Science.gov

Sample records for additional test methods

  1. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine the rates of emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from kilns, in-line kiln/raw mills and associated... operators conducting tests to determine the rates of emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from kilns,...

  3. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  4. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  5. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  6. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  7. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  8. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  9. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  10. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  12. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  13. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  14. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  15. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  16. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  17. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  18. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free...

  19. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free...

  20. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at NIOSH, National... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free...

  1. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  2. The test and treatment methods of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and an addition to the management of vertigo due to the superior vestibular canal (BPPV-SC).

    PubMed

    Rahko, T

    2002-10-01

    A review of the tests and treatment manoeuvres for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior, horizontal and superior vestibular canals is presented. Additionally, a new way to test and treat positional vertigo of the superior vestibular canal is presented. In a prospective study, 57 out of 305 patients' visits are reported. They had residual symptoms and dizziness after the test and the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal canal (BPPV-HC) and posterior canal (PC). They were tested with a new test and treated with a new manoeuvre for superior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV-SC). Results for vertigo in 53 patients were good; motion sickness and acrophobia disappeared. Reactive neck tension to BPPV was relieved. Older people were numerous among patients and their quality of life (QOL) improved.

  3. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  4. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  5. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  6. Simulation method for evaluating progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2013-06-20

    Since progressive addition lenses (PALs) are currently state-of-the-art in multifocal correction for presbyopia, it is important to study the methods for evaluating PALs. A nonoptical simulation method used to accurately characterize PALs during the design and optimization process is proposed in this paper. It involves the direct calculation of each surface of the lens according to the lens heights of front and rear surfaces. The validity of this simulation method for the evaluation of PALs is verified by the good agreement with Rotlex method. In particular, the simulation with a "correction action" included into the design process is potentially a useful method with advantages of time-saving, convenience, and accuracy. Based on the eye-plus-lens model, which is established through an accurate ray tracing calculation along the gaze direction, the method can find an excellent application in actually evaluating the wearer performance for optimal design of more comfortable, satisfactory, and personalized PALs. PMID:23842170

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled by the pilot under normal operating conditions (such as where the primary engine power control is...: (1) Category A. Unless such failures are extremely remote, it must be shown by test that any...

  8. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... controlled by the pilot under normal operating conditions (such as where the primary engine power control is...: (1) Category A. Unless such failures are extremely remote, it must be shown by test that any...

  9. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  10. Simple Additivity of Stochastic Psychological Processes: Tests and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of testing relatively complete (distributional) models of internal psychological processes are described. It is shown that there is a sufficient condition for additive models to imply this property of the likelihood ratio. Also discussed are the examination of hazard rate functions of component processes and change in cumulative…

  11. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  12. Modern Methods of Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, F

    1939-01-01

    After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.

  13. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  14. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  15. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  16. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  17. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  18. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  19. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  20. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  1. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  2. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...

  3. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  4. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  5. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....

  6. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  7. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke. PMID:25397771

  8. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Accelerated Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Neural network systems were evaluated for use in predicting wear of mechanical systems. Three different neural network software simulation packages were utilized in order to create models of tribological wear tests. Representative simple, medium, and high complexity simulation packages were selected. Pin-on-disk, rub shoe, and four-ball tribological test data was used for training, testing, and verification of the neural network models. Results showed mixed success. The neural networks were able to predict results with some accuracy if the number of input variables was low or the amount of training data was high. Increased neural network complexity resulted in more accurate results, however there was a point of diminishing return. Medium complexity models were the best trade off between accuracy and computing time requirements. A NASA Technical Memorandum and a Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers paper are being published which detail the work.

  10. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission test using the techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4); (2) Determine the net heating value of the... the Administrator the opportunity to have an observer present during the test. If after 30 days notice... in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this...

  11. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  12. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  13. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...

  14. Evaluating Three Different Methods of Determining Addition in Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Negareh; Khorasani, Abbas Azimi; Moghadam, Hanieh Mirhajian; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Shandiz, Javad Heravian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods for determining addition in presbyopes. Methods: The study included 81 subjects with presbyopia who aged 40-70 years. Reading addition values were measured using 3 approaches including the amplitude of accommodation (AA), dynamic retinoscopy (DR), and increasing plus lens (IPL). Results: IPL overestimated reading addition relative to other methods. Mean near addition obtained by AA, DR and IPL were 1.31, 1.68 and 1.77, respectively. Our results showed that IPL method could provide 20/20 vision at near in the majority of presbyopic subjects (63.4%). Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance. PMID:27621785

  15. Ultrasonic testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, N.C.

    1989-02-21

    This patent describes an ultrasonic sound scanning method for detection of ultrasonic anomalies in a workpiece having an inspection surface and at least one formation which results in an echo-masked zone in the workpiece, the method including carrying out an inspection pass by (a) directing a beam of ultrasonic sound pulses from a probe along a beam axis through a transmission medium and impinging the beam upon the inspection surface at a selected impingement angle and thence into the workpiece, (b) receiving echo pulses thereby reflected from the workpiece, (c) displaying the echo pulses to reveal those, if any, which indicate the existence of anomalies within the workpiece, and (d) traversing the beam in a pre-selected path along the inspection surface, the improvement comprising: making one or more first inspection passes with the probe oriented so that, relative to the workpiece, the beam lies within one or more first scanning planes which are non-perpendicular to at least one of the return-reflecting formation at its point or respective points of intersection with the first plane or planes, whereby to reduce the volume of the echo-masked zone relative to that which would be generated with the probe oriented in a corresponding number or one or more scanning planes which are perpendicular to at least one return-reflecting formation.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methods shall be validated according to the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c... necessitating that the owner or operator make a product in excess of demand. (iii) Causing plant or testing... General Provisions; (2) Determine the net heating value of the gas being combusted, using the...

  17. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  18. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  19. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is a major contributor to short and long term work absence. Patients seek care from their general practitioner (GP) and yet GPs often feel ill-equipped to deal with work issues. Providing a vocational case management service in primary care, to support patients with musculoskeletal problems to remain at or return to work, is one potential solution but requires robust evaluation to test clinical and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial, with linked qualitative interviews, to investigate the effect of introducing a vocational advice service into general practice, to provide a structured approach to managing work related issues in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain who are absent from work or struggling to remain in work. General practices (n = 6) will be randomised to offer best current care or best current care plus a vocational advice service. Adults of working age who are absent from or struggling to remain in work due to a musculoskeletal pain problem will be invited to participate and 330 participants will be recruited. Data collection will be through patient completed questionnaires at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported work absence at 4 months. Incremental cost-utility analysis will be undertaken to calculate the cost per additional QALY gained and incremental net benefits. A linked interview study will explore the experiences of the vocational advice service from the perspectives of GPs, nurse practitioners (NPs), patients and vocational advisors. Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Study of Work And Pain (SWAP) trial. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform primary care practice and guide the development of services to provide support for musculoskeletal pain patients with work-related issues. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52269669. PMID:25012813

  20. Testing Nested Additive, Multiplicative, and General Multitrait-Multimethod Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.

    2000-01-01

    Provides alternatives to the definitions of additive and multiplicative method effects in multitrait-multimethod data given by D. Campbell and E. O'Connell (1967). The alternative definitions can be formulated by means of constraints in the parameters of the correlated uniqueness model (H. Marsh, 1989). (SLD)

  1. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart... customer; or necessitating that the owner or operator make product in excess of demand. (2) References in... emission test using the techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4); (2) Determine the net heating value of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart... demand. (iii) Causing plant or testing personnel to be subject to unsafe conditions. Owners or operators... the techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4) of the General Provisions; (2) Determine the net...

  3. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart... customer; or necessitating that the owner or operator make product in excess of demand. (2) References in... emission test using the techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4); (2) Determine the net heating value of...

  4. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  5. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387

  6. Test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.

    1994-01-01

    Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.

  7. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  8. Testing biodegradability with standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Pagga, U

    1997-12-01

    Laboratory test methods are used by industry laboratories to determine biodegradability, an important parameter for the evaluation of the ecological behaviour of substances. Biodegradability has a key role due to the simple fact that a degradable substance will cause no long term risk in the environment. The great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants for treating waste water and solid wastes gave rise to a rather large number of test methods based on different test principles. To guarantee the acceptance of the test results by authorities and customers internationally standardized methods (ISO, OECD) and established quality criteria (GLP, EN 45,000, ISO 9000) are used. PMID:9415981

  9. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  12. Methods for testing transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-11-14

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data.

  13. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  14. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  15. A kind of optimizing design method of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yunhai; Qian, Lin; Wu, Quanying; Yu, Jingchi; Chen, Hao; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2010-10-01

    Progressive addition lenses are a kind of ophthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper, distance-viewing area, to a maximum value in the lower, near-viewing area. A kind of optimizing design method of progressive addition lenses is proposed to improve the optical quality by modifying the vector heights of the surface of designed progressive addition lenses initially. The relationship among mean power, cylinder power and the vector heights of the surface is deduced, and the optimizing factor is also gained. The vector heights of the surface of designed progressive addition lenses initially are used to calculate the plots of mean power and cylinder power based on the principle of differential geometry. The mean power plot is changed by adjusting the optimizing factor. Otherwise, the novel plot of the mean power can also be derived by shifting the mean power of one selected region to another and then by interpolating and smoothing. A partial differential equation of the elliptic type is founded based on the changed mean power. The solution of the equation is achieved by iterative method. The optimized vector heights of the surface are solved out. Compared with the original lens, the region in which the astigmatism near the nasal side on distance-vision portion is less than 0.5 D has become broader, and the clear regions on distance-vision and near-vision portion are wider.

  16. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  17. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determining Ei, when the provisions of § 63.116(c)(4) specify that Method 18, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be used for the purposes of this subpart. The use of Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall conform with the requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determining Ei, when the provisions of § 63.116(c)(4) specify that Method 18, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be used for the purposes of this subpart. The use of Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall conform with the requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... When determining Ei, when the provisions of § 63.116(c)(4) specify that Method 18, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be used for the purposes of this subpart. The use of Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall conform with...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) specify that Method 18, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be used for the purposes of this subpart. The use of Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be the single organic HAP representing the largest percent...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... When determining Ei, when the provisions of § 63.116(c)(4) specify that Method 18, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be used for the purposes of this subpart. The use of Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall conform with...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methods are used, the data and methods shall be validated according to the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR... customer; or necessitating that the owner or operator make a product in excess of demand. (iii) Causing... techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4) of the General Provisions; (2) Determine the net heating value of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... methods are used, the data and methods shall be validated according to the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR... customer; or necessitating that the owner or operator make a product in excess of demand. (iii) Causing... techniques specified in § 63.11(b)(4) of the General Provisions; (2) Determine the net heating value of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... methods are used, the data and methods shall be validated according to the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR... requested, this documentation shall be provided to the Administrator. (2) When the General Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in § 63.7(g) refer to the Notification of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and methods shall be validated according to the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c... operator make product in excess of demand. (2) References in § 63.7(g) to the Notification of Compliance...) Determine the net heating value of the gas being combusted, using the techniques specified in §...

  7. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  8. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the protocol in Method 301, 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of... reduction or outlet organic HAP or TOC concentration. If a compliance demonstration has been...

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  10. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  11. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration standard for that plant. (d) Test methods. (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in...

  14. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  15. 49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...) Knowledge tests: (1) States must use the FMCSA pre-approved pool of test questions to develop...

  16. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    PubMed Central

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.). In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos. PMID:24688428

  17. Methods for detecting additional genes underlying Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, P.A.; Haines, J.L.; Ter-Minassian, M.

    1994-09-01

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is a complex inherited disorder with proven genetic heterogeneity. To date, genes on chromosome 21 (APP) and 14 (not yet identified) are associated with early-onset familial AD, while the APOE gene on chromosome 19 is associated with both late onset familial and sporadic AD and early onset sporadic AD. Although these genes likely account for the majority of AD, many familial cases cannot be traced to any of these genes. From a set of 127 late-onset multiplex families screened for APOE, 43 (34%) families have at least one affected individual with no APOE-4 allele, suggesting an alternative genetic etiology. Simulation studies indicated that additional loci could be identified through a genomic screen with a 10 cM sieve on a subset of 21 well documented, non-APOE-4 families. Given the uncertainties in the mode of inheritance, reliance on a single analytical method could result in a missed linkage. Therefore, we have developed a strategy of using multiple overlapping yet complementary methods to detect linkage. These include sib-pair analysis and affected-pedigree-member analysis, neither of which makes assumptions about mode of inheritance, and lod score analysis (using two predefined genetic models). In order for a marker to qualify for follow-up, it must fit at least two of three criteria. These are nominal P values of 0.05 or less for the non-parametric methods, and/or a lod score greater than 1.0. Adjacent markers each fulfilling a single criterion also warrant follow-up. To date, we have screened 61 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 18, 19, 21, and 22. One marker, D2S163, generated a lod score of 1.06 ({theta} = 0.15) and an APMT statistic of 3.68 (P < 0.001). This region is currently being investigated in more detail. Updated results of this region plus additional screening data will be presented.

  18. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The following test methods in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine compliance... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test...

  1. Improved method for azole antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, M A; Lapa, E W; Passero, P G

    1988-01-01

    A reproducible method is described for the determination of the MICs of ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole with sharp endpoints when employed with either yeasts or molds. A semisolid medium is used with controlled pH and standardized inoculum. The time of reading results is a critical factor in the conduct of this test. The medium is simple to prepare and has a relatively long refrigerator shelf life in a user-ready state, requiring only the addition of a freshly prepared inoculum after restoration to room temperature. Images PMID:2846651

  2. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  3. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  4. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... period, the employee or the employee's representative, the operator, the Administrator, or, if...

  5. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  6. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills at Portland cement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement...

  7. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  8. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  9. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  10. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...

  11. Addition of noise by scatter correction methods in PVI

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, J.S. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Harrop, R.; Atkins, M.S. . School of Computing Science)

    1994-08-01

    Effective scatter correction techniques are required to account for errors due to high scatter fraction seen in positron volume imaging (PVI). To be effective, the correction techniques must be accurate and practical, but they also must not add excessively to the statistical noise in the image. The authors have investigated the noise added by three correction methods: a convolution/subtraction method; a method that interpolates the scatter from the events outside the object; and a dual energy window method with and without smoothing of the scatter estimate. The methods were applied to data generated by Monte Carlo simulation to determine their effect on the variance of the corrected projections. The convolution and interpolation methods did not add significantly to the variance. The dual energy window subtraction method without smoothing increased the variance by a factor of more than twelve, but this factor was improved to 1.2 by smoothing the scatter estimate.

  12. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this...) of this section. (i) From tests conducted using EPA reference method 25d. (ii) By...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...

  15. Goodness-of-fit tests for the additive risk model with (p > 2)-dimensional time-invariant covariates.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Song, M S; Lee, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents methods for checking the goodness-of-fit of the additive risk model with p(> 2)-dimensional time-invariant covariates. The procedures are an extension of Kim and Lee (1996) who developed a test to assess the additive risk assumption for two-sample censored data. We apply the proposed tests to survival data from South Wales nikel refinery workers. Simulation studies are carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed tests for practical sample sizes. PMID:9880997

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  17. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  18. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  19. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  20. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  1. METHOD OF TESTING FOR LEAKS

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-07-22

    A method is described for detecting minute holes In fuel element jackets. The method comprises submerging the jacketed body in an atmosphere of a radioactive gas under pressure, the radioactive emanations from said gas being sufficientiy penetratIng to penetrate the jacket of the jacketed body. After the jacketed body is removed from the radtoactive gas atmosphere, it is exannined for the presence of emanations from radioactive gas which entered the jacketed body through the minute holes. In this manner, the detectton of radioactive emanations is a positive indication that the fuel element is not perfectly sealed.

  2. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  3. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  4. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...

  5. 46 CFR 160.035-12 - Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P... Merchant Vessels § 160.035-12 Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats. (a) General... p.s.i. of air pressure both before and after the tests described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (6)...

  6. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process § 668.148 Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests. Except as provided in § 668.143— (a)...

  7. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  8. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  9. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... manufacturer's recommended maximum thickness mattress and foundation in place, repeat the test in paragraph...

  10. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... manufacturer's recommended maximum thickness mattress and foundation in place, repeat the test in paragraph...

  11. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...

  12. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.R. )

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  13. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) interior. Addition of third steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) interior. Addition of third steam generator. Burner end. Camera facing southwest. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-242 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  15. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  16. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  17. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  18. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  20. Immunogenicity of foods and food additives--in vivo testing of gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1982-12-01

    An inexpensive animal model is described, for investigation of the immunogenicity of substances such as food additives. Inbred mice were immunised with antigen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and specific cell-mediated immunity subsequently measured by a footpad swelling test. This method has been applied in an investigation of the immunogenicity of the exudate gums, gum arabic, gum karaya and gum tragacanth. These substances are capable of eliciting an immune response which is comparable to the specific immune responses elicited by a protein antigen, e.g. hens' egg ovalbumin. Purification of commercially available gum preparations led to a significant (P less than 0.005) reduction of the immune response under in vivo test conditions.

  1. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  2. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  3. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  4. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  5. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-05-16

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump.

  6. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  7. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  8. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  9. Testing 1...2...3...: Additional Files Available for Test Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    1984-01-01

    Reviews databases providing information on published, standardized and unpublished, non-standardized test instruments: Educational Testing Service File, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC, and Psychological Abstracts. Search strategies, search examples, and a summary chart of searchable fields for test…

  10. Testing Departure from Additivity in Tukey’s Model using Shrinkage: Application to a Longitudinal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A.; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey’s one degree of freedom (df) model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Due to the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey’s model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey’s and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies — the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PMID:25112650

  11. Investigation of an investment casting method combined with additive manufacturing methods for manufacturing lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodira, Ganapathy D.

    Cellular metals exhibit combinations of mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties that provide opportunities for various implementations and applications; light weight aerospace and automobile structures, impact and noise absorption, heat dissipation, and heat exchange. Engineered cell topologies enable one to control mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of the gross cell structures. A possible way to manufacture complex 3D metallic cellular solids for mass production with a relatively low cost, the investment casting (IC) method may be used by combining the rapid prototyping (RP) of wax or injection molding. In spite of its potential to produce mass products of various 3D cellular metals, the method is known to have significant casting porosity as a consequence of the complex cellular topology which makes continuous fluid's access to the solidification interface difficult. The effects of temperature on the viscosity of the fluids were studied. A comparative cost analysis between AM-IC and additive manufacturing methods is carried out. In order to manufacture 3D cellular metals with various topologies for multi-functional applications, the casting porosity should be resolved. In this study, the relations between casting porosity and processing conditions of molten metals while interconnecting with complex cellular geometries are investigated. Temperature and pressure conditions on the rapid prototyping -- investment casting (RP-IC) method are reported, thermal stresses induced are also studied. The manufactured samples are compared with those made by additive manufacturing methods.

  12. PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…

  13. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...

  14. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...

  15. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  16. Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.

  17. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemons, T. G.; Riddell, W. T.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Wawrzynek, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate NASCRAC (trademark) version 2.0, a second generation fracture analysis code, for verification and validity. NASCRAC was evaluated using a combination of comparisons to the literature, closed-form solutions, numerical analyses, and tests. Several limitations and minor errors were detected. Additionally, a number of major flaws were discovered. These major flaws were generally due to application of a specific method or theory, not due to programming logic. Results are presented for the following program capabilities: K versus a, J versus a, crack opening area, life calculation due to fatigue crack growth, tolerable crack size, proof test logic, tearing instability, creep crack growth, crack transitioning, crack retardation due to overloads, and elastic-plastic stress redistribution. It is concluded that the code is an acceptable fracture tool for K solutions of simplified geometries, for a limited number of J and crack opening area solutions, and for fatigue crack propagation with the Paris equation and constant amplitude loads when the Paris equation is applicable.

  18. Development of new hole expansion testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunok; Shang, Jianhui; Beam, Kevin; Samant, Anoop; Hoschouer, Cliff; Dykeman, Jim

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a new hole expansion (HE) testing method that could be more relevant to the edge cracking problem observed in stamping advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The new testing method adopted a large hole diameter of 75 mm compared to the standard hole diameter of 10 mm. An inline monitoring system was developed to visually monitor the hole edge cracking during the test and synchronize the load-displacement data with the recorded video for capturing the initial crack. A new hole expansion testing method was found to be effective in evaluating the edge cracking by considering the effects of material properties and trimming methods. It showed a much larger difference, up to 11%, of the HE ratio between DP980 and TRIP780 compared to the standard HE testing method giving less than a 2% difference.

  19. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to verify the clinical-feasibility of additive manufacturing by comparing the accuracy of four different manufacturing methods for metal coping: the conventional lost wax technique (CLWT); subtractive methods with wax blank milling (WBM); and two additive methods, multi jet modeling (MJM), and micro-stereolithography (Micro-SLA). MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty study models were created using an acrylic model with the maxillary upper right canine, first premolar, and first molar teeth. Based on the scan files from a non-contact blue light scanner (Identica; Medit Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), thirty cores were produced using the WBM, MJM, and Micro-SLA methods, respectively, and another thirty frameworks were produced using the CLWT method. To measure the marginal and internal gap, the silicone replica method was adopted, and the silicone images obtained were evaluated using a digital microscope (KH-7700; Hirox, Tokyo, Japan) at 140X magnification. Analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean marginal gaps and internal gaps showed significant differences according to tooth type (P<.001 and P<.001, respectively) and manufacturing method (P<.037 and P<.001, respectively). Micro-SLA did not show any significant difference from CLWT regarding mean marginal gap compared to the WBM and MJM methods. CONCLUSION The mean values of gaps resulting from the four different manufacturing methods were within a clinically allowable range, and, thus, the clinical use of additive manufacturing methods is acceptable as an alternative to the traditional lost wax-technique and subtractive manufacturing. PMID:26330976

  20. Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka

    In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.

  1. Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.

  2. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a) Samples that yield positive results on confirmation must be retained by the laboratory in properly...

  3. Testing variance components by two jackknife methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The jacknife method, a resampling technique, has been widely used for statistical tests for years. The pseudo value based jacknife method (defined as pseudo jackknife method) is commonly used to reduce the bias for an estimate; however, sometimes it could result in large variaion for an estmimate a...

  4. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, Patrick M.; Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.

  5. Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments

    DOEpatents

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  7. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  8. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  9. Primer Stepper Motor Nomenclature, Definition, Performance and Recommended Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott; Shea, Cutter

    2014-01-01

    There has been an unfortunate lack of standardization of the terms and components of stepper motor performance, requirements definition, application of torque margin and implementation of test methods. This paper will address these inconsistencies and discuss in detail the implications of performance parameters, affects of load inertia, control electronics, operational resonances and recommended test methods. Additionally, this paper will recommend parameters for defining and specifying stepper motor actuators. A useful description of terms as well as consolidated equations and recommended requirements is included.

  10. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  11. [Quantitative determination of morphine in opium powder by addition and correlation method using capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-xiang; Miao, Ju-ru; Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu-qing

    2002-01-01

    The morphine in opium powder has been quantitatively determined by addition and correlation method (ACM), in which capillary zone electrophoresis was applied, and the average recovery was 100.6%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of migration time was not more than 2.4%, the RSD of relative migration time was not more than 1.1%, and the RSD of the relative area was not more than 0.51%. Meanwhile, the contrast test has been done by the calibration curve method with an internal standard correlation. The content of morphine in opium powder determined by ACM was the same as that by using the calibration curve method with an internal standard correlated. The study shows that ACM is simple, quick and accurate.

  12. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  13. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  14. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  15. Acceptance test report for the 241-AN-107 caustic addition mixer pump data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, J.L.

    1996-04-05

    The Acceptance Test Procedure for the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition Mixer Pump Data logger, WHC-SD-WM-ATP-149, was started on September 25, 1995, and completed November 13, 1995. K.G. Carothers of Tank Waste Remediation Engineering requested the test procedure and ICF Kaiser Control Systems Engineering group wrote the test procedure and executed it at the 305 building in 300 area and at the 241-AN Tank Farm in 200 East area. The purpose of this report is to document that the Caustic addition Mixer Pump Data logger, functioned as intended as installed at 241-AN-107 tank farm.

  16. Leach testing of in situ stabilization grouts containing additives to sequester contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Ames, L.L.; Martin, P.F.C.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W. ); Phillips, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    This document discusses laboratory testing performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) of special grout formulations that incorporate specific sequestering agents to help improve the ability of the cement to resist contaminant leaching. To enhance the sequestering of contaminants we chose five additives to introduce (singly) to the control cement. The additives were Florida pebble phosphate, clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite), ferrous sulfide (a reductant), a mixed bed organic ion exchange resin and a proprietary anion-adsorbing mixed metal oxide. These additives were added one per test to the standard formulation and used to encapsulate a diluted high-salt alkaline liquid waste that is produced after various processes to remove uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. This report documents the testing of these additives.

  17. Formal methods for test case generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.

  18. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  19. Development of test methods for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

  20. Aflatoxin plate kit. Performance Tested Method 081003.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Arthur; Fan, Titan; LaBudde, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.

  1. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  2. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  3. Experimental Tests of Subjective Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li,Yuelin; Krantz, David H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated Samaniego and Reneau's 1994 novel weight method for eliciting subjective probability estimates. Experiment 1 replicated their experiment (subjects weighed their prior estimate against 10 new observations), with an additional weight judgment against 50 observations. In Experiment 2, subjects gave prior estimates to questions in a…

  4. The Rocketdyne Multifunction Tester. Part 1: Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brian T.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Sutton, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Multifunction Tester is a general purpose test apparatus which utilizes axial and radial magnetic bearings as shaft excitation devices. The tester is modular in design so that different seal and bearing packages can be tested on the same test stand. The tester will be used for rotordynamic coefficient extraction, as well as life and fluid/material compatibility evaluations. Use of a magnetic bearing as a shaft excitation device opens up many possibilities for shaft excitation and rotordynamic coefficient extraction. In addition to describing the basic apparatus, some of the excitation and extraction methods are described. Some of the excitation methods to be discussed include random, aperiodic, harmonic, impulse and chirp.

  5. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    PubMed

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  6. [An additional test in the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some representatives of the genus Vibrio].

    PubMed

    Bril'man, Ia E

    1995-01-01

    An additional test: aerobic redox fermentation in semiliquid Hiss' medium with mannitol is recommended for the indication of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, etc. The majority of mannite-fermenting enterobacteria change the color of the indicator in a thin upper layer of a column of semiliquid Hiss' medium in comparison with the bulk of medium after 20-24 h growth in it. Such changes of the indicator are never observed with Shigella, Salmonella, Vibrio bacteria of the studied strains, Yersinia, some cocci, etc., which may be considered as an additional differential diagnostic test at early stages of investigation with due consideration for other known signs. The aerobic redox test does not require additional quantities of nutrient media, reagents, or glassware.

  7. Additive Methods for Prediction of Thermochemical Properties. The Laidler Method Revisited. 1. Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Joa˜O. Paulo

    2006-03-01

    A new parameterization of the Laidler method for estimation of atomization enthalpies and standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K for several families of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, alkyl radicals, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, benzene derivatives, and polyaromatics) is presented. A total of 200 compounds (164 for liquid phase) are used for the calculation of the parameters. Comparison between the experimental values and those calculated using the group additive scheme led to an average difference of 1.28 kJṡmol-1 for the gas phase enthalpy of formation (excluding the polyaromatic compounds) and of 1.38 kJṡmol-1 for the liquid phase enthalpy of formation. The data base used appears to be essentially error free, but for some compounds (e.g., 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane, with the highest deviation among all compounds except the polyaromatic ones) the experimental values might need a reevaluation. An Excel worksheet is provided to simplify the calculation of enthalpies of formation and atomization enthalpies based on the Laidler terms defined in this paper.

  8. Methods to Test Visual Attention Online

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Amanda; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Dale, Gillian; Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Online data collection methods have particular appeal to behavioral scientists because they offer the promise of much larger and much more representative data samples than can typically be collected on college campuses. However, before such methods can be widely adopted, a number of technological challenges must be overcome – in particular in experiments where tight control over stimulus properties is necessary. Here we present methods for collecting performance data on two tests of visual attention. Both tests require control over the visual angle of the stimuli (which in turn requires knowledge of the viewing distance, monitor size, screen resolution, etc.) and the timing of the stimuli (as the tests involve either briefly flashed stimuli or stimuli that move at specific rates). Data collected on these tests from over 1700 online participants were consistent with data collected in laboratory-based versions of the exact same tests. These results suggest that with proper care, timing/stimulus size dependent tasks can be deployed in web-based settings. PMID:25741746

  9. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  10. IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...

  11. Equated Pooled Booklet Method in DIF Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Chen, Peihua; Qian, Jiahe; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is an important step in the data analysis of large-scale testing programs. Nowadays, many such programs endorse matrix sampling designs to reduce the load on examinees, such as the balanced incomplete block (BIB) design. These designs pose challenges to the traditional DIF analysis methods. For example,…

  12. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the bed, place the wedge block shown in Figure 1, tapered side first, into each opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...

  13. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the bed, place the wedge block shown in Figure 1, tapered side first, into each opening in the rigid...

  14. Testing alleged mediumship: methods and results.

    PubMed

    O'keeffe, Ciarán; Wiseman, Richard

    2005-05-01

    Mediums claim to be able to communicate with the deceased. Such claims attract a considerable amount of public interest and, if valid, have important implications for many areas of psychology. For over 100 years, researchers have tested alleged mediums. This work has obtained mixed results and provoked a considerable amount of methodological debate. This paper reviews the key issues in this debate, describes how the authors devised a method of testing that aimed to prevent the many problems that have hindered past research, and how they then used this method to test several professional mediums. The results of this work did not support the existence of genuine mediumistic ability. Competing interpretations of these results are discussed, along with ways in which the methodology presented in the paper could be used to assess conceptually similar, but non-paranormal, claims made in clinical, occupational and forensic contexts.

  15. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  16. Method for Smoke Spread Testing of Large Premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmerdahl, P.; Werling, P.

    2001-11-01

    A method for performing non-destructive smoke spread tests has been developed, tested and applied to several existing buildings. Burning methanol in different size steel trays cooled by water generates the heat source. Several tray sizes are available to cover fire sources up to nearly 1MW. The smoke is supplied by means of a suitable number of smoke generators that produce a smoke, which can be described as a non-toxic aerosol. The advantage of the method is that it provides a means for performing non-destructive tests in already existing buildings and other installations for the purpose of evaluating the functionality and design of the active fire protection measures such as smoke extraction systems, etc. In the report, the method is described in detail and experimental data from the try-out of the method are also presented in addition to a discussion on applicability and flexibility of the method.

  17. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  18. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  19. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  20. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  1. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  2. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  3. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  4. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  5. Methods and instruments for materials testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansma, Paul (Inventor); Drake, Barney (Inventor); Rehn, Douglas (Inventor); Adams, Jonathan (Inventor); Lulejian, Jason (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and instruments for characterizing a material, such as the properties of bone in a living human subject, using a test probe constructed for insertion into the material and a reference probe aligned with the test probe in a housing. The housing is hand held or placed so that the reference probe contacts the surface of the material under pressure applied either by hand or by the weight of the housing. The test probe is inserted into the material to indent the material while maintaining the reference probe substantially under the hand pressure or weight of the housing allowing evaluation of a property of the material related to indentation of the material by the probe. Force can be generated by a voice coil in a magnet structure to the end of which the test probe is connected and supported in the magnet structure by a flexure, opposing flexures, a linear translation stage, or a linear bearing. Optionally, a measurement unit containing the test probe and reference probe is connected to a base unit with a wireless connection, allowing in the field material testing.

  6. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  7. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  8. Study of cadmium, zinc and lead biosorption by orange wastes using the subsequent addition method.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, A B; Ballester, A; González, F; Blázquez, M L; Muñoz, J A; Sáez, J; Zapata, V Meseguer

    2008-11-01

    The biosorption of several metals (Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) by orange wastes has been investigated in binary systems. Multicomponent sorption isotherms were obtained using an original procedure, similar to that proposed by Pagnanelli et al. [Pagnanelli, F., Petrangeli, M.P., Toro, L., Trifoni, M., Veglio, F., 2001a. Biosorption of metal ions on Arthrobacter sp.: biomass characterization and biosorption modelling. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2773-2778] for monoelement systems, known as subsequent addition method (SAM). Experimental sorption data were analysed using an extended multicomponent Langmuir equation. The maximum sorption uptake was approximately 0.25mmol/g for the three binary systems studied. The reliability of the proposed procedure for obtaining the equilibrium data in binary systems was verified by means of a statistical F-test. PMID:18440805

  9. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy.

  10. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy. PMID:25542613

  11. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. A previous AOAC Performance Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. In this Emergency Response Validation extension, creamy peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser. Typhimurium. For low contamination level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.5 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method. For high-level and uninoculated control there was 100% agreement between the methods. PMID:20166612

  12. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  13. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented.

  14. Characterization of IPMC actuators using standard testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, D.; Espinosa, R.; Moreno, L.; Baselga, J.

    2006-03-01

    In response to a clear need, the research community on EAP (Electroactive Polymer) has just started to work on a standard test methodology to characterize EAP actuators. A very general test methodology for EAPs, covering the characterization procedures for extensional and bending actuators was recently presented. In the present work, well known IPMC samples are characterized following such test methodology. Also, additional tests, not covered by the preliminary standard are included. These tests are conducted using the EAP Unit Tester, a test bench specifically designed for the characterization of EAP actuators. Rather than presenting new material's results, the paper focuses on the instrumentation, procedures and form of presenting results. Although the paper is focused on IPMC the method can be extrapolated to other bending actuators.

  15. Control system health test system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.

    2006-08-15

    A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.

  16. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods. PMID:27276687

  17. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  18. A new method of field MRTD test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian

    2014-09-01

    MRTD is an important indicator to measure the imaging performance of infrared camera. In the traditional laboratory test, blackbody is used as simulated heat source which is not only expensive and bulky but also difficult to meet field testing requirements of online automatic infrared camera MRTD. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new detection device for MRTD, which uses LED as a simulation heat source and branded plated zinc sulfide glass carved four-bar target as a simulation target. By using high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system, the target is simulated to be distance-infinite so that it can be observed by the human eyes to complete the subjective test, or collected to complete objective measurement by image processing. This method will use LED to replace blackbody. The color temperature of LED is calibrated by thermal imager, thereby, the relation curve between the LED temperature controlling current and the blackbody simulation temperature difference is established, accurately achieved the temperature control of the infrared target. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the device in field testing of thermal imager MRTD can be limited within 0.1K, which greatly reduces the cost to meet the project requirements with a wide application value.

  19. Singlepath Salmonella. Performance-Tested Method 060401.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Lindhardt, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Singlepath Salmonella is an immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assay for the presumptive qualitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food. The AOAC Performance-Tested Method study evaluated Singlepath Salmonella as an effective method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the following selected foods: dried skimmed milk, black pepper, dried pet food, desiccated coconut, cooked peeled frozen prawns, raw ground beef, and raw ground turkey. When the foods were inoculated with Salmonella spp. at levels ranging from low [0.23-1.08 colony forming units (CFU)/25 g] to high (2.3-6.0 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 0.9 indicated that there was no significant difference between Singlepath Salmonella and the ISO 6579:2002 reference method. Singlepath Salmonella gave a false-positive rate of 7.3% and a false-negative rate of 2.5%. For the inclusivity study, all 105 Salmonella serovars reacted with Singlepath Salmonella. For the exclusivity study, 58 non-Salmonella spp. were tested. There were no cross-reactions with Singlepath Salmonella from these strains. PMID:16640289

  20. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities. PMID:7457390

  1. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity, as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.

  2. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    DOE PAGES

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hotchkiss, Jon

    2011-10-26

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies. The process of boarding an airplane is of interest to a variety of groups. The public is interested both as a curiosity,more » as it is something that they may regularly experience, and as a consumer, as their experiences good or bad can affect their loyalties. Airline companies and their employees also have a stake in an efficient boarding procedure as time saved in the boarding process may result is monetary savings, in the quality of interactions with passengers, and in the application of human resources to the general process of preparing an airplane for departure. A recent study (Nyquist and McFadden, 2008) indicates that the average cost to an airline company for each minute of time spent at the terminal is roughly $30. Thus, each minute saved in the turn-around time of a flight has the potential to generate over $16,000,000 in annual savings (assuming an average of 1500 flights per day). While the boarding process may not be the primary source of delay in returning an airplane to the skies, reducing the boarding time may effectively eliminate passenger boarding as a contributor in any meaningful measure. Consequently, subsequent efforts to streamline the other necessary tasks, such as refueling and maintenance, would be rewarded with a material reduction in time at the gate for each flight.« less

  3. Test versus analysis: A discussion of methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Some techniques for comparing structural vibration data determined from test and analysis are discussed. Orthogonality is a general category of one group, correlation is a second, synthesis is a third and matrix improvement is a fourth. Advantages and short-comings of the methods are explored with suggestions as to how they can complement one another. The purpose for comparing vibration data from test and analysis for a given structure is to find out whether each is representing the dynamic properties of the structure in the same way. Specifically, whether: mode shapes are alike; the frequencies of the modes are alike; modes appear in the same frequency sequence; and if they are not alike, how to judge which to believe.

  4. Testing the Limits: The Purposes and Effects of Additional, External Elementary Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Karen Ann

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods case study focuses on the third through fifth grade classrooms at a public elementary school in a Midwestern urban school district where the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment is being implemented. According to the school district, the goals of these tests are: to show…

  5. Prospective multicentre study of the U-SENS test method for skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Piroird, C; Aujoulat, M; Dreyfuss, S; Hoffmann, S; Hohenstein, A; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Gerbeix, C; Cotovio, J

    2015-12-25

    The U-SENS™ is a test method based on the human myeloid U937 cell line to assess the skin sensitisation potential of substances. To demonstrate its robustness, a multicentre validation study with four laboratories testing 24 coded substances has been conducted according to internationally agreed principles. The primary objective of the study was to enlarge the U-SENS™'s reproducibility database. Secondary objectives were to provide additional evidence on its transferability and its predictive capability. Reproducibility within laboratories was approximately 92%, while the reproducibility between laboratories was 87.5%. Predictivity for the 24 validation substances was high, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy being on average at least 93.8%. Similar performances are obtained for 38 substances when combining the study results with those of an earlier multicentre study, as well as with an automated version of the U-SENS™. With reliability and relevance similar to comparable non-animal skin sensitisation test methods, which have achieved regulatory acceptance, it is concluded that the U-SENS™ is a well reproducible and predictive test method. This profiles the U-SENS™ as a valuable addition to the suite of non-animal testing methods for skin sensitisation with the potential to significantly contribute to the development of integrated testing strategies. PMID:26439184

  6. Prospective multicentre study of the U-SENS test method for skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Piroird, C; Aujoulat, M; Dreyfuss, S; Hoffmann, S; Hohenstein, A; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Gerbeix, C; Cotovio, J

    2015-12-25

    The U-SENS™ is a test method based on the human myeloid U937 cell line to assess the skin sensitisation potential of substances. To demonstrate its robustness, a multicentre validation study with four laboratories testing 24 coded substances has been conducted according to internationally agreed principles. The primary objective of the study was to enlarge the U-SENS™'s reproducibility database. Secondary objectives were to provide additional evidence on its transferability and its predictive capability. Reproducibility within laboratories was approximately 92%, while the reproducibility between laboratories was 87.5%. Predictivity for the 24 validation substances was high, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy being on average at least 93.8%. Similar performances are obtained for 38 substances when combining the study results with those of an earlier multicentre study, as well as with an automated version of the U-SENS™. With reliability and relevance similar to comparable non-animal skin sensitisation test methods, which have achieved regulatory acceptance, it is concluded that the U-SENS™ is a well reproducible and predictive test method. This profiles the U-SENS™ as a valuable addition to the suite of non-animal testing methods for skin sensitisation with the potential to significantly contribute to the development of integrated testing strategies.

  7. Test methods for evaluating reformulated fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Croudace, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced regulations in the 1989 Clean Air Act Amendment governing the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels to improve air quality. These statutes drove the need for a fast and accurate method for analyzing product composition, especially aromatic and oxygenate content. The current method, gas chromatography, is slow, expensive, non portable, and requires a trained chemist to perform the analysis. The new mid-infrared spectroscopic method uses light to identify and quantify the different components in fuels. Each individual fuel component absorbs a specific wavelength of light depending on the molecule`s unique chemical structure. The quantity of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of that fuel component in the mixture. The mid-infrared instrument has significant advantages; it is easy to use, rugged, portable, fully automated and cost effective. It can be used to measure multiple oxygenate or aromatic components in unknown fuel mixtures. Regulatory agencies have begun using this method in field compliance testing; petroleum refiners and marketers use it to monitor compliance, product quality and blending accuracy.

  8. Foucault test: a quantitative evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gustavo; Villa, Jesús; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén; Martínez, Geminiano

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and accurate testing methods are essential to guiding the polishing process during the figuring of optical telescope mirrors. With the natural advancement of technology, the procedures and instruments used to carry out this delicate task have consistently increased in sensitivity, but also in complexity and cost. Fortunately, throughout history, the Foucault knife-edge test has shown the potential to measure transverse aberrations in the order of the wavelength, mainly when described in terms of physical theory, which allows a quantitative interpretation of its characteristic shadowmaps. Our previous publication on this topic derived a closed mathematical formulation that directly relates the knife-edge position with the observed irradiance pattern. The present work addresses the quite unexplored problem of the wavefront's gradient estimation from experimental captures of the test, which is achieved by means of an optimization algorithm featuring a proposed ad hoc cost function. The partial derivatives thereby calculated are then integrated by means of a Fourier-based algorithm to retrieve the mirror's actual surface profile. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a complete mathematical-grounded treatment of this optical phenomenon is presented, complemented by an image-processing algorithm which allows a quantitative calculation of the corresponding slope at any given point of the mirror's surface, so that it becomes possible to accurately estimate the aberrations present in the analyzed concave device just through its associated foucaultgrams. PMID:27505659

  9. Foucault test: a quantitative evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gustavo; Villa, Jesús; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén; Martínez, Geminiano

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and accurate testing methods are essential to guiding the polishing process during the figuring of optical telescope mirrors. With the natural advancement of technology, the procedures and instruments used to carry out this delicate task have consistently increased in sensitivity, but also in complexity and cost. Fortunately, throughout history, the Foucault knife-edge test has shown the potential to measure transverse aberrations in the order of the wavelength, mainly when described in terms of physical theory, which allows a quantitative interpretation of its characteristic shadowmaps. Our previous publication on this topic derived a closed mathematical formulation that directly relates the knife-edge position with the observed irradiance pattern. The present work addresses the quite unexplored problem of the wavefront's gradient estimation from experimental captures of the test, which is achieved by means of an optimization algorithm featuring a proposed ad hoc cost function. The partial derivatives thereby calculated are then integrated by means of a Fourier-based algorithm to retrieve the mirror's actual surface profile. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a complete mathematical-grounded treatment of this optical phenomenon is presented, complemented by an image-processing algorithm which allows a quantitative calculation of the corresponding slope at any given point of the mirror's surface, so that it becomes possible to accurately estimate the aberrations present in the analyzed concave device just through its associated foucaultgrams.

  10. Mesh deployable antenna mechanics testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li

    Rapid development in spatial technologies and continuous expansion of astronautics applications require stricter and stricter standards in spatial structure. Deployable space structure as a newly invented structural form is being extensively adopted because of its characteristic (i.e. deployability). Deployable mesh reflector antenna is a kind of common deployable antennas. Its reflector consists in a kind of metal mesh. Its electrical properties are highly dependent on its mechanics parameters (including surface accuracy, angle, and position). Therefore, these mechanics parameters have to be calibrated. This paper presents a mesh antenna mechanics testing method that employs both an electronic theodolite and a laser tracker. The laser tracker is firstly used to measure the shape of radial rib deployable antenna. The measurement data are then fitted to a paraboloid by means of error compensation. Accordingly, the focus and the focal axis of the paraboloid are obtained. The following step is to synchronize the coordinate systems of the electronic theodolite and the measured antenna. Finally, in a microwave anechoic chamber environment, the electromechanical axis is calibrated. Testing results verify the effectiveness of the presented method.

  11. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  12. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  13. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  14. Effect of KCl addition method on the Pt/KL catalyst for the aromatization of hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Sakashita, Haru; Tatsumi, Takashi )

    1994-05-01

    The influence of the method for loading platinum precursor and adding KCl, KCl loading content, calcination temperature, KCl addition procedure, various additives, and water washing on the activity and selectivity of Pt/KL catalysts for hexane reforming reaction has been investigated. The catalyst preparation methods involve ion exchange (IE), incipient wetness impregnation (IWI), and coimpregnation with KCl (IWI-KCl). The Pt/KL catalysts prepared by ion exchange with [Pt(NH[sub 3])[sub 4

  15. Positive contrast in the rat: a test of the additivity theory.

    PubMed

    Nallan, G B; McCoy, D F

    1979-09-01

    Rats were trained to lever press for food on a multiple variable-interval variable-interval schedule, then shifted to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule. For six subjects (group L), schedule components were signalled by the presence or absence of a flashing light emitted from an alternate, "signal" lever. For four subjects (group T), schedule components were signalled by two distinct auditory tones. Contrary to the predictions of an additivity theory based on the summation of response classes, contacts on the signal lever did not increase after the schedule shift in group L. However, nine of the ten subjects in the study demonstrated positive contrast effects on the operant lever. In a subsequent test for stimulus control, enhancement and suppression by the discriminative stimuli were found in these same nine subjects. An additivity theory based on the summation of excitatory processes, rather than response classes, appears to account for these data.

  16. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    practice. Although, the ROFT cannot replace other diagnostic tests, it may be a valuable additional tool to diagnose canine IMHA. PMID:24160183

  17. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  18. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  19. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  20. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  1. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel... Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels....

  2. [Immunodiffusion tests in gel media with the addition of polyethyleneglycol 6000 for the serodiagnosis of mycoses].

    PubMed

    Zaror, L; Robles, A M; Negroni, R

    1978-01-01

    Different immunodiffusion techniques with and without the addition of polyetilenglycol 6000 (PEG), were studied to determine its effect on the sensitivity of these reactions. One hundred thirteen sera from patients who suffered or had suffered deep mycoses (paracoccidioidomycosis: 49, histoplasmosis: 25, aspergillosis: 25, candidiasis: 8 and coccidioidomycosis: 6) were examined by the quantitative Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion procedure. Regular medium and media with 2% and 4% PEG were used. Eighty two out of the one hundred thirteen sera were positive for the regular medium and 91 for the medium containing 2% of PEG; furthermore, an increase of 1 or 2 two fold dilutions in the titers was observed in 40% of the sera, for the later media. Twenty one sera from aspergillosis cases were examined by agarose gel immunoelectrophoresis, 80% had more precipitin bands in the medium with 2% of PEG. Thirty four serum samples of patients suffering aspergillosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis were studied using the agarose electroosmophoresis with the secondary immunodiffusion test. An increase in the number of the anodic bands were observed in 55% while 64% presented more catodic bands, when the PEG medium was used. This results would indicate that the addition of 2% PEG 6000 to the regular medium improves the sensitivity of the immunodiffusion tests for mycoses.

  3. The additive effects of quinine on antidepressant drugs in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, W Y; Todd, K G; Bourin, M; Hascoet, M

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if quinine plus antidepressant drugs (ADS) leads to an additive effect in the forced swimming test. Quinine (0.125, 0.5 mg/kg) and ADS (subactive doses) were given IP 45 and 30 min, respectively, before the test. When combined with QUIN, all drugs that act via inhibition of 5-HT uptake (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) significantly increased the swimming time of mice. Among trazodone, mianserin and iprindole (atypical ADS), only iprindole combined with quinine decreased the immobility (increased swimming) of the animals. The specific noradrenaline (NA) uptake inhibitors, desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline, were also found to reduce the immobility time when pretreated with quinine. The mixed monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (pargyline) and MAO-A inhibitor (moclobemide) also shortened the period of immobility whereas the MAO-B inhibitor (nialamide) and the dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor (bupropion) did not. Quinine's additive effects on several types of ADS is likely a result of blockade of potassium channels.

  4. Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Methods for Genomic Selection of Traits with Additive and Epistatic Genetic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Réka; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Beavis, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric methods have been developed for purposes of predicting phenotypes. These methods are based on retrospective analyses of empirical data consisting of genotypic and phenotypic scores. Recent reports have indicated that parametric methods are unable to predict phenotypes of traits with known epistatic genetic architectures. Herein, we review parametric methods including least squares regression, ridge regression, Bayesian ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayesian LASSO, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), Bayes A, Bayes B, Bayes C, and Bayes Cπ. We also review nonparametric methods including Nadaraya-Watson estimator, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, support vector machine regression, and neural networks. We assess the relative merits of these 14 methods in terms of accuracy and mean squared error (MSE) using simulated genetic architectures consisting of completely additive or two-way epistatic interactions in an F2 population derived from crosses of inbred lines. Each simulated genetic architecture explained either 30% or 70% of the phenotypic variability. The greatest impact on estimates of accuracy and MSE was due to genetic architecture. Parametric methods were unable to predict phenotypic values when the underlying genetic architecture was based entirely on epistasis. Parametric methods were slightly better than nonparametric methods for additive genetic architectures. Distinctions among parametric methods for additive genetic architectures were incremental. Heritability, i.e., proportion of phenotypic variability, had the second greatest impact on estimates of accuracy and MSE. PMID:24727289

  5. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  6. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives.

    PubMed

    Nadif, A; Hunkeler, D; Käuper, P

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocell, Alcell and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1208 - What are the test methods?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the test methods? 63.1208 Section 63.1208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... § 63.1208 What are the test methods? (a) (b) Test methods. You must use the following test methods...

  8. Testing methods and techniques: Environmental testing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Various devices and techniques are described for testing hardware and components in four special environments: low temperature, high temperature, high pressure, and vibration. Items ranging from an automatic calibrator for pressure transducers to a fixture for testing the susceptibility of materials to ignition by electric spark are included.

  9. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. PMID:27209754

  10. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method.

  11. A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Yosif A; Khalil, Rabah A

    2006-10-01

    A new approach to NMR chemical shift additivity parameters using simultaneous linear equation method has been introduced. Three general nitrogen-15 NMR chemical shift additivity parameters with physical significance for aliphatic amines in methanol and cyclohexane and their hydrochlorides in methanol have been derived. A characteristic feature of these additivity parameters is the individual equation can be applied to both open-chain and rigid systems. The factors that influence the (15)N chemical shift of these substances have been determined. A new method for evaluating conformational equilibria at nitrogen in these compounds using the derived additivity parameters has been developed. Conformational analyses of these substances have been worked out. In general, the results indicate that there are four factors affecting the (15)N chemical shift of aliphatic amines; paramagnetic term (p-character), lone pair-proton interactions, proton-proton interactions, symmetry of alkyl substituents and molecular association.

  12. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    PubMed Central

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  13. Determination of the Path Loss from Passenger Electronic Devices to Radio Altimeter with Additional EMI Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüür, J.; Nunes, R. R.

    2012-05-01

    Emitters of current and future wireless ultra wideband technology (UWB) inside the cabin should not interfere with any aircraft system. Especially the radio altimeter (RA) system using antennas mounted outside the fuselage is potentially sensitive to UWB devices in the frequency range between 4.1 and 4.8 GHz. The measurement of the interference path loss (IPL) to the RA is therefore of interest and is presented for different aircraft. The need of a high dynamic setup with low parasitic coupling in the IPL measurement is stressed. In addition, electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests with different transmitted signals are made, showing that the susceptibility of the RA system actually increases with UWB modulation.

  14. Stringent test for non-additive, non-interacting, kinetic energy functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaili; Nafziger, Jonathan; Wasserman, Adam

    Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) provides an ideal framework for testing and developing new approximations to the non-additive and non-interacting kinetic energy functional (Tsnadd [ {nα } ]), understood as a functional of the set of fragment ground-state densities. We present our progress on both of these fronts: (1) Systematic comparison of the performance of various existing approximations to Tsnadd [ {nα } ] ; and (2) Development of new approximations. We find that a re-parametrization of the GGA enhancement factor employed for the construction of Tsnadd [ {nα } ] through the conjointness conjecture captures essential features of the functional derivatives of Tsnadd [ {nα } ] . A physically-motivated two-orbital approximation for Tsnadd [ {nα } ] is shown to outperform most other approximations for the case of He2, and an intriguing one-parameter formula makes this approximation accurate for all noble-gas diatomics.

  15. Testing with fragrance mix. Is the addition of sorbitan sesquioleate to the constituents useful?

    PubMed

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Burrows, D; Camarasa, J G; Lachapelle, J M; Lahti, A; Menné, T; Wilkinson, J D

    1995-05-01

    In a multicentre study, the value of adding sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO) to the constituents of the 8% fragrance mix (FM) was investigated. In 7 centres, 709 consecutive patients were tested with 2 types of FM from different sources, its 8 constituents with 1% SSO, its 8 constituents without SSO, and 20% SSO. 5 patients (0.71%) reacted to the emulsifier SSO itself, read as definitely allergic on day 3/4. 53 patients reacted to either one of the mixes with an allergic type of reaction. When tested with the constituents without SSO, 41.5% showed an allergic reaction versus 54.7% with SSO. If both types of reactions were considered (allergic and irritant) 38.3% of 73 patients showed a positive "breakdown" result without SSO, versus 54.8% with SSO. The differences were statistically significant. Reactivity to FM constituents was changed in a specific pattern by addition of SSO--irritant reactions increased, particularly for cinnamic alcohol, eugenol, geraniol, oak moss and hydroxycitronellal, whereas others showed only a slight change. Allergic reactions were also increased by SSO, but the rank order of the top 3 sensitizers (isoeugenol, oak moss and eugenol) did not change. Cinnamic alcohol was the only constituent with decreased reactivity after addition of SSO. A positive history of fragrance sensitivity (HFS) was clearly associated with a positive allergic reaction to either the mix or 1 of its constituents (51% versus 28.6% with a negative HFS). Irritant reactions were linked to a negative HFS in a high proportion (64.3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A Proposed Framework of Test Administration Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread application of personal computers to educational and psychological testing has substantially increased the number of test administration methodologies available to testing programs. Many of these mediums are referred to by their acronyms, such as CAT, CBT, CCT, and LOFT. The similarities between the acronyms and the methods…

  17. A uniform nonlinearity criterion for rational functions applied to calibration curve and standard addition methods.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Martin, Julia; Alonso, Esteban; Jurado, Jose Marcos; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Rational functions of the Padé type are used for the calibration curve (CCM), and standard addition (SAM) methods purposes. In this paper, the related functions were applied to results obtained from the analyses of (a) nickel with use of FAAS method, (b) potassium according to FAES method, and (c) salicylic acid according to HPLC-MS/MS method. A uniform, integral criterion of nonlinearity of the curves, obtained according to CCM and SAM, is suggested. This uniformity is based on normalization of the approximating functions within the frames of a unit area.

  18. Dynamic effect of sodium-water reaction in fast flux test facility power addition sodium pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.; Anderson, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) is a demonstration and test facility of the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. A power addition'' to the facility is being considered to convert some of the dumped, unused heat into electricity generation. Components and piping systems to be added are sodium-water steam generators, sodium loop extensions from existing dump heat exchangers to sodium-water steam generators, and conventional water/steam loops. The sodium loops can be subjected to the dynamic loadings of pressure pulses that are caused by postulated sodium leaks and subsequent sodium-water reaction in the steam generator. The existing FFTF secondary pipes and the new power addition sodium loops were evaluated for exposure to the dynamic effect of the sodium-water reaction. Elastic and simplified inelastic dynamic analyses were used in this feasibility study. The results indicate that both the maximum strain and strain range are within the allowable limits. Several cycles of the sodium-water reaction can be sustained by the sodium pipes that are supported by ordinary pipe supports and seismic restraints. Expensive axial pipe restraints to withstand the sodium-water reaction loads are not needed, because the pressure-pulse-induced alternating bending stresses act as secondary stresses and the pressure pulse dynamic effect is a deformation-controlled quantity and is self-limiting. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Test methods and technology for uncooled imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott J.; Backer, Brian S.; Kohin, Margaret; Alonso, Pascual; Whitwam, Jason T.

    2004-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS produces hundreds of low cost, high performance, uncooled IR imagers each month for use in commercial and military applications. The production process of each imager includes several steps that begin at the wafer level and end at an in-camera test. Each step is critical to end yield improvement by detecting failure at various stages in the production flow. Both automated test equipment and an integrated database system are essential at each phase to efficiently build and automatically configure cameras for each customer. This paper discusses the process and tools used to reliably test and ship uncooled thermal imagers in addition to specific methods and calculation techniques for characterizing key performance parameters such as Responsivity, Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference, and Operability.

  20. Cost-effective test methods for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for deriving constrained vibration mode shapes for Space Shuttle payloads using unconstrained or free-boundary dynamic properties. Application of the residual flexibility method requires measurement of a set of free-boundary modes plus the residual flexibility of the payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The mass-additive approach involves the measurement of unconstrained modes and frequencies of a payload with large masses attached to the interfaces. In either case, the orbiter interfaces of the test-verified payload model are analytically constrained to provide the mode shapes for the Shuttle-constrained configuration. Use of these methods or a hybrid combination of them for structures to which they are applicable allows the difficult and expense associated with development and verification of fixed-base test fixtures to be avoided.

  1. Cost-effective test methods for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for deriving constrained vibration mode shapes for space shuttle payloads using unconstrained or free-boundary dynamic properties. Application of the residual flexibility method requires measurement of a set of free boundary modes plus the residual flexibility of the payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The mass-additive approach involves the measurement of unconstrained modes and frequencies of a payload with large masses attached to the interfaces. In either case, the orbiter interfaces of the test-verified payload model are analytically constrained to provide the mode shapes for the shuttle-constrained configuration. Use of these methods or a hybrid combination of them for structures to which they are applicable allows the difficulty and expense associated with development and verification of fixed-base test fixtures to be avoided.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  3. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  4. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  5. Additive effects of clonidine and antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced-swimming test.

    PubMed

    Malinge, M; Bourin, M; Colombel, M C; Larousse, C

    1988-01-01

    In the mouse forced-swimming model, dose-dependent reversal of immobility was induced by the alpha-agonist clonidine given IP 30 min before testing. In addition, three preferential inhibitors of 5-HT uptake (citalopram, indalpine and fluvoxamine) had similar activity in the dose range 8-16 mg/kg as did the 5-HT1 agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1-4 mg/kg). Pretreatment with alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (100 mg/kg) did not prevent clonidine (1 mg/kg) action, suggesting that there was mediation by alpha post-junctional receptors. The effect of clonidine was unaltered by prazosin (2 mg/kg) and reversed by yohimbine (4 mg/kg) and 5-MeODMT (1 mg/kg), whereas it was potentiated by reserpine (2.5 mg/kg), methysergide (2 mg/kg) and ketanserin (8 mg/kg). Moreover, an ineffective dose of clonidine (0.06 mg/kg at 45 min pre-testing) made active subthreshold doses of various antidepressants (given at 30 min pre-testing): imipramine (4 mg/kg), amitriptyline (1 mg/kg), maprotiline (8 mg/kg), citalopram (2 mg/kg), indalpine, fluvoxamine and mianserin (4 mg/kg), viloxazine (2 mg/kg). Similar interactions were found with iprindole and nialamide (32 mg/kg), which were inactive alone up to 64 mg/kg, and 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 mg/kg) but not with major and minor tranquillizers. It is suggested that one effect of antidepressants might be the triggering of different relationships between alpha-2 and 5-HT mechanisms.

  6. Releasing-addition method for the flame-photometric determination of calcium in thermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.

    1963-01-01

    Study of the interferences of silica and sulfate in the flame-photometric determination of calcium in thermal waters has led to the development of a method requiring no prior chemical separations. The interference effects of silica, sulfate, potassium, sodium, aluminum, and phosphate are overcome by an addition technique coupled with the use of magnesium as a releasing agent. ?? 1963.

  7. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  8. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  9. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such a way as to determine if the applicant possesses the required knowledge and skills contained in... scoring the knowledge and skills tests. (d) Passing scores must meet those standards contained in § 383.135. (e) Knowledge and skills tests shall be based solely on the information contained in the...

  10. Analytic method for three-center nuclear attraction integrals: a generalization of the Gegenbauer addition theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    A completely analytic method for evaluating three-center nuclear-attraction integrals for STOS is presented. The method exploits a separation of the STO into an evenly loaded solid harmonic and a OS STO. The harmonics are translated to the molecular center of mass in closed finite terms. The OS STO is translated using the Gegenbauer addition theorem; ls STOS are translated using a single parametric differentiation of the OS formula. Explicit formulas for the integrals are presented for arbitrarily located atoms. A numerical example is given to illustrate the method.

  11. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice....) Record the flow rate at 1-minute intervals throughout the test cycle, taking the first reading within 15...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or...

  12. Fatigue crack growth automated testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.

    1989-06-01

    A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.

  13. Evaluation of the test method activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Y.; Nagase, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-12-01

    The test method of activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD was critically carried out and compared with other test methods. Investigation of test conditions showed that the moderate deviation from the test conditions defined by the OECD Test Guidelines did not have much effect on the result, and some modifications were proposed to improve the method. This method had a poor detection limit compared with the LC50 test with Oryzias latipes and EC50 of the growth inhibition test with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The susceptivity of the method was particularly poor for the chemicals which were highly toxic in the other two tests.

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic in vitro testing of feed additives claiming to detoxify deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Irene; Kunz-Vekiru, Elisavet; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium which frequently contaminate maize and grain cereals. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed endangers animal health and leads to economic losses in animal production. Several mycotoxin elimination strategies, including the use of commercially available DON and ZEN detoxifying agents, have been developed. However, frequently there is no scientific proof of the efficacy of such adsorbents and degrading products. We therefore tested 20 commercially available products claiming to detoxify DON and/or ZEN either by biodegradation (4 products) or a combination of degradation and adsorption (16 products) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at approx. pH 7. Under the applied conditions, a complete reduction of DON and consequent formation of the known non-toxic metabolite DOM-1 was exclusively observed in samples taken from the anaerobic degradation experiment of one product. For all other products, incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, a maximum DON reduction of 17% after 72 h of incubation was detected. Aerobic and anaerobic incubation of only one tested product resulted in complete ZEN reduction as well as in the formation of the less-toxic metabolites DHZEN and HZEN. With this product, 68-97% of the toxin was metabolised within 3 h. After 24 h, a ZEN reduction ≥ 60% was obtained with four additional products during aerobic incubation only. Six of the 20 investigated products produced α- and/or β-ZEL, which are metabolites showing similar oestrogenic activity compared to ZEN. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation to unknown metabolites with unidentified toxicity was obtained with 10 and 3 products, respectively. The results of our study demonstrate the importance of in vitro experiments to critically screen agents claiming mycotoxin detoxification.

  15. Smell testing: an additional tool for identification of adult Refsum's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gibberd, F; Feher, M; Sidey, M; Wierzbicki, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and degree of olfactory dysfunction in patients with ARD. Method: The olfactory function of 16 patients with ARD was assessed using the quantitative University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Results: All patients had complete anosmia or grossly impaired smell function with a mean UPSIT score of 14.7 (SD 4.7) (normal>34) despite having been treated with an appropriate diet for a median of 15 years (range 1–25). Conclusions: Identification of ARD patients can be facilitated by using the UPSIT in combination with the presence of retinitis pigmentosa, even if they have no neurological or bony features. Phytanic acid screening should be performed in any patient manifesting these two signs. PMID:15314127

  16. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gas. (5) EPA Method 23 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 to determine the dioxins and furans... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix...

  17. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gas. (5) EPA Method 23 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 to determine the dioxins and furans... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix...

  18. Experimental characterization of composites. [load test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental characterization for composite materials is generally more complicated than for ordinary homogeneous, isotropic materials because composites behave in a much more complex fashion, due to macroscopic anisotropic effects and lamination effects. Problems concerning the static uniaxial tension test for composite materials are considered along with approaches for conducting static uniaxial compression tests and static uniaxial bending tests. Studies of static shear properties are discussed, taking into account in-plane shear, twisting shear, and thickness shear. Attention is given to static multiaxial loading, systematized experimental programs for the complete characterization of static properties, and dynamic properties.

  19. Experimental test results from an environmental protection agency test method for determination of vapor suppressant effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tock, Richard W.; Ahern, Daniel W.

    2005-04-01

    The results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subpart WWWW of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 63 (1)-test method are discussed in this article. The original test method was developed to measure the effectiveness of wax suppressants used to reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from unsaturated polyester (UP)/vinyl ester resins. Wax additions of ˜1.5% by weight to commercial UP resins suppress HAP emissions through the formation of surface barrier films. However, the tests performed in this study included the use of limestone and an adjunct, organic fiber reinforcement, rather than the wax. The addition of either commercial product to the UP formulations tested in this study was also shown to reduce HAP emissions. Suppression was a combination of absorption and an increased diffusion path barrier for the volatile organic carbon (VOC) components. Based on the limited data obtained, it was shown that the oil absorption characteristics of the two adjunct products could be used to estimate the expected level of vapor suppression for a specific resin formulation. Values reported in the literature for the oil adsorption characteristics of the adjunct limestone and the commercial biomass fiber were used in the laboratory tests. Although the oil adsorption characteristic of any ingredient added to a base resin formulation is indicative of its potential for emissions reduction, the EPA test protocol is still required to be performed for validation. Such screening tests will always be needed due to the variability associated with commercial UP resins and the evolution of customized UP/fiberglass composite formulations developed by custom molding shops.

  20. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  1. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bignami, G

    1996-04-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity.

  2. Evaluation of laser ultrasonic testing for inspection of metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everton, Sarah; Dickens, Phill; Tuck, Chris; Dutton, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers a number of benefits over conventional processes. However, in order for these benefits to be realised, further development and integration of suitable monitoring and closed loop control systems are needed. Laser Ultrasonic Testing (LUT) is an inspection technology which shows potential for in-situ monitoring of metallic AM processes. Non-contact measurements can be performed on curved surfaces and in difficult to reach areas, even at elevated temperatures. Interrogation of each build layer generates defect information which can be used to highlight processing errors and allow for real-time modification of processing parameters, enabling improved component quality and yield. This study evaluates the use of laser-generated surface waves to detect artificially generated defects in titanium alloy (Ti- 6Al-4V) samples produced by laser-based Powder Bed Fusion. The trials undertaken utilise the latest LUT equipment, recently installed at Manufacturing Technology Centre which is capable of being controlled remotely. This will allow the system to optimise or adapt "on-the-fly", simplifying the eventual integration of the system within an AM machine.

  3. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  4. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  5. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  6. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between control stations and pods; (d) Pressure test the blind or blind-shear ram BOP during stump tests and at all casing points; (e) The interval between any blind or blind-shear ram BOP pressure tests may not exceed 30 days; (f) Pressure test variable bore-pipe ram BOPs against the largest and...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2.1A clearly written test method, preferably in the format of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A Test... reference from other methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Therefore, to obtain reliable results,...

  8. Apparatus and method for testing fuel injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, R.L.; Dillard, H.G.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a system for testing the efficacy of a fuel injector having a fuel injection valve and a nozzle with at least one orifice for injecting fuel therethrough. It includes a fluid manifold having fluid passages therein, and having mounting means for receiving a fuel injector to be tested and for holding the fuel injector in fluid communication with the fluid passages and with the nozzle depending from the manifold; means for supplying a testing fluid under pressure to the manifold fluid passages; a support disposed below the nozzle and having a drain port therein; means selectively mountable on the support in a first test phase and extending upwardly therefrom circumjacent the nozzle for providing visual inspection of the nozzle, the means having an opening at the bottom thereof for communication with the drain port; a measuring means selectively mountable on the support and extending upwardly therefrom circumjacent the nozzle in lieu of the visual inspection means in another test phase, the measuring means being closed at the bottom thereof; quick change means.

  9. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOEpatents

    Mo, Weijian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  10. I like your GRIN: Deign methods for gradient-index progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David J.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2002-12-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power, used to treat the physical condition presbyopia. These lenses are currently fabricated using non-rotationally symmetric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. In this research, we consider the use of Gradient-Index (GRIN) designs for providing both power progression and aberration control. The use of B-Spline curves for GRIN representation is explained. Design methods and simulation results for GRIN PALs are presented. Possible uses for the design methods with other lenses, such as unifocal lenses and axicons, are also discussed.

  11. Well cementing method using an am/amps fluid loss additive blend

    SciTech Connect

    Boncan, V.G.; Gandy, R.

    1986-12-30

    A method is described of cementing a wellbore, comprising the steps of: mixing together a hydraulic cement, water in an amount to produce a pumpable slurry, and a non-retarding fluid loss additive blend. The blend comprises a copolymer of acrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonate, the sodium salt of naphthalene formaldehyde sulfonate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer; pumping the cement slurry to the desired location in the wellbore; and allowing the cement slurry to harden to a solid mass.

  12. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  13. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  14. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60....

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60....

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A...

  20. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  1. Tracer Test Interpretation Methods for Reservior Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, George Michael

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop tools that can be used to interpret tracer tests and obtain estimates of reservoir and operational parameters. These tools (mostly in the form of spreadsheet applications) can be used to optimize geothermal resource management.

  2. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 to select the sampling port location and the number of traverse points. (2) EPA Method 2 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1 or EPA Method 5D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-3..., or 3B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-2 to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (4)...

  3. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... before running casing; (j) Test all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump... ROV hot stabs are function tested and are capable of actuating, at a minimum, one set of pipe rams...

  4. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... casing; (j) Test all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. You must... procedures with your APD or APM for District Manager approval. You must: (1) ensure that the ROV hot...

  5. Standard test method for saponification number of petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products that will saponify under the conditions of the test. Since compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements which are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crank-case oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted in this respect. Summary of method: a known weight of the sample, dissolved in methylethylketone is heated with a known amount of alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH). The excess alkali is titrated with standard acid and the saponification number calculated.

  6. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. Each ROV must be fully compatible with the BOP stack ROV intervention panels. You must also test and verify closure of at least one set of rams during the initial test on the seafloor through an ROV hot stab. You must submit...

  7. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... all ROV intervention functions on your subsea BOP stack during the stump test. Each ROV must be fully compatible with the BOP stack ROV intervention panels. You must also test and verify closure of at least one set of rams during the initial test on the seafloor through an ROV hot stab. You must submit...

  8. Handbook of test methods for evaluating chemical deicers

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelow, C.C.; McElroy, A.D.; Blackburn, R.R.; Darwin, D.; de Noyelles, F.G.

    1992-11-01

    The handbook contains a structured selection of specific test methods for complete characterization of deicing chemicals. Sixty-two specific test methods are defined for the evaluation of chemical deicers in eight principal property performance areas: (1) physicochemical characteristics; (2) deicing performance; (3) compatibility with bare and coated metals; (4) compatibility with metals in concrete; (5) compatibility with concrete and nonmetals; (6) engineering parameters; (7) ecological effects; and (8) health and safety aspects. The 62 specific chemical deicer test methods are composed of 12 primary and 50 supplementary test methods. The primary test methods, which were developed for conducting the more important evaluations, are identified in the report.

  9. Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a developmental neurotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Lau, Karen; McLean, W Graham; Williams, Dominic P; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2006-03-01

    Exposure to non-nutritional food additives during the critical development window has been implicated in the induction and severity of behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the use of single food additives at their regulated concentrations is believed to be relatively safe in terms of neuronal development, their combined effects remain unclear. We therefore examined the neurotoxic effects of four common food additives in combinations of two (Brilliant Blue and L-glutamic acid, Quinoline Yellow and aspartame) to assess potential interactions. Mouse NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate and grow neurites in the presence of additives. After 24 h, cells were fixed and stained and neurite length measured by light microscopy with computerized image analysis. Neurotoxicity was measured as an inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Two independent models were used to analyze combination effects: effect additivity and dose additivity. Significant synergy was observed between combinations of Brilliant Blue with L-glutamic acid, and Quinoline Yellow with aspartame, in both models. Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in food additive-induced neurite inhibition was assessed with a NMDA antagonist, CNS-1102. L-glutamic acid- and aspartame-induced neurotoxicity was reduced in the presence of CNS-1102; however, the antagonist did not prevent food color-induced neurotoxicity. Theoretical exposure to additives was calculated based on analysis of content in foodstuff, and estimated percentage absorption from the gut. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a typical snack and drink. In addition, Trypan Blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the cellular toxicity of food additives on cell viability of NB2a cells; both combinations had a straightforward additive effect on cytotoxicity. These data have implications for the

  10. Standard addition method for free acid determination in solutions with hydrolyzable ions

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in a 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy is verifiable by reasonable agreement of the Nerst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5 percent.

  11. Simultaneous kinetic determination of levodopa and carbidopa by H-point standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Tohidi, Maryam

    2007-05-01

    The kinetic H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was applied to the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa. The method was based on the difference in the rate of oxidation of these compounds with Cu(II)-neocuproine system and formation of Cu(I)-neocuproine complex at pH 5.5. The absorbance of the Cu(I)-neocuproine complex was monitored at 453 nm. Experimental conditions such as pH, reagent concentrations, ionic strength and temperature were optimized. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa was performed in the range of 0.8-4 and 0.2-1.5 microg ml(-1), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  12. Drug susceptibility testing by dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Serial twofold dilution methods are widely used to assess the bacteriostatic activities of antibiotics. This can be achieved by dilution of considered drugs in agar medium or in culture broth, and inoculation by calibrated inoculums. Although seemingly simple, these methods are greatly influenced by the experimental conditions used and may lead to discrepant results, in particular with untrained investigators. The present step-by-step protocol has been validated for Pseudomonas species, including P. aeruginosa. Introduction of appropriate control strains is crucial to ascertain minimal inhibitory concentration values and compare the results of independent experiments.

  13. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  14. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  15. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  16. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  17. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  18. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  19. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  20. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... results of three 60-minute test runs. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A... glass melting furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  1. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  2. 40 CFR 60.534 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wood Heaters § 60.534 Test methods and procedures. Test methods and procedures in appendix A of this...) Method 5H, if a stack location is used. (c) Method 28A shall be used to determine that a wood combustion unit qualifies under the definition of wood heater in § 60.531(a). If such a determination is...

  3. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one method... to separate the HDDs/HDFs from the sample matrix. Methods are reviewed in the Guidelines under § 766... meet the requirements of the chemical matrix. (d) Analysis. The method of choice is High Resolution...

  4. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be determined by either: (A) Weighing the ethylene oxide gas cylinder(s) used to charge the... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be determined by either: (A) Weighing the ethylene oxide gas cylinder(s) used to charge the... CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate. (Method 2D (using orifice...) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A (hereafter referred to as Method 18 or...

  6. Low-cycle fatigue testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurade, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The good design of highly stressed mechanical components requires accurate knowledge of the service behavior of materials. The main methods for solving the problems of designers are: determination of the mechanical properties of the material after cyclic stabilization; plotting of resistance to plastic deformation curves; effect of temperature on the life on low cycle fatigue; and simulation of notched parts behavior.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  11. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  12. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  13. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-02-14

    An apparatus is described for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking. 3 figs.

  14. Field testing method for photovaltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Gerber N.

    For remote areas, where solar photovoltaic modules are the only source of power, it is essential to perform preventive maintenance to insure that the PV system works properly; unfortunately, prices for PV testers range from 1,700 to 8,000. To address this issue, a portable inexpensive tester and analysis methodology have been developed. Assembling a simple tester, which costs $530 and weighs about 5 pounds, and using the Four-Parameters PV Model, we characterized the current-voltage (I-V) curve at environmental testing conditions; and then employing radiation, temperature, and age degradation sensitivity equations, we extrapolated the I-V curve to standard testing conditions. After applying the methodology to three kinds of silicon modules (mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline, and thin-film), we obtained maximum power points up to 97% of the manufacturer's specifications. Therefore, based on these results, it is reasonably accurate and affordable to verify the performance of solar modules in the field.

  15. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  16. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  17. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    PubMed

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular. PMID:23650936

  18. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    PubMed

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular.

  19. Reservoir Exploration/Testing by Elastomechanical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-12-18

    The purpose of this brief note is to present a preliminary evaluation of the potential of the elastomechanical methods in practical reservoir engineering and related areas. Assuming simple relevant situations, the strength of the field signals will be estimated and compared to other ground surface data such as gravity and D.C. electrical signals that are also of interest in reservoir monitoring. Because of greater difficulty in observing surface strain, we will limit our discussion to vertical ground displacement and tilt signals.

  20. Standard addition method for laser ablation ICPMS using a spinning platform.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Fanny; Malherbe, Julien; Bier, Naomi; Molloy, John L; Long, Stephen E

    2013-04-01

    A method has been developed for the fast and easy determination of Pb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, and Zn, which are of geological and environmental interest, in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) using a spinning sample platform. The platform, containing a sample and a standard, is spun during the ablation, allowing the quasi-simultaneous ablation of both materials. The aerosols resulting from the ablation of sample and standard were mixed in the ablation cell allowing quantification of analytes by standard additions. The proportion of standard versus sample of the mixing can be increased by performing the ablation further from the axis of rotation. The ablated masses have been determined using a new strategy based on isotope dilution analysis. This spinning laser ablation method has been applied to the Allende meteorite and four powdered standard reference materials (SRMs) fused in lithium borate glasses: two sediments as well as a soil and a rock material. SRM 612 (Trace Elements in Glass) was also analyzed despite having a matrix slightly different from the glass standard obtained by lithium borate fusion. The deviation from the certified values was found to be less than 15% for most of the mass fractions for all the elements and samples studied, with an average precision of 10%. These results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for the direct and fast analysis of solid samples of different matrixes by standard additions, using a single standard sample.

  1. Standard addition method for laser ablation ICPMS using a spinning platform.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Fanny; Malherbe, Julien; Bier, Naomi; Molloy, John L; Long, Stephen E

    2013-04-01

    A method has been developed for the fast and easy determination of Pb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, and Zn, which are of geological and environmental interest, in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) using a spinning sample platform. The platform, containing a sample and a standard, is spun during the ablation, allowing the quasi-simultaneous ablation of both materials. The aerosols resulting from the ablation of sample and standard were mixed in the ablation cell allowing quantification of analytes by standard additions. The proportion of standard versus sample of the mixing can be increased by performing the ablation further from the axis of rotation. The ablated masses have been determined using a new strategy based on isotope dilution analysis. This spinning laser ablation method has been applied to the Allende meteorite and four powdered standard reference materials (SRMs) fused in lithium borate glasses: two sediments as well as a soil and a rock material. SRM 612 (Trace Elements in Glass) was also analyzed despite having a matrix slightly different from the glass standard obtained by lithium borate fusion. The deviation from the certified values was found to be less than 15% for most of the mass fractions for all the elements and samples studied, with an average precision of 10%. These results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for the direct and fast analysis of solid samples of different matrixes by standard additions, using a single standard sample. PMID:23418996

  2. Patch testing discordance alert: false-negative findings with rubber additives and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Sherertz, E F; Fransway, A F; Belsito, D V; DeLeo, V A; Fowler, J F; Maibach, H I; Marks, J G; Mathias, C G; Pratt, M D; Rietschel, R L; Taylor, J S

    2001-08-01

    From July 1996 through June 1998, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group evaluated 318 patients for suspected contact dermatitis by patch testing simultaneously with Finn Chambers and the T.R.U.E. Test allergen system. Discrepancies between the two systems were found in some of the results, particularly with fragrance and rubber allergens. These results suggest that positive reactions to fragrance, thiuram, and carba mix allergens may be missed if the T.R.U.E. Test is used alone.

  3. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  4. 40 CFR 61.164 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for sample and velocity traverse. (B) Method... furnace. (ii) Use the following methods in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60: (A) Method 1 for sample and... Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.164 Test methods and procedures. (a) To...

  5. Eddy Current Method for Fatigue Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor using a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. A ferrous shield isolates a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. Use of the magnetic shield produces a null voltage output across the receiving coil in presence of an unflawed sample. Redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws. eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. Maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. By obtaining position of maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. Accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output resulting in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip enabling the search region to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion causes incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. Low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of thickness of the test sample. Fatigue testing a conductive material is accomplished by applying load to the material, applying current to the sensor, scanning the material with the sensor, monitoring the sensor output signal, adjusting material load based on the sensor output signal of the sensor, and adjusting position of the sensor based on its output signal.

  6. A simple method for the addition of rotenone in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Maliandi, María V; Rius, Sebastián P; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with rotenone is presented. Rosette leaves were incubated with rotenone and Triton X-100 for at least 15 h. Treated leaves showed increased expression of COX19 and BCS1a, 2 genes known to be induced in Arabidopsis cell cultures after rotenone treatment. Moreover, rotenone/Triton X-100 incubated leaves presented an inhibition of oxygen uptake. The simplicity of the procedure shows this methodology is useful for studying the effect of the addition of rotenone to a photosynthetic tissue in situ.

  7. A simple method for the addition of rotenone in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Maliandi, María V; Rius, Sebastián P; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with rotenone is presented. Rosette leaves were incubated with rotenone and Triton X-100 for at least 15 h. Treated leaves showed increased expression of COX19 and BCS1a, 2 genes known to be induced in Arabidopsis cell cultures after rotenone treatment. Moreover, rotenone/Triton X-100 incubated leaves presented an inhibition of oxygen uptake. The simplicity of the procedure shows this methodology is useful for studying the effect of the addition of rotenone to a photosynthetic tissue in situ. PMID:26357865

  8. Enhanced test methods to characterise automotive battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Grietus; Omar, Noshin; Pauwels, Stijn; Leemans, Filip; Verbrugge, Bavo; De Nijs, Wouter; Van den Bossche, Peter; Six, Daan; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    This article evaluates the methods to characterise the behaviour of lithium ion cells of several chemistries and a nickel metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Although existing characterisation test methods are used, it was also indicated to combine test methods in order to speed up the test time and to create an improved comparability of the test results. Also, the existing capacity tests ignore that cells can be charged at several current rates. However, this is of interest for, e.g. fast charging and regenerative braking. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated in the enhanced method. The article explains the rationale to ameliorate the test methods. The test plan should make it possible to make an initial division in a group of cells purchased from several suppliers.

  9. Comparison of modal test methods on the Voyager payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, B. R.; Miserentino, R.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Wada, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of modern modal data analysis methods on test data from the Voyager Jupiter/Saturn payload is presented. Four different test/data-analysis combinations are compared - multiple-point sine excitation tests, single-point random-excitation tests using two different techniques of manipulating Fourier transform data, and a time-domain method for analyzing random data. Results indicate that all four methods can give comparable results. Of the four, the time-domain approach detects more modes in the test data and, at the same time, shows the greatest promise for reducing the time and cost of modal testing.

  10. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests and... for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall be subject to all of the requirements of § 1631.31... warranties for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall perform tests and maintain records on...

  11. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests and... for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall be subject to all of the requirements of § 1631.31... warranties for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall perform tests and maintain records on...

  12. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests and... for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall be subject to all of the requirements of § 1631.31... warranties for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall perform tests and maintain records on...

  13. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests and... for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall be subject to all of the requirements of § 1631.31... warranties for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall perform tests and maintain records on...

  14. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests and... for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall be subject to all of the requirements of § 1631.31... warranties for small carpets and rugs subject to FF 2-70 shall perform tests and maintain records on...

  15. 40 CFR 60.123 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.123 Section 60.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Smelters § 60.123 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  16. 40 CFR 60.123 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.123 Section 60.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Smelters § 60.123 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.123 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.123 Section 60.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Smelters § 60.123 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in §...

  18. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  19. Visual relevance of display image quality testing by photometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andren, Boerje; Breidne, Magnus; Hansson, L. A.; Persson, Bo

    1993-09-01

    The two major international test methods for evaluation of the image quality of video display terminals are the ISO 9241-3 international standard and the MPR test. In this paper we make an attempt to compare the visual relevance of these two test methods.

  20. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  1. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  2. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  3. [Denoising and assessing method of additive noise in the ultraviolet spectrum of SO2 in flue gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Sun, Chang-Ku; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yu-Mei

    2009-11-01

    The problem of denoising and assessing method of the spectrum of SO2 in flue gas was studied based on DOAS. The denoising procedure of the additive noise in the spectrum was divided into two parts: reducing the additive noise and enhancing the useful signal. When obtaining the absorption feature of measured gas, a multi-resolution preprocessing method of original spectrum was adopted for denoising by DWT (discrete wavelet transform). The signal energy operators in different scales were used to choose the denoising threshold and separate the useful signal from the noise. On the other hand, because there was no sudden change in the spectra of flue gas in time series, the useful signal component was enhanced according to the signal time dependence. And the standard absorption cross section was used to build the ideal absorption spectrum with the measured gas temperature and pressure. This ideal spectrum was used as the desired signal instead of the original spectrum in the assessing method to modify the SNR (signal-noise ratio). There were two different environments to do the proof test-in the lab and at the scene. In the lab, SO2 was measured several times with the system using this method mentioned above. The average deviation was less than 1.5%, while the repeatability was less than 1%. And the short range experiment data were better than the large range. In the scene of a power plant whose concentration of flue gas had a large variation range, the maximum deviation of this method was 2.31% in the 18 groups of contrast data. The experimental results show that the denoising effect of the scene spectrum was better than that of the lab spectrum. This means that this method can improve the SNR of the spectrum effectively, which is seriously polluted by additive noise. PMID:20101989

  4. Gravimetric approach to the standard addition method in instrumental analysis. 1.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W Robert; MacDonald, Bruce S; Guthrie, William F

    2008-08-15

    A mathematical formulation for a gravimetric approach to the univariate standard addition method (SAM) is presented that has general applicability for both liquids and solids. Using gravimetry rather than volumetry reduces the preparation time, increases design flexibility, and makes increased accuracy possible. SAM has most often been used with analytes in aqueous solutions that are aspirated into flames or plasmas and determined by absorption, emission, or mass spectrometric techniques. The formulation presented here shows that the method can also be applied to complex matrixes, such as distillate and residual fuel oils, using techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) or combustion combined with atomic fluorescence or absorption. These techniques, which can be subject to matrix-induced interferences, could realize the same benefits that have been demonstrated for dilute aqueous solutions.

  5. Evaporation model for beam based additive manufacturing using free surface lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Alexander; Scharowsky, Thorsten; Körner, Carolin

    2014-07-01

    Evaporation plays an important role in many technical applications including beam-based additive manufacturing processes, such as selective electron beam or selective laser melting (SEBM/SLM). In this paper, we describe an evaporation model which we employ within the framework of a two-dimensional free surface lattice Boltzmann method. With this method, we solve the hydrodynamics as well as thermodynamics of the molten material taking into account the mass and energy losses due to evaporation and the recoil pressure acting on the melt pool. Validation of the numerical model is performed by measuring maximum melt depths and evaporative losses in samples of pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V molten by an electron beam. Finally, the model is applied to create processing maps for an SEBM process. The results predict that the penetration depth of the electron beam, which is a function of the acceleration voltage, has a significant influence on evaporation effects.

  6. Standard test method for size of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covering screen analysis of anthracite is used to determine the percentage of undersize or oversize in ny given commercial size. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Procedure, in case th coal is wet, air-dryit before screening. Determine the undersize first. For broken, egg, and stove sizes, up-end each piece by hand on the screen, to determine whether in any position it passes through the screen. For nut, pea, buckwheat, and rice sizes, shake the screens gently with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so as to avoid breakage ofthe coal, until practically no more coal will pass through the openings. Screen the coal in such increments as will allow the pieces to be in direct contact with the screen openings after the completion of the shaking of each increment.

  7. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  8. Methods for the Joint Meta-Analysis of Multiple Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trikalinos, Thomas A.; Hoaglin, David C.; Small, Kevin M.; Terrin, Norma; Schmid, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy focus primarily on a single index test. We propose models for the joint meta-analysis of studies comparing multiple index tests on the same participants in paired designs. These models respect the grouping of data by studies, account for the within-study correlation between the tests'…

  9. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  10. Method for adding additional isotopes to actinide-only burnup credit

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.B.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Topical Report on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit for Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Packages requires computer code validation to be performed against a benchmark set of chemical assays for isotopic concentration and against a benchmark set of critical experiments for package criticality. Both sets contain all the isotopes included in the methodology. The chemical assays used include the uranium and plutonium isotopes, while the critical experiments were composed of UO{sub 2} or MOX rods, covering the isotopes in the actinide only approach. Since other isotopes are not included in the validation benchmark sets, it would be necessary to justify both the content and worth of any additional isotope for which burnup credit is to be taken (i.e., both the concentration and criticality effect of each particular isotope must be validated). A method is proposed here that can be used for any number of additional isotopes. As does the actinide-only burnup credit methodology, this method makes use of chemical assay data to establish the conservatism in the prediction of each isotope`s concentration. Criticality validation is also performed using a benchmark set of UO{sub 2} and MOX critical experiments, where the additional isotopes are validated using worth experiments to conservatively account for any uncertainty in their cross sections. The remaining requirements (analysis and modeling parameters, loading criteria generation, and physical implementation and controls) are performed exactly as described in the actinide-only burnup credit methodology. This report provides insight into each particular requirement in the new methodology.

  11. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  12. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Articles Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.

  13. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official test methods. 58.930 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 58.930 - Official test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.930 Official test methods. (a) Chemical. Chemical analysis, except where otherwise prescribed... of Analysis of the AOAC or by the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official test methods. 58.930 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 60.386 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Processing Plants § 60.386 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in... holder of Method 5 may be operated without heaters if the gas stream being sampled is at ambient temperature. For gas streams above ambient temperature, the Method 5 sampling train shall be operated with...

  16. New hydrogeophysical methods examined at the test-site Schillerslage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosch, Raphael; Holland, Raphael; Holzhauer, Julia; Günther, Thomas; Yaramanci, Ugur

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods have proved to yield valuable information to characterise aquifers. However, in order to obtain reliable hydraulic properties such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity (kf), new methods need to be applied and improved. Among them, spectral induced polarisation (SIP) and magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) are promising, since the data are directly related to pore geometry and therefore storage properties. However, they are susceptible to noise and need methodological improvements. These methods are evaluated at the new LIAG test site Schillerslage. The subsurface consists of two shallow quaternary aquifers (1-12m and 16-22m depth) separated by a till layer over cretaceous marls as typical in northern Germany. The subsurface structure was investigated by GPR and seismic surveys as well as drilling and borehole geophysics. Kf and porosity values are obtained by pumping tests to access field scale properties; lab kf measurements and grain size analyses to yield these parameters on a small scale. Laboratory NMR and SIP measurements on core samples can be directly compared to hydrological data. Both methods provide relaxation spectra that are connected to the pore size distribution. With these pore size estimations coarse and fine grained parts of the aquifer can qualitatively be distinguished. For quantification, different approaches for estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation times and measured SIP phases are applied. All values are in similar order of the magnitude compared to the directly measured. However, variations of unidentified origin occur too. Field measurements using MRS and SIP soundings have been carried out in the vicinity of the main borehole. Their inversion reveals the expected general layering. However, there is significant ambiguity in the inversion results that can only be diminished by additional information as known layer boundaries. The calculated porosities are 20-30% by SIP and 25-33% by NMR for the upper

  17. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  18. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  19. 40 CFR 60.344 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.344 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in... the average pressure loss of the gas stream through the scrubber and the average scrubbing...

  20. A method to approximate the inverse of a part of the additive relationship matrix.

    PubMed

    Faux, P; Gengler, N

    2015-06-01

    Single-step genomic predictions need the inverse of the part of the additive relationship matrix between genotyped animals (A22 ). Gains in computing time are feasible with an algorithm that sets up the sparsity pattern of A22-1 (SP algorithm) using pedigree searches, when A22-1 is close to sparse. The objective of this study is to present a modification of the SP algorithm (RSP algorithm) and to assess its use in approximating A22-1 when the actual A22-1 is dense. The RSP algorithm sets up a restricted sparsity pattern of A22-1 by limiting the pedigree search to a maximum number of searched branches. We have tested its use on four different simulated genotyped populations, from 10 000 to 75 000 genotyped animals. Accuracy of approximation is tested by replacing the actual A22-1 by its approximation in an equivalent mixed model including only genotyped animals. Results show that limiting the pedigree search to four branches is enough to provide accurate approximations of A22-1, which contain approximately 80% of zeros. Computing approximations is not expensive in time but may require a great amount of memory (at maximum, approximately 81 min and approximately 55 Gb of RAM for 75 000 genotyped animals using parallel processing on four threads). PMID:25560252

  1. Appropriate In Vitro Methods for Genotoxicity Testing of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Shin, Da Young; Oh, Seung Min

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the genotoxic effects of 40-59 nm silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), in vitro comet assay and micronucleus (MN) assay. In particular, we directly compared the effect of cytochalasin B (cytoB) and rat liver homogenate (S9 mix) in the formation of MN by Ag-NPs. Methods Before testing, we confirmed that Ag-NPs were completely dispersed in the experimental medium by sonication (three times in 1 minute) and filtration (0.2 µm pore size filter), and then we measured their size in a zeta potential analyzer. After that the genotoxicity were measured and especially, S9 mix and with and without cytoB were compared one another in MN assay. Results Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 strains revealed that Ag-NPs with or without S9 mix did not display a mutagenic effect. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs was also evaluated in a mammalian cell system using Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results revealed that Ag-NPs stimulated DNA breakage and MN formation with or without S9 mix in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.01 µg/mL to 10 µg/mL). In particular, MN induction was affected by cytoB. Conclusions All of our findings, with the exception of the Ames test results, indicate that Ag-NPs show genotoxic effects in mammalian cell system. In addition, present study suggests the potential error due to use of cytoB in genotoxic test of nanoparticles. PMID:23440978

  2. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  3. Comparison of HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.P.; Fernandez, S.J.; Motes, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    An evaluation of the three HEPA filter test methods in corrosive environments was conducted: the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) method (US Standard Method ANSI N-101.1-1972), the sodium chloride method (British Standard 3928:1969), and the soda-fluorescein or uranine method (French Standard AFNOR STD NFX 44-011). The effects of humidity, temperature and oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) on each method was examined. The experimental design used in the evaluation measured and separated both the effect of each variable and any interaction between variables on the test method. Recommendations for changes in the standard methods to reduce erratic online results are presented.

  4. A Method of Partly Automated Testing of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Mike; Visser, Willem; Washington, Rich; Artho, Cyrille; Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus; Pasareanu, Corina; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Roflu, Grigore

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated testing of software has been developed that provides an alternative to the conventional mostly manual approach for software testing. The method combines (1) automated generation of test cases on the basis of systematic exploration of the input domain of the software to be tested with (2) run-time analysis in which execution traces are monitored, verified against temporal-logic specifications, and analyzed by concurrency-error-detection algorithms. In this new method, the user only needs to provide the temporal logic specifications against which the software will be tested and the abstract description of the input domain.

  5. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  6. Ergodicity test of the eddy correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Lü, S.

    2014-07-01

    for the ensemble average, a large rate of error would occur with use of the eddy correction method due to losing the low frequency component information of the larger vortex. When the multi-station observation was compared with the single-station observation, the wide sense of stationary random process originating from the multi-station observation expanded from a vortex which was about 1000 m smaller than a boundary layer scale to the turbulent vortex, which was larger than the boundary layer scale of 2000 m. Therefore, the calculation of the turbulence average or variance and turbulent flux could effectively meet the ergodic assumption, and the results would be approximate to the actual values. Regardless of vertical velocity and temperature, if the ergodic stationary random processes could be met, then the variance of the vortexes in the different temporal scales could follow M-O similarity theory; in the case of the non-ergodic random process, its vortex variance deviated from the M-O similarity relations. The exploration of ergodicity in the atmospheric turbulence measurements is doubtlessly helpful to understanding the issues in atmospheric turbulent flux observation, and provides a theoretical basis for overcoming related difficulties.

  7. Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy: Three-Part Test. Part Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Additional Clarification, "User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX" (User's Guide), and related technical report are resources to assist institutions in meeting their compliance obligations. Taken together, they serve to clarify many of the factors OCR will consider under part three, and to facilitate compliance…

  8. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  9. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  10. Evaluation of new aquatic toxicity test methods for oil dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, C.B.; Clark, J.R.; Bragin, G.E.

    1994-12-31

    Current aquatic toxicity test methods used for dispersant registration do not address real world exposure scenarios. Current test methods require 48 or 96 hour constant exposure conditions. In contrast, environmentally realistic exposures can be described as a pulse in which the initial concentration declines over time. Recent research using a specially designed testing apparatus (the California system) has demonstrated that exposure to Corexit 9527{reg_sign} under pulsed exposure conditions may be 3 to 22 times less toxic compared to continuous exposure scenarios. The objectives of this study were to compare results of toxicity tests using the California test system to results from standardized tests, evaluate sensitivity of regional (Holmesimysis cast and Atherinops affinis) vs. standard test species (Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina) and determine if tests using the California test system and method are reproducible. All tests were conducted using Corexit 9527{reg_sign} as the test material. Standard toxicity tests conducted with M. bahia and H. cast resulted in LC50s similar to those from tests using the California apparatus. LC50s from tests conducted in the authors` laboratory with the California system and standard test species were within a factor of 2 to 6 of data previously reported for west coast species. Results of tests conducted with H. cast in the laboratory compared favorably to data reported by Singer et al. 1991.

  11. Thermoregulatory response to an organophosphate and carbamate insecticide mixture: testing the assumption of dose-additivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Herr, David W; Gennings, Chris; Graff, Jaimie E; McMurray, Matthew; Stork, LeAnna; Coffey, Todd; Hamm, Adam; Mack, Cina M

    2006-01-01

    Most toxicity data are based on studies using single compounds. This study assessed if there is an interaction between mixtures of the anticholinesterase insecticides chlorpyrifos (CHP) and carbaryl (CAR) using hypothermia and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition as toxicological endpoints. Core temperature (T(c)) was continuously monitored by radiotelemetry in adult Long-Evans rats administered CHP at doses ranging from 0 to 50mg/kg and CAR doses of 0-150 mg/kg. The temperature index (TI), an integration of the change in T(c) over a 12h period, was quantified. Effects of mixtures of CHP and CAR in 2:1 and 1:1 ratios on the TI were examined and the data analyzed using a statistical model designed to assess significant departures from additivity for chemical mixtures. CHP and CAR elicited a marked hypothermia and dose-related decrease in the TI. The TI response to a 2:1 ratio of CHP:CAR was significantly less than that predicted by additivity. The TI response to a 1:1 ratio of CHP and CAR was not significantly different from the predicted additivity. Plasma and brain ChE activity were measured 4h after dosing with CHP, CAR, and mixtures in separate groups of rats. There was a dose-additive interaction for the inhibition of brain ChE for the 2:1 ratio, but an antagonistic effect for the 1:1 ratio. The 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures had an antagonistic interaction on plasma ChE. Overall, the departures from additivity for the physiological (i.e., temperature) and biochemical (i.e., ChE inhibition) endpoints for the 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures studies did not coincide as expected. An interaction between CHP and CAR appears to depend on the ratio of compounds in the mixture as well as the biological endpoint. PMID:16182429

  12. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... performed particle counts on samples collected during the Study. Table 1 provides the exercise and sampling... revised PortaCount quantitative fit-testing protocols are not sufficiently accurate or reliable to include...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published...

  13. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  14. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  15. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  16. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  17. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  18. Avoiding Split Attention in Computer-Based Testing: Is Neglecting Additional Information Facilitative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Janssen, Noortje; Kirschner, Paul A.; Erkens, Gijsbert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether design guidelines for computer-based learning can be applied to computer-based testing (CBT). Twenty-two students completed a CBT exam with half of the questions presented in a split-screen format that was analogous to the original paper-and-pencil version and half in an integrated format. Results show that students…

  19. 75 FR 2122 - Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...) standard HRF-1-1979 (HRF-1). See Appendix A1, section 2.2; 47 FR 34517 (Aug. 10, 1982). HRF-1 specifies... ensure the consistent application of DOE's current test procedure to refrigerator-freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted freezers, and through-the-door (TTD) ice service (French door TTD models)....

  20. Test methods and design allowables for fibrous composites. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include extreme/hostile environment testing, establishing design allowables, and property/behavior specific testing. Papers are presented on environmental effects on the high strain rate properties of graphite/epoxy composite, the low-temperature performance of short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the abrasive wear behavior of unidirectional and woven graphite fiber/PEEK, test methods for determining design allowables for fiber reinforced composites, and statistical methods for calculating material allowables for MIL-HDBK-17. Attention is also given to a test method to measure the response of composite materials under reversed cyclic loads, a through-the-thickness strength specimen for composites, the use of torsion tubes to measure in-plane shear properties of filament-wound composites, the influlence of test fixture design on the Iosipescu shear test for fiber composite materials, and a method for monitoring in-plane shear modulus in fatigue testing of composites.

  1. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.

    1993-11-09

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  2. Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

  3. Application of a New Method for Analyzing Images: Two-Dimensional Non-Linear Additive Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    MA Zaccaria; DM Drudnoy; JE Stasenko

    2006-07-05

    This paper documents the application of a new image processing algorithm, two-dimensional non-linear additive decomposition (NLAD), which is used to identify regions in a digital image whose gray-scale (or color) intensity is different than the surrounding background. Standard image segmentation algorithms exist that allow users to segment images based on gray-scale intensity and/or shape. However, these processing techniques do not adequately account for the image noise and lighting variation that typically occurs across an image. NLAD is designed to separate image noise and background from artifacts thereby providing the ability to consistently evaluate images. The decomposition techniques used in this algorithm are based on the concepts of mathematical morphology. NLAD emulates the human capability of visually separating an image into different levels of resolution components, denoted as ''coarse'', ''fine'', and ''intermediate''. Very little resolution information overlaps any two of the component images. This method can easily determine and/or remove trends and noise from an image. NLAD has several additional advantages over conventional image processing algorithms, including no need for a transformation from one space to another, such as is done with Fourier transforms, and since only finite summations are required, the calculational effort is neither extensive nor complicated.

  4. Tandem sequence of phenol oxidation and intramolecular addition as a method in building heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, Maxim O; Farkas, Linda E; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-11-16

    A tandem phenol oxidation-Michael addition furnishing oxo- and -aza-heterocycles has been developed. Dirhodium caprolactamate [Rh(2)(cap)(4)] catalyzed oxidation by T-HYDRO of phenols with alcohols, ketones, amides, carboxylic acids, and N-Boc protected amines tethered to their 4-position afforded 4-(tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexa-2,5-dienones that undergo Brønsted acid catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition in one-pot to produce oxo- and -aza-heterocycles in moderate to good yields. The scope of the developed methodology includes dipeptides Boc-Tyr-Gly-OEt and Boc-Tyr-Phe-Me and provides a pathway for understanding the possible transformations arising from oxidative stress of tyrosine residues. A novel method of selective cleavage of O-O bond in hindered internal peroxide using TiCl(4) has been discovered in efforts directed to the construction of cleroindicin F, whose synthesis was completed in 50% yield over just 3 steps from tyrosol using the developed methodology.

  5. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Outlier Measures and Norming Methods for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradlow, Eric T.; Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares four methods that map outlier statistics to a familiarity probability scale (a "P" value). Explored these methods in the context of computerized adaptive test data from a 1995 nationally administered computerized examination for professionals in the medical industry. (SLD)

  7. 40 CFR 60.446 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.446 Test methods and procedures. (a) The VOC... the web substrate. (b) Method 25 shall be used to determine the VOC concentration, in parts...

  8. 40 CFR 60.446 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.446 Test methods and procedures. (a) The VOC... the web substrate. (b) Method 25 shall be used to determine the VOC concentration, in parts...

  9. 40 CFR 60.446 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.446 Test methods and procedures. (a) The VOC... the web substrate. (b) Method 25 shall be used to determine the VOC concentration, in parts...

  10. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  11. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  12. Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M

    1991-01-01

    The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described. PMID:1747863

  13. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  14. Evaluation of SHM System Produced by Additive Manufacturing via Acoustic Emission and Other NDT Methods

    PubMed Central

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called “effective structural health monitoring” (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals. PMID:26506349

  15. Evaluation of SHM system produced by additive manufacturing via acoustic emission and other NDT methods.

    PubMed

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called "effective structural health monitoring" (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals.

  16. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  17. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  18. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  19. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  20. [Multi-residue method for determination of veterinary drugs and feed additives in meats by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Chonan, Takao; Fujimoto, Toru; Ueno, Ken-Ichi; Tazawa, Teijiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    A simple and rapid multi-residue method was developed for the determination of 28 kinds of veterinary drugs and feed additives (drugs) in muscle of cattle, pig and chicken. The drugs were extracted with acetonitrile-water (95:5) in a homogenizer and ultrasonic generator. The extracted solution was poured into an alumina column and the drugs were eluted with acetonitrile-water (90:10). The eluate was washed with n-hexane saturated with acetonitrile and then evaporated. The drugs were separated on a Inertsil ODS-3V column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm) with a gradient system of 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, with monitoring at 280 and 340 nm. The recoveries of the 26 kinds of drugs were over 60% from the meats fortified at 0.1 microg/g, and the quantification limits of most drugs were 0.01 microg/g. This proposed method was found to be effective and suitable for the screening of the above drugs in meats.

  1. Simulation of Powder Layer Deposition in Additive Manufacturing Processes Using the Discrete Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Herbold, E. B.; Walton, O.; Homel, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    This document serves as a final report to a small effort where several improvements were added to a LLNL code GEODYN-­L to develop Discrete Element Method (DEM) algorithms coupled to Lagrangian Finite Element (FE) solvers to investigate powder-­bed formation problems for additive manufacturing. The results from these simulations will be assessed for inclusion as the initial conditions for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) simulations performed with ALE3D. The algorithms were written and performed on parallel computing platforms at LLNL. The total funding level was 3-­4 weeks of an FTE split amongst two staff scientists and one post-­doc. The DEM simulations emulated, as much as was feasible, the physical process of depositing a new layer of powder over a bed of existing powder. The DEM simulations utilized truncated size distributions spanning realistic size ranges with a size distribution profile consistent with realistic sample set. A minimum simulation sample size on the order of 40-­particles square by 10-­particles deep was utilized in these scoping studies in order to evaluate the potential effects of size segregation variation with distance displaced in front of a screed blade. A reasonable method for evaluating the problem was developed and validated. Several simulations were performed to show the viability of the approach. Future investigations will focus on running various simulations investigating powder particle sizing and screen geometries.

  2. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  3. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-11-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  4. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  5. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  6. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  7. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  8. 40 CFR 63.786 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A, is the definitive method for determining the VOC content of coatings, as... source may use batch formulation data as a test method in lieu of Method 24 of appendix A to 40 CFR part..., in the event of conflicting results, Method 24 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall take...

  9. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  10. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  11. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  12. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  13. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  14. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  15. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  16. 49 CFR 230.45 - Method of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.45 Method of testing. Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be...

  17. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard provides methods of testing the flammability of textiles from or intended to be used for apparel; establishes three classes of flammability; sets forth the requirements for classifying textiles; and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.365 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhaust continuously during the first evacuation using the procedure found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A... outlined in the test methods listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (B) Test Method 18 or 25A, 40 CFR... concentration required in § 63.364(e), follow the procedures in PS 8 or PS 9 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix...

  19. 40 CFR 60.34c - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.34c Section 60.34c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.34c Test methods and procedures. For approval, a State plan...

  20. 40 CFR 63.323 - Test methods and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and monitoring. 63.323... Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities § 63.323 Test methods and monitoring. (a) When... exhaust of the carbon adsorber weekly with a colorimetric detector tube or PCE gas analyzer....

  1. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  6. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  7. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6 Section 1509.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of...

  8. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 61.304 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test according to Method 22 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 shall be performed to determine... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.304 Test methods and procedures. (a) The procedures...

  10. A Cluster-Based Method for Test Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    A new test construction model based on the Rasch model is proposed. This model, the cluster-based method, considers groups of interchangeable items rather than individual items and uses integer programing. Results for six test construction problems indicate that the method produces accurate results in small amounts of time. (SLD)

  11. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  12. 40 CFR 60.74 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 60.74 Section 60.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nitric Acid Plants § 60.74 Test methods and procedures. (a)...

  13. The Initial Development of a Technique for Deriving Additional Information from Test Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, John W.

    A pattern-analytical technique, Similar Response Analysis (SRA), was developed, validated with contrived data, verified using previously reported data based on other pattern-analytical methods, and used successfully with "real" data. This technique orders subjects on the basis of the similarity of responses of adjacent individuals, not on the…

  14. Improved method of HIPOT testing of advanced ignition system product

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.C.

    1992-04-01

    A new method of high potential (HIPOT) testing of advanced ignition system (AIS) product was developed. The new incorporated using a silver-filled RTV silicone as the electrodes of the HIPOT tester instead of the preformed, semi-rigid aluminum electrodes of the current tester. Initial results indicate that the developed method was more sensitive to the testing requirements of the HIPOT test. A patent for the combination of the material used and the method of testing developed was attempted but was withdrawn following a patent search by the US Patent Office.

  15. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  16. The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    Toxicology is based on the premise that all compounds are toxic at some dose. Thus, it is not surprising that very large doses of aspartame (or its components--aspartate, phenylalanine, and methanol) produce deleterious effects in sensitive animal species. The critical question is whether aspartame ingestion is potentially harmful to humans at normal use and potential abuse levels. This paper reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame upon blood levels of aspartate, phenylalanine, and methanol. These studies demonstrate that blood levels of these compounds are well below levels associated with adverse effects in sensitive animal species.

  17. Method and apparatus for globally-accessible automated testing

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sharing integrated testing services with a plurality of autonomous remote clients is disclosed. In the disclosed method, in response to an access request message, a process controller transmits an access enabling message to the remote client. The access enabling message includes instructions performable by a remote client to generate test equipment commands. A process controller interprets and transforms these commands into automated test instrument suite commands, which are provided to laboratory modules to perform the indicated tests. Test data results are then obtained and transmitted to the remote client.

  18. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  19. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  20. Additional testing of the inlets designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of a scale model of a tandem fan nacelle designed for a type (subsonic cruise) V/STOL aircraft configuration is discussed. The performance for the isolated front inlet and for the combined front and aft inlets is reported. Model variables include front and aft inlets with aft inlet variations of short and long aft inlet cowls, with a shaft simulator and diffuser vortex generators, cowl lip fillets, and nacelle strakes. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, and inlet angle-to-attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocity from 0 to 240 knots, angles-of-attack from -10 to +40 degrees and inlet flow rates corresponding to throat Mach number from 0.0 to 0.6. Combined nacelle pitch and yaw runs up to 30 deg. were also made.

  1. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  2. The Iosipescu shear test method as used for testing polymers and composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a shear test method for polymers and composite materials, based on the Iosipescu (1967) shear test which was originally developed for use with homogeneous isotropic metals. Special attention is given to the loading fixture for the test, the standard specimen design and shear stress measurements. The range of the test applications is indicated. The method is in the final stages of being accepted as an ASTM standard.

  3. Genomic-scale comparison of sequence- and structure-based methods of function prediction: Does structure provide additional insight?

    PubMed Central

    Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.; Siew, Naomi; Di Gennaro, Jeannine A.; Martinez-Yamout, Maria; Dyson, H. Jane; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    A function annotation method using the sequence-to-structure-to-function paradigm is applied to the identification of all disulfide oxidoreductases in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. The method identifies 27 sequences as potential disulfide oxidoreductases. All previously known thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and disulfide isomerases are correctly identified. Three of the 27 predictions are probable false-positives. Three novel predictions, which subsequently have been experimentally validated, are presented. Two additional novel predictions suggest a disulfide oxidoreductase regulatory mechanism for two subunits (OST3 and OST6) of the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase complex. Based on homology, this prediction can be extended to a potential tumor suppressor gene, N33, in humans, whose biochemical function was not previously known. Attempts to obtain a folded, active N33 construct to test the prediction were unsuccessful. The results show that structure prediction coupled with biochemically relevant structural motifs is a powerful method for the function annotation of genome sequences and can provide more detailed, robust predictions than function prediction methods that rely on sequence comparison alone. PMID:11316881

  4. Correlating the EMC analysis and testing methods for space systems in MIL-STD-1541A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve the correlation between the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis models stated in MIL-STD-1541A and the suggested testing methods used for space systems. The test and analysis methods outlined in MIL-STD-1541A are described, and a comparative assessment of testing and analysis techniques as they relate to several EMC areas is presented. Suggestions on present analysis and test methods are introduced to harmonize and bring the analysis and testing tools in MIL-STD-1541A into closer agreement. It is suggested that test procedures in MIL-STD-1541A must be improved by providing alternatives to the present use of shielded enclosures as the primary site for such tests. In addition, the alternate use of anechoic chambers and open field test sites must be considered.

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  6. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test.

    PubMed

    Udovic, M; McBride, M B

    2012-02-29

    Long-term application of lead arsenate in orchards has led to a significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes entails the exposure of humans to Pb and As, which can be reduced by adequate remediation actions. In this study, we assessed the remediation efficiency of compost addition, commonly used as a sustainable agricultural practice, in decreasing the human exposure Pb and As by direct ingestion. The remediation was evaluated based on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed by means of a selective non-exhaustive chemical extraction (modified Morgan extraction, MME), with a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) for the assessment of Pb and As bioavailability in ingested soils and with a novel in vivo bioaccumulation test with isopods (Porcellio scaber). All the tests showed that compost addition consistently reduced Pb, but increased As potential bioavailability. The bioaccumulation test with P. scaber was sensitive to changes in Pb and As bioavailability in test soils. However, the results indicate that the bioavailability of As could be under- or overestimated using solely chemical extraction tests. Indirect assessment of trace metal bioavailability with bioaccumulation in isopods can be used as complementary source of data to the existing in vitro chemical extraction test approach for the estimation of human exposure to trace elements in polluted and remediated soil. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS...

  8. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  9. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  10. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption during Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  11. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  12. 40 CFR 63.945 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in... shall be calibrated before use on each day of its use by the procedures specified in Method 21 of 40...

  13. 40 CFR 60.725 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Surface Coating: Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines § 60.725 Test methods and... of each coating as received. (2) For Method 24, the sample must be at least a 1-liter sample in a 1-liter container. (b) Other methods may be used to determine the VOC content of each coating if...

  14. 40 CFR 60.725 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Surface Coating: Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines § 60.725 Test methods and... of each coating as received. (2) For Method 24, the sample must be at least a 1-liter sample in a 1-liter container. (b) Other methods may be used to determine the VOC content of each coating if...

  15. 40 CFR 75.22 - Reference test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volumetric flow. (3) Methods 3, 3A, or 3B are the reference methods for the determination of the dry... are produced in accordance with method 205 in Appendix M of 40 CFR Part 51; (ii) The sampling point... emissions from stationary gas turbines for testing under appendix E to this part. (7) ASTM...

  16. 40 CFR 60.547 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by process variables or other factors, may be approved... of any test by Method 25. For Method 25, the sampling time for each of three runs shall be at least 1 hour. Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling site, and the sampling point shall be the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.547 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sampling times or smaller volumes, when necessitated by process variables or other factors, may be approved... of any test by Method 25. For Method 25, the sampling time for each of three runs shall be at least 1 hour. Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling site, and the sampling point shall be the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.945 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section 3.1.2(a) of Method 21 shall be for the average composition of the organic constituents in...

  19. 40 CFR 63.945 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section 3.1.2(a) of Method 21 shall be for the average composition of the organic constituents in...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1046 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1046 Test methods... Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. Each potential leak interface (i.e., a location where organic... instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1046 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1046 Test methods... Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. Each potential leak interface (i.e., a location where organic... instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except...

  2. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  3. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.

  4. Fire test method for graphite fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A potential problem in the use of graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites is the dispersal of graphite fibers during accidental fires. Airborne, electrically conductive fibers originating from the burning composites could enter and cause shorting in electrical equipment located in surrounding areas. A test method for assessing the burning characteristics of graphite fiber reinforced composites and the effectiveness of the composites in retaining the graphite fibers has been developed. The method utilizes a modified Ohio State University Rate of Heat Release apparatus. The equipment and the testing procedure are described. The application of the test method to the assessment of composite materials is illustrated for two resin matrix/graphite composite systems.

  5. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a model correlated to a set of free-free test modes and a set of measured residual flexibilities. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow verification of a constrained structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures show quick convergence of constrained modes using an easily measurable set of free-free modes plus the residual flexibility matrix or its boundary partition. This paper further validates the residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  6. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 11).

    PubMed

    Howe, R A; Andrews, J M

    2012-12-01

    This article highlights key amendments incorporated into version 11 of the BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method, available as Supplementary data at JAC Online (http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/) and on the BSAC web site (http://bsac.org.uk/susceptibility/guidelines-standardized-disc-susceptibility-testing-method/). The basic disc susceptibility testing method remains unchanged, but there have been a number of alterations to the interpretive criteria for certain organism/drug combinations due to continuing harmonization with the EUCAST MIC breakpoints and constant efforts to improve the reliability and clinical applicability of the guidance.

  7. Fire test method for graphite fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A potential problem in the use of graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites is the dispersal of graphite fibers during accidential fires. Airborne, electrically conductive fibers originating from the burning composites could enter and cause shorting in electrical equipment located in surrounding areas. A test method for assessing the burning characteristics of graphite fiber reinforced composites and the effectiveness of the composites in retaining the graphite fibers has been developed. The method utilizes a modified rate of heat release apparatus. The equipment and the testing procedure are described. The application of the test method to the assessment of composite materials is illustrated for two resin matrix/graphite composite systems.

  8. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  9. First-Grade Methods of Single-Digit Addition with Two or More Addends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Shannon M.; Palomaa, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to further understand connections between children's proficiency and development with single- and multidigit addition, this study investigated the conceptualizations and solution strategies of 26 first-graders presented with several single-digit, multiple addend addition problems. The changes in students' solution strategies over the…

  10. Analysis methods for the determination of anthropogenic additions of P to agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus additions and measurement in soil is of concern on lands where biosolids have been applied. Colorimetric analysis for plant-available P may be inadequate for the accurate assessment of soil P. Phosphate additions in a regulatory environment need to be accurately assessed as the reported...

  11. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  12. Additive effect of lithium and clonidine with 5-HT1A agonists in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Hascoet, M; Bourin, M; Khimake, S

    1994-03-01

    1. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the possible additive effect of lithium and clonidine with 5-HT1a agonists in the forced swimming test. 2. Anti-depressant like effects of 5-HT1a agonists was investigated using forced swimming test. When administered alone, only 8-OH-DPAT reduced the immobility time in mice. 3. 5-HT1a agonists were then tested in combination with clonidine or lithium. Only gepirone and ipsapirone pretreated by either lithium or clonidine reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. 4. The authors conclude that lithium and clonidine might be useful to predict antidepressant-like activity of new compounds.

  13. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provides methods of testing the flammability of textiles from or intended to be used for apparel... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  14. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provides methods of testing the flammability of textiles from or intended to be used for apparel... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  15. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provides methods of testing the flammability of textiles from or intended to be used for apparel... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  16. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provides methods of testing the flammability of textiles from or intended to be used for apparel... surface, and held in a special apparatus at an angle of 45°. A standardized flame shall be applied to...

  17. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  18. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  19. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...

  20. 40 CFR 61.137 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.137 Test methods and procedures. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in § 61.245 of 40...