during pressure tolerance testing in a hyperbaric chamber: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, D Kim

    2010-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of arterial gas embolism (AGE) occurring during the course of routine pressure tolerance testing (PTT) of Canadian Forces divers in a dry hyperbaric chamber. PTT is used by many military organizations as a means to determine whether divers can sustain a hyperbaric challenge similar to that to which they will be exposed during their diving duties. Problems arising from such testing are usually limited to issues of equalization and minor otic barotraumas. Incidents of AGE resulting from hyperbaric chamber exposures in general are very unusual. The incidents reported here are the first such cases arising in military divers during PTT to be reported in the extant literature. In one case a potential precipitating pulmonary lesion was identified during post-event chest imaging. In the other case, while presenting with all the usual hallmarks of an AGE, no predisposing pulmonary lesion was identified. Ascent rates were within the limits considered acceptable by the Canadian Forces for PTT. The cases are useful in examining the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying pulmonary barotrauma and AGE, and raise questions as to the appropriate screening procedures for military divers in this regard. PMID:21197859

  12. Use of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in two cases from community psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Eve S; Lorenz, Raymond A; Winner, Joel G

    2016-01-01

    This report describes two cases in which pharmacogenomic testing was utilized to guide medication selection for difficult to treat patients. The first patient is a 29-year old male with bipolar disorder who had severe akathisia due to his long acting injectable antipsychotic. The second patient is a 59-year old female with major depressive disorder who was not responding to her medication. In both cases, a proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic test was used to inform medication changes and improve patient outcomes. The first patient was switched to a long acting injectable that was not affected by his genetic profile and his adverse effects abated. The second patient had her medications discontinued due to the results of the genetic testing and more intense psychotherapy initiated. While pharmacogenomic testing may be helpful in cases such as these presented here, it should never serve as a proxy for a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach. The pharmacogenomic information may be selectively added to this comprehensive approach to support medication treatment. PMID:27574460

  13. Use of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in two cases from community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Lorenz, Raymond A; Winner, Joel G

    2016-01-01

    This report describes two cases in which pharmacogenomic testing was utilized to guide medication selection for difficult to treat patients. The first patient is a 29-year old male with bipolar disorder who had severe akathisia due to his long acting injectable antipsychotic. The second patient is a 59-year old female with major depressive disorder who was not responding to her medication. In both cases, a proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic test was used to inform medication changes and improve patient outcomes. The first patient was switched to a long acting injectable that was not affected by his genetic profile and his adverse effects abated. The second patient had her medications discontinued due to the results of the genetic testing and more intense psychotherapy initiated. While pharmacogenomic testing may be helpful in cases such as these presented here, it should never serve as a proxy for a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach. The pharmacogenomic information may be selectively added to this comprehensive approach to support medication treatment. PMID:27574460

  14. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide. PMID:27062339

  15. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups. PMID:21427270

  16. Naive Hypothesis Testing for Case Series Analysis with Time-Varying Exposure Onset Measurement Error: Inference for Infection-Cardiovascular Risk in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Sandra M.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Şentürk, Damla

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case series method is useful in studying the relationship between time-varying exposures, such as infections, and acute events observed during the observation periods of individuals. It provides estimates of the relative incidences of events in risk periods (e.g., 30-day period after infections) relative to the baseline periods. When the times of exposure onsets are not known precisely, application of the case series model ignoring exposure onset measurement error leads to biased estimates. Bias-correction is necessary in order to understand the true directions and effect sizes associated with exposure risk periods, although uncorrected estimators have smaller variance. Thus, inference via hypothesis testing based on uncorrected test statistics, if valid, is potentially more powerful. Furthermore, the tests can be implemented in standard software and do not require additional auxiliary data. In this work, we examine the validity and power of naive hypothesis testing, based on applying the case series analysis to the imprecise data without correcting for the error. Based on simulation studies and theoretical calculations, we determine the validity and relative power of common hypothesis tests of interest in case series analysis. In particular, we illustrate that the tests for the global null hypothesis, the overall null hypotheses associated with all risk periods or all age effects are valid. However, tests of individual risk period parameters are not generally valid. Practical guidelines are provided and illustrated with data from patients on dialysis. PMID:23731166

  17. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  18. Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data.

    PubMed

    Laituri, Tony R; Henry, Scott; El-Jawahri, Raed; Muralidharan, Nirmal; Li, Guosong; Nutt, Marvin

    2015-11-01

    A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, "risk curve") was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli). For the NASS portion of the analysis, chest-injury outcomes for adult male drivers about the size of the THOR50 were collected from real-world, 11-1 o'clock, full-engagement frontal crashes (NASS, 1995-2012 calendar years, 1985-2012 model-year light passenger vehicles). The screening for THOR50-sized men involved application of a set of newly-derived "correction" equations for self-reported height and weight data in NASS. Finally, THOR50 stimuli were estimated via field simulations involving attendant representative restraint systems, and those stimuli were then assigned to corresponding NASS cases (n=508). For the PMHS portion of the analysis, simulation-based closure equations were developed to convert PMHS stimuli into THOR50 stimuli. Specifically, closure equations were derived for the four measurement locations on the THOR50 chest by cross-correlating the results of matched-loading simulations between the test dummy and the age-dependent, Ford Human Body Model. The resulting closure equations demonstrated acceptable fidelity (n=75 matched simulations, R2≥0.99). These equations were applied to the THOR50-sized men in the PMHS dataset (n=20). The NASS and PMHS datasets were combined and subjected to survival

  19. Valuations of Genetic Test Information for Treatable Conditions: The Case of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kilambi, Vikram; Johnson, F. Reed; González, Juan Marcos; Mohamed, Ateesha F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The value of the information that genetic testing services provide can be questioned for insurance-based health systems. The results of genetic tests oftentimes may not lead to well-defined clinical interventions; however, Lynch syndrome, a genetic mutation for which carriers are at an increased risk for colorectal cancer, can be identified through genetic testing, and meaningful health interventions are available via increased colonoscopic surveillance. Valuations of test information for such conditions ought to account for the full impact of interventions and contingent outcomes. Objectives To conduct a discrete-choice experiment to elicit individuals’ preferences for genetic test information. Methods A Web-enabled discrete-choice experiment survey was administered to a representative sample of US residents aged 50 years and older. In addition to specifying expenditures on colonoscopies, respondents were asked to make a series of nine selections between two hypothetical genetic tests or a no-test option under the premise that a relative had Lynch syndrome. The hypothetical genetic tests were defined by the probability of developing colorectal cancer, the probability of a false-negative test result, privacy of the result, and out-of-pocket cost. A model specification identifying necessary interactions was derived from assumptions of risk behavior and the decision context and was estimated using random-parameters logit. Results A total of 650 respondents were contacted, and 385 completed the survey. The monetary equivalent of test information was approximately $1800. Expenditures on colonoscopies to reduce mortality risks affected valuations. Respondents with lower income or who reported being employed significantly valued genetic tests more. Conclusion Genetic testing may confer benefits through the impact of subsequent interventions on private individuals. PMID:25498779

  20. The case for endurance testing of sodium-heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Onesto, A.T.; Zweig, H.R.; Gibbs, D.C. . Rocketdyne Division.); Carlson, R.D. ); Rodwell, E. ); Kakarala, C.R. )

    1993-08-01

    After operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators in U.S. nuclear plants during the past 33 years and plugging thousands of tubes and replacing numerous steam generators at immense costs, utility and steam generator designers are now confident that they can design, build, and operate PWR steam generators successfully. Deployment of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) will likely follow the same scenario if long-term testing is not performed and development completed prior to commercial deployment. A case is made for endurance testing of steam generators to be used in future LMFBRs.

  1. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.

  2. Corrosion coupon testing in natural waters: A case history dealing with reverse osmosis desalination of seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, R.M.; Adamson, W.L.; Weber, B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a series of corrosion tests performed to determine the general and localized corrosion behavior of two stainless alloys (UNS S31603 and UNS N08367) and 70/30 CuNi (UNS C71500) in three aqueous environments associated with advanced reverse osmosis (TO) desalination of natural seawater. In addition to seawater (the RO feed stock), the other environments included a 2nd-pass RO brine with lower chloride content and total dissolved solids than raw seawater, and an ultrapure 3rd-pass permeate. Two ASTM standards were reviewed for guidance in the design of the experiment. Since testing could be conducted in an operating prototype RO system, the test program followed the general procedures for an in-plant corrosion tests described by ASTM G4-95: Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Coupon Tests in Field Applications. This standard, along with G78-95: Standard Guide for Crevice Corrosion Testing of Iron-Base and Nickel-Base Alloys in Seawater and Other Chloride-Containing Environments, provided guidance in the selection of test specimens and mounting fixtures as well as crevice formers utilized. The G78-95 standard guide also provided considerations associated with the interpretation of the crevice corrosion test results.

  3. Design, manufacture and test of the composite case for ERINT-1 solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mard, Francis

    1993-06-01

    SEP is in charge since 1989 of the ERINT-1 motor case and nozzle. The stringent missile weight and volume requirements coupled with the specification to provide an aerodynamically stable configuration over a very large Mach number range led to the need to develop a high-performance composite motor case. Development of this SRM case presented a variety of technical challenges that were solved by an original design: (1) integral skirts, high bending stiffness, and bending loads are required; (2) high temperature composite stiffness and loads are required up to 160 C; (3) integral fin lugs attachments high aerodynamic loading is required on fin lugs; (4) enclosed fore dome; and (5) aft-pinned joint: a large rear opening is required to cast the propellant. Structural testing in ultimate conditions confirmed the soundness of the design. Positive safety margins were demonstrated on both internal pressure and mechanical loads requirements.

  4. Legionnaires’ disease after using an industrial pressure test pump: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Legionnaires’ disease is an acute pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of aerosols contaminated with Legionella bacteria. The majority (>90%) of Legionnaires’ disease cases are caused by the species Legionella pneumophila, and about 85% more specifically by L. pneumophila serogroup 1 that can be detected by a fast and easy to perform urinary antigen test. Previously reported sources of infection include cooling towers, plumbing systems of hospitals, and whirlpool spas, but for the majority of cases of Legionnaires’ disease the source of infection remains unknown. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to a Dutch hospital with pneumonia, where a culture of the available bronchial lavage was found positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 3, confirming the diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease. An environmental investigation identified a manually operated pressure test pump at the metal processing company where he worked as the source of infection: the water sample from the pump contained 9·8×103 colony forming units/L L. pneumophila, and sequence-based typing showed the same sequence type (ST93) for both the clinical and environmental strains. Conclusion This case shows that Legionnaires’ disease can be acquired by exposure to relatively rare sources that are not considered in regular control and prevention measures. PMID:24467827

  5. Idealized global nonhydrostatic atmospheric test cases on a reduced-radius sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemp, J. B.; Skamarock, W. C.; Park, S.-H.

    2015-09-01

    Idealized simulations on a reduced-radius sphere can provide a useful vehicle for evaluating the behavior of nonhydrostatic processes in nonhydrostatic global atmospheric dynamical cores provided the simulated cases exhibit good agreement with corresponding flows in a Cartesian geometry, and for which there are known solutions. Idealized test cases on a reduced-radius sphere are presented here that focus on both dry and moist dynamics. The dry dynamics cases are variations of mountain-wave simulations designed for the Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP), and permit quantitative comparisons with linear analytic mountain-wave solutions in a Cartesian geometry. To evaluate moist dynamics, an idealized supercell thunderstorm is simulated that has strong correspondence to results obtained on a flat plane, and which can be numerically converged by specifying a constant physical diffusion. A simple Kessler-type routine for cloud microphysics is provided that can be readily implemented in atmospheric simulation models. Results for these test cases are evaluated for simulations with the Model for Prediction across scales (MPAS). They confirm close agreement with corresponding simulations in a Cartestian geometry; the mountain-wave results agree well with analytic mountain-wave solutions, and the simulated supercells are consistent with other idealized supercell simulation studies and exhibit convergent behavior.

  6. Simple F Test Reveals Gene-Gene Interactions in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanjie; Yuan, Ao; Zhou, Jie; Bentley, Amy R.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Missing heritability is still a challenge for Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Gene-gene interactions may partially explain this residual genetic influence and contribute broadly to complex disease. To analyze the gene-gene interactions in case-control studies of complex disease, we propose a simple, non-parametric method that utilizes the F-statistic. This approach consists of three steps. First, we examine the joint distribution of a pair of SNPs in cases and controls separately. Second, an F-test is used to evaluate the ratio of dependence in cases to that of controls. Finally, results are adjusted for multiple tests. This method was used to evaluate gene-gene interactions that are associated with risk of Type 2 Diabetes among African Americans in the Howard University Family Study. We identified 18 gene-gene interactions (P < 0.0001). Compared with the commonly-used logistical regression method, we demonstrate that the F-ratio test is an efficient approach to measuring gene-gene interactions, especially for studies with limited sample size. PMID:22837643

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.E.; Guldry, F.K.; Graham, R.L.; Curtis, J.B.; Shaw, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the data collected on the well, to present the data analyses, and to demonstrate how the various analyses are being integrated to form a better overall understanding of Devonian shale gas reservoirs.

  9. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  10. A case of korean ginseng-induced anaphylaxis confirmed by open oral challenge and basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2012-03-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pain 10 minutes after oral intake of fresh ginseng. He had suffered from episodes of allergic rhinitis during the spring season for several years. Upon presentation, a physical examination, chest radiograph, and routine laboratory tests were unremarkable. Total serum IgE level was 41 IU/mL. The SPT results showed strong positive responses to alder, birch pollens, and ginseng extracts (1:500 w/v). The methacholine bronchial challenge test revealed a positive result at PC20 of 5.83 mg/mL. The open oral challenge was performed using 50 g of fresh ginseng and showed immediate onset of facial flushing, cough, respiratory difficulty with wheeze, and abdominal pain combined with a significant decrease in FEV1 levels (54% from the baseline). Serum-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies were not detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BAT showed a remarkable increase in the expression of CD203c and CD63 with the addition of ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner, while no changes were noted in the controls. In conclusion, oral intake of Korean ginseng could induce anaphylaxis, which is mediated by non-IgE-dependent direct activation of basophil/mast cells. PMID:22379608

  11. Genetic testing and counseling in the case of an autism diagnosis: A caregivers perspective.

    PubMed

    Hens, Kristien; Peeters, Hilde; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-09-01

    The search for genes that can explain the development of autism is ongoing. At the same time, genetic counselling and genetic testing can be offered to families with a child diagnosed with autism. However, given the complexity of autism, both with respect to its aetiology as well as with respect to its heterogeneity, such genetic counselling and testing raises specific ethical questions regarding the aim and scope. In order to map these questions and opinions we interviewed 15 Belgian autism professionals. We found that they believed that genetic counselling and genetic testing have certain benefits for families confronted with an autism diagnosis, but also that direct benefit to the child is limited to those cases where a genetic finding offers a certain prognosis and intervention plan. In cases where autism is the result of a syndrome or a known genetic variant that is associated with other health problems, detection can also enable prevention of these health issues. Benefits of genetic testing, such as relief of guilt and reproductive choice, are primarily benefits to the parents, although indirectly they may affect the wellbeing of the person diagnosed. These benefits are associated with ethical questions. PMID:27544064

  12. Unconsented HIV Testing in Cases of Occupational Exposure: Ethics, Law, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. PMID:22994417

  13. Ballistic and Cyclic Rig Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    FAA fan blade-out certification testing on turbofan engines occurs very late in an engine's development program and is very costly. It is of utmost importance to approach the FAA Certification engine test with a high degree of confidence that the containment structure will not only contain the high-energy debris, but that it will also withstand the cyclic loads that occur with engine spooldown and continued rotation as the non-running engine maintains a low rotor RPM due to forced airflow as the engine-out aircraft returns to an airport. Accurate rig testing is needed for predicting and understanding material behavior of the fan case structure during all phases of this fan blade-out event.

  14. [Significance of the urine strip test in case of stunted growth].

    PubMed

    Bertholet-Thomas, A; Llanas, B; Servais, A; Bendelac, N; Goizet, C; Choukroun, G; Novo, R; Decramer, S

    2015-07-01

    Observation of stunted growth in children usually leads the general practitioner to refer the patient to endocrinologists or gastroenterologists. In most cases, after a complementary check-up, the diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated. However, certain cases remain undiagnosed, particularly renal etiologies, such as proximal tubulopathy. The urine strip test at the initial check-up would be an easy and inexpensive test to avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of the present paper is to increase general physicians' and pediatricians' awareness of the significance of questioning the parents and using the urine strip test for any child presenting stunted growth. We report a patient case of a 20-month-old child admitted to the emergency department for severe dehydration. He had displayed stunted growth since the age of 5 months and showed a negative etiologic check-up at 9 months of age. Clinical examination at admission confirmed stunted growth with loss of 2 standard deviations and signs of dehydration with persistent diuresis. Skin paleness, ash-blond hair, and signs of rickets were also observed and the urine strip test showed positive pads for glycosuria and proteinuria. Polyuria and polydipsia were also revealed following parents' questioning, suggesting proximal tubulopathy (Fanconi syndrome). Association of stunted growth, rickets, polyuria and polydipsia, glycosuria (without ketonuria and normal glycemia), and proteinuria suggest nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmic examination showed cystine deposits in the cornea. The semiotic diagnosis of nephropathic cystinosis was confirmed by leukocyte cystine concentrations and genetic investigations. This case report clearly illustrates the significance of the urine strip test to easily and quickly concentrate the diagnosis of stunted growth on a renal etiology (glycosuria, proteinuria), especially on proximal tubulopathy for which the most frequent cause is nephropathic cystinosis. Specificity of nephropathic

  15. A Joint Association Test for Multiple SNPs in Genetic Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Jacob, Howard; Ghosh, Soumitra; Wang, Xujing; Zeng, Zhao-Bang

    2009-01-01

    For a dense set of genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on high linkage disequilibrium within a small candidate region, a haplotype-based approach for testing association between a disease phenotype and the set of markers is attractive in reducing the data complexity and increasing the statistical power. However, due to unknown status of the underlying disease variant, a comprehensive association test may require consideration of various combinations of the SNPs, which often leads to severe multiple testing problems. In this paper, we propose a latent variable approach to test for association of multiple tightly linked SNPs in case-control studies. First, we introduce a latent variable into the penetrance model to characterize a putative disease susceptible locus (DSL) that may consist of a marker allele, a haplotype from a subset of the markers, or an allele at a putative locus between the markers. Next, through using of a retrospective likelihood to adjust for the case-control sampling ascertainment and appropriately handle the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium constraint, we develop an expectation-maximization (EM)-based algorithm to fit the penetrance model and estimate the joint haplotype frequencies of the DSL and markers simultaneously. With the latent variable to describe a flexible role of the DSL, the likelihood ratio statistic can then provide a joint association test for the set of markers without requiring an adjustment for testing of multiple haplotypes. Our simulation results also reveal that the latent variable approach may have improved power under certain scenarios comparing with classical haplotype association methods. PMID:18770519

  16. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Watts

    1999-08-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This particular test required the application of a variety of loads including axial tension and compression, internal pressure (gas), external pressure (water), bending and both low and elevated temperature. These loads were used to determine the sealing and structural limits of the connection. The connection design tested had tapered threads with 10 threads per inch. A square thread form and a round thread form were tested. The square thread form had a 2{sup o} load flank and 15{sup o} stab flank. The round thread had a 0{sup o} load flank and 20{sup o} stab flank. Most of the testing was performed on the round thread form. Both a coupled connection design and an integral connection design were tested. The coupling was a pin by pin (male) thread, with the pipe having a box (female) thread. Both designs have outside and inside diameters that are flush with the pipe body. Both designs also contain a small external shoulder. The test procedure selected for this evaluation was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test was performed with four coupled samples and included most of these loads. Two integral samples were also included for limit load testing ISO makeup/breakout tests are divided into three types--initial makeup, IML1, repeated makeup within the same sample, MBL, and repeated makeup using several samples called round robin, RR. IMU and MBL were performed in this project. The ISO sealing and structural procedure is divided into four primary tests and identified as Series A, B, C and Limit Load (failure

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with cutaneous lesions, negative Leishman-Donovan bodies and immunological test: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Khorvash, Farzin; Naeini, Alireza Emami; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a patient from Shush in Iran with cutaneous lesions, negative for Leishman-Donovan bodies, enlarged spleen filled by leishmania protozoa and negative immunological test. The patient was a 26-year-old male, who attended hospital with fever and two deep purulent lesions on the distal part of his left leg. On physical examination, the patient had splenomegaly. Laboratory results were as follows: pancytopenia, positive C-reactive protein (CRP), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels .The necessary treatment was administrated to the patient. Biopsy of lesion for Leishman-Donovan body was negative. In addition, indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) screening for leishmaniasis was negative. Diagnostic splenectomy was performed which pathological exploration showed a bulk of leishmania protozoa in patient's spleen. Twenty days later, this patient expired. PMID:22973355

  18. Post-and prenatal testing for FSHD: Diagnostic approach for sporadic and familial cases

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, E.; Wielen, M.J.R. van der; Losekoot, M.

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. A major locus for FSHD was localized at the distal part of chromosome 4q. More recently, a disease associated DNA rearrangement was detected with the polymorphic probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1). In most FSHD patients, a shortened (< 28 kb instead of 50-300 kb) allele was detected. In sporadic patients a de novo deletion was found to be associated with the occurrence of FSHD. Diagnostically there were a number of problems to overcome. (1) About 5% of families show no linkage to chromosome 4q35. (2) Some 10% normal individuals show a shortened p13E11 allele, which is located at chromosome 10q. Our diagnostic strategy is as follows: If in sporadic patients a shortened p13E-11 allele is detected and neither parent shows this allele, then a de novo deletion has occurred and FSHD is proven. If no shortened allele is detected FSHD is less likely. In case one of the parents shows a shortened allele then clinical investigations and linkage studies are performed for both chromosome 4 and 10 markers. In familial cases both p13E-11 and polymorphic markers are tested. A shortened p13E-11 allele and/or chromosome 4 haplotype segregating with FSHD can be used for presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis. Up to now, 45 sporadic cases and 21 families were referred for diagnosis. In 22 sporadic cases a shortened allele was detected, 13 were proven de novo. The first prenatal test was recently performed. The index patient was a de novo case with a shortened allele; the fetus had inherited this allele.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Kernel Machine Testing for Risk Prediction with Stratified Case Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this paper, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We therefore propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:26692376

  1. Kernel machine testing for risk prediction with stratified case cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:26692376

  2. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, R.; Page-Christiaens, G. C. M. L.; van Oppen, A. C. C.; Lichtenbelt, K. D.; van Harssel, J. J. T.; Brouwer, T.; Manten, G. T. R.; van Zon, P.; Elferink, M.; Kusters, K.; Akkermans, O.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Schuring-Blom, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result. PMID:26137330

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing in Post-mortem Genetic Testing of Young Sudden Cardiac Death Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Behr, Elijah R.; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young (<40 years) occurs in the setting of a variety of rare inherited cardiac disorders and is a disastrous event for family members. Establishing the cause of SCD is important as it permits the pre-symptomatic identification of relatives at risk of SCD. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is defined as SCD in the setting of negative autopsy findings and toxicological analysis. In such cases, reaching a diagnosis is even more challenging and post-mortem genetic testing can crucially contribute to the identification of the underlying cause of death. In this review, we will discuss the current achievements of “the molecular autopsy” in young SADS cases and provide an overview of key challenges in assessing pathogenicity (i.e., causality) of genetic variants identified through next-generation sequencing. PMID:27303672

  4. Understanding Out-of-Level Testing in Local Schools: A First Case Study of Policy Implementation and Effects. Out-of-Level Testing Report 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnema, Jane E.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Warren, Sandra Hopfengardner

    2004-01-01

    This report is the first accounting of one case study of large-scale assessment practices in a local educational agency (LEA) where students with disabilities are administered states' standards-based tests out of level. The overall purpose of the research project was to describe the specific effects of testing students with disabilities out of…

  5. A noninvasive biomechanical treatment as an additional tool in the rehabilitation of an acute anterior cruciate ligament tear: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Avi; Cohen, Marc S; Debbi, Eytan M; Rath, Udi; Mor, Amit; Morag, Guy; Beer, Yiftah; Segal, Ganit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Conservative treatments for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears may have just as good an outcome as invasive treatments. These include muscle strengthening and neuromuscular proprioceptive exercises to improve joint stability and restore motion to the knee. The Purpose of the current work presents was to examine the feasibility of a novel non-invasive biomechanical treatment to improve the rehabilitation process following an ACL tear. This is a single case report that presents the effect of this therapy in a patient with a complete ACL rupture who chose not to undergo reconstructive surgery. Methods: A 29-year old female athlete with an acute indirect injury to the knee who chose not to undergo surgery was monitored. Two days after injury the patient began AposTherapy. A unique biomechanical device was specially calibrated to the patient’s feet. The therapy program was initiated, which included carrying out her daily routine while wearing the device. The subject underwent a gait analysis at baseline and follow-up gait analyses at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 26. Results: A severe abnormal gait was seen immediately after injury, including a substantial decrease in gait velocity, step length and single limb support. In addition, limb symmetry was substantially compromised following the injury. After 4 weeks of treatment, patient had returned to normal gait values and limbs asymmetry reached the normal range. Conclusions: The results of this case report suggest that this conservative biomechanical therapy may have helped this patient in her rehabilitation process. Further research is needed in order to determine the effect of this therapy for patients post ACL injuries. PMID:27489638

  6. The role of Metals in Amyloid Aggregation: A Test Case for ab initio Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Minicozzi, V.; Rossi, G. C.; Stellato, F.; Morante, S.

    2007-12-26

    First principle ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Car-Parrinello type have proved to be of invaluable help in understanding the microscopic mechanisms of chemical bonding both in solid state physics and in structural biophysics. In this work we present as test cases the study of the Cu coordination mode in two especially important examples: Prion protein and {beta}-amyloids. Using medium size PC-clusters as well as larger parallel platforms, we are able to deal with systems comprising 300 to 500 atoms and 1000 to 1500 electrons for as long as 2-3 ps. We present structural results which confirm indications coming from NMR and XAS data.

  7. A preliminary 'test case' manufacturing sequence for 50 cents/watt solar photovoltaic modules in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a 'test case' manufacturing process sequence for solar photovoltaic modules which will cost 50 cents/watt in 1986. The process, which starts with the purification of silicon grown into 75-mm-wide thin ribbons, is discussed, and the plant layout is depicted; each department is sized to produce 250 MW of modules/per year. The cost of this process sequence is compared to present technology at various companies showing considerable spread for each process; data are tabulated in a composite state-of-the-art cell processing cost summary for these processes.

  8. Halogen bonded supramolecular capsules: a challenging test case for quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Diederich et al. synthesized the first supramolecular capsule with a well-defined four-point halogen bonding interaction [Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 12339]. This interesting system comprising about 400 atoms represents a challenging test case for accurate quantum chemical methods. We investigate it with our new density functional based composite method for structures and noncovalent interactions (PBEh-3c) as well as our standard protocol for supramolecular thermochemistry and give predictions for chemical modifications to improve the binding strength. PMID:27416814

  9. Generating Combinatorial Test Cases by Efficient SAT Encodings Suitable for CDCL SAT Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banbara, Mutsunori; Matsunaka, Haruki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Inoue, Katsumi

    Generating test cases for combinatorial testing is to find a covering array in Combinatorial Designs. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding optimal covering arrays by SAT encoding. We present two encodings suitable for modern CDCL SAT solvers. One is based on the order encoding that is efficient in the sense that unit propagation achieves the bounds consistency in CSPs. Another one is based on a combination of the order encoding and Hnich's encoding. CDCL SAT solvers have an important role in the latest SAT technology. The effective use of them is essential for enhancing efficiency. In our experiments, we found solutions that can be competitive with the previously known results for the arrays of strength two to six with small to moderate size of components and symbols. Moreover, we succeeded either in proving the optimality of known bounds or in improving known lower bounds for some arrays.

  10. Stakeholder Input and Test Design: A Case Study on Changing the Interlocutor Familiarity Facet of the Group Oral Discussion Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Test takers should have a voice in testing practices (Mathew, 2004). However, when incorporating their input, systematic processes to ensure the validity of testing practices must be followed. Such processes allow for test development to be a more democratic process (Shohamy, 2001), without sacrificing the value of the resulting inferences made…

  11. Testing Synchrony in Historical Biogeography: The Case of New World Primates and Hystricognathi Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Aguiar, Barbara O.; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The abrupt appearance of primates and hystricognath rodents in early Oligocene deposits of South America has puzzled mastozoologists for decades. Based on the geoclimatic changes that occurred during the Eocene/Oligocene transition period that may have favoured their dispersal, researchers have proposed the hypothesis that these groups arrived in synchrony. Nevertheless, the hypothesis of synchronous origins of platyrrhine and caviomorph in South America has not been explicitly evaluated. Our aim in this work was to apply a formal test for synchronous divergence times to the Platyrrhini and Caviomorpha splits. We have examined a previous work on platyrrhine and hystricognath origins, applied the test to a case where synchrony is known to occur and conducted simulations to show that it is possible to formally test the age of synchronous nodes. We show that the absolute ages of Platyrrhini/Catarrhini and Caviomorpha/Phiomorpha splits depend on data partitioning and that the test applied consistently detected synchronous events when they were known to have happened. The hypothesis that the arrival of primates and hystricognaths to the New World consisted of a unique event cannot be rejected PMID:22346342

  12. Testing synchrony in historical biogeography: the case of new world primates and hystricognathi rodents.

    PubMed

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Aguiar, Barbara O; Schrago, Carlos G

    2012-01-01

    The abrupt appearance of primates and hystricognath rodents in early Oligocene deposits of South America has puzzled mastozoologists for decades. Based on the geoclimatic changes that occurred during the Eocene/Oligocene transition period that may have favoured their dispersal, researchers have proposed the hypothesis that these groups arrived in synchrony. Nevertheless, the hypothesis of synchronous origins of platyrrhine and caviomorph in South America has not been explicitly evaluated. Our aim in this work was to apply a formal test for synchronous divergence times to the Platyrrhini and Caviomorpha splits. We have examined a previous work on platyrrhine and hystricognath origins, applied the test to a case where synchrony is known to occur and conducted simulations to show that it is possible to formally test the age of synchronous nodes. We show that the absolute ages of Platyrrhini/Catarrhini and Caviomorpha/Phiomorpha splits depend on data partitioning and that the test applied consistently detected synchronous events when they were known to have happened. The hypothesis that the arrival of primates and hystricognaths to the New World consisted of a unique event cannot be rejected. PMID:22346342

  13. A hierarchical Bayesian approach to adaptive vision testing: A case study with the contrast sensitivity function

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hairong; Kim, Woojae; Hou, Fang; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Myung, Jay I.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement efficiency is of concern when a large number of observations are required to obtain reliable estimates for parametric models of vision. The standard entropy-based Bayesian adaptive testing procedures addressed the issue by selecting the most informative stimulus in sequential experimental trials. Noninformative, diffuse priors were commonly used in those tests. Hierarchical adaptive design optimization (HADO; Kim, Pitt, Lu, Steyvers, & Myung, 2014) further improves the efficiency of the standard Bayesian adaptive testing procedures by constructing an informative prior using data from observers who have already participated in the experiment. The present study represents an empirical validation of HADO in estimating the human contrast sensitivity function. The results show that HADO significantly improves the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates, and therefore requires many fewer observations to obtain reliable inference about contrast sensitivity, compared to the method of quick contrast sensitivity function (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), which uses the standard Bayesian procedure. The improvement with HADO was maintained even when the prior was constructed from heterogeneous populations or a relatively small number of observers. These results of this case study support the conclusion that HADO can be used in Bayesian adaptive testing by replacing noninformative, diffuse priors with statistically justified informative priors without introducing unwanted bias. PMID:27105061

  14. Exploring Operational Test and Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Qualitative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliceti, Jose A.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore and identify strategies that may potentially remedy operational test and evaluation procedures used to evaluate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology. The sample for analysis consisted of organizations testing and evaluating UASs (e.g., U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and Customs Border Protection). A purposeful sampling technique was used to select 15 subject matter experts in the field of operational test and evaluation of UASs. A questionnaire was provided to participants to construct a descriptive and robust research. Analysis of responses revealed themes related to each research question. Findings revealed operational testers utilized requirements documents to extrapolate measures for testing UAS technology and develop critical operational issues. The requirements documents were (a) developed without the contribution of stakeholders and operational testers, (b) developed with vague or unrealistic measures, and (c) developed without a systematic method to derive requirements from mission tasks. Four approaches are recommended to develop testable operational requirements and assist operational testers: (a) use a mission task analysis tool to derive requirements for mission essential tasks for the system, (b) exercise collaboration among stakeholders and testers to ensure testable operational requirements based on mission tasks, (c) ensure testable measures are used in requirements documents, and (d) create a repository list of critical operational issues by mission areas. The preparation of operational test and evaluation processes for UAS technology is not uniform across testers. The processes in place are not standardized, thus test plan preparation and reporting are different among participants. A standard method to prepare and report UAS technology should be used when preparing and reporting on UAS technology. Using a systematic process, such as mission

  15. [Motor adaptation in the Bielschowsky head-tilt test in cases of superior oblique palsy].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, H; Kishimoto, F; Kobashi, R; Watanabe, S; Okano, M; Furuse, H

    1992-08-01

    To elucidate a motor adaptation phenomenon in the Bielschowsky head-tilt test in cases of superior oblique palsy, a gain of the otolith-ocular reflex was studied. The amplitude of ocular counter-rolling (OCR) of the non-paretic eye was measured with a photographic method, using limbal conjunctival marks as landmarks which were marked with indigo carmine. The average preoperative OCR of the non-paretic eye was 10.49 degrees at 30 degrees of head tilt to both sides, but after corrective surgery in the paretic eye the OCR of the non-paretic eye decreased to 8.43 degrees. To clarify the relation between OCR, duration of palsy and vertical deviation of the Bielschowsky head-tilt test (BHP), which was the difference of vertical deviation measured with the head tilted to the left and right shoulders at an angle of 30 degrees, the BHP/OCR ratio was calculated. We found no relation between BHP and OCR, but the BHP/OCR ratio increased proportionally in cases of long-standing palsy, From these results an increased BHP/OCR ratio could be an adaptive phenomenon caused by secondary innervational changes or muscle contracture to minimizing the contralateral head tilt to maintain binocular single vision. PMID:1519508

  16. Testing the model of oblique transpression with oblique extrusion in two natural cases: Steps and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Kinematic models of various types of transpression have been used to explain fabric features and strain in many natural deformation studies. Here, a mathematical model that encompasses all monoclinic and triclinic transpressional deformations including triclinic deformation with inclined simple shear (ϕ) and/or inclined extrusion orientations (υ) can be tested using a step-by-step approach with available field evidence. Two cases are presented. The first case from the Wabigoon-Quetico boundary in the Archean Superior Province utilizes both fabric orientation and quantified strain data. The best fit of the field evidence to the model indicates that deformation likely took place along subvertical shear zones via transpression with subhorizontal simple shear (ϕ = 0-20°) and variable inclined extrusion direction (extrusion can be either east or west and υ typically indicates extrusion orientations between 0 and 50° from vertical). The second case of the South Iberian shear zone has fabric orientation data, but no quantifiable strain possibilities. The best fit of the field evidence to the model indicates that deformation likely took place along a moderately inclined shear zone via transpression with subhorizontal simple shear (ϕ = 0-20°) and variable inclined extrusion direction (υ values between 0° and 80° from the true dip of the shear zone). Using this protocol in other examples of natural deformation will allow further constraints to be applied to kinematic models.

  17. Field testing of electronically commutated motors for supermarket display cases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    A field test was conducted to determine the savings achievable through the use of electronically commutated motors (ECMs) for fans in supermarket refrigerated display cases. The ECMs replaced the existing shaded-pole motors in a frozen food case lineup. Measurements were taken before and after this retrofit to determine the demand and energy consumption of the fan motors and of the compressors, and the refrigeration load associated with the cases. The measurements showed that the fan ECMs reduced energy consumption by 1.6 kWh/d/fan and demand by 0.07 kW/fan. The estimated annual savings achieved for a supermarket were 47,534 kWh in energy consumption and 6.0 kW in demand where all shaded-pole fan motors were replaced by ECMs and 32,546 kWh in energy consumption and 4.1 kW in demand when all permanent split capacitor motors were replaced by ECM motors.

  18. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Gren, D C; Simon, S L; Wrenn, M E; Hawthorne, H A; Lotz, T M; Stevens, W; Till, J E

    1990-11-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS. PMID:2211126

  19. Comparison of ORSAT and SCARAB Reentry Analysis Tools for a Generic Satellite Test Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Hill, Nicole M.; Rochelle, W. C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; Lips, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reentry analysis is essential to understanding the consequences of the full life cycle of a spacecraft. Since reentry is a key factor in spacecraft development, NASA and ESA have separately developed tools to assess the survivability of objects during reentry. Criteria such as debris casualty area and impact energy are particularly important to understanding the risks posed to people on Earth. Therefore, NASA and ESA have undertaken a series of comparison studies of their respective reentry codes for verification and improvements in accuracy. The NASA Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) and the ESA Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup (SCARAB) reentry analysis tools serve as standard codes for reentry survivability assessment of satellites. These programs predict whether an object will demise during reentry and calculate the debris casualty area of objects determined to survive, establishing the reentry risk posed to the Earth's population by surviving debris. A series of test cases have been studied for comparison and the most recent uses "Testsat," a conceptual satellite composed of generic parts, defined to use numerous simple shapes and various materials for a better comparison of the predictions of these two codes. This study is an improvement on the others in this series because of increased consistency in modeling techniques and variables. The overall comparison demonstrated that the two codes arrive at similar results. Either most objects modeled resulted in close agreement between the two codes, or if the difference was significant, the variance could be explained as a case of semantics in the model definitions. This paper presents the main results of ORSAT and SCARAB for the Testsat case and discusses the sources of any discovered differences. Discussion of the results of previous comparisons is made for a summary of differences between the codes and lessons learned from this series of tests.

  20. Experimental and numerical study on a laminar fluid-structure interaction reference test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. Pereira; Yigit, S.; Lienhart, H.; Schäfer, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of numerical codes for fluid-structure interaction computations, the demand for validation test cases increases. In this paper we present a comparison between numerical and experimental results for such a fluid-structure interaction reference test case. The investigated structural model consists of an aluminum front cylinder with an attached thin metal plate and a rear mass at the trailing edge. All the structure is free to rotate around the axle mounted in the center of the front cylinder. The model's geometry and mechanical properties are chosen in such a way as to attain a self-exciting periodical swiveling movement when exposed to a uniform laminar flow. Reproducibility of the coupled fluid-structure motion is the key criterion for the selection of the model in order to permit an accurate reconstruction of the results in the time-phase space. The Reynolds number of the tests varies up to 270 and within that range the structure undergoes large deformations and shows a strong nonlinear behavior. It also presents two different self-excitation mechanisms depending on the flow velocity. Hence, challenging tasks arise for both the numerical solution algorithm and the experimental measurements. To account for the two different excitation mechanisms observed on increasing the speed of the flow, results for two different velocities are considered: the first at 1.07 m/s (Re=140) and the second at 1.45 m/s (Re=195). The comparisons presented in this paper are carried out on the basis of the time trace of the front body angle, trailing edge coordinates, structure deformation and the time-phase resolved flow velocity field. They reveal very good agreement in some of the fluid-structure interaction modes whereas in others deficiencies are observed that need to be analyzed in more detail.

  1. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. PMID:19025323

  2. Interference of M-protein on prothrombin time testcase report

    PubMed Central

    Margetić, Sandra; Ćelap, Ivana; Dukić, Lora; Vukasović, Ines; Virović-Jukić, Lucija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present a case of interference on prothrombin time (PT) test that directed further laboratory diagnostics and resulted with final detection of monoclonal gammopathy in an 88-year old man. Routine coagulation testing during medical examination at Emergency Department revealed unmeasurable PT (< 7% activity) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) within reference range. After repeated sampling for coagulation testing, PT was unmeasurable again, as well as fibrinogen level (< 0.8 g/L), thrombin time (TT) was significantly prolonged (107 seconds) and aPTT was within reference range. In both plasma samples refrigerated at 4 ˚C overnight, white gelatinous precipitate was visible between the cell and plasma layers and the presence of monoclonal protein (M-protein) was suggested in our patient. Further laboratory diagnostics revealed total serum proteins at concentration of 123 g/L and the presence of M-protein IgG lambda (λ) at concentration of 47.1 g/L. These results suggested monoclonal gammopathy as an underlying pathophysiological condition in our patient. Activities of coagulation factors II, V, VII and X were within reference ranges or increased. These results and correction of unmeasurable PT result to 67% in mixing test with commercial normal plasma suggest in vitro rather than in vivo interference of M-protein on PT result. In contrast, significantly prolonged TT results in all analysed samples suggest impact of M-protein on this global coagulation test due to possible effect on fibrin polymerization. PMID:27346971

  3. Fate and Transport of Phthalates in Indoor Environments and the Influence of Temperature: A Case Study in a Test House.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chenyang; Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-18

    A case study in a test house was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in residential indoor environments and the influence of temperature. Total airborne concentrations of phthalates were sensitive to indoor temperatures, and their steady-state concentration levels increased by a factor of 3 with an increase in temperature from 21 to 30 °C. Strong sorption of phthalates was observed on interior surfaces, including dust, dish plates, windows, mirrors, fabric cloth, and wood. Equilibrium partitioning coefficients for phthalates adsorbed to these surfaces were determined, and their values decreased with increasing temperature. For impervious surfaces, dimensionless partitioning coefficients were calculated and found to be comparable to reported values of the octanol-air partition coefficients of phthalates, Koa, suggesting that an organic film may develop on these surfaces. In addition, sorption kinetics was studied experimentally, and the equilibration time scale for impervious surfaces was found to be faster than that of fabric cloth. Finally, using an indoor fate model to interpret the measurement results, there was good agreement between model predictions and the observed indoor air concentrations of BBzP in the test house. PMID:26200125

  4. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  5. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, Ron

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the initial Phase 1 test process for testing the reliability of software models that predict retrofit energy savings of existing homes, including their associated calibration methods.

  6. Role of the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative mapping of language and memory: two atypical cases.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Moseley, Brian D; Walshaw, Patricia; Eliashiv, Dawn; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2015-01-01

    The Wada test is an invasive procedure used to determine cerebral memory and language dominance as well as risk of cognitive deficits following neurosurgery. However, the potential risks of Wada testing have led some to consider foregoing Wada testing in candidates for resective epilepsy surgery with right hemispheric seizure onset. We present two atypical cases in which the Wada test showed unexpected memory and language lateralization. These cases underscore the importance of functional magnetic resonance in which imaging and Wada examination in right-handed individuals even when the lesion would not suggest atypical language representation. PMID:25372664

  7. Accountability Issues in Testing Academic Literacy: The Case of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students (TALPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambiritch, Avasha

    2015-01-01

    Applied linguists should strive to ensure that the tests they design and use are not only fair and socially acceptable, but also have positive effects--this, in light of the fact that tests can sometimes have far-reaching and often detrimental effects on test-takers. What this paper will attempt to do, is highlight how this concern for responsible…

  8. A case of misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment: The utility of symptom validity testing in an outpatient memory clinic.

    PubMed

    Roor, Jeroen J; Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; Ponds, Rudolf W H M

    2016-01-01

    Noncredible symptom reports hinder the diagnostic process. This fact is especially the case for medical conditions that rely on subjective report of symptoms instead of objective measures. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) primarily relies on subjective report, which makes it potentially susceptible to erroneous diagnosis. In this case report, we describe a 59-year-old female patient diagnosed with MCI 10 years previously. The patient was referred to the neurology department for reexamination by her general practitioner because of cognitive complaints and persistent fatigue. This case study used information from the medical file, a new magnetic resonance imaging brain scan, and neuropsychological assessment. Current neuropsychological assessment, including symptom validity tests, clearly indicated noncredible test performance, thereby invalidating the obtained neuropsychological test data. We conclude that a blind spot for noncredible symptom reports existed in the previous diagnostic assessments. This case highlights the usefulness of formal symptom validity testing in the diagnostic assessment of MCI. PMID:26496437

  9. Exercise testing in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: case report with ECG and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jezior, Matthew R; Kent, Steven M; Atwood, J Edwin

    2005-04-01

    ECG changes during exercise stress testing, such as false-positive ST-segment depression and disappearance of the delta wave, are reported in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern. We present a case of exercise testing in a 53-year-old man with WPW syndrome with ischemic-appearing ECG changes and normal nuclear stress perfusion study findings who was thought to be at clinically low risk for having significant coronary disease. A literature review is discussed. Although ST-segment depression typical for ischemia occurs in half of the patients in whom WPW syndrome is reported, exercise testing is still an important tool in their evaluation. Data other than ECG response can be interpreted in the context of clinical history and physical examination findings to stratify the risk of coronary disease. Complete and sudden disappearance of the delta wave has been seen during exercise in 20% of patients with WPW syndrome and can identify those who are at low risk for sudden arrhythmic death. PMID:15821231

  10. Pitfalls of Establishing DNA Barcoding Systems in Protists: The Cryptophyceae as a Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Hoef-Emden, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    A DNA barcode is a preferrably short and highly variable region of DNA supposed to facilitate a rapid identification of species. In many protistan lineages, a lack of species-specific morphological characters hampers an identification of species by light or electron microscopy, and difficulties to perform mating experiments in laboratory cultures also do not allow for an identification of biological species. Thus, testing candidate barcode markers as well as establishment of accurately working species identification systems are more challenging than in multicellular organisms. In cryptic species complexes the performance of a potential barcode marker can not be monitored using morphological characters as a feedback, but an inappropriate choice of DNA region may result in artifactual species trees for several reasons. Therefore a priori knowledge of the systematics of a group is required. In addition to identification of known species, methods for an automatic delimitation of species with DNA barcodes have been proposed. The Cryptophyceae provide a mixture of systematically well characterized as well as badly characterized groups and are used in this study to test the suitability of some of the methods for protists. As species identification method the performance of blast in searches against badly to well-sampled reference databases has been tested with COI-5P and 5′-partial LSU rDNA (domains A to D of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene). In addition the performance of two different methods for automatic species delimitation, fixed thresholds of genetic divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC), have been examined. The study demonstrates some pitfalls of barcoding methods that have to be taken care of. Also a best-practice approach towards establishing a DNA barcode system in protists is proposed. PMID:22970104

  11. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  12. Case study of preliminary cyclic load evaluation and triaxial soil testing in offshore wind farm planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Daniel; Ossig, Benjamin; Kreiter, Stefan; Kouery, Saed; Moerz, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    compared to literature results. The shown case study is intended to demonstrate a feasible procedure for evaluating cyclic loads, designing test procedures, presenting results and interpreting data in a so far unregulated field without common standards. The presented data has been produced within the framework of germanwind, a science industry partnership including RWE-Innogy, ENOVA and MARUM.

  13. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy tasked NREL to develop a process for testing the reliability of models that predict retrofit energy savings, including their associated calibration methods. DOE asked NREL to conduct the work in phases so that a test procedure would be ready should DOE need it to meet legislative requirements related to residential retrofits in FY 2010. This report documents the initial 'Phase 1' test procedure.

  14. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  15. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory

  16. Genetic testing and private insurance--a case of "selling one's body"?

    PubMed

    Hübner, D

    2006-01-01

    Arguments against the possible use of genetic test results in private health and life insurance predominantly refer to the problem of certain gene carriers failing to obtain affordable insurance cover. However, some moral intuitions speaking against this practice seem to be more fundamental than mere concerns about adverse distributional effects. In their perspective, the central ethical problem is not that some people might fail to get insurance cover because of their 'bad genes', but rather that some people would manage to get insurance cover because of their 'good genes'. This paper tries to highlight the ethical background of these intuitions. Their guiding idea appears to be that, by pointing to his favourable test results, a customer might make an attempt to 'sell his body'. The rationale of this concept is developed and its applicability to the case at issue is critically investigated. The aim is to clarify an essential objection against the use of genetic information in private insurance which has not yet been openly addressed in the academic debate of the topic. PMID:16645797

  17. Full-scale turbine-missile-casing tests. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of two full-scale tests simulating the impact of turbine disk fragments on simple ring and shell structures that represent the internal stator blade ring and the outer housing of an 1800-rpm steam turbine casing. The objective was to provide benchmark data on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and, if breakthrough occured, the exit conditions of the turbine missile. A rocket sled was used to accelerate a 1527-kg (3366-lb) segment of a turbine disk, which impacted a steel ring 12.7 cm (5 in.) thick and a steel shell 3.2 cm (1.25 in.) thick. The impact velocity of about 150 m/s (492 ft/s) gave a missile kinetic energy corresponding to the energy of a fragment from a postulated failure at the design overspeed (120% of operating speed). Depending on the orientation of the missile at impact, the steel test structure either slowed the missile to 60% of its initial translational velocity or brought it almost to rest (an energy reduction of 65 and 100%, respectively). The report includes structural and finite element analysis and data interpretation, estimates of energy during impact, missile displacement and velocity histories, and selected strain gage data.

  18. Dynamic behaviors of historical wrought iron truss bridges: a field testing case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Wang, Ying; Hedric, Andrew; Huang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. transportation infrastructure has many wrought iron truss bridges that are more than a century old and still remain in use. Understanding the structural properties and identifying the health conditions of these historical bridges are essential to deciding the maintenance or rebuild plan of the bridges. This research involved an on-site full-scale system identification test case study on the historical Old Alton Bridge (a wrought iron truss bridge built in 1884 in Denton, Texas) using a wireless sensor network. The study results demonstrate a practical and convenient experimental system identification method for historical bridge structures. The method includes the basic steps of the in-situ experiment and in-house data analysis. Various excitation methods are studied for field testing, including ambient vibration by wind load, forced vibration by human jumping load, and forced vibration by human pulling load. Structural responses of the bridge under these different excitation approaches were analyzed and compared with numerical analysis results.

  19. The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parsons, Richard; Andreou, Pantelis

    2013-01-01

    The use of standardised tools is an essential component of evidence-based practice. Reliance on standardised tools places demands on clinicians to understand their properties, strengths, and weaknesses, in order to interpret results and make clinical decisions. This paper makes a case for clinicians to consider measurement error (ME) indices Coefficient of Repeatability (CR) or the Smallest Real Difference (SRD) over relative reliability coefficients like the Pearson's (r) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), while selecting tools to measure change and inferring change as true. The authors present statistical methods that are part of the current approach to evaluate test-retest reliability of assessment tools and outcome measurements. Selected examples from a previous test-retest study are used to elucidate the added advantages of knowledge of the ME of an assessment tool in clinical decision making. The CR is computed in the same units as the assessment tool and sets the boundary of the minimal detectable true change that can be measured by the tool. PMID:24040139

  20. Investigation of Nonlinear Site Response and Seismic Compression from Case History Analysis and Laboratory Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Eric

    In this thesis I address a series of issues related to ground failure and ground motions during earthquakes. A major component is the evaluation of cyclic volumetric strain behavior of unsaturated soils, more commonly known as seismic compression, from advanced laboratory testing. Another major component is the application of nonlinear and equivalent linear ground response analyses to large-strain problems involving highly nonlinear dynamic soil behavior. These two components are merged in the analysis of a truly unique and crucial field case history of nonlinear site response and seismic compression. My first topic concerns dynamic soil testing for relatively small strain dynamic soil properties such as threshold strains, gammatv. Such testing is often conducted using specialized devices such as dual-specimen simple-shear, as devices configured for large strain testing produce noisy signals in the small strain range. Working with a simple shear device originally developed for large-strain testing, I extend its low-strain capabilities by characterizing noisy signals and utilizing several statistical methods to extract meaningful responses in the small strain range. I utilize linear regression of a transformed variable to estimate the cyclic shear strain from a noisy signal and the confidence interval on its amplitude. I utilize Kernel regression with the Nadaraya-Watson estimator and a Gaussian kernel to evaluate vertical strain response. A practical utilization of these techniques is illustrated by evaluating threshold shear strains for volume change with a procedure that takes into account uncertainties in the measured shear and vertical strains. My second topic concerns the seismic compression characteristics of non-plastic and low-plasticity silty sands with varying fines content (10 ≤ FC ≤ 60%). Simple shear testing was performed on various sand-fines mixtures at a range of modified Proctor relative compaction levels ( RC) and degrees-of-saturation (S